Fermionic phase transition induced by the effective impurity in holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Li-Qing [IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Shangrao Normal University,Shangrao 334000 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens,GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Wang, Bin [IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics,School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2015-11-20
We investigate the holographic fermionic phase transition induced by the effective impurity in holography, which is introduced by massless scalar fields in Einstein-Maxwell-massless scalar gravity. We obtain a phase diagram in (α,T) plane separating the Fermi liquid phase and the non-Fermi liquid phase.
Phase transition in one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity
Zhi, Li-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Cui; Yi, Guang-Yu; Gong, Wei-Jiang
2018-04-01
This work focuses on one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity. And then, the Josephson phase transition is theoretically investigated, with the help of the exact diagonalization approach. It is found that even in the absence of intradot Coulomb interaction, the magnetic impurity can efficiently induce the phenomenon of Josephson phase transition, which is tightly related to the spin correlation manners (i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) between the impurity and the junction. Moreover, the impurity plays different roles when it couples to the dot and superconductor, respectively. This work can be helpful in describing the influence of one magnetic impurity on the supercurrent through the Josephson junction.
Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition
Shadkhoo, Shahriar
derives the effective Euclidean action from the classical equation of motion. We calculate the effective mass of the polaron in the model polar liquid at zero and finite temperatures. The self-trapping transition of this polaron turns out to be discontinuous in certain regions of the phase diagram. In order to systematically investigate the role of quantum fluctuations on the polaron properties, we adopt a quantum field theory which supports nearly-critical local modes: the quantum Landau-Brazovskii (QLB) model, which exhibits fluctuation-induced first order transition (weak crystallization). In the vicinity of the phase transition, the quantum fluctuations are strongly correlated; one can in principle tune the strength of these fluctuations, by adjusting the parameters close to or away from the transition point. Furthermore, sufficiently close to the transition, the theory accommodates "soliton'' solutions, signaling the nonlinear response of the system. Therefore, the model seems to be a promising candidate for studying the effects of strong quantum fluctuations and also failure of linear response theory, in the polaron problem. We observe that at zero temperature, and away from the Brazovskii transition where the linear response approximation is valid, the localization transition of the polaron is discontinuous. Upon enhancing fluctuations---of either thermal or quantum nature---the gap of the effective mass closes at distinct second-order critical points. Sufficiently close to the Brazovskii transition where the nonlinear contributions of the field are significantly large, a new state appears in addition to extended and self-trapped polarons: an impurity-induced soliton. We interpret this as the break-down of linear response, reminiscent of what we observe in a polar liquid. Quantum LB model has been proposed to be realizable in ultracold Bose gases in cavities. We thus discuss the experimental feasibility, and propose a setup which is believed to exhibit the
Impurity Induced Phase Competition and Supersolidity
Karmakar, Madhuparna; Ganesh, R.
2017-12-01
Several material families show competition between superconductivity and other orders. When such competition is driven by doping, it invariably involves spatial inhomogeneities which can seed competing orders. We study impurity-induced charge order in the attractive Hubbard model, a prototypical model for competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order. We show that a single impurity induces a charge-ordered texture over a length scale set by the energy cost of the competing phase. Our results are consistent with a strong-coupling field theory proposed earlier in which superconducting and charge order parameters form components of an SO(3) vector field. To discuss the effects of multiple impurities, we focus on two cases: correlated and random distributions. In the correlated case, the CDW puddles around each impurity overlap coherently leading to a "supersolid" phase with coexisting pairing and charge order. In contrast, a random distribution of impurities does not lead to coherent CDW formation. We argue that the energy lowering from coherent ordering can have a feedback effect, driving correlations between impurities. This can be understood as arising from an RKKY-like interaction, mediated by impurity textures. We discuss implications for charge order in the cuprates and doped CDW materials such as NbSe2.
Impurity-induced anisotropic semiconductor-semimetal transition in monolayer biased black phosphorus
Bui, D. H.; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen
2018-07-01
Taking into account the electron-impurity interaction within the continuum approximation of tight-binding model, the Born approximation, and the Green's function method, the main features of anisotropic electronic phase transition are investigated in monolayer biased black phosphorus (BP). To this end, we concentrated on the disordered electronic density of states (DOS), which gives useful information for electro-optical devices. Increasing the impurity concentration in both unbiased and biased impurity-infected single-layer BP, in addition to the decrease of the band gap, independent of the direction, leads to the midgap states and an extra Van Hove singularity inside and outside of the band gap, respectively. Furthermore, strong impurity scattering potentials lead to a semiconductor-semimetal transition and one more Van Hove singularity in x-direction of unbiased BP and surprisingly, this transition does not occur in biased BP. We found that there is no phase transition in y-direction. Since real applications require structures with modulated band gaps, we have studied the influence of different bias voltages on the disordered DOS in both directions, resulting in the increase of the band gap.
Quantum phase transitions in multi-impurity and lattice Kondo systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nejati, Ammar
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this dissertation is to provide a detailed development of a self-consistent perturbative renormalization group (RG) method to investigate the quantum phases and quantum phase transitions of multi-impurity Kondo systems (e.g., two impurities or a lattice of impurities). The essence of the RG method is an extension of the standard ''poor man's scaling'' by including the dynamical effects of the magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo vertex. Such magnetic fluctuations arise due to the indirect carrier-mediated exchange interaction (RKKY interaction) between the impurities and compete with the Kondo effect to determine the ground-state. The aim is to take the most 'economic' route and avoid intensive numerical computations as far as possible. In general, it is shown in detail how a relatively small amount of such magnetic fluctuations can suppress and ultimately, destroy the Kondo-screened phase in a universal manner, and without incurring a magnetic instability in the system. The renormalization group method and its extensions are further applied to several distinct experimental realization of the multi-impurity Kondo effect; namely, Kondo adatoms studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy, a highly-tunable double-quantum-dot system based on semiconducting heterostructures, and finally, the heavy fermionic compounds as Kondo lattices. We demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative agreement of the RG theory with the experimental findings, which supports the validity of the method. In the case of Kondo lattices, we further include the possibility of a magnetic ordering in the lattice to see whether a magnetic ordering can happen simultaneously with or before the Kondo breakdown (or even prevent it altogether). In the last chapter, we consider the fate of the local moments in the absence of full Kondo screening while Kondo fluctuations are still present. This partially-screened phase needs itself an extensive study
Quantum phase transitions in multi-impurity and lattice Kondo systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nejati, Ammar
2017-01-16
The main purpose of this dissertation is to provide a detailed development of a self-consistent perturbative renormalization group (RG) method to investigate the quantum phases and quantum phase transitions of multi-impurity Kondo systems (e.g., two impurities or a lattice of impurities). The essence of the RG method is an extension of the standard ''poor man's scaling'' by including the dynamical effects of the magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo vertex. Such magnetic fluctuations arise due to the indirect carrier-mediated exchange interaction (RKKY interaction) between the impurities and compete with the Kondo effect to determine the ground-state. The aim is to take the most 'economic' route and avoid intensive numerical computations as far as possible. In general, it is shown in detail how a relatively small amount of such magnetic fluctuations can suppress and ultimately, destroy the Kondo-screened phase in a universal manner, and without incurring a magnetic instability in the system. The renormalization group method and its extensions are further applied to several distinct experimental realization of the multi-impurity Kondo effect; namely, Kondo adatoms studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy, a highly-tunable double-quantum-dot system based on semiconducting heterostructures, and finally, the heavy fermionic compounds as Kondo lattices. We demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative agreement of the RG theory with the experimental findings, which supports the validity of the method. In the case of Kondo lattices, we further include the possibility of a magnetic ordering in the lattice to see whether a magnetic ordering can happen simultaneously with or before the Kondo breakdown (or even prevent it altogether). In the last chapter, we consider the fate of the local moments in the absence of full Kondo screening while Kondo fluctuations are still present. This partially-screened phase needs itself an extensive study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.
2000-01-01
The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....
Kazakevich, L A
2003-01-01
It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).
Impurity-induced moments in underdoped cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khaliullin, G.; Kilian, R.; Krivenko, S.; Fulde, P.
1997-01-01
We examine the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a two-dimensional spin liquid in the spin-gap phase, employing a drone-fermion representation of spin-1/2 operators. The properties of the local moment induced in the vicinity of the impurity are investigated and an expression for the nuclear-magnetic-resonance Knight shift is derived, which we compare with experimental results. Introducing a second impurity into the spin liquid an antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments is found when the two impurities are located on different sublattices. The presence of many impurities leads to a screening of this interaction as is shown by means of a coherent-potential approximation. Further, the Kondo screening of an impurity-induced local spin by charge carriers is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Perturbation theory of a superconducting 0 - π impurity quantum phase transition.
Žonda, M; Pokorný, V; Janiš, V; Novotný, T
2015-03-06
A single-level quantum dot with Coulomb repulsion attached to two superconducting leads is studied via the perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. We use the Nambu formalism and the standard many-body diagrammatic representation of the impurity Green functions to formulate the Matsubara self-consistent perturbation expansion. We show that at zero temperature second order of the expansion in its spin-symmetric version yields a nearly perfect agreement with the numerically exact calculations for the position of the 0 - π phase boundary at which the Andreev bound states reach the Fermi energy as well as for the values of single-particle quantities in the 0-phase. We present results for phase diagrams, level occupation, induced local superconducting gap, Josephson current, and energy of the Andreev bound states with the precision surpassing any (semi)analytical approaches employed thus far.
Dinh Hoi, Bui; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen
2018-04-01
We address control of electronic phase transition in charged impurity-infected armchair-edged boron-nitride nanoribbons (ABNNRs) with the local variation of Fermi energy. In particular, the density of states of disordered ribbons produces the main features in the context of pretty simple tight-binding model and Green's functions approach. To this end, the Born approximation has been implemented to find the effect of π-band electron-impurity interactions. A modulation of the π-band depending on the impurity concentrations and scattering potentials leads to the phase transition from insulator to semimetallic. We present here a detailed physical meaning of this transition by studying the treatment of massive Dirac fermions. From our findings, it is found that the ribbon width plays a crucial role in determining the electronic phase of disordered ABNNRs. The obtained results in controllable gap engineering are useful for future experiments. Also, the observations in this study have also fueled interest in the electronic properties of other 2D materials.
Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats
Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.
2003-03-01
The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.
Isospin impurity and super-allowed β transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagawa, H.; Van Giai Nguyen; Suzuki, T.
1999-01-01
We study the effect of isospin impurity on the super-allowed Fermi β decay using microscopic HF and RPA (or TDA) model taking into account CSB and CIB interactions. It is found that the isospin impurity of N = Z nuclei gives enhancement of the sum rule of Fermi transition probabilities. On the other hand, the super-allowed transitions between odd-odd J = 0 nuclei and even-even J = 0 nuclei are quenched because on the cancellation of the isospin impurity effects of mother and daughter nuclei. An implication of the calculated Fermi transition rate on the unitarity of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is also discussed. (authors)
Solid-solid phase transitions in Fe nanowires induced by axial strain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M
2009-01-01
By means of classical molecular-dynamics simulations we investigate the solid-solid phase transition from a bcc to a close-packed crystal structure in cylindrical iron nanowires, induced by axial strain. The interatomic potential employed has been shown to be capable of describing the martensite-austenite phase transition in iron. We study the stress versus strain curves for different temperatures and show that for a range of temperatures it is possible to induce a solid-solid phase transition by axial strain before the elasticity is lost; these transition temperatures are below the bulk transition temperature. The two phases have different (non-linear) elastic behavior: the bcc phase softens, while the close-packed phase stiffens with temperature. We also consider the reversibility of the transformation in the elastic regimes, and the role of the strain rate on the critical strain necessary for phase transition.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
Pressure induced phase transition behaviour in -electron based ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present review on the high pressure phase transition behaviour of ... For instance, closing of energy gaps lead to metal–insulator transitions [4], shift in energy ... systematic study of the pressure induced structural sequences has become ...
Impurity-generated non-Abelions
Simion, G.; Kazakov, A.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Wojtowicz, T.; Lyanda-Geller, Y. B.
2018-06-01
characteristic disorder, gate voltage induced angular momentum splitting of impurity levels, and by a proximity superconducting gap. The phase diagram exhibits two ranges of gate voltage with conventional superconducting order separated by a gate voltage range with topological superconductivity. We show that electrostatic control of domain walls in an integer quantum Hall ferromagnet allows manipulation of Majorana fermions. Ferromagnetic transitions in the fractional quantum Hall regime may lead to the formation and electrostatic control of higher order non-Abelian excitations.
Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer–monomer surface reaction model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We study the dimer–monomer surface reaction model. ► We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). ► Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. ► First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer–monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker–Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sagawa, H. [Center for Mathematical Science, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965 (Japan); Van Giai Nguyen [Theoretical Physics Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, Nihon University, Tokyo 156 (Japan)
1999-10-01
We study the effect of isospin impurity on the super-allowed Fermi {beta} decay using microscopic HF and RPA (or TDA) model taking into account CSB and CIB interactions. It is found that the isospin impurity of N = Z nuclei gives enhancement of the sum rule of Fermi transition probabilities. On the other hand, the super-allowed transitions between odd-odd J = 0 nuclei and even-even J = 0 nuclei are quenched because on the cancellation of the isospin impurity effects of mother and daughter nuclei. An implication of the calculated Fermi transition rate on the unitarity of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is also discussed. (authors) 3 refs., 1 fig.
Influence of molybdenum impurity on the electronic properties of refractory phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanovskij, A.L.
1992-01-01
Results of calculations of electronic structure modification of refractory phases - TiC, TiN - during dissolution in their volume of molybdenum as the element, dominating in the processes of formation of ring transition area (K-phase) are presented. It is shown that reconstruction of local state density (LSD) of Mo in the system Ni:Mo reflects the effects of impurity state and nickel valency area hybridization. LSD of Mo in MoC, MoN acquires quite a new form
Hydrostatic-pressure induced phase transition of phonons in single-walled nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Peng; Meng Qingchao
2009-01-01
We study the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic moments of the phonons using a functional integral technique, and find that the phonons in SWNTs undergo a pressure-induced phase transition from the paramagnetic phase to the diamagnetic phase under hydrostatic pressure 2 GPa. We explain the mechanism of generating this phase transition.
Pressure-induced phase transitions in nanocrystalline ReO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Kanishka; Muthu, D V S; Sood, A K; Kruger, M B; Chen, B; Rao, C N R
2007-01-01
Pressure-induced phase transitions in the nanocrystals of ReO 3 with an average diameter of ∼12 nm have been investigated in detail by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the results compared with the literature data of bulk samples of ReO 3 . The study shows that the ambient-pressure cubic I phase (space group Pm3-barm) transforms to a monoclinic phase (space group C 2/c), then to a rhombohedral I phase (space group R3-barc), and finally to another rhombohedral phase (rhombohedral II, space group R3-barc) with increasing pressure over the 0.0-20.3 GPa range. The cubic I to monoclinic transition is associated with the largest volume change (∼5%), indicative of a reconstructive transition. The transition pressures are generally lower than those known for bulk ReO 3 . The cubic II (Im3-bar) or tetragonal (P4/mbm) phases do not occur at lower pressures. The nanocrystals are found to be more compressible than bulk ReO 3 . On decompression to ambient pressure, the structure does not revert back to the cubic I structure
Phase transitions in ZnTe co-doped with Mg and oxygen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elyukhin, V.A.; Sorokina, L.P. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Rodriguez de Santiago, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Petrolera, IPN, Edif. 8, Mexico, D.F., 07738 (Mexico)
2007-05-15
Self-assembling of 1O4Mg tetrahedral clusters in ZnTe isoelectronically co-doped with Mg and oxygen in the ultra dilute oxygen impurity limit is described by a phase diagram. The occurrence of 1O4Mg clusters is a result of the second-order transition. The final stage of self-assembling when all oxygen impurities are in 1O4Mg clusters has to be reached also as a result of the second-order transition at the temperature close to the temperature of the occurrence of these clusters. The conditions of these phase transitions are obtained. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Xianjun
2011-01-01
Research Highlights: → We investigate striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs). → For the single-impurity and two-impurity cases, modulated checkerboard pattern and stripe-like structures are induced. → When more magnetic impurities are inserted, more complex modulated structures could be induced, including rectilinear and right-angled stripes and quantum-corral-like structures. → Impurities could induce complex striped morphologies in DSCs. - Abstract: We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t' - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Investigation of impurity-helium solid phase decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boltnev, R.E.; Gordon, E.B.; Krushinskaya, I.N.; Martynenko, M.V.; Pel'menev, A.A.; Popov, E.A.; Khmelenko, V.V.; Shestakov, A.F.
1997-01-01
The element composition of the impurity-helium solid phase (IHSP), grown by injecting helium gas jet, involving Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms and N 2 molecules, into superfluid helium, has been studied. The measured stoichiometric ratios, S = N H e / N I m, are well over the values expected from the model of frozen together monolayer helium clusters. The theoretical possibility for the freezing of two layers helium clusters is justified in the context of the model of IHSP helium subsystem, filled the space between rigid impurity centers. The process of decomposition of impurity-helium (IH)-samples taken out of liquid helium in the temperature range 1,5 - 12 K and the pressure range 10-500 Torr has been studied. It is found that there are two stages of samples decomposition: a slow stage characterized by sample self cooling and a fast one accompanied by heat release. These results suggest, that the IHSP consists of two types of helium - weakly bound and strongly bound helium - that can be assigned to the second and the first coordination helium spheres, respectively, formed around heavy impurity particles. A tendency for enhancement of IHSP thermo stability with increasing the impurity mass is observed. Increase of helium vapor pressure above the sample causes the improvement of IH sample stability. Upon destruction of IH samples, containing nitrogen atoms, a thermoluminescence induced by atom recombination has been detected in the temperature region 3-4,5 K. This suggests that numerous chemical reactions may be realized in solidified helium
Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures
Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2018-04-01
Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.
Beirau, Tobias; Murawski, Dawid; Behrens, Harald; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Groat, Lee A.; Kaden, Ronny; Pöllmann, Herbert; Bismayer, Ulrich
2018-01-01
In situ temperature-dependent laser-induced photoluminescence and dielectric measurements provide new evidence for the local occurrence of the α → β phase transition near 500 K in the preserved crystalline parts of natural radiation-damaged titanite (sample E2335 with ~24% amorphous fraction, containing Fe and Al impurities). Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements show an anomaly in the vicinity of 500 K. The temperature-dependent evolution of the real part of the electrical conductivity (σ) and the real (ɛ‧) and the imaginary (ɛ″) part of the complex dielectric permittivity (ɛ *) of titanite have been measured at various AC frequencies (~1.2-96.8 kHz). Despite the masking and smearing effect of impurities and defects, the temperature-dependent behaviour of ɛ‧ and ɛ″ around the transition temperature of the investigated natural titanite E2335 shows a remarkable similarity to that of the synthetic end-member material (see Zhang et al (1995 Phys. Chem. Miner. 22 41-9)). This study indicates the suitability of photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy for the detection of phase transitions, even in heavily disordered systems.
Ultrafast Hot Electron Induced Phase Transitions in Vanadium Dioxide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haglund R. F.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The Au/Cr/VO2/Si system was investigated in pump–probe experiments. Hot-electrons generated in the Au were found to penetrate into the underlying VO2 and couple with its lattice inducing a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in ~2 picoseconds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui
2012-01-01
We propose a scheme to reveal the interplay between dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), inter-level coupling and macroscopic phase transitions in dipolar condensates. By considering a macroscopic sample of dipolar bosons in triple-well potentials, DDI-induced coupling between the inter-level physics and the macroscopic phase transitions is presented. When the DDI exceeds certain thresholds, the degeneracy of the two lowest energy levels and the excitation of new eigenstates occur, respectively. Interestingly, these thresholds give the boundaries of various quantum phase transitions. That is, the quantum phase transitions are the consequence of the levels' degeneracy and the new eigenstates' excitation. Furthermore, DDI-induced long-range macroscopic Josephson oscillations are observed and long-range coherent quantum transportation is achieved. Our results give clear proof of the interplay between the multi-level physics and quantum phase transitions, and also provide a way for designing the long-range coherent quantum transportation. (paper)
Ultrafast studies of shock-induced melting and phase transitions at LCLS
McMahon, Malcolm
The study of shock-induced phase transitions, which is vital to the understanding of material response to rapid pressure changes, dates back to the 1950s, when Bankcroft et al reported a transition in iron. Since then, many transitions have been reported in a wide range of materials, but, due to the lack of sufficiently bright x-ray sources, the structural details of these new phases has been notably lacking. While the development of nanosecond in situ x-ray diffraction has meant that lattice-level studies of such phenomena have become possible, including studies of the phase transition reported 60 years ago in iron, the quality of the diffraction data from such studies is noticeably poorer than that obtained from statically-compressed samples on synchrotrons. The advent of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), such as the LCLS, has resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the quality of diffraction data that can be obtained from shock-compressed matter. Here I describe the results from three recent experiment at the LCLS that looked at the solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions in Sb, Bi and Sc using single 50 fs x-ray exposures. The results provide new insight into the structural changes and melting induced by shock compression. This work is supported by EPSRC under Grant No. EP/J017051/1. Use of the LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals
Sahu, Ayaskanta
impurities (or doping) allows further control over the electrical and optical properties of nanocrystals. However, while impurity doping in bulk semiconductors is now routine, doping of nanocrystals remains challenging. In particular, evidence for electronic doping, in which additional electrical carriers are introduced into the nanocrystals, has been very limited. Here, we adopt a new approach to electronic doping of nanocrystals. We utilize a partial cation exchange to introduce silver impurities into cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals. Results indicate that the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals show a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, as compared to pure CdSe nanocrystals. We also observe a switching from n- to p-type doping in the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals with increased silver amounts. Moreover, the silver-doping results in a change in the conductance of both PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals and the magnitude of this change depends on the amount of silver incorporated into the nanocrystals. In the bulk, silver chalcogenides (Ag2E, E=S, Se, and Te) possess a wide array of intriguing properties, including superionic conductivity. In addition, they undergo a reversible temperature-dependent phase transition which induces significant changes in their electronic and ionic properties. While most of these properties have been examined extensively in bulk, very few studies have been conducted at the nanoscale. We have recently developed a versatile synthesis that yields colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystals. Here, we study the size dependence of their phase-transition temperatures. We utilize differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction analyses to observe the phase transition in nanocrystal assemblies. We observe a significant deviation from the bulk alpha (low-temperature) to beta (high-temperature) phase-transition temperature when we reduce their size to a few nanometers. Hence, these nanocrystals provide great
Pressure-induced phase transitions of multiferroic BiFeO3
XiaoLi, Zhang; Ye, Wu; Qian, Zhang; JunCai, Dong; Xiang, Wu; Jing, Liu; ZiYu, Wu; DongLiang, Chen
2013-01-01
Pressure-induced phase transitions of multiferroic BiFeO3 have been investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction with diamond anvil cell technique at room temperature. Present experimental data clearly show that rhombohedral (R3c) phase of BiFeO3 first transforms to monoclinic (C2/m) phase at 7 GPa, then to orthorhombic (Pnma) phase at 11 GPa, which is consistent with recent theoretical ab initio calculation. However, we observe another peak at 2{\\theta}=7{\\deg} in the pressure ...
Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
Zuo, Xian-Jun
2011-05-01
We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t‧ - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4 a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Photo-induced phase transition: from where it comes and to where it goes?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshihara, Shin-ya
2005-01-01
It is an attractive target for materials science to find a system which shows the phase transition triggered by external stimulation of light. The purpose of our study is to review experimental evidences indicating that the photo-injected local excitation can really trigger the cooperative phenomena in solids. In this sense, this unique photo-induced effect can be named as photo-induced phase transition (PIPT). Here, I will also make brief review on the experimental research on PIPT combining with a development of ultra-fast quantum electronics technology
Zeroth order phase transition in a holographic superconductor with single impurity
Zeng, Hua Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing
We investigate the single normal impurity effect in a superconductor by the holographic method. When the size of impurity is much smaller than the host superconductor, we can reproduce the Anderson theorem, which states that a conventional s-wave superconductor is robust to a normal (non-magnetic)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokoro, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi
2007-01-01
A charge transfer phase transition with thermal hysteresis loop is observed in a series of rubidium manganese hexacyanoferrates, RbMn[Fe(China) 6 ] (1), Rb 0.88 Mn[Fe(China) 6 ] 0.96 .0.6H 2 O (2), and Rb 0.97 Mn[Fe(China) 6 ] 0.99 .0.2H 2 O (3). This phase transition is accompanied by a structural change from cubic (F4-bar 3m) to tetragonal (I4-bar m2). Its high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) phases are composed of Mn II (S=2/5)NC-Fe III (S=1/2) and Mn III (S=2)-NC-Fe II (S=0), respectively. The phase transition is caused by a metal-to-metal charge transfer from Mn II to Fe III and a Jahn-Teller distortion of the produced Mn III ion. At the ferromagnetic state in LT phase of 2, the photo-induced phase transition is observed, i.e., magnetization is quenched by the irradiation with only one shot of laser pulse. This phenomenon is caused by a photo-induced phase transition from the LT phase to the HT phase. In 3, optical switching between LT and HT phases at room temperature in paramagnetic region is observed
Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Long; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping
2018-03-01
We investigate theoretically magnetism and magnetic phase transitions induced by electrostatic gating of two-dimensional square metal-organic framework compounds. We find that electrostatic gating can induce phase transitions between homogeneous ferromagnetic and various spin-textured antiferromagnetic states. Electronic structure and Wannier function analysis can reveal hybridizations between transition-metal d orbitals and conjugated π orbitals in the organic framework. Mn-containing compounds exhibit a strong d -π hybridization that leads to partially occupied spin-minority bands, in contrast to compounds containing transition-metal ions other than Mn, for which electronic structure around the Fermi energy is only slightly spin split due to weak d -π hybridization and the magnetic interaction is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. We use a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model to understand the phase transition in Mn-containing compounds in terms of carrier density and illuminate the complexity and the potential to control two-dimensional magnetization.
Pressure induced structural phase transition of OsB2: First-principles calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Fengzhu; Wang Yuanxu; Lo, V.C.
2010-01-01
Orthorhombic OsB 2 was synthesized at 1000 deg. C and its compressibility was measured by using the high-pressure X-ray diffraction in a Diacell diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure to 32 GPa [R.W. Cumberland, et al. (2005)]. First-principles calculations were performed to study the possibility of the phase transition of OsB 2 . An analysis of the calculated enthalpy shows that orthorhombic OsB 2 can transfer to the hexagonal phase at 10.8 GPa. The calculated results with the quasi-harmonic approximation indicate that this phase transition pressure is little affected by the thermal effect. The calculated phonon band structure shows that the hexagonal P 6 3 /mmc structure (high-pressure phase) is stable for OsB 2 . We expect the phase transition can be further confirmed by the experimental work. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): Table of Contents Figure Pressure induced structural phase transition from the orthorhombic structure to the hexagonal one for OsB 2 takes place under 10.8 GPa (0 K), 10.35 GPa (300, 1000 K) by the first-principles predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: jacobjones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Uthaisar, Chunmanus; Pojprapai, Soodkhet [School of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakorn Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Wongsaenmai, Supattra [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand)
2015-01-14
The electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) were observed using in situ X-ray diffraction. The ratio of monoclinic to tetragonal phase fraction was used as an indicator of the extent and reversibility of the phase transitions. The reversibility of the phase transition was greater in compositions further from the PPB. These results demonstrate that the field-induced phase transition is one of the origins of high piezoelectric properties in lead-free ferroelectric materials.
Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Kharat, Prashant B.; Chavan, Apparao R.; Humbe, Ashok V.; Borade, R. M.; Jadhav, K. M.
2018-04-01
The present study, deals with the phase symmetry transformation of lithium ferrite after introducing tetravalent (Ti4+) impurity. The sol-gel auto combustion technique was adopted for the synthesis of nanoparticle samples with generic chemical formula Li0.5Fe2.5O4 and Li0.55Ti0.10Fe2.35O4. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique for structural analysis. The XRD patterns show the single phase cubic structure without any impurity phase but the P4332 to Fd-3m transformation was observed after introducing Ti4+ impurity. The Nano size of the synthesized particles was confirmed by crystallite size ( 20nm) calculated using Debye-Scherrer's formula. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies shows shifting of band frequencies which reflect the structural changes after tetravalent substitutional impurities. The magnetic properties were studied through pulse field hysteresis loop (M-H loop) technique at room temperature, the M-H loops showdecrease in magnetic properties afternonmagnetic Ti4+ ion substitution. This is attributed to transition of inverse spinel structure of lithium ferrite to random spinel structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Techert
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.
Pressure-induced phase transition of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6
Takekiyo, Takahiro; Hatano, Naohiro; Imai, Yusuke; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro
2011-03-01
We have investigated the pressure-induced Raman spectral change of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) using Raman spectroscopy. The relative Raman intensity at 590 cm-1 of the CH2 rocking band assigned to the gauche conformer of the NCCC dihedral angle of the butyl group in the [bmim]+ cation increases when the pressure-induced liquid-crystalline phase transition occurs, while that at 610 cm-1 assigned to the trans conformer decreases. Our results show that the high-pressure phase transition of [bmim][PF6] causes the increase of the gauche conformer of the [bmim]+ cation.
Pressure-induced phase transitions in acentric BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Sousa Pinheiro, Gardenia de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Cavalcante Freire, Paulo Tarso [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza CE-60455-970 (Brazil); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-08-15
High-pressure Raman scattering studies revealed that BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is more compressible than calcite-type orthoborates and calcite, aragonite or dolomite carbonates. It undergoes a first-order reversible pressure-induced phase transition in the 3.9–4.4 GPa pressure range. Second structural change is observed at 9.2 GPa. The intermediate phase is most likely trigonal. However, Raman results suggest increase in the number of distinct BO{sub 3} groups from two in the ambient pressure phase to at least three in the intermediate phase. This intermediate phase is also strongly compressible and strong pressure dependence of the lattice modes proves that the main changes under pressure occur within the layers built from BaO{sub 6} and HfO{sub 6} octahedra. The second phase transition leads most likely to lowering of the trigonal symmetry, as evidenced by significant increase of the number of observed bands. The pressure coefficients of the Raman bands of the high-pressure phase are relatively small, suggesting more dense arrangement of the metal–oxygen polyhedra and BO{sub 3} groups in this phase. It is worth noting that the high-pressure phase was not reached in the second compression experiment up to 10 GPa. This behavior can be most likely attributed to worse hydrostatic conditions of the first experiment. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} recorded at different pressures during compression showing onset of pressure-induced phase transitions. - Highlights: • High-pressure Raman spectra were measured for BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2.} • BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} undergoes a reversible first-order phase transition at 3.9–4.4 GPa into a trigonal phase. • The intermediate trigonal phase is strongly compressible second structural transformation is observed at 9.2 GPa under non-perfect hydrostatic conditions.
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of pressure-induced phase transition in ZnS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, Israel; Durandurdu, Murat
2006-01-01
The pressure-induced phase transition in zinc sulfide is studied using a constant-pressure ab initio technique. The reversible phase transition from the zinc-blende structure to a rock-salt structure is successfully reproduced through the simulations. The transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is characterized and found to be due to a monoclinic modification of the simulation cell, similar to that obtained in SiC. This observation supports the universal transition state of high-pressure zinc-blende to rock-salt transition in semiconductor compounds. We also study the role of stress deviations on the transformation mechanism and find that the system follows the same transition pathway under nonhydrostatic compressions as well
Pressure-induced phase transitions of multiferroic BiFeO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiaoli; Dong Juncai; Liu Jing; Chen Dongliang; Wu Ye; Zhang Qian; Wu Xiang; Wu Ziyu
2013-01-01
Pressure-induced phase transitions of multiferroic BiFeO 3 have been investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction with diamond anvil cell technique at room temperature. Present experimental data clearly show that rhombohedral (R3c) phase of BiFeO 3 first transforms to monoclinic (C2/m) phase at 7 GPa, then to orthorhombic (Pnma) phase at 11 GPa, which is consistent with recent theoretical ab initio calculation. However, we observe another peak at 2θ=7° in the pressure range of 5-7 GPa that has not been reported previously. Further analysis reveals that this reflection peak is attributed to the orthorhombic (Pbam) phase, indicating the coexistence of monoclinic phase with orthorhombic phase in low pressure range. (authors)
Rehn, Daniel A.; Li, Yao; Pop, Eric; Reed, Evan J.
2018-01-01
Structural phase-change materials are of great importance for applications in information storage devices. Thermally driven structural phase transitions are employed in phase-change memory to achieve lower programming voltages and potentially lower energy consumption than mainstream nonvolatile memory technologies. However, the waste heat generated by such thermal mechanisms is often not optimized, and could present a limiting factor to widespread use. The potential for electrostatically driven structural phase transitions has recently been predicted and subsequently reported in some two-dimensional materials, providing an athermal mechanism to dynamically control properties of these materials in a nonvolatile fashion while achieving potentially lower energy consumption. In this work, we employ DFT-based calculations to make theoretical comparisons of the energy required to drive electrostatically-induced and thermally-induced phase transitions. Determining theoretical limits in monolayer MoTe2 and thin films of Ge2Sb2Te5, we find that the energy consumption per unit volume of the electrostatically driven phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 at room temperature is 9% of the adiabatic lower limit of the thermally driven phase transition in Ge2Sb2Te5. Furthermore, experimentally reported phase change energy consumption of Ge2Sb2Te5 is 100-10,000 times larger than the adiabatic lower limit due to waste heat flow out of the material, leaving the possibility for energy consumption in monolayer MoTe2-based devices to be orders of magnitude smaller than Ge2Sb2Te5-based devices.
Laser-induced microscopic phase-transition on an ionic liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, Natsuki; Datta, Alokmay; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Ma Yue
2009-01-01
Nematic-isotropic transition is induced in a 5 μm 'droplet' within an oriented bulk of a mixture of a liquid crystalline material with a room-temperature ionic liquid, by a laser working at 532 nm with an output power of 200 mW and a beam diameter of 1 μm. No microscopic phase transition is observed either in absence of the ionic liquid or at the other wavelength of 1064 nm, available to the Nd-YAG laser. This indicates the essential role on a resonant transfer of energy to the ionic liquid from the laser radiation, which is subsequently transferred to the liquid crystal. Spectroscopy of the pure liquid crystal and ionic liquid samples confirms this concept. Spatio-temporal image of the droplet growth shows, however, that the phase transition remains confined within the microscopic domain for the first 50 s, and then spreads out rapidly. Since resonant, quantum transitions between molecular levels takes place in less than microseconds, the about seven orders of magnitude slowing down of energy transfer observed here suggests unique hierarchical dynamics including the coupling between the intra-molecular motions in the ionic liquid and the inter-molecular forces between ionic liquid and liquid crystal.
Douša, Michal; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan
2016-07-01
An analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitative determination of two genotoxic impurities at ppm level present in the vortioxetine manufacturing process is described. Applying the concept of threshold of toxicological concern, a limit of 75 ppm each for both genotoxic impurities was calculated based on the maximum daily dose of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The novel reversed-phase HPLC method with photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed on XSELECT Charged Surface Hybrid Phenyl-Hexyl column using the mobile phase consisted a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and acetonitrile. The elution was performed using an isocratic composition of 48:52 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The photochemically induced fluorescence detection is based on the use of UV irradiation at 254 nm through measuring the fluorescence intensity at 300 nm and an excitation wavelength of 272 nm to produce fluorescent derivatives of both genotoxic impurities. The online photochemical conversion and detection is easily accomplished for two expected genotoxic impurities and provides a sufficiently low limit detection and quantification for the target analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Nabyendu, E-mail: nabyendudas@gmail.com; Singh, Navinder
2016-01-28
Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.
Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder
2016-01-01
Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simeone, D.
2003-01-01
The author gives a rather detailed overview of his research activities on the behaviour of ceramics subjected to irradiations by charged or not-charged particles. He reports the development of a new application of low incidence X ray diffraction to assess the evolutions within irradiated solids. Coupling this technique with Raman spectroscopy studies enabled the monitoring of order parameter evolution in these solids. He shows that, in some oxides, irradiation effects entail order-disorder type transitions and, more surprisingly, displacive phase transitions. From this experimental work, he developed a modelling of these phase transitions induced by irradiation. Quantitative data obtained on the evolutions of order parameters enabled these phase transitions to be explained within the frame of the thermodynamics of off-equilibrium phenomena
A model of magnetic impurities within the Josephson junction of a phase qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erickson, R P; Pappas, D P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
2010-02-15
We consider a superconducting phase qubit consisting of a monocrystalline sapphire Josephson junction with its symmetry axis perpendicular to the junction interfaces. Via the London gauge, we present a theoretical model of Fe{sup 3+} magnetic impurities within the junction that describes the effect of a low concentration of such impurities on the operation of the qubit. Specifically, we derive an interaction Hamiltonian expressed in terms of angular momentum states of magnetic impurities and low-lying oscillator states of a current-biased phase qubit. We discuss the coupling between the qubit and impurities within the model near resonance. When the junction is biased at an optimal point for acting as a phase qubit, with a phase difference of {pi}/2 and impurity concentration no greater than 0.05%, we find only a slight decrease in the Q factor of less than 0.01%.
Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.J.; Vikhnin, V.; Jimenez, J.; Fernandez, F.; Liu, H.
2006-01-01
Vanadium dioxide shows a passive and reversible change from a monoclinic insulator phase to a metallic tetragonal rutile structure when the sample temperature is close to and over 68 deg. C. As a kind of functional material, VO 2 thin films deposited on fused quartz substrates were successfully prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. With laser illumination at 400 nm on the obtained films, the phase transition (PT) occurred. The observed light-induced PT was as fast as the laser pulse duration of 100 fs. Using a femtosecond laser system, the relaxation processes in VO 2 were studied by optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Upon a laser excitation an instantaneous response in the transient reflectivity and transmission was observed followed by a relatively longer relaxation process. The alteration is dependent on pump power. The change in reflectance reached a maximum value at a pump pulse energy between 7 and 14 mJ/cm 2 . The observed PT is associated with the optical interband transition in VO 2 thin film. It suggests that with a pump laser illuminating on the film, excitation from the d θ,ε - state of valence band to the unoccupied excited mixed d θ,ε -π* - state of the conduction band in the insulator phase occurs, followed by a resonant transition to an unoccupied excited mixed d θ,ε -π* - state of the metallic phase band
Gravitationally self-induced phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Duque, S.L.S.
1990-01-01
We propose a new mechanism by means of which a phase transition can be stimulated by self-gravitating matter. We suggest that this model could be used to explain the observed isotropy of the Universe. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioriatti Junior, L.C.
1976-01-01
The thermodynamic behavior of the one-dimensional bose gas-attractive delta impurity system is studied. The system is shown to undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation and the cause of the phase transition is attributed to the bound state introduced by the impurity in the free particle energy spectrum. The condensed phase is composed by particles captured by the impurity, forming a drop of particles well localized in space. This gives to the Bose-Einstein condensation in this system the appearance of the ordinary vapor-liquid phase transition. The order of the phase transition is analized with the aid of the Clausius-Clayperon equation, leading to the conclusion that the transition is a first order one. This reinforces the interpretation of a vapor-liquid transition. The evaluation of the heat capacity at constant length shows the existence of a finite discontinuity at the transition temperature [pt
Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, N.L.
1982-06-01
Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe 3 O 4 . Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO 2 , together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO 2 whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures
Strain-induced topological quantum phase transition in phosphorene oxide
Kang, Seoung-Hun; Park, Jejune; Woo, Sungjong; Kwon, Young-Kyun
Using ab initio density functional theory, we investigate the structural stability and electronic properties of phosphorene oxides (POx) with different oxygen compositions x. A variety of configurations are modeled and optimized geometrically to search for the equilibrium structure for each x value. Our electronic structure calculations on the equilibrium configuration obtained for each x reveal that the band gap tends to increase with the oxygen composition of x 0.5. We further explore the strain effect on the electronic structure of the fully oxidized phosphorene, PO, with x = 1. At a particular strain without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is observed a band gap closure near the Γ point in the k space. We further find the strain in tandem with SOC induces an interesting band inversion with a reopened very small band gap (5 meV), and thus gives rise to a topological quantum phase transition from a normal insulator to a topological insulator. Such a topological phase transition is confirmed by the wave function analysis and the band topology identified by the Z2 invariant calculation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanta, S.K.; Mishra, S.N.; Srivastava, S.K.
2014-01-01
We present first principles calculations of electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute transition metal (3d, 4d and 5d) impurities in a Gd host. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave technique and the GGA+U method. The spin and orbital contributions to the magnetic moment and the hyperfine fields have been computed. We find large magnetic moments for 3d (Ti–Co), 4d (Nb–Ru) and 5d (Ta–Os) impurities with magnitudes significantly different from the values estimated from earlier mean field calculation [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320 (2008) e446–e449]. The exchange interaction between the impurity and host Gd moments is found to be positive for early 3d elements (Sc–V) while in all other cases an anti-ferromagnetic coupling is observed. The trends for the magnetic moment and hyperfine field of d-impurities in Gd show qualitative difference with respect to their behavior in Fe, Co and Ni. The calculated total hyperfine field, in most cases, shows excellent agreement with the experimental results. A detailed analysis of the Fermi contact hyperfine field has been made, revealing striking differences for impurities having less or more than half filled d-shell. The impurity induced perturbations in host moments and the change in the global magnetization of the unit cell have also been computed. The variation within each of the d-series is found to correlate with the d–d hybridization strength between the impurity and host atoms. - Highlights: • Detailed study of transition metal impurities in ferromagnetic Gd has been carried out. • The trends in impurity magnetic moment are qualitatively different from Fe, Co and Ni. • The variation within each of the d-series is found to correlate with the d–d hybridization strength between the impurity and host atoms. • Experimental trend in a hyperfine field has been reproduced successfully
Patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Xianjun; Gong Changde; Zhou Yuan
2010-01-01
We investigate the modulated patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping based on the t-t ' -U-V model. Modulated checkerboard patterns with periodicity of eight or four lattice constants (8a or 4a) in the spin-, charge- and DSC orders are observed. Moreover, the checkerboard modulation in the spin order appear to be robust against parameter changes, which is consistent with neutron-scattering experiments. For the two-impurity case, a modulated stripe-like spin order with periodicity 8a is induced, which coexists with the DSC order. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
Zuo, Xian-Jun; Gong, Chang-De; Zhou, Yuan
2010-07-01
We investigate the modulated patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping based on the t-t-U-V model. Modulated checkerboard patterns with periodicity of eight or four lattice constants (8 a or 4 a) in the spin-, charge- and DSC orders are observed. Moreover, the checkerboard modulation in the spin order appear to be robust against parameter changes, which is consistent with neutron-scattering experiments. For the two-impurity case, a modulated stripe-like spin order with periodicity 8 a is induced, which coexists with the DSC order. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Prarokijjak, Worasak; Soodchomshom, Bumned
2018-04-01
Spin-valley transport and magnetoresistance are investigated in silicene-based N/TB/N/TB/N junction where N and TB are normal silicene and topological barriers. The topological phase transitions in TB's are controlled by electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. As a result, we find that by applying electric and exchange fields, four groups of spin-valley currents are perfectly filtered, directly induced by topological phase transitions. Control of currents, carried by single, double and triple channels of spin-valley electrons in silicene junction, may be achievable by adjusting magnitudes of electric, exchange fields and circularly polarized light. We may identify that the key factor behind the spin-valley current filtered at the transition points may be due to zero and non-zero Chern numbers. Electrons that are allowed to transport at the transition points must obey zero-Chern number which is equivalent to zero mass and zero-Berry's curvature, while electrons with non-zero Chern number are perfectly suppressed. Very large magnetoresistance dips are found directly induced by topological phase transition points. Our study also discusses the effect of spin-valley dependent Hall conductivity at the transition points on ballistic transport and reveals the potential of silicene as a topological material for spin-valleytronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, G.W.
1991-01-01
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T . In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field
The dynamics of the laser-induced metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, Tino
2009-01-01
The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ying; Medwal, Rohit; Sehdev, Neeru; Yadian, Boluo; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Talebitaher, A.; Ilyas, Usman; Ramanujan, R.V.; Huang, Yizhong; Rawat, R.S.
2014-01-01
The formation of impurity phases in FePt thin films severely degrades its magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of FePt thin films, synthesized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), showed peaks corresponding to impurity phases, resulting in softer magnetic properties. A systematic investigation was carried to determine the factors that might have led to impurity phase formation. The factors include (i) PLD target composition, (ii) substrate material, (iii) annealing parameters such as temperature, duration and ambience and (iv) PLD deposition parameters such as chamber ambience, laser energy fluence and target–substrate distance. Depositions on the different substrates revealed impurity phase formation only on Si substrates. It was found that the target composition, PLD chamber ambience, and annealing ambience were not the factors that caused the impurity phase formation. The annealing temperature and duration influenced the impurity phases, but are not the cause of their formation. A decrease in the laser energy fluence and increase of the target–substrate distance resulted in elimination of the impurity phases and enhancement in the magnetic and structural properties of FePt thin films. The energy of the ablated plasma species, controlled by the laser energy fluence and the target–substrate distance, is found to be the main factor responsible for the formation of the impurity phases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bychkov, Igor V. [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Dmitry A., E-mail: kuzminda@csu.ru [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kamantsev, Alexander P.; Koledov, Victor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya Street 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-01
In present work we have investigated magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition from spiral to collinear state. We found that such magnets may generate transverse sound waves with the wavelength equal to the spiral period. We have examined two types of spiral magnetic structures: with inhomogeneous exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Frequency of the waves from exchange-caused spiral magnetic structure may reach some THz, while in case of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction-caused spiral it may reach some GHz. These waves will be emitted like a sound pulses. Amplitude of the waves is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. Some aspects of microwaves to hypersound transformation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of phase transition have been investigated as well. Results of the work may be interesting for investigation of phase transition kinetics as well, as for various hypersound applications. - Highlights: • Magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets at phase transition (PT) is studied. • Spiral magnets during PT may generate transverse sound with wavelength equal to spiral period. • Amplitude of the sound is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. • Microwave-to-sound transformation in the vicinity of PT is investigated as well.
Dynamics of a quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zurek, W.H.
2005-01-01
We present two approaches to the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in quantum Ising model. First approach retraces steps of the standard calculation to thermodynamic second order phase transitions in the quantum setting. The second calculation is purely quantum, based on the Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in processes that involve avoided level crossings. We show that the two approaches yield compatible results for the scaling of the defect density with the quench rate. We exhibit similarities between them, and comment on the insights they give into dynamics of quantum phase transitions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyagoub, Abdenacer
2005-01-01
Recent results demonstrated that defect formation or amorphization are not the only structural changes induced by swift heavy ions in crystalline materials and that under certain circumstances crystalline-to-crystalline phase transitions can also occur. For instance, it was found that both zirconia and hafnia transform from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase with a kinetics involving a double ion impact process. In order to understand the origin of this ion-beam induced phase transition, the behavior of these twin oxides was analyzed and compared. In fact, the likeness of these materials offered the unique opportunity to impose drastic constraints on the possible models proposed to explain the creation of atomic displacements in the wake of swift heavy ions. This comparison clearly suggests that the thermal spike is the most appropriate process which governs the transition from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase in zirconia and hafnia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boldyreva, E V; Goryainov, S V; Seryotkin, Y V; Kolesnik, E N; Shakhtshneider, T P; Ivashevskaya, S N; Drebushchak, T N; Sowa, H; Ahsbahs, H; Chernyshev, V V; Dmitriev, V P
2008-01-01
The contribution summarizes the results of recent studies of phase transitions induced by high pressure in a number of molecular organic crystals, such as polymorphs of paracetamol, chlorpropamide, polymorphs of glycine, L- and DL-serine, β-alanine. The main attention is paid to the following topics: (1) Reversible / irreversible transformations; (2) Different behavior of single crystals / powders; (3) The role of pressure-transmitting liquid; (4) The role of the kinetic factors: phase transitions on decompression, or after a long storage at a selected pressure; (5) Isosymmetric phase transitions; (6) The role of the changes in the hydrogen bond networks / intramolecular conformational changes in the phase transitions; (7) Superstructures / nanostructures formed as a result of pressure-induced phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyreva, E V; Goryainov, S V; Seryotkin, Y V; Kolesnik, E N; Shakhtshneider, T P; Ivashevskaya, S N; Drebushchak, T N [Research and Education Center ' Molecular Design and Ecologically Safe Technologies' , REC-008, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Sowa, H [Goettingen University (Germany); Ahsbahs, H; Chernyshev, V V [Marburg University (Germany); Dmitriev, V P [Swiss-Norwegian Beamline ESRF, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: boldyrev@nsu.ru
2008-07-15
The contribution summarizes the results of recent studies of phase transitions induced by high pressure in a number of molecular organic crystals, such as polymorphs of paracetamol, chlorpropamide, polymorphs of glycine, L- and DL-serine, {beta}-alanine. The main attention is paid to the following topics: (1) Reversible / irreversible transformations; (2) Different behavior of single crystals / powders; (3) The role of pressure-transmitting liquid; (4) The role of the kinetic factors: phase transitions on decompression, or after a long storage at a selected pressure; (5) Isosymmetric phase transitions; (6) The role of the changes in the hydrogen bond networks / intramolecular conformational changes in the phase transitions; (7) Superstructures / nanostructures formed as a result of pressure-induced phase transitions.
Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Schreckenberg, Michael
2014-05-01
Physical features of induced phase transitions in a metastable free flow at an on-ramp bottleneck in three-phase and two-phase cellular automaton (CA) traffic-flow models have been revealed. It turns out that at given flow rates at the bottleneck, to induce a moving jam (F → J transition) in the metastable free flow through the application of a time-limited on-ramp inflow impulse, in both two-phase and three-phase CA models the same critical amplitude of the impulse is required. If a smaller impulse than this critical one is applied, neither F → J transition nor other phase transitions can occur in the two-phase CA model. We have found that in contrast with the two-phase CA model, in the three-phase CA model, if the same smaller impulse is applied, then a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F → S transition) can be induced at the bottleneck. This explains why rather than the F → J transition, in the three-phase theory traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck is governed by an F → S transition, as observed in real measured traffic data. None of two-phase traffic-flow theories incorporates an F → S transition in a metastable free flow at the bottleneck that is the main feature of the three-phase theory. On the one hand, this shows the incommensurability of three-phase and two-phase traffic-flow theories. On the other hand, this clarifies why none of the two-phase traffic-flow theories can explain the set of fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at highway bottlenecks.
Perturbation theory of a superconducting 0−π impurity quantum phase transition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Žonda, M.; Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav; Novotný, T.
2015-01-01
Roč. 5, Mar (2015), s. 8821 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP204/11/J042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * superconductivity * Josephson current * quantum phase transition * perturbation expansion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015
Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.
Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2013-02-01
We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.
Pressure-induced anomalous phase transitions and colossal enhancement of piezoelectricity in PbTiO3.
Wu, Zhigang; Cohen, Ronald E
2005-07-15
We find an unexpected tetragonal-to-monoclinic-to-rhombohedral-to-cubic phase transition sequence induced by pressure, and a morphotropic phase boundary in a pure compound using first-principles calculations. Huge dielectric and piezoelectric coupling constants occur in the transition regions, comparable to those observed in the new complex single-crystal solid-solution piezoelectrics such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3, which are expected to revolutionize electromechanical applications. Our results show that morphotropic phase boundaries and giant piezoelectric effects do not require intrinsic disorder, and open the possibility of studying this effect in simple systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peruzzi, A.; Gottardi, E.; Peroni, I.; Ponti, G.; Ventura, G
1999-08-01
The influence of impurity concentration c and applied magnetic field H on the superconducting transition of high-purity commercial titanium samples was investigated. The superconductive transition temperature T{sub C} was found to be very sensitive to the impurity concentration (dT{sub C}/dc {approx} -0.6 mK/w.ppm) and to the applied magnetic field (dT{sub C}/dH {approx} -1.1 mK/G). A linear dependence of T{sub C} decrease on impurity concentration, as theoretically predicted by various authors, was observed. In the purest sample, a linear decrease of T{sub C} on the applied magnetic field was found. The run-to-run and sample-to-sample reproducibility of the transition of the same sample was evaluated, and its suitability as a thermometric reference point below 1 K was discussed.
Pressure-induced irreversible metallization accompanying the phase transitions in S b2S3
Dai, Lidong; Liu, Kaixiang; Li, Heping; Wu, Lei; Hu, Haiying; Zhuang, Yukai; Yang, Linfei; Pu, Chang; Liu, Pengfei
2018-01-01
We have revealed S b2S3 to have two phase transitions and to undergo metallization using a diamond anvil cell at around 5.0, 15.0, and 34.0 GPa, respectively. These results were obtained on the basis of high-pressure Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and first-principles calculations. The first phase transition at ˜5.0 GPa is an isostructural phase transition, which is manifested in noticeable changes in five Raman-active modes and the slope of the conductivity because of a change in the electronic structure. The second pressure-induced phase transition was characterized by a discontinuous change in the slope of conductivity and a new low-intensity Raman mode at ˜15.0 GPa . Furthermore, a semiconductor-to-metal transition was found at ˜34.0 GPa , which was accompanied by irreversible metallization, and it could be attributed to the permanently plastic deformation of the interlayer spacing. This high-pressure behavior of S b2S3 will help us to understand the universal crystal structure evolution and electrical characteristics for A2B3 -type compounds, and to facilitate their application in electronic devices.
Impurity monitoring by laser-induced fluorescence techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelbwachs, J.A.
1984-01-01
Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can provide a highly sensitive and selective means of detecting atomic and ionic impurities. Because the photodetector can be physically isolated from the laser-excited region, these techniques can be applied to monitoring in hostile environments. The basic concepts behind fluorescence detection are reviewed. Saturated optical excitation is shown to maximize impurity atom emission yield while mitigating effects of laser intensity fluctuations upon absolute density calibration. Monitoring in high- and low-pressure monitoring environments is compared. Methods to improve detection sensitivity by luminescence background suppression are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazakov, Ye. O. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Trilateral Euregio Cluster Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Fülöp, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Göteborg (Sweden); Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association ' EURATOM-Belgian State' , Trilateral Euregio Cluster Partner, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-02-12
Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is one of the main auxiliary heating systems used in present-day tokamaks and is planned to be installed in ITER. In the initial full-field phase of ITER operating with hydrogen majority plasmas, fundamental resonance heating of helium-3 ions is one of a few ICRH schemes available. Past JET experiments with the carbon wall revealed a significant impact of impurities on the ICRH performance in ({sup 3}He)-H plasmas. A significant reduction of the helium-3 concentration, at which the transition from minority ion to mode conversion heating occurs, was found to be due to a high plasma contamination with carbon ions. In this paper we discuss the effect of Be and another impurity species present at JET after the installation of a new ITER-like wall on the transition helium-3 concentration in ({sup 3}He)-H plasmas. We suggest a potential method for controlling helium-3 level needed for a specific ICRH regime by puffing an extra helium-4 gas to the plasma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Wang, Xinjun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Xie, Li; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Sun, Nian, E-mail: n.sun@neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Peng, Bin; Liu, Ming, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Budil, David [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)
2016-01-04
Electric-field modulation of magnetism in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures is considered a promising scheme for enabling memory and magnetic microwave devices with ultralow power consumption. However, it is not well understood how electric-field-induced strain influences magnetic relaxation, an important physical process for device applications. Here, we investigate resonant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, FeGaB/PMN-PT and NiFe/PMN-PT, in two distinct strain states provided by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition. The strain not only modifies magnetic anisotropy but also magnetic relaxation. In FeGaB/PMN-PT, we observe a nearly two-fold change in intrinsic Gilbert damping by electric field, which is attributed to strain-induced tuning of spin-orbit coupling. By contrast, a small but measurable change in extrinsic linewidth broadening is attributed to inhomogeneous ferroelastic domain switching during the phase transition of the PMN-PT substrate.
Refractometry of TGS crystals doped with L-threonine impurity under uniaxial pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stadnyk, V. I., E-mail: vasylstadnyk@ukr.net; Kiryk, Yu. I. [Lviv National University (Ukraine)
2013-07-15
The temperature and spectral dependences of the refractive indices of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals doped with L-threonine impurity have been investigated. It is established that the introduction of an impurity weakens the temperature dependence of refractive indices. The electronic polarizability, refractions, and parameters of UV oscillators of mechanically deformed impurity crystals are calculated. The temperature coefficients of the phase transition shift are determined.
Refractometry of TGS crystals doped with L-threonine impurity under uniaxial pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stadnyk, V. I.; Kiryk, Yu. I.
2013-01-01
The temperature and spectral dependences of the refractive indices of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals doped with L-threonine impurity have been investigated. It is established that the introduction of an impurity weakens the temperature dependence of refractive indices. The electronic polarizability, refractions, and parameters of UV oscillators of mechanically deformed impurity crystals are calculated. The temperature coefficients of the phase transition shift are determined
Impact of impurity seeding and divertor conditions on transitions, pedestal structure and ELMs
Dunne, M. G.
2017-02-01
Future devices will require a high scrape-off later (SOL) density and impurity seeding to avoid high-Z sputtering. However, these operational parameters are not included in present-day scaling laws, making extrapolations to larger devices difficult. As such, understanding the physics of such effects is vital in order to design the operational scenarios most favorable to high fusion gain. This review presents the favorable lowering of L-H transition power by changing to metal walled devices and sumarises the effects currently thought to be responsible for how SOL geometry can play a role in determining this threshold. Experimental observations on changes to the pedestal structure with main ion fuelling and low-, medium-, and high-Z impurity seeding are presented. These results, from several devices, show that main ion fuelling or high density operation can result in a lower pedestal top pressure, and hence reduced stored energy, while impurity seeding can recover this lost pressure. Particular focus is given to nitrogen seeded discharges and the recovery of pedestal parameters (notably high {{T}\\text{e,\\text{ped}}} ) in JET and AUG since the changeover to metal walls in these devices. Lithium seeding is also emerging as a strong actuator in pedestal dynamics, with results ranging from a prolonged inter-ELM period to completely ELM-free scenarios on different devices. ELM dynamics are also presented in each section, with nitrogen seeding offering a probe into the structure of the ELM and demonstrating the difference between the initial ELM crash, likely due to a sharp MHD event, and a prolonged second phase, the origin of which remains unkown. Finally, modelling of the pedestal in impurity seeded scenarios reveals a common effect in the position of the density profile. Either through mode excitation near to the separatrix or an altered fuelling profile, seeding of impurities results in an inward shift of the density profile. This inward shift improves MHD stability
Multi-impurity polarons in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santamore, D H; Timmermans, Eddy
2011-01-01
We describe the ground state of a large, dilute, neutral atom Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) doped with N strongly coupled mutually indistinguishable, bosonic neutral atoms (referred to as ‘impurity’) in the polaron regime where the BEC density response to the impurity atoms remains significantly smaller than the average density of the surrounding BEC. We find that N impurity atoms with N ≠ 1 can self-localize at a lower value of the impurity-boson interaction strength than a single impurity atom. When the ‘bare’ short-range impurity-impurity repulsion does not play a significant role, the self-localization of multiple bosonic impurity atoms into the same single particle orbital (which we call co-self-localization) is the nucleation process of the phase separation transition. When the short-range impurity-impurity repulsion successfully competes with co-self-localization, the system may form a stable liquid of self-localized single impurity polarons. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Widayati, Suci
1996-01-01
The rate at which a solid substrate is transferred through the Air/Water interface in the Langmuir-Blodgett process of preparing monomolecular films influences the final structure of the transferred film. This phenomenon has been observed from the attenuated total reflectance infra-red (ATR-IR) spectra of fatty acid monolayer transferred onto germanium substrate. This transfer-induced effect is most evidence when the monolayer is transferred from an expanded region of the surface-pressure-molecular area isotherm, but has limited influence on the hydrocarbon chain conformation of film molecules transferred in the condensed phases at high surface pressure. Such a conformational ordering may due to a kinetically limited phase transition taking place in the meniscus formed between the solid substrate and aqueous sub phase. In addition, these results suggest that the structure of the amphiphilic molecules may modulate the extent and nature of the dipping-speed-induced structural changes taking place in the monomolecular L-B film. In order to use monomolecular L-B films to accurately characterize the structure, orientation and phase properties of monolayers at the Air/Water interface, the L-B transfer must be performed at transfer speeds that minimize this structural phase transition
The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brazovskii, S., E-mail: brazov@lptms.u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, LPTMS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France); Kirova, N. [Université Paris-Saclay, LPS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France)
2016-03-15
We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor–acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.
Phase transitions induced by the Aharonov-Bohm field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krive, I.V.; Naftulin, S.A.
1990-07-01
The influence of the Aharonov-Bohm flux (φ) on the order parameters of the 3-dimensional Gross-Neveu model and CP N -model in R 2 xS 1 space is considered. It is shown that the variation of flux causes the order parameter oscillations and for the small enough length of circular coordinate l c these oscillations attended with re-ordering phase transitions (i.e. the repeating transitions between the ordered and the disordered phases of the models in question). (author). 22 refs, 3 figs
Impurity-induced tuning of quantum-well States in spin-dependent resonant tunneling.
Kalitsov, Alan; Coho, A; Kioussis, Nicholas; Vedyayev, Anatoly; Chshiev, M; Granovsky, A
2004-07-23
We report exact model calculations of the spin-dependent tunneling in double magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of impurities in the well. We show that the impurity can tune selectively the spin channels giving rise to a wide variety of interesting and novel transport phenomena. The tunneling magnetoresistance, the spin polarization, and the local current can be dramatically enhanced or suppressed by impurities. The underlying mechanism is the impurity-induced shift of the quantum well states (QWSs), which depends on the impurity potential, impurity position, and the symmetry of the QWS. Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society
The effect of ICRF antenna phasing on metal impurities in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevens, J.E.; Bush, C.; Colestock, P.L.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov
1989-07-01
ICRF power levels of up to 2.8 MW were achieved during the 1988 experimental run on TFTR. Metal impurity concentrations (Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni) and Z eff were monitored during ICRF heating by x-ray pulse height analysis and uv spectroscopy. Antenna phasing was the key variable affecting ICRF performance. No increase in metallic impurities was observed for P rf approx lt 2.8 MW with the antenna straps 0-Π, while a measurable increase in titanium (Faraday screen material) was observed for P rf approx gt 1.0 MW with 0-0 phasing. 18 refs., 8 figs
Impurity enrichment and radiative enhancement using induced SOL flow in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wade, M.R.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.
1998-07-01
Experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the efficacy of using induced scrap-off-layer (SOL) flow to preferentially enrich impurities in the divertor plasma. This SOL floe is produced through simultaneous deuterium gas injection at the midplane and divertor exhaust. Using this SOL flow, an improvement in enrichment (defined as the ratio of impurity fraction in the divertor to that in the plasma core) has been observed for all impurities in trace-level experiments (i.e., impurity level is non-perturbative), with the degree of improvement increasing with impurity atomic number. In the case of argon, exhaust gas enrichment using modest SOL flow is as high as 17. Using this induced SOL flow technique and argon injection, radiative plasmas have been produced that combine high radiation losses (P rad /P input > 70%), low core fuel dilution (Z eff E > 1.0 τ E,ITER93H )
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachdev, S.
1999-01-01
Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)
Luminescence detection of phase transitions in crystals and nanoparticle inclusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, P. D.; Yang, B.; Wang, Y.
2008-01-01
Luminescence measurements are extremely sensitive to variations in structural environment and thus have the potential to probe distortions of fluorescence sites. Changes can be monitored via luminescence efficiency, emission spectra or excited state lifetimes and these factors are influenced by the local neighbourhood around the emission site, and therefore by structure, composition, pressure and temperature. A rarely exploited approach for condensed matter has been to use the changes in luminescence responses during heating or cooling of a material to provide a rapid survey to detect the presence of phase transitions. One can often differentiate between bulk and surface effects by contrasting results from radioluminescence for bulk responses, and cathodoluminescence or photoluminescence for surface effects. One expects that discontinuous changes in optical parameters occur during temperature changes through phase transitions of insulating materials. In practice, optical signals also exist from surface states of fullerenes and high temperature superconductors etc which identify the presence of structural or superconducting transitions. Numerous examples are cited which match standard documented transitions. Interestingly many examples show the host signals are strongly sensitive to impurity phase transitions from inclusions such as nanoparticles of water, N 2 , O 2 or CO 2 . Recent luminescence data reveal many examples of new transitions, hysteresis and irreversible changes. The signals equally respond to relaxations of a structure and surprisingly indicate that in some materials, such as SrTiO 3 or ZnO, ion implantation of the surface triggers relaxations and phase changes throughout the bulk of the material. Luminescence routes to detect phase transitions are powerful tools but have a tiny literature and so the subject is ideal for rapid exploitation and development. (Author)
A stress-induced phase transition model for semi-crystallize shape memory polymer
Guo, Xiaogang; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong
2014-03-01
The developments of constitutive models for shape memory polymer (SMP) have been motivated by its increasing applications. During cooling or heating process, the phase transition which is a continuous time-dependent process happens in semi-crystallize SMP and the various individual phases form at different temperature and in different configuration. Then, the transformation between these phases occurred and shape memory effect will emerge. In addition, stress applied on SMP is an important factor for crystal melting during phase transition. In this theory, an ideal phase transition model considering stress or pre-strain is the key to describe the behaviors of shape memory effect. So a normal distributed model was established in this research to characterize the volume fraction of each phase in SMP during phase transition. Generally, the experiment results are partly backward (in heating process) or forward (in cooling process) compared with the ideal situation considering delay effect during phase transition. So, a correction on the normal distributed model is needed. Furthermore, a nonlinear relationship between stress and phase transition temperature Tg is also taken into account for establishing an accurately normal distributed phase transition model. Finally, the constitutive model which taking the stress as an influence factor on phase transition was also established. Compared with the other expressions, this new-type model possesses less parameter and is more accurate. For the sake of verifying the rationality and accuracy of new phase transition and constitutive model, the comparisons between the simulated and experimental results were carried out.
Pressure-induced phase transition and octahedral tilt system change of Ba2BiSbO6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lufaso, Michael W.; Macquart, Rene B.; Lee, Yongjae; Vogt, Thomas; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur
2006-01-01
High-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction studies under high-pressure conditions are reported for the ordered double perovskite Ba 2 BiSbO 6 . Near 4GPa, the oxide undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition. The symmetry of the material changes during the phase transition from space group R3-bar to space group I2/m, which is consistent with a change in the octahedral tilting distortion from an a - a - a - type to a 0 b - b - type using the Glazer notation. A fit of the volume-pressure data using the Birch-Murnagaham equation of state yielded a bulk modulus of 144(8)GPa for the rhombohedral phase
Time-delay-induced phase-transition to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons
Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Prasad, Awadhesh; Dhamala, Mukeshwar
2011-06-01
Signal transmission time delays in a network of nonlinear oscillators are known to be responsible for a variety of interesting dynamic behaviors including phase-flip transitions leading to synchrony or out of synchrony. Here, we uncover that phase-flip transitions are general phenomena and can occur in a network of coupled bursting neurons with a variety of coupling types. The transitions are marked by nonlinear changes in both temporal and phase-space characteristics of the coupled system. We demonstrate these phase-transitions with Hindmarsh-Rose and Leech-Heart interneuron models and discuss the implications of these results in understanding collective dynamics of bursting neurons in the brain.
Twinning induced by the rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition in lanthanum gallate (LaGaO3)
Wang, W. L.; Lu, H. Y.
2006-10-01
Phase-transformation-induced twins in pressureless-sintered lanthanum gallate (LaGaO3) ceramics have been analysed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Twins are induced by solid state phase transformation upon cooling from the rhombohedral (r, Rbar{3}c) to orthorhombic ( o, Pnma) symmetry at ˜145°C. Three types of transformation twins {101} o , {121} o , and {123} o were found in grains containing multiple domains that represent orientation variants. Three orthorhombic orientation variants were distinguished from the transformation domains converged into a triple junction. These twins are the reflection type as confirmed by tilting experiment in the microscope. Although not related by group-subgroup relation, the transformation twins generated by phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic are consistent with those derived from taking cubic Pm {bar {3}}m aristotype of the lowest common supergroup symmetry as an intermediate metastable structure. The r→ o phase transition of first order in nature may have occurred by a diffusionless, martensitic-type or discontinuous nucleation and growth mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.
1993-01-01
In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1993-12-31
In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.
Transition-metal impurities in semiconductors and heterojunction band lineups
Langer, Jerzy M.; Delerue, C.; Lannoo, M.; Heinrich, Helmut
1988-10-01
The validity of a recent proposal that transition-metal impurity levels in semiconductors may serve as a reference in band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions is positively verified by using the most recent data on band offsets in the following lattice-matched heterojunctions: Ga1-xAlxAs/GaAs, In1-xGaxAsyP1-y/InP, In1-xGaxP/GaAs, and Cd1-xHgxTe/CdTe. The alignment procedure is justified theoretically by showing that transition-metal energy levels are effectively pinned to the average dangling-bond energy level, which serves as the reference level for the heterojunction band alignment. Experimental and theoretical arguments showing that an increasingly popular notion on transition-metal energy-level pinning to the vacuum level is unjustified and must be abandoned in favor of the internal-reference rule proposed recently [J. M. Langer and H. Heinrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1414 (1985)] are presented.
Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Rotter
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.
Zhao, Bo
Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu
Mixed-order phase transition in a colloidal crystal
Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume
2017-12-01
Mixed-order phase transitions display a discontinuity in the order parameter like first-order transitions yet feature critical behavior like second-order transitions. Such transitions have been predicted for a broad range of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, but their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we analytically predict and experimentally realize a mixed-order equilibrium phase transition. Specifically, a discontinuous solid-solid transition in a 2D crystal of paramagnetic colloidal particles is induced by a magnetic field H. At the transition field Hs, the energy landscape of the system becomes completely flat, which causes diverging fluctuations and correlation length ξ∝|H2-Hs2|-1/2. Mean-field critical exponents are predicted, since the upper critical dimension of the transition is du=2. Our colloidal system provides an experimental test bed to probe the unconventional properties of mixed-order phase transitions.
Mixed-order phase transition in a colloidal crystal.
Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume
2017-12-05
Mixed-order phase transitions display a discontinuity in the order parameter like first-order transitions yet feature critical behavior like second-order transitions. Such transitions have been predicted for a broad range of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, but their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we analytically predict and experimentally realize a mixed-order equilibrium phase transition. Specifically, a discontinuous solid-solid transition in a 2D crystal of paramagnetic colloidal particles is induced by a magnetic field [Formula: see text] At the transition field [Formula: see text], the energy landscape of the system becomes completely flat, which causes diverging fluctuations and correlation length [Formula: see text] Mean-field critical exponents are predicted, since the upper critical dimension of the transition is [Formula: see text] Our colloidal system provides an experimental test bed to probe the unconventional properties of mixed-order phase transitions.
Trends on 3d transition metal impurities in diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assali, L.V.C.; Machado, W.V.M.; Justo, J.F.
2009-01-01
We carried out a first principles investigation on the electronic properties and chemical trends of 3d transition metal related impurities in diamond. In terms of formation energy, the interstitial site is considerably more unfavorable than the substitutional or divacancy ones. Going from Ti to Ni, the 3d-related energy levels in the gap become deeper toward the valence band in all three sites. However, in the divacancy one, those levels cross with the divacancy-related ones, such that the electronic property of the center depends on the character of the highest occupied level.
Tricritical behaviour in the phase transition induced by electron-hole pairing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crisan, M.
1980-01-01
The electron-hole pairing, which is possible in metals or semiconductors, can give condensed phases with two order parameters. If the coupling between the two order parameters is considered, the free energy functional is similar with the free energy of a n-component spin system with cubic anisotropy. Using the Wagner hypothesis (tricritical scaling) the non-linear scaling fields have been calculated. In order to perform the calculation of the nonlinear fields we used the method given by Rudnick and Nelson to solve the recursion relations for the 4-epsilon-dimensional system with n=6 components. The present calculation in the frame-work of the renormalization-group approach confirms the result obtained in the mean-field theory that the coupling of the two order parameters induces a first order phase transition. (author)
Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; SolÃ©, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...
Structural phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 driven by electrostatic doping
Wang, Ying; Xiao, Jun; Zhu, Hanyu; Li, Yao; Alsaid, Yousif; Fong, King Yan; Zhou, Yao; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Wu; Wang, Yuan; Zettl, Alex; Reed, Evan J.; Zhang, Xiang
2017-10-01
Monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit numerous crystal phases with distinct structures, symmetries and physical properties. Exploring the physics of transitions between these different structural phases in two dimensions may provide a means of switching material properties, with implications for potential applications. Structural phase transitions in TMDs have so far been induced by thermal or chemical means; purely electrostatic control over crystal phases through electrostatic doping was recently proposed as a theoretical possibility, but has not yet been realized. Here we report the experimental demonstration of an electrostatic-doping-driven phase transition between the hexagonal and monoclinic phases of monolayer molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2). We find that the phase transition shows a hysteretic loop in Raman spectra, and can be reversed by increasing or decreasing the gate voltage. We also combine second-harmonic generation spectroscopy with polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy to show that the induced monoclinic phase preserves the crystal orientation of the original hexagonal phase. Moreover, this structural phase transition occurs simultaneously across the whole sample. This electrostatic-doping control of structural phase transition opens up new possibilities for developing phase-change devices based on atomically thin membranes.
Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael
2012-01-01
We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures, such as b......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...
Role of four-fermion interaction and impurity in the states of two-dimensional semi-Dirac materials.
Wang, Jing
2018-03-28
We study the effects of four-fermion interaction and impurity on the low-energy states of 2D semi-Dirac materials by virtue of the unbiased renormalization group approach. The coupled flow equations that govern the energy-dependent evolutions of all correlated interaction parameters are derived after taking into account one-loop corrections from the interplay between four-fermion interaction and impurity. Whether and how four-fermion interaction and impurity influence the low-energy properties of 2D semi-Dirac materials are discreetly explored and addressed attentively. After carrying out the standard renormalization group analysis, we find that both trivial insulating and nontrivial semimetal states are qualitatively stable against all four kinds of four-fermion interactions. However, while switching on both four-fermion interaction and impurity, certain insulator-semimetal phase transitions and the distance of Dirac nodal points can be respectively induced and modified due to their strong interplay and intimate competition. Moreover, several non-Fermi liquid behaviors that deviate from the conventional Fermi liquids are exhibited at the lowest-energy limit.
Strain-induced topological magnon phase transitions: applications to kagome-lattice ferromagnets
Owerre, S. A.
2018-06-01
A common feature of topological insulators is that they are characterized by topologically invariant quantity such as the Chern number and the index. This quantity distinguishes a nontrivial topological system from a trivial one. A topological phase transition may occur when there are two topologically distinct phases, and it is usually defined by a gap closing point where the topologically invariant quantity is ill-defined. In this paper, we show that the magnon bands in the strained (distorted) kagome-lattice ferromagnets realize an example of a topological magnon phase transition in the realistic parameter regime of the system. When spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is neglected (i.e. no Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction), we show that all three magnon branches are dispersive with no flat band, and there exists a critical point where tilted Dirac and semi-Dirac point coexist in the magnon spectra. The critical point separates two gapless magnon phases as opposed to the usual phase transition. Upon the inclusion of SOC, we realize a topological magnon phase transition point at the critical strain , where D and J denote the perturbative SOC and the Heisenberg spin exchange interaction respectively. It separates two distinct topological magnon phases with different Chern numbers for and for . The associated anomalous thermal Hall conductivity develops an abrupt change at , due to the divergence of the Berry curvature in momentum space. The proposed topological magnon phase transition is experimentally feasible by applying external perturbations such as uniaxial strain or pressure.
Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration
Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.
2018-04-01
We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.
Partial inertia induces additional phase transition in the majority vote model.
Harunari, Pedro E; de Oliveira, M M; Fiore, C E
2017-10-01
Explosive (i.e., discontinuous) transitions have aroused great interest by manifesting in distinct systems, such as synchronization in coupled oscillators, percolation regime, absorbing phase transitions, and more recently, the majority-vote model with inertia. In the latter, the model rules are slightly modified by the inclusion of a term depending on the local spin (an inertial term). In such a case, Chen et al. [Phys Rev. E 95, 042304 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.042304] have found that relevant inertia changes the nature of the phase transition in complex networks, from continuous to discontinuous. Here we give a further step by embedding inertia only in vertices with degree larger than a threshold value 〈k〉k^{*}, 〈k〉 being the mean system degree and k^{*} the fraction restriction. Our results, from mean-field analysis and extensive numerical simulations, reveal that an explosive transition is presented in both homogeneous and heterogeneous structures for small and intermediate k^{*}'s. Otherwise, a large restriction can sustain a discontinuous transition only in the heterogeneous case. This shares some similarities with recent results for the Kuramoto model [Phys. Rev. E 91, 022818 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.022818]. Surprisingly, intermediate restriction and large inertia are responsible for the emergence of an extra phase, in which the system is partially synchronized and the classification of phase transition depends on the inertia and the lattice topology. In this case, the system exhibits two phase transitions.
Park, J H; Min, B I; Cho, H S
2000-01-01
Employing the self-consistent local approach, the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin orbital recursion method, we have investigated the electronic structures and the magnetic properties of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) impurities in ferromagnetic bcc Fe. In both 3d and 4d TM impurities, virtual bound states appear and are characterized by a high density of states in the energy spectrum. The characters of the states are studied by calculating the bond order between interaction orbitals. For early TM impurities, the states at the impurity sites have more antibonding characters, while the states at neighboring Fe sites have more bonding characters. For late TM impurities, the situation is reversed. late TM impurities of both the 3d and the 4d TM series have the same magnetic ordering as the host Fe atoms whereas early TM impurities have magnetic moments antiparallel to that of the host. As for the Mn impurity, an inward relaxation of neighboring Fe atoms stabilizes the antiferromagnetic ordering with respect to t...
Field induced magnetic phase transition as a magnon Bose Einstein condensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teodora Radu et al
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We report specific heat, magnetocaloric effect and magnetization measurements on single crystals of the frustrated quasi-2D spin -½ antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 in the external magnetic field 0≤B≤12 T along a-axis and in the temperature range 0.03 K≤T≤6 K. Decreasing the applied magnetic field B from high fields leads to the closure of the field induced gap in the magnon spectrum at a critical field Bcsimeq8.44 T and a long-range incommensurate state below Bc. In the vicinity of Bc, the phase transition boundary is well described by the power law TN~(Bc-B1/phi with the measured critical exponent phisimeq1.5. These findings provide experimental evidence that the scaling law of the transition temperature TN can be described by the universality class of 3D Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC of magnons.
Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos
2017-05-01
Using the Kane-Mele Hamiltonian, Dirac theory and self-consistent Born approximation, we investigate the effect of dilute charged impurity on the electronic heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of two-dimensional ferromagnetic honeycomb structure of group-IV elements including silicene, germanene and stanene within the Green’s function approach. We also find these quantities in the presence of applied external electric field. Our results show that the silicene (stanene) has the maximum (minimum) heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility at uniform electric fields. From the behavior of theses quantities, the band gap has been changed with impurity concentration, impurity scattering strength and electric field. The analysis on the impurity-dependent magnetic susceptibility curves shows a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. Interestingly, electronic heat capacity increases (decreases) with impurity concentration in silicene (germanene and stanene) structure.
Impurities and evaluation of induced activity of SiCf/SiC composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noda, Tetsuji; Araki, Hiroshi; Ito, Shinji; Fujita, Mitsutane; Maki, Koichi
1997-01-01
Impurity of SiC f /SiC composites prepared by CVI was analyzed by neutron activation analysis and glow discharge mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the induced activity of the composites based on the chemical compositions was made using a simulation calculation for fusion reactor blanket. Impurities of 35 elements were detected in the composites. However the total concentration of metallic impurities was below 20 mass ppm. The analyses of induced activity of the composites show that the dose rate decreases by about 5 orders of magnitude in a day after the shutdown. It is recommended that the purification of SiC fibers is necessary to reduce the activity by 10 9 after several ten years cooling of fusion reactors. (author)
Pressure induced structural phase transition in solid oxidizer KClO3: A first-principles study
Yedukondalu, N.; Ghule, Vikas D.; Vaitheeswaran, G.
2013-05-01
High pressure behavior of potassium chlorate (KClO3) has been investigated from 0 to 10 GPa by means of first principles density functional theory calculations. The calculated ground state parameters, transition pressure, and phonon frequencies using semiempirical dispersion correction scheme are in excellent agreement with experiment. It is found that KClO3 undergoes a pressure induced first order phase transition with an associated volume collapse of 6.4% from monoclinic (P21/m) → rhombohedral (R3m) structure at 2.26 GPa, which is in good accord with experimental observation. However, the transition pressure was found to underestimate (0.11 GPa) and overestimate (3.57 GPa) using local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation functionals, respectively. Mechanical stability of both the phases is explained from the calculated single crystal elastic constants. In addition, the zone center phonon frequencies have been calculated using density functional perturbation theory at ambient as well as at high pressure and the lattice modes are found to soften under pressure between 0.6 and 1.2 GPa. The present study reveals that the observed structural phase transition leads to changes in the decomposition mechanism of KClO3 which corroborates with the experimental results.
Defect-induced local variation of crystal phase transition temperature in metal-halide perovskites.
Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Merdasa, Aboma; Unger, Eva L; Yartsev, Arkady; Scheblykin, Ivan G
2017-06-26
Solution-processed organometal halide perovskites are hybrid crystalline semiconductors highly interesting for low-cost and efficient optoelectronics. Their properties are dependent on the crystal structure. Literature shows a variety of crystal phase transition temperatures and often a spread of the transition over tens of degrees Kelvin. We explain this inconsistency by demonstrating that the temperature of the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in methylammonium lead triiodide depends on the concentration and nature of local defects. Phase transition in individual nanowires was studied by photoluminescence microspectroscopy and super-resolution imaging. We propose that upon cooling from 160 to 140 K, domains of the crystal containing fewer defects stay in the tetragonal phase longer than highly defected domains that readily transform to the high bandgap orthorhombic phase at higher temperatures. The existence of relatively pure tetragonal domains during the phase transition leads to drastic photoluminescence enhancement, which is inhomogeneously distributed across perovskite microcrystals.Understanding crystal phase transition in materials is of fundamental importance. Using luminescence spectroscopy and super-resolution imaging, Dobrovolsky et al. study the transition from the tetragonal to orthorhombic crystal phase in methylammonium lead triiodide nanowires at low temperature.
Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 3. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity and microstructure of Na + - β / b e t a " -alumina solid electrolyte. SUNG-TAE LEE DAE-HAN LEE SANG-MIN LEE SANG-SOO HAN SANG-HYUNG LEE SUNG-KI LIM. Volume 39 Issue 3 ...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Valentová, H.; Spěváček, Jiří
2013-01-01
Roč. 291, č. 10 (2013), s. 2409-2417 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : temperature-induced volume phase transition * poly (N-isopropylmethacrylamide) poly (Nisopropylacrylamide) interpenetrating network * 1H NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Xiang-Long, E-mail: xlyu@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Da-Yong; Quan, Ya-Min; Zheng, Xiao-Jun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, Liang-Jian, E-mail: zou@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • Effects of single interstitial impurity are studied in iron-based superconductors. • Bound states within the superconducting gap can be induced. • The interstitial impurity can induce a π phase shift of pairing order parameter. • For strong magnetic scattering the bound-state peak can appear at the Fermi level. - Abstract: We employ the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formulation to investigate the effect of single interstitial nonmagnetic/magnetic impurity in iron-based superconductors with s ± -wave pairing symmetry. We find that both the nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities can induce bound states within the superconducting (SC) gap and a π phase shift of SC order parameter at the impurity site. However, different from the interstitial-nonmagnetic-impurity case characterized by two symmetric peaks with respect to zero energy, the interstitial magnetic one only induces single bound-state peak. In the strong scattering regime this peak can appear at the Fermi level, which has been observed in the recent scanning tunneling microscope (STM) experiment of Fe(Te,Se) superconductor with interstitial Fe impurities (Yin et al. 2015 [44]). This novel single in-gap peak feature also distinguishes the interstitial case from the substitutional one with two peaks. These results provide important information for comparing the different impurity effects in the iron-based superconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-01-01
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-02-26
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sabdenov, Ch.K.; Davydova, M.D.; Zvezdin, K.A.; Gorbunov, Denis; Tereshina, I. S.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Zvezdin, A. K.
2017-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 551-558 ISSN 1063-777X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * phase diagram * field-induced transition * magnetic anisotropy * high magnetic fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016
Phase transitions in solids under high pressure
Blank, Vladimir Davydovich
2013-01-01
Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1993-10-01
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions
Li, Shuai; Wang, Chen; Zheng, Shi-Han; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Li, Jun; Yang, Mou
2018-04-01
The impurity effect is studied in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals in the framework of a T-matrix method to consider the multiple scattering events of Dirac electrons off impurities. It has been found that a strong impurity potential can significantly restructure the energy dispersion and the density of states of Dirac electrons. An impurity-induced resonant state emerges and significantly modifies the pristine optical response. It is shown that the impurity state disturbs the common longitudinal optical conductivity by creating either an optical conductivity peak or double absorption jumps, depending on the relative position of the impurity band and the Fermi level. More importantly, these conductivity features appear in the forbidden region between the Drude and interband transition, completely or partially filling the Pauli block region of optical response. The underlying physics is that the appearance of resonance states as well as the broadening of the bands leads to a more complicated selection rule for the optical transitions, making it possible to excite new electron-hole pairs in the forbidden region. These features in optical conductivity provide valuable information to understand the impurity behaviors in 3D Dirac materials.
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulser dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagchi, Partha; Das, Arpan; Srivastava, Ajit M.; Layek, Biswanath
2016-01-01
We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling) may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves. (author)
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Partha Bagchi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.
Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-01-25
The electronic properties of silicene are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit interaction and the buckled structure. Silicene has the potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address the longitudinal conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We show that the combination of an electric field with intrinsic spin orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state. Silicene constitutes a model system for exploring the spin and valley physics not accessible in graphene due to the small spin orbit interaction.
Pressure-induced phase transition in KxFe2-yS2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchiya, Yuu; Ikeda, Shugo; Kobayashi, Hisao; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Kishimoto, Shunji; Kikegawa, Takumi; Hirao, Naohisa; Kawaguchi, Saori I.; Ohishi, Yasuo
2017-01-01
The structural and electronic properties of high-quality K 0.66(6) Fe 1.75(10) S 2 single crystals have been investigated by angle-resolved X-ray diffraction and 57 Fe nuclear forward scattering using synchrotron radiation under pressure at room temperature. The samples exhibit phase separation into antiferromagnetic ordered K 2 Fe 4 S 5 and nonmagnetic K x Fe 2 S 2 phases. It was found that a pressure-induced phase transition occurs at p c = 5.9(4) GPa with simultaneous suppression of the antiferromagnetic and Fe vacancy orders. >From the results of 57 Fe nuclear forward scattering, the refined magnetic hyperfine field remains unchanged with pressure below p c , suggesting that the Néel temperature does not decrease with pressure up to p c . Above p c , all Fe atoms in K 0.66 Fe 1.75 S 2 are in the same nonmagnetic state. A discontinuous increase in the center shift was observed at p c , reflecting a change in the Fe electronic state in K 0.66 Fe 1.75 S 2 . (author)
Time-Resolved Studies of Laser-Induced Phase Transitions in Gallium Arsenide
Siegal, Yakir
This thesis describes a series of time-resolved experiments of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaAs during laser-induced phase transitions. The first set of experiments consists of a direct determination of the behavior of the linear dielectric constant at photon energies of 2.2 eV and 4.4 eV following excitation of the sample with 1.9-eV, 70-fs laser pulses spanning a fluence range from 0 to 2.5 kJ/m^2. The results from this set of experiments were used to extract the behavior of the second-order optical susceptibility from second-harmonic generation measurements made under identical excitation conditions. These experiments are unique because they provide explicit information on the behavior of intrinsic material properties--the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities--during laser-induced phase transitions in semiconductors without the ambiguities in interpretation that are generally inherent in reflectivity and second-harmonic generation measurements. The dielectric constant data indicate a drop in the average bonding-antibonding splitting of GaAs following the laser pulse excitation. This behavior leads to a collapse of the band-gap on a picosecond time scale for excitation at fluences near the damage threshold of 1.0 kJ/m ^2 and even faster at higher excitation fluences. The changes in the electronic band structure result from a combination of electronic screening by the excited free carriers and structural deformation of the lattice caused by the destabilization of the covalent bonds. The behavior of the second-order susceptibility shows that the material loses long-range order before the average bonding-antibonding splitting, which is more sensitive to short-range structure, changes significantly. Loss of long-range order and a drop of more than 2 eV in the average bonding-antibonding splitting are seen even at fluences below the damage threshold, a regime in which the laser-induced changes are reversible.
Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: Capillary prewetting
Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2013-01-01
We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangu...
Physical properties of antiferromagnetic Mn doped ZnO samples: Role of impurity phase
Neogi, S. K.; Karmakar, R.; Misra, A. K.; Banerjee, A.; Das, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.
2013-11-01
Structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Zn1-xMnxO samples (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10) prepared by the sol-gel route are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). XRD confirms formation of wurzite structure in all the Mn-substituted samples. A systematic increase in lattice constants and decrease in grain size have been observed with increase in manganese doping concentration up to 6 at% in the ZnO structure. An impurity phase (ZnMnO3) has been detected when percentage of Mn concentration is 6 at% or higher. The optical band gap of the Mn-substituted ZnO samples decrease with increase in doping concentration of manganese whereas the width of the localized states increases. The antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is strong in the samples for 2 and 4 at% of Mn doping but it reduces when the doping level increases from 6 at% and further. Positron life time components τ1 and τ2 are found to decrease when concentration of the dopant exceeds 6 at%. The changes in magnetic properties as well as positron annihilation parameters at higher manganese concentration have been assigned as due to the formation of impurity phase. Single phase structure has been observed up to 6 at% of Mn doping. Impurity phase has been developed above 6 at% of Mn doping. Antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions are present in the samples. Defect parameters show sharp fall as Mn concentration above 6 at%. The magnetic and defect properties are modified by the formation of impurity phase.
Physical properties of antiferromagnetic Mn doped ZnO samples: Role of impurity phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neogi, S.K.; Karmakar, R.; Misra, A.K.; Banerjee, A.; Das, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.
2013-01-01
Structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Zn 1−x Mn x O samples (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10) prepared by the sol–gel route are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). XRD confirms formation of wurzite structure in all the Mn-substituted samples. A systematic increase in lattice constants and decrease in grain size have been observed with increase in manganese doping concentration up to 6 at% in the ZnO structure. An impurity phase (ZnMnO 3 ) has been detected when percentage of Mn concentration is 6 at% or higher. The optical band gap of the Mn-substituted ZnO samples decrease with increase in doping concentration of manganese whereas the width of the localized states increases. The antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is strong in the samples for 2 and 4 at% of Mn doping but it reduces when the doping level increases from 6 at% and further. Positron life time components τ 1 and τ 2 are found to decrease when concentration of the dopant exceeds 6 at%. The changes in magnetic properties as well as positron annihilation parameters at higher manganese concentration have been assigned as due to the formation of impurity phase. - highlights: • Single phase structure has been observed up to 6 at% of Mn doping. • Impurity phase has been developed above 6 at% of Mn doping. • Antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions are present in the samples. • Defect parameters show sharp fall as Mn concentration above 6 at%. • The magnetic and defect properties are modified by the formation of impurity phase
Physical properties of antiferromagnetic Mn doped ZnO samples: Role of impurity phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neogi, S.K.; Karmakar, R. [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Misra, A.K. [UGC DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Banerjee, A. [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); CRNN, University of Calcutta, JD 2, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, D. [UGC DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bandyopadhyay, S., E-mail: sbaphy@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); CRNN, University of Calcutta, JD 2, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)
2013-11-15
Structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O samples (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10) prepared by the sol–gel route are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). XRD confirms formation of wurzite structure in all the Mn-substituted samples. A systematic increase in lattice constants and decrease in grain size have been observed with increase in manganese doping concentration up to 6 at% in the ZnO structure. An impurity phase (ZnMnO{sub 3}) has been detected when percentage of Mn concentration is 6 at% or higher. The optical band gap of the Mn-substituted ZnO samples decrease with increase in doping concentration of manganese whereas the width of the localized states increases. The antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is strong in the samples for 2 and 4 at% of Mn doping but it reduces when the doping level increases from 6 at% and further. Positron life time components τ{sub 1} and τ{sub 2} are found to decrease when concentration of the dopant exceeds 6 at%. The changes in magnetic properties as well as positron annihilation parameters at higher manganese concentration have been assigned as due to the formation of impurity phase. - highlights: • Single phase structure has been observed up to 6 at% of Mn doping. • Impurity phase has been developed above 6 at% of Mn doping. • Antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions are present in the samples. • Defect parameters show sharp fall as Mn concentration above 6 at%. • The magnetic and defect properties are modified by the formation of impurity phase.
Khalsa, Guru; Benedek, Nicole A.
2018-03-01
Epitaxial strain and chemical substitution have been the workhorses of functional materials design. These static techniques have shown immense success in controlling properties in complex oxides through the tuning of subtle structural distortions. Recently, an approach based on the excitation of an infrared active phonon with intense midinfrared light has created an opportunity for dynamical control of structure through special nonlinear coupling to Raman phonons. We use first-principles techniques to show that this approach can dynamically induce a magnetic phase transition from the ferromagnetic ground state to a hidden antiferromagnetic phase in the rare earth titanate GdTiO3 for realistic experimental parameters. We show that a combination of a Jahn-Teller distortion, Gd displacement, and infrared phonon motion dominate this phase transition with little effect from the octahedral rotations, contrary to conventional wisdom.
High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing
2016-01-01
Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)
Shear-induced structural transitions in Newtonian non-Newtonian two-phase flow
Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.
2000-09-01
We show the existence under shear flow of steady states in a two-phase region of a brine-surfactant system in which lyotropic dilute lamellar (non-Newtonian) and sponge (Newtonian) phases are coexisting. At high shear rates and low sponge phase-volume fractions, we report on the existence of a dynamic transition corresponding to the formation of a colloidal crystal of multilamellar vesicles (or ``onions'') immersed in the sponge matrix. As the sponge phase-volume fraction increases, this transition exhibits a hysteresis loop leading to a structural bistability of the two-phase flow. Contrary to single phase lamellar systems where it is always 100%, the onion volume fraction can be monitored continuously from 0 to 100 %.
Isostructural magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect in Ising antiferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavanov, G.Yu; Kalita, V.M.; Loktev, V.M.
2014-01-01
It is shown that the external magnetic field induced isostructural I st order magnetic phase transition between antiferromagnetic phases with different antiferromagnetic vector values is associated with entropy. It is found, that depending on temperature the entropy jump and the related heat release change their sign at this transition point. In the low-temperature region of metamagnetic I st order phase tensition the entropy jump is positive, and in the triple point region this jump for isostructural magnetic transition is negative
Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.
2014-03-01
The effects of impurity and Bose-Fermi interactions on the transition temperature of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped Bose-Fermi mixture, by using the two-fluid model, are investigated. The shift of the transition temperature consists of four contributions due to contact, Bose-Fermi, dipole-dipole, and impurity interactions. We will show that in the presence of an anisotropic trap, the Bose-Fermi correction to the shift of transition temperature due to the excitation spectra of the thermal part is independent of anisotropy factor. Applying our results to trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures shows that, by knowing the impurity effect, the shift of the transition temperature due to Bose-Fermi interaction could be measured for isotropic trap (dipole-dipole contributions is zero) and Feshbach resonance technique (contact potential contribution is negligible).
Activity induced phase transition in mixtures of active and passive agents
Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Kulkarni, Ajinkya
2017-11-01
Collective behaviors of self-propelling agents are ubiquitous in nature that produces interesting patterns. The objective of this study is to investigate the phase transition in mixtures of active and inert agents suspended in a liquid. A modified version of the Vicsek Model has been used (see Ref.), where the particles are modeled as soft disks with finite mass, confined in a square domain. The particles are required to align their local motion to their immediate neighborhood, similar to the Vicsek model. We identified the transition from disorganized thermal-like motion to an organized vortical motion. We analyzed the nature of the transition by using different order parameters. Furthermore the switching between the phases has been investigated via artificial nucleation of randomly picked active agents spanning the entire domain. Finally the motivation for this phase transition has been explained via average dissipation and the mean square displacement (MSD) of the agents.
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1987-01-01
If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table
Generalized transport model for phase transition with memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Chi; Ciucci, Francesco
2013-01-01
A general model for phenomenological transport in phase transition is derived, which extends Jäckle and Frisch model of phase transition with memory and the Cahn–Hilliard model. In addition to including interfacial energy to account for the presence of interfaces, we introduce viscosity and relaxation contributions, which result from incorporating memory effect into the driving potential. Our simulation results show that even without interfacial energy term, the viscous term can lead to transient diffuse interfaces. From the phase transition induced hysteresis, we discover different energy dissipation mechanism for the interfacial energy and the viscosity effect. In addition, by combining viscosity and interfacial energy, we find that if the former dominates, then the concentration difference across the phase boundary is reduced; conversely, if the interfacial energy is greater then this difference is enlarged.
Stratification-induced order--disorder phase transitions in molecularly thin confined films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoen, M.; Diestler, D.J.; Cushman, J.H.
1994-01-01
By means of grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of a monatomic film confined between unstructured (i.e., molecularly smooth) rigidly fixed solid surfaces (i.e., walls), we investigate the mechanism of molecular stratification, i.e., the tendency of atoms to arrange themselves in layers parallel with the walls. Stratification is accompanied by a heretofore unnoticed order--disorder phase transition manifested as a maximum in density fluctuations at the transition point. The transition involves phases with different transverse packing characteristics, although the number of layers accommodated between the walls remains unchanged during the transition, which occurs periodically as the film thickens. However, with increasing thickness, an increasingly smaller proportion of the film is structurally affected by the transition. Thus, the associated maximum in density fluctuations diminishes rapidly with film thickness
Ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in heterostructures of electron doped europium monoxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stollenwerk, Tobias
2013-09-15
In the present work, we develop and solve a self-consistent theory for the description of the simultaneous ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in electron doped Europium monoxide. We investigate two different types of electron doping, Gadolinium impurities and Oxygen vacancies. Besides the conduction band occupation, we can identify low lying spin fluctuations on magnetic impurities as the driving force behind the doping induced enhancement of the Curie temperature. Moreover, we predict the signatures of these magnetic impurities in the spectra of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. By extending the theory to allow for inhomogeneities in one spatial direction, we are able to investigate thin films and heterostructures of Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide. Here, we are able to reproduce the experimentally observed decrease of the Curie temperature with the film thickness. This behavior is attributed to missing coupling partners of the localized 4f moments as well as to an electron depletion at the surface which leads to a reduction of the number of itinerant electrons. By investigating the influence of a metallic substrate onto the phase transition in Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide, we find that the Curie temperature can be increased up to 20%. However, as we show, the underlying mechanism of metal-interface induced charge carrier accumulation is inextricably connected to a suppression of the semiconductor-metal transition.
Ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in heterostructures of electron doped europium monoxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stollenwerk, Tobias
2013-09-01
In the present work, we develop and solve a self-consistent theory for the description of the simultaneous ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in electron doped Europium monoxide. We investigate two different types of electron doping, Gadolinium impurities and Oxygen vacancies. Besides the conduction band occupation, we can identify low lying spin fluctuations on magnetic impurities as the driving force behind the doping induced enhancement of the Curie temperature. Moreover, we predict the signatures of these magnetic impurities in the spectra of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. By extending the theory to allow for inhomogeneities in one spatial direction, we are able to investigate thin films and heterostructures of Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide. Here, we are able to reproduce the experimentally observed decrease of the Curie temperature with the film thickness. This behavior is attributed to missing coupling partners of the localized 4f moments as well as to an electron depletion at the surface which leads to a reduction of the number of itinerant electrons. By investigating the influence of a metallic substrate onto the phase transition in Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide, we find that the Curie temperature can be increased up to 20%. However, as we show, the underlying mechanism of metal-interface induced charge carrier accumulation is inextricably connected to a suppression of the semiconductor-metal transition.
2017-07-24
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The DURIP program "Variable-temperature Microwave Impedance Microscope with Light Stimulation for Research on Photo... Stimulation for Research on Photo- induced Phase Transitions The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions
Pressure-induced phase transitions in Zr-rich PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Filho, A.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br; Faria, J.L.B.; Freire, P.T.C.; Ayala, A.P.; Sasaki, J.M.; Melo, F.E.A.; Mendes Filho, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, Campus de Ilha Solteira, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Eiras, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2001-08-20
A Raman study of structural changes in the Zr-rich PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) system under hydrostatic pressures up to 5.0 GPa is presented. We observe that externally applied pressure induces several phase transitions in PZT ceramics among phases with orthorhombic (A{sub O}), rhombohedral low-temperature (R{sub LT}), and rhombohedral high-temperature (R{sub HT}) symmetries (all found in PZT at ambient pressure and room temperature). Each of the compositions investigated (0.02{<=}x{<=}0.14) exhibits a high-pressure phase with orthorhombic (O{sub I'}) symmetry. We further report a detailed study of the pressure dependence of Raman frequencies to elucidate the phase transitions and to provide a set of pressure coefficients for the high-pressure phases. (author)
Impurities and evaluation of induced activity of CVI SiCf/SiC composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noda, Tetsuji; Fujita, Mitsutane; Araki, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Akira
2000-01-01
Impurity of SiC f /SiC composites prepared by CVI was analyzed by neutron activation analysis and glow discharge mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the induced activity of the composites based on the chemical compositions was made using a simulation calculation for fusion reactor blanket. Impurities of 35 elements were detected in the composites. However, the total concentration of metallic impurities was below 20 mass ppm. The analyses of induced activity of the composites show that the dose rate decreases by about six orders of magnitude in a day after the shutdown. It is recommended that the purification of SiC composites, especially reduction of Fe and Ni contents, is necessary to reduce the activity to satisfy the limit of remote handling recycling after several 10 years cooling of fusion reactors
Shear-induced transitions in a ternary polymeric system
Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Fraaije, JGEM
The first three-dimensional simulation of shear-induced phase transitions in a polymeric system has been performed. The method is based on dynamic density-functional theory. The pathways between a bicontinuous phase with developing gyroid mesostructure and a lamellar/cylinder phase coexistence are
Pressure induced structural phase transition of OsB 2: First-principles calculations
Ren, Fengzhu; Wang, Yuanxu; Lo, V. C.
2010-04-01
Orthorhombic OsB 2 was synthesized at 1000 °C and its compressibility was measured by using the high-pressure X-ray diffraction in a Diacell diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure to 32 GPa [R.W. Cumberland, et al. (2005)]. First-principles calculations were performed to study the possibility of the phase transition of OsB 2. An analysis of the calculated enthalpy shows that orthorhombic OsB 2 can transfer to the hexagonal phase at 10.8 GPa. The calculated results with the quasi-harmonic approximation indicate that this phase transition pressure is little affected by the thermal effect. The calculated phonon band structure shows that the hexagonal P 6 3/ mmc structure (high-pressure phase) is stable for OsB 2. We expect the phase transition can be further confirmed by the experimental work.
Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut Ia, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2008-07-01
While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s.
Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias
2008-01-01
While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brik, M.G.; Łach, P.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kamińska, A.; Suchocki, A.
2013-01-01
Luminescence of CdTe quantum dots embedded in ZnTe is quenched at pressure of about 4.5 GPa in the high-pressure experiments. This pressure-induced quenching is attributed to the “zinc-blende–cinnabar” phase transition in CdTe, which was confirmed by the first-principles calculations. Theoretical analysis of the pressure at which the phase transition occurs for CdTe was performed using the CASTEP module of Materials Studio package with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). The calculated phase transition pressures are equal to about 4.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa, according to the GGA and LDA calculations, respectively, which is in a good agreement with the experimental value. Theoretically estimated value of the pressure coefficient of the band-gap luminescence in zinc-blende structure is in very good agreement with that recently measured in the QDs structures. The calculated Debye temperature, elastic constants and specific heat capacity for the zinc-blend structure agree well with the experimental data; the data for the cinnabar phase are reported here for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge. - Highlights: • Quenching of luminescence of CdTe quantum dots embedded in ZnTe is theoretically explained. • The theoretical calculation of elastic and thermodynamic properties of CdTe by two types of ab-initio methods. • Theoretical calculations of some optical properties of CdTe under pressure in zinc-blende and cinnabar phases
No large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2011-01-01
In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of the standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depends crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical backreactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the classical evolution of the system, we show that the highly blue-tilted entropy perturbations induce highly blue-tilted large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition which dominate over the original adiabatic curvature perturbations. However, we show that the quantum backreactions of the waterfall field inhomogeneities produced during the phase transition dominate completely over the classical backreactions. The cumulative quantum backreactions of very small scale tachyonic modes terminate inflation very efficiently and shut off the curvature perturbation evolution during the waterfall phase transition. This indicates that the standard hybrid inflation model is safe under large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition.
Modeling impurity-assisted chain creation in noble-metal break junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Napoli, S; Thiess, A; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y
2012-01-01
In this work we present the generalization of the model for chain formation in break junctions, introduced by Thiess et al (2008 Nano Lett. 8 2144), to zigzag transition-metal chains with s and p impurities. We apply this extended model to study the producibility trends for noble-metal chains with impurities, often present in break junction experiments, namely, Cu, Ag and Au chains with H, C, O and N adatoms. Providing the material-specific parameters for our model from systematic full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of such impurities crucially affects the binding properties of the noble-metal chains. We reveal that both the impurity-induced bond strengthening and the formation of zigzag bonds can lead to a significantly enhanced probability for chain formation in break junctions. (paper)
Molybdenum emission from impurity-induced m= 1 snake-modes on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bitter, M.; Gates, D.; Hill, K.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Granetz, R.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sugiyama, L. [MIT - Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2012-10-15
A suite of novel high-resolution spectroscopic imaging diagnostics has facilitated the identification and localization of molybdenum impurities as the main species during the formation and lifetime of m= 1 impurity-induced snake-modes on Alcator C-Mod. Such measurements made it possible to infer, for the first time, the perturbed radiated power density profiles from which the impurity density can be deduced.
Field-induced phase transitions in antiferromagnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smeets, J.P.M.
1984-05-01
Neutron scattering experiments and magnetization measurements are carried out on cobalt bromide hexahydrate, of which 48% of the water molecules are replaced by deuterium oxide molecules. Results were compared with data obtained from non-deuterated cobalt bromide hexahydrate. Neutron scattering experiments showed the importance of the deuterium fraction. Interplay exists between the crystallographic system and the magnetic system, which is influenced by changing the deuterium fraction. Neutron scattering and magnetization experiments on partially deuterated RbFeCl 3 .2H 2 O and CsFeCl 3 .2H 2 O were performed to study the magnetic phase transitions in these quasi one-dimensional Ising compounds. The observed behaviour in the various phases can be described by the nucleation theory of chain reversals. (Auth.)
Phase transitions to 120 GPa for shock-compressed pyrolytic and hot-pressed boron nitride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gust, W.H.; Young, D.A.
1977-01-01
Shock-compression characteristics of two types of hexagonal graphitelike boron nitride have been investigated. Highly oriented very pure pyrolytic boron nitride exhibits shock-velocity versus particle-velocity discontinuities that appear to be manifestations of the initiation of a sluggish phase transition. This transition begins at 20 GPa and is driven to completion (melting) at 75 GPa. Discontinuities in the plot for impure hot-pressed boron nitride indicate initiation at 10 GPa and completion at 20 GPa. The (U/sub s/, U/sub p/) plots follow essentially the same paths for 4.0 < U/sub p/ < 5.2 km/sec. No evidence for a transition to a metalliclike state was seen. Temperature calculations indicate that the material is liquid above approx.80 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paliwal, Uttam; Joshi, Kunj Bihari
2011-01-01
Structural parameters and electronic band structure of anti-A-sesquioxide (aAs) type γ-Be 3 N 2 are presented following the first-principles linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of a posteriori density-functional theory implemented in the CRYSTAL code. Pressure-induced phase transitions among the four polymorphs α, β, cubic-γ and aAs-γ of Be 3 N 2 are examined. Enthalpy-pressure curves do not show the possibility of pressure-induced structural phase transition to the cubic-γ phase. However, α → aAs-γ and β → aAs-γ structural phase transitions are observed at 139 GPa and 93 GPa, respectively. Band structure calculations predict that aAs-γ Be 3 N 2 is an indirect semiconductor with 4.73 eV bandgap at L point. Variation of bandgap with pressure and deformation potentials are studied for the α, β and aAs-γ polymorphs. Pressure-dependent band structure calculations reveal that, within the low-pressure limit, bandgaps of β and aAs-γ increase with pressure unlike α-Be 3 N 2 .
Pressure induced phase transition in Pb6Bi2S9
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Lars Arnskov; Friese, Karen; Makovicky, Emil
2011-01-01
consists of two types of moduli with SnS/TlI archetype structure in which the Pb and Bi lone pairs are strongly expressed. The mechanism of the phase transition is described in detail and the results are compared to the closely related phase transition in Pb3Bi2S6 (lillianite).......The crystal structure of Pb6Bi2S9 is investigated at pressures between 0 and 5.6 GPa with X-ray diffraction on single-crystals. The pressure is applied using diamond anvil cells. Heyrovskyite (Bbmm, a = 13.719(4) Å, b = 31.393(9) Å, c = 4.1319(10) Å, Z = 4) is the stable phase of Pb6Bi2S9...... at ambient conditions and is built from distorted moduli of PbS-archetype structure with a low stereochemical activity of the Pb2+ and Bi3+ lone electron pairs. Heyrovskyite is stable until at least 3.9 GPa and a first-order phase transition occurs between 3.9 and 4.8 GPa. A single-crystal is retained after...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei-Hua, Chen; Xiao-Dong, Hu; Xiang-Ning, Kang; Xu-Rong, Zhou; Xiao-Min, Zhang; Tong-Jun, Yu; Zhi-Jian, Yang; Ke, Xu; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Xu-Dong, Shan; Li-Ping, You
2009-01-01
Ultra-violet (KrF excimer laser, λ = 248 nm) laser lift-of (LLO) techniques have been operated to the GaN/sapphire structure to separate GaN from the sapphire substrate. Hexagonal to cubic phase transformation induced by the ultra-violet laser lift-of (UV-LLO) has been characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, along with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRTEM indicates that UV-LLO induced phase transition takes place above the LLO interface, without phase transition under the LLO interface. The formed cubic GaN often exists as nanocrystal grains attaching on the bulk hexagonal GaN. The half-loop-cluster-like UV-LLO interface indicates that the LLO-induced shock waves has generated and played an assistant role in the decomposition of the hexagonal GaN and in the formation of cubic GaN grains at the LLO surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassem, M.E.; Gaafar, M.; Abdel Gawad, M.M.H.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Ragab, I.M
2004-02-01
Thermodynamic studies of polycrystalline ruthenium (Ru) doped LiKSO{sub 4} have been made for different concentrations of Ru in the range 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3% by weight. The thermal behaviour has been investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter in the vicinity of high temperature phases. From this, the effect of electron beam-irradiation on the thermal properties of these polycrystalline samples has been studied. The results showed a change in the transition temperature T{sub c}, as well as the value of specific heat C{sub P{sub max}} at the transition temperature due to the change in Ru content and irradiation energies. The change of enthalpy and entropy of the polycrystalline have been estimated numerically.
Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo
2018-01-01
In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludmila Alekseeva
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behler, Joerg [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI-Campus, Lugano (Switzerland); Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Martonak, Roman [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI-Campus, Lugano (Switzerland); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Donadio, Davide [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI-Campus, Lugano (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, UC Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Parrinello, Michele [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI-Campus, Lugano (Switzerland)
2008-12-15
We present a combination of the metadynamics method for the investigation of pressure-induced phase transitions in solids with a neural network representation of high-dimensional density-functional theory (DFT) potential-energy surfaces. In a recent illustration of the method for the complex high-pressure phase diagram of silicon[Behler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 185501 (2008)] we have shown that the full sequence of phases can be reconstructed by a series of subsequent simulations. In the present paper we give a detailed account of the underlying methodology and discuss the scope and limitations of the approach, which promises to be a valuable tool for the investigation of a variety of inorganic materials. The method is several orders of magnitude faster than a direct coupling of metadynamics with electronic structure calculations, while the accuracy is essentially maintained, thus providing access to extended simulations of large systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiu-Qin; Liu Ni; Liang Jiu-Qing
2017-01-01
In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. (paper)
Pressure-induced phase transitions in single-crystalline Cu4Bi4S9 nanoribbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Jing-Yu; Li Jing; Zhao Qing; Shi Li-Jie; Zou Bing-Suo; Zhang Si-Jia; Zhao Hao-Fei; Zhang Qing-Hua; Yao Yuan; Zhu Ke; Liu Yu-Long; Jin Chang-Qing; Yu Ri-Cheng; Li Yan-Chun; Li Xiao-Dong; Liu Jing
2013-01-01
In situ angle dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements under pressure are employed to study the structural evolution of Cu 4 Bi 4 S 9 nanoribbons, which are fabricated by using a facile solvothermal method. Both experiments show that a structural phase transition occurs near 14.5 GPa, and there is a pressure-induced reversible amorphization at about 25.6 GPa. The electrical transport property of a single Cu 4 Bi 4 S 9 nanoribbon under different pressures is also investigated
Magnetic-field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Dodds, S.A.; Richards, P.M.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Boekema, C.
1983-01-01
We have measured the magnetic-field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppM), AgGd (340 ppM) and AgEr (300 ppM). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric-field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence
Magnetic field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Yaouanc, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Dodds, S.A. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Physics); Richards, P.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E. (California Univ., Riverside (USA)); Boekema, C. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))
1984-01-01
The authors have measured the magnetic field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppm), AgGd (340 ppm) and AgEr (300 ppm). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence.
Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals.
Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen
2014-07-16
Spin-polarized triangular graphene nanoflakes (t-GNFs) serve as ideal building blocks for the long-desired ferromagnetic graphene superlattices, but they are always assembled to planar structures which reduce its mechanical properties. Here, by joining t-GNFs in a spiral way, we propose one-dimensional graphene spirals (GSs) with superior mechanical properties and tunable electronic structures. We demonstrate theoretically the unique features of electron motion in the spiral lattice by means of first-principles calculations combined with a simple Hubbard model. Within a linear elastic deformation range, the GSs are nonmagnetic metals. When the axial tensile strain exceeds an ultimate strain, however, they convert to magnetic semiconductors with stable ferromagnetic ordering along the edges. Such strain-induced phase transition and tunable electron spin-polarization revealed in the GSs open a new avenue for spintronics devices.
Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.
2012-03-01
Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.
Impurity doping: a novel strategy for controllable synthesis of functional lanthanide nanomaterials.
Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng
2013-06-07
Many technological nanomaterials are intentionally 'doped' by introducing appropriate amounts of foreign elements into hosts to impart electronic, magnetic and optical properties. In fact, impurity doping was recently found to have significant influence on nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. In this feature article, we provide an overview of the most recent progresses in doping-induced control of phase structures, sizes, shapes, as well as performances of functional nanomaterials for the first time. Two kinds of impurity doping strategies, including the homo-valence ion doping and hetero-valence ion doping, are discussed in detail. We lay emphases on impurity doping induced modifications of microstructures and optical properties of upconversion (UC) lanthanide (Ln(3+)) NCs, but do not limit to them. In addition, we also illustrate the control of Ln(3+) activator distribution in the core@shell architecture, which has recently provided scientists with new opportunities for designing and tuning the multi-color emissions of Ln(3+)-doped UC NCs. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of this novel impurity doping strategy are pointed out.
Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals
Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig
2015-09-01
Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chui, S.T.
1979-01-01
Recent experiments on the (100) face of W with and without H are interpreted. The significance of large thermal fluctuations in low dimensionality situation and their observation in the present system is pointed out. A thermal impurity depinning transition is discussed. The existence of a commensurate-incommensurate transition as hydrogen coverage is changed is speculated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J.
1996-01-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petry, W; Neuhaus, J [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
1996-11-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Quantum phase transitions between a class of symmetry protected topological states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsui, Lokman; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Lee, Dung-Hai
2015-07-01
The subject of this paper is the phase transition between symmetry protected topological states (SPTs). We consider spatial dimension d and symmetry group G so that the cohomology group, Hd+1(G,U(1)), contains at least one Z2n or Z factor. We show that the phase transition between the trivial SPT and the root states that generate the Z2n or Z groups can be induced on the boundary of a (d+1)-dimensional View the MathML source-symmetric SPT by a View the MathML source symmetry breaking field. Moreover we show these boundary phase transitions can be “transplanted” to d dimensions and realized in lattice models as a function of a tuning parameter. The price one pays is for the critical value of the tuning parameter there is an extra non-local (duality-like) symmetry. In the case where the phase transition is continuous, our theory predicts the presence of unusual (sometimes fractionalized) excitations corresponding to delocalized boundary excitations of the non-trivial SPT on one side of the transition. This theory also predicts other phase transition scenarios including first order transition and transition via an intermediate symmetry breaking phase.
Phase transitions in nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
1997-08-01
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.
Phase transitions in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
1997-08-01
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented
Li, Yuan; Zhou, Yusheng; Wang, Yong; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Bing; Dou, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Weiqing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Junxiang
2018-03-01
We theoretically study the squeezed probe light passing through a double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) system, in which a microwave field and two coupling lights drive a loop transition. It is shown that the output squeezing can be maintained in both two transparency windows of DEIT, and it can also be manipulated by the relative phase of the three driving fields. The influence of the intensity of applied fields and the optical depth of atoms on the squeezing is also investigated. This study offers possibilities to manipulate the squeezing propagation in atomic media by the phase of electromagnetic fields.
Pressure induced phase transitions in transition metal nitrides: Ab initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srivastava, Anurag; Chauhan, Mamta [Advanced Material Research Lab, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474010 (India); Singh, R.K. [Department of Physics, ITM University, Gurgaon 122017 (India)
2011-12-15
We have analyzed the stability of transition metal nitrides (TMNs) XN (X = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) in their original rocksalt (B1) and hypothetical CsCl (B2) type phases under high compression. The ground state total energy calculation approach of the system has been used through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) type parameterization as exchange correlation functional. In the whole series of nitrides taken into consideration, tantalum nitride is found to be the most stable. We have observed that under compression the original B1-type phase of these nitrides transforms to a B2-type phase. We have also discussed the computation of ground state properties, like the lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) and first order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (B'{sub 0}) of the TMNs and their host elements. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities
Pinsker, Florian
2014-05-08
We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.
Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities
Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natalia G.
2014-01-01
We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.
Thermodynamics of phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cofta, H.
1972-01-01
The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)
Fermion condensation quantum phase transition versus conventional quantum phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, V.R.; Han, J.G.; Lee, J.
2004-01-01
The main features of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), which are distinctive in several aspects from that of conventional quantum phase transition (CQPT), are considered. We show that in contrast to CQPT, whose physics in quantum critical region is dominated by thermal and quantum fluctuations and characterized by the absence of quasiparticles, the physics of a Fermi system near FCQPT or undergone FCQPT is controlled by the system of quasiparticles resembling the Landau quasiparticles. Contrary to the Landau quasiparticles, the effective mass of these quasiparticles strongly depends on the temperature, magnetic fields, density, etc. This system of quasiparticles having general properties determines the universal behavior of the Fermi system in question. As a result, the universal behavior persists up to relatively high temperatures comparatively to the case when such a behavior is determined by CQPT. We analyze striking recent measurements of specific heat, charge and heat transport used to study the nature of magnetic field-induced QCP in heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn 5 and show that the observed facts are in good agreement with our scenario based on FCQPT and certainly seem to rule out the critical fluctuations related with CQPT. Our general consideration suggests that FCQPT and the emergence of novel quasiparticles near and behind FCQPT and resembling the Landau quasiparticles are distinctive features intrinsic to strongly correlated substances
Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong
2016-01-01
The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3–B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa. - Highlights: • The phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS is studied using first-principle method. • The predicted transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 to 19.04 GPa. • The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion. • Physical driving force of the transition is a coupling effect between the mechanical instability and softening phonon. • For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Minju; Cho, Min Sang; Cho, Byoung Ick, E-mail: bicho@gist.ac.kr
2017-04-15
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been tested to diagnose impurity elements on a Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) divertor tile. Spectral lines of various impurity elements such as iron, chromium, and nickel were detected from the divertor surface. The variation of spectra with consecutive laser pulses demonstrates the potential for depth profiling analysis for the deposited impurity layer. The LIBS plasma parameters have been qualitatively determined from analysis of the relative line intensities and linewidths for each element. The validity of this analysis has been checked with atomic spectral simulations.
Control of edge localized modes by pedestal deposited impurity in the HL-2A tokamak
Zhang, Y. P.; Mazon, D.; Zou, X. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Gao, J. M.; Zhang, K.; Sun, P.; Dong, C. F.; Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Yi; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.; Cheng, J.; Jiang, M.; Xu, J. Q.; Isobe, M.; Xiao, G. L.; Chen, W.; Song, S. D.; Bai, X. Y.; Zhang, P. F.; Yuan, G. L.; Ji, X. Q.; Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Giruzzi, G.; Hoang, T.; Peysson, Y.; Song, X. M.; Song, X. Y.; Li, X.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y.; the HL-2A Team
2018-04-01
Effect of the pedestal deposited impurity on the edge-localized mode (ELM) behaviour has been observed and intensively investigated in the HL-2A tokamak. Impurities have been externally seeded by a newly developed laser blow-off (LBO) system. Both mitigation and suppression of ELMs have been realized by LBO-seeded impurity. Measurements have shown that the LBO-seeded impurity particles are mainly deposited in the pedestal region. During the ELM mitigation phase, the pedestal density fluctuation is significantly increased, indicating that the ELM mitigation may be achieved by the enhancement of the pedestal transport. The transition from ELM mitigation to ELM suppression was triggered when the number of the LBO-seeded impurity exceeds a threshold value. During the ELM suppression phase, a harmonic coherent mode (HCM) is excited by the LBO-seeded impurity, and the pedestal density fluctuation is significantly decreased, the electron density is continuously increased, implying that HCM may reduce the pedestal turbulence, suppress ELMs, increase the pedestal pressure, thus extending the Peeling-Ballooning instability limit. It has been found that the occurance of the ELM mitigation and ELM suppression closely depends on the LBO laser spot diameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakhlevnykh, A. N., E-mail: anz@psu.ru; Petrov, D. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
We study the orientational response of a ferromagnetic liquid crystal that is induced by magnetic and electric fields. A modified form of the energy of the orientational interaction between magnetic impurity particles and the liquid crystal matrix that leads to bistable coupling is considered. It is shown that apart from magnetic impurity segregation, first-order orientational transitions can be due to the bistability of the potential of the orientational coupling between the director and the magnetization. The ranges of material parameters that lead to optical bistability are determined. The possibility of first-order orientational transitions is analyzed for the optical phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary light rays transmitted through a ferronematic cell. It is shown that an electric field applied in the given geometry considerably enhances the magneto-orientational response of the ferronematic.
Volkova, E. F.
2017-07-01
Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.
Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Method for the Determination of Impurities in Etoricoxib
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Venugopal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of reverse phase HPLC method for etoricoxib in the presence of impurities and degradation products generated from the forced degradation studies. The drug substance was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The degradation of etoricoxib was observed under base and oxidation environment. The drug was found stable in other stress conditions studied. Successful separation of the drug from the process related impurities and degradation products were achieved on zorbax SB CN (250 x 4.6 mm 5 μm particle size column using reverse phase HPLC method. The isocratic method employed with a mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in a ratio of 60:40 respectively. Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (0.02 M is used as buffer and pH adjusted to 7.20 with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution. The HPLC method was developed and validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and ruggedness.
Surface charge sensing by altering the phase transition in VO2
Kumar, S.; Esfandyarpour, R.; Davis, R.; Nishi, Y.
2014-08-01
Detection of surface charges has various applications in medicine, electronics, biotechnology, etc. The source of surface charge induction may range from simple charge-polarized molecules like water to complicated proteins. It was recently discovered that surface charge accumulation can alter the temperature at which VO2 undergoes a Mott transition. Here, we deposited polar molecules onto the surface of two-terminal thin-film VO2 lateral devices and monitored the joule-heating-driven Mott transition, or conductance switching. We observed that the power required to induce the conductance switching reduced upon treatment with polar molecules and, using in-situ blackbody-emission direct measurement of local temperature, we show that this reduction in power was accompanied by reduction in the Mott transition temperature. Further evidence suggested that this effect has specificity to the nature of the species used to induce surface charges. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we also show that there is no detectable change in oxidation state of vanadium or structural phase in the bulk of the 40 nm VO2 thin-film even as the phase transition temperature is reduced by up to 20 K by the polar molecules. The ability to alter the phase transition parameters by depositing polar molecules suggests a potential application in sensing surface charges of different origins and this set of results also highlights interesting aspects of the phase transition in VO2.
The model of metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikhnin, V.S.; Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.; Fernandez, F.; Liu, H.
2005-01-01
Thermally induced metal-insulator phase transitions (PT) in VO 2 thin films are studied theoretically and experimentally. The hysteresis phenomena in the region of the transition for different type thin films were investigated. The phenomenological model of the PT is suggested. The charge transfer-lattice instability in VO 2 metallic phase is considered as basis of the first order metal-insulator PT in VO 2 . The charge transfer is treated as an order parameter
Phase transitions modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, E.M.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.
2001-01-01
The temperature (from 5 to 300 K) and DC magnetic field (from 0 to 90 kOe) dependencies of the DC magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, and the temperature (from 5 to 350 K) dependency of the AC magnetic susceptibility of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) have been studied. The temperature and/or magnetic field induced magnetic phase transition in Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is a first order ferromagnet-paramagnet transition. The temperature of the magnetic transition in low AC magnetic field is 206 and 217 K for cooling and heating, respectively. The DC magnetic field increases the transition temperature by ∼0.36 K/kOe indicating that the paramagnetic phase can be reversibly transformed into the ferromagnetic phase. When the magnetic field is removed, the ferromagnetic phase transforms into the paramagnetic phase showing a large remanence-free hysteresis. The magnetic phase diagram based on the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the DC magnetization at various temperatures for Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetization in the vicinity of the first order phase transition shows evidence for the formation of a magnetically heterogeneous system in the volume of Gd 5 (Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 ) specimen where the magnetically ordered (ferromagnetic) and disordered (paramagnetic) phases co-exist
Anelasticity maps for acoustic dissipation associated with phase transitions in minerals
Carpenter, Michael A.; Zhang, Zhiying
2011-07-01
Acoustic dissipation due to structural phase transitions in minerals could give rise to large seismic attenuation effects superimposed on the high temperature background contribution from dislocations and grain boundaries in the Earth. In addition to the possibility of a sharp peak actually at a transition point for both compressional and shear waves, significant attenuation might arise over wider temperature intervals due to the mobility of transformation twins or other defects associated with the transition. Attenuation due to structural phase transitions in quartz, pyroxenes, perovskites, stishovite and hollandite, or to spin state transitions of Fe2+ in magnesiowüstite and perovskite and the hcp/bcc transition in iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy, are reviewed from this perspective. To these can be added possible loss behaviour associated with reconstructive transitions which might occur by a ledge mechanism on topotactic interfaces (orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene, olivine/spinel and perovskite/postperovskite), with impurities (Snoek effect) or with mobility of protons. There are experimental difficulties associated with measuring dissipation effects in situ at simultaneous high pressures and temperatures, so reliance is currently placed on investigation of analogue phases such as LaCoO3 for spin-state behaviour and LaAlO3 for the dynamics of ferroelastic twin walls. Similarly, it is not possible to measure loss dynamics simultaneously at the low stresses and low frequencies that pertain in seismic waves, so reliance must be placed on combining different techniques, such as dynamic mechanical analysis (low frequency, relatively high stress) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (high frequency, low stress), to extrapolate acoustic loss behaviour over wide frequency, temperature and stress intervals. In this context 'anelasticity maps' provide a convenient means of representing different loss mechanisms. Contouring of the inverse mechanical quality factor, Q-1, can be
Lv, Xiang
2017-08-07
The mechanisms behind the high piezoelectricity of (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics were investigated, including electric field-induced phase transitions and composition-driven nanodomains. The construction of a rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary, confirmed using several advanced techniques, allowed a large piezoelectric constant (d33) of 450 ± 5 pC/N to be obtained in (1-x)K0.4Na0.6Nb0.945Sb0.055O3-xBi0.5Na0.5(Hf1-ySny)O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5) ceramics possessing an ultralow ΔUT-R of 7.4 meV. More importantly, the existence of an intermediate phase, i.e., the electric-induced phase (EIP), bridging the rhombohedral R [Ps//(111)] and tetragonal T [Ps//(001)] phases during the polarization rotation was demonstrated. Striped nanodomains (∼40 nm) that easily responded to external stimulation were also observed in the ceramics with an R-T phase. Thus, the enhanced piezoelectric properties originated from EIP and the striped nanodomains.
Kahsay, Getu; Shraim, Fairouz; Villatte, Philippe; Rotger, Jacques; Cassus-Coussère, Céline; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin
2013-03-05
A simple, robust and fast high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of oxytetracycline and its related impurities. The principal peak and impurities are all baseline separated in 20 min using an Inertsil C₈ (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column kept at 50 °C. The mobile phase consists of a gradient mixture of mobile phases A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile-methanol-tetrahydrofuran, 80:15:5, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The developed method was validated for its robustness, sensitivity, precision and linearity in the range from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 120%. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were found to be 0.08 μg/ml and 0.32 μg/ml, respectively. This method allows the separation of oxytetracycline from all known and 5 unknown impurities, which is better than previously reported in the literature. Moreover, the simple mobile phase composition devoid of non-volatile buffers made the method suitable to interface with mass spectrometry for further characterization of unknown impurities. The developed method has been applied for determination of related substances in oxytetracycline bulk samples available from four manufacturers. The validation results demonstrate that the method is reliable for quantification of oxytetracycline and its impurities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Theoretical study of impurity effects in iron-based superconductors
Navarro Gastiasoro, Maria; Hirschfeld, Peter; Andersen, Brian
2013-03-01
Several open questions remain unanswered for the iron-based superconductors (FeSC), including the importance of electronic correlations and the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Motivated by recent STM experiments which show a fascinating variety of resonant defect states in FeSC, we adopt a realistic five-band model including electronic Coulomb correlations to study local effects of disorder in the FeSC. In order to minimize the number of free parameters, we use the pairing interactions obtained from spin-fluctuation exchange to determine the homogeneous superconducting state. The ability of local impurity potentials to induce resonant states depends on their scattering strength Vimp; in addition, for appropriate Vimp, such states are associated with local orbital- and magnetic order. We investigate the density of states near such impurities and show how tunneling experiments may be used to probe local induced order. In the SDW phase, we show how C2 symmetry-breaking dimers are naturally formed around impurities which also form cigar-like (pi,pi) structures embedded in the (pi,0) magnetic bulk phase. Such electronic dimers have been shown to be candidates for explaining the so-called nematogens observed previously by QPI in Co-doped CaFe2As2.
Oka, Toshihiko; Hasan, Moynul; Islam, Md Zahidul; Moniruzzaman, Md; Yamazaki, Masahito
2017-10-31
Electrostatic interactions (EIs) play important roles in the structure and stability of inverse bicontinuous cubic (Q II ) phases of lipid membranes. We examined the effect of pH on the phase of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS)/monoolein (MO) membranes at low ionic strengths using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We found that the phase transitions from lamellar liquid-crystalline (L α ) to primitive cubic (Q II P ) phases in DOPS/MO (2/8 molar ratio) membranes occurred in buffers containing 50 mM NaCl at and below the final pH of 2.75 as the pH of the membrane suspension was decreased from a neutral value. The kinetic pathway of this transition was revealed using time-resolved SAXS with a stopped-flow apparatus. The first step is a rapid transition from the L α phase to the hexagonal II (H II ) phase, and the second step is a slow transition from the H II phase to the Q II P phase. We determined the rate constants of the first step, k 1 , and of the second step, k 2 , by analyzing the time course of SAXS intensities quantitatively. The k 1 value increased with temperature. The analysis of this result provided the values of its apparent activation energy, which were constant over temperature but increased with pH. This can be explained by an EI effect on the free energy of the transition state. In contrast, the k 2 value decreased with temperature, indicating that the true activation energy increased with temperature. These experimental results were analyzed using the theory of the activation energy of phase transitions of lipid membranes when the free energy of the transition state depends on temperature. On the basis of these results, we discussed the mechanism of this phase transition.
Impurities in Antiferromagnetic Transition-Metal Oxides - Symmetry and Optical Transitions
Petersen, John Emil, III
considered. For example, simple rock-salt transition-metal oxides are quite different from the high temperature superconducting cuprates. A range of materials is studied here, in order to gain a greater understanding of optical transitions in highly-correlated systems. In this work, O vacancies are introduced in NiO, along with Fe impurities, to understand better the band filling in the insulating behavior observed experimentally. These results are compared with those of La2NiO4, La2CuO4, La2-xSr xNiO4, and La2-xSrxCuO4. to elucidate the mechanisms behind the symmetry breaking phenomena in the Sr doped systems. As it turns out, indeed, the x2 - y2 orbital in these materials plays a critical role in spatial charge distribution, magnetic, and spin densities which are coupled to the dopant position in the lattice. The in-depth study of electronic and optical properties of transition-metal oxides presented here provides theoretical characterization of the infamous pseudogap in the cuprates - one of the greatest mysteries of modern solid state physics. In addition, via Density Functional Perturbation Theory, the phonon coupling with charge-density wave is explored in La2-xSr xNiO4 and found to be the dominant contributing factor to the colossal dielectric constant.
Strain field due to transition metal impurities in Ni and Pd
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1 2. 28 1 π. ¯h2r3 2. dH mr5. (44). In eqs (41) to (44), ∆φFE(r), ∆φc(r) and ∆φb(r) are impurity induced changes in the po- tential due to free electron, s–d hybridization and d-bandwidth contributions respectively. 3. Calculations and results. The above formalism is used to calculate the atomic displacements in Ni and Pd dilute.
Electronic properties and phase transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panich, A M
2008-01-01
We present the first review of the current state of the literature on electronic properties and phase transitions in TlX and TlMX 2 (M = Ga, In; X = Se, S, Te) compounds. These chalcogenides belong to a family of the low-dimensional semiconductors possessing chain or layered structure. They are of significant interest because of their highly anisotropic properties, semi- and photoconductivity, nonlinear effects in their I-V characteristics (including a region of negative differential resistance), switching and memory effects, second harmonic optical generation, relaxor behavior and potential applications for optoelectronic devices. We review the crystal structure of TlX and TlMX 2 compounds, their transport properties under ambient conditions, experimental and theoretical studies of the electronic structure, transport properties and semiconductor-metal phase transitions under high pressure, and sequences of temperature-induced structural phase transitions with intermediate incommensurate states. The electronic nature of the ferroelectric phase transitions in the above-mentioned compounds, as well as relaxor behavior, nanodomains and possible occurrence of quantum dots in doped and irradiated crystals is discussed. (topical review)
Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casson, B.D.
1998-01-01
Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects
Phase transition of the FCC Ising ferromagnet with competing interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, J.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, D.C.
1984-01-01
A molecular field theory with correlation and Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to determine the zero field phase diagram of a fcc Ising model with ferromagnetic nearest neighbor(-J) and antiferromagnetic next neighbor (*aJ) interactions. The correlated molecular field theory predicts a fluctuation induced first order phase transition for 0.87<*a<1.31. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that the first order transition occurs for a somewhat wider range of *a. The transition temperatures obtained by the two methods are in good agreement especially near *a=1 where the fluctuation effect is expected to be large. (Author)
Li-ion batteries: Phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian
2016-01-01
Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)
Theoretical study of hyperfine fields due to S-P and transition impurities in gadolinium matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Leal, C.E. dos.
1985-01-01
This work presents a systematic theoretical study for the hyperfine field due to diluted s-p-and transition impurities in metallic gadolinium matrices. The peculiarities de a gadolinium matrix are shown, they are characterized by a semi-completed 4f-shell, which is far from (below) the energetic levels such as the type s-p and d-conduction bands. (author)
Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.
2009-01-01
Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)
Masum, Shah Md.; Li, Shu Jie; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Yuko; Yamazaki, Masahito
2004-04-01
Elucidation of the mechanisms of transitions between cubic phase and liquid-crystalline (Lα) phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases, are essential for understanding of dynamics of biomembranes and topological transformation of lipid membranes. Recently, we found that electrostatic interactions due to surface charges of lipid membranes induce transition between cubic phase and Lα phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases. As electrostatic interactions increase, the most stable phase of a monoolein (MO) membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒ Lα. We also found that a de novo designed peptide partitioning into electrically neutral lipid membrane changed the phase stability of the MO membranes. As peptide-1 concentration increased, the most stable phase of a MO membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒Lα. In both cases, the increase in the electrostatic repulsive interaction greatly reduced the absolute value of spontaneous curvature of the MO monolayer membrane. We also investigated factors such as poly (L-lysine) and osmotic stress to control structure and phase stability of DOPA/MO membranes. Based on these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effect of electrostatic interactions on the stability of cubic phase.
Composition-induced structural phase transitions in the (Ba1-xLax)2In2O5+x (0=
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenailleau, C.; Pring, A.; Moussa, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Withers, R.L.; Tarantino, S.; Zhang, M.; Carpenter, M.A.
2005-01-01
Composition-induced structural phase changes across the high temperature, fast oxide ion conducting (Ba 1-x La x ) 2 In 2 O 5+x , 0= orthorhombic transition, while the cubic->tetragonal transition could be continuous. Differences between the variation with composition of spectral parameters and of macroscopic strain parameters are consistent with a substantial order/disorder component for the transitions. There is also evidence for precursor effects within the cubic structure before symmetry is broken
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Structural phase transitions in BaMo6S8: Evidence for an incommensurate phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jorgensen, J.D.; Hinks, D.G.; Hatch, D.M.; Putnam, R.M.
1986-01-01
The structure of BaMo 6 S 8 has been studied over the temperature range 19 K to 573 K by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. Below 175 K the data can be suitably refined in a triclinic, P1, cell with volume equal to the rhombohedral, R3, cell common to most Chevrel-phase structures. At temperatures immediately above 175 K, the rhombohedral, R3, Bragg peaks are broadened by satellite reflections which appear to be identical to those recently observed at low temperature in PbMo 6 S 8 and SnMo 6 S 8 . An abrupt change in the sign of the temperature dependence of the hexagonal c axis (∂c/∂T) signals the transition to an undistorted rhombohedral, R3, structure at temperatures above about 350 K. An extended Landau theory determines both continuous and discontinuous transitions from R3 induced by a single order parameter. Analysis of the order parameters inducing commensurate transitions imposes symmetry restrictions on the atomic displacements in the lower symmetry phases. The assumption of an R3 commensurate phase is not consistent with the bond lengths obtained for the distortions to the P1 (or P1) phase for any of the possible cells preserving order parameters. Thus the phase immediately above 175 K cannot be a commensurate R3 structure. This is consistent with experimental evidence. 25 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs
Windows open for highly tunable magnetostructural phase transitions
Li, Y.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, H. G.; Liu, E. K.; Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D.; Xi, X. K.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W. H.; Yue, M.; Wu, G. H.; Zhang, Xixiang
2016-01-01
established in the Mn1− yCoyNiGe1− xSix system. Throughout the CTWs, the magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic behavior and giant magnetocaloric effects are obtained. The (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) system shows great potential as multifunctional phase-transition materials
Doping Induced Transition from an Antiferro-Type Order to Phase Separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemanski, R.; Gajek, Z.
2003-01-01
A sequence of transitions from an antiferro-type order to a phase separate state under doping away from half filling is studied within the 1D Falicov-Kimball model. Using the method of restricted phase diagrams the system is analyzed exactly in the thermodynamic limit. Various kinds of ordering, including periodic n-molecular phases and their mixtures are found for a set of values of the interaction constant U. (author)
Phase transition in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)
Role of Sn impurity on electronic topological transitions in 122 Fe-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Haranath, E-mail: hng@rrcat.gov.in [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Sen, Smritijit [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)
2016-08-25
We show that only a few percentage of Sn doping at the Ba site on BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, can cause electronic topological transition, namely, the Lifshitz transition. A hole like d{sub xy} band of Fe undergoes electron like transition due to 4% Sn doping. Lifshitz transition is found in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} system around all the high symmetry points. Our detailed first principles simulation predicts absence of any Lifshitz transition in other 122 family compounds like SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} in agreement with experimental observations. This work bears practical significance due to the facts that a few percentage of Sn impurity is in-built in tin-flux grown single crystals method of synthesizing 122 materials and inter-relationship among the Lifshitz transition, magnetism and superconductivity. - Highlights: • Electronic topological transition due to Sn contamination in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • Hole like Fe-d{sub xy} band converts into electron like in 3% Sn contaminated BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • Electron like Fe-d{sub xz}, d{sub yz} bands moves above Fermi Level at X,Y points. • No Lifshitz transition found in Sn-contaminated Sr-122, Ca-122 systems.
Characterisation of phase transition in adsorbed monolayers at the air/water interface.
Vollhardt, D; Fainerman, V B
2010-02-26
Recent work has provided experimental and theoretical evidence that a first order fluid/condensed (LE/LC) phase transition can occur in adsorbed monolayers of amphiphiles and surfactants which are dissolved in aqueous solution. Similar to Langmuir monolayers, also in the case of adsorbed monolayers, the existence of a G/LE phase transition, as assumed by several authors, is a matter of question. Representative studies, at first performed with a tailored amphiphile and later with numerous other amphiphiles, also with n-dodecanol, provide insight into the main characteristics of the adsorbed monolayer during the adsorption kinetics. The general conditions necessary for the formation of a two-phase coexistence in adsorbed monolayers can be optimally studied using dynamic surface pressure measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence (GIXD). A characteristic break point in the time dependence of the adsorption kinetics curves indicates the phase transition which is largely affected by the concentration of the amphiphile in the aqueous solution and on the temperature. Formation and growth of condensed phase domains after the phase transition point are visualised by BAM. As demonstrated by a tailored amphiphile, various types of morphological textures of the condensed phase can occur in different temperature regions. Lattice structure and tilt angle of the alkyl chains in the condensed phase of the adsorbed monolayer are determined using GIXD. The main growth directions of the condensed phase textures are correlated with the two-dimensional lattice structure. The results, obtained for the characteristics of the condensed phase after a first order main transition, are supported by experimental bridging to the Langmuir monolayers. Phase transition of adsorbing trace impurities in model surfactants can strongly affect the characteristics of the main component. Dodecanol present as minor component in aqueous sodium
Constitutive model for a stress- and thermal-induced phase transition in a shape memory polymer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Xiaogang; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Zhou, Bo; Leng, Jinsong
2014-01-01
Recently, increasing applications of shape memory polymers have pushed forward the development of appropriate constitutive models for smart materials such as the shape memory polymer. During the heating process, the phase transition, which is a continuous time-dependent process, happens in the shape memory polymer, and various individual phases will form at different configuration temperatures. In addition, these phases can generally be divided into two parts: the frozen and active phase (Liu Y et al 2006 Int. J. Plast. 22 279–313). During the heating or cooling process, the strain will be stored or released with the occurring phase transition between these two parts. Therefore, a shape memory effect emerges. In this paper, a new type of model was developed to characterize the variation of the volume fraction in a shape memory polymer during the phase transition. In addition to the temperature variation, the applied stress was also taken as a significant influence factor on the phase transition. Based on the experimental results, an exponential equation was proposed to describe the relationship between the stress and phase transition temperature. For the sake of describing the mechanical behaviors of the shape memory polymer, a three-dimensional constitutive model was established. Also, the storage strain, which was the key factor of the shape memory effect, was also discussed in detail. Similar to previous works, we first explored the effect of applied stress on storage strain. Through comparisons with the DMA and the creep experimental results, the rationality and accuracy of the new phase transition and constitutive model were finally verified. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Huilong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhou, Chengbo
2015-01-01
Deformation and yield induced structure transitions of polyamide 6 (PA6) were detected with the combination of the wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) at 30 degrees C below glass transition temperature (T-g) of PA6. During deformation, gamma-alpha phase transition was found...... at elastic stage. The concentrated stress in crystals at elastic stage provided adequate energy for the direct gamma-alpha phase transition under T-g. The force to promote the gamma-phase into a phase directly is insufficient at the yield stage and a transient phase as a compromise was formed. The transient...... phase was confirmed by DSC measurements and assisted the gamma-alpha phase transition indirectly. The gamma-phase slips into incomplete fragments at yield point, and the parts along tensile direction are responsible for the formation of transient phase. The gamma-fragments after yield is oriented...
Magnetic phase transitions in Er7Rh3 studied on single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsutaoka, Takanori; Obata, Keisuke; Cheyvuth, Seng; Koyama, Keiichi
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Magnetic and electrical properties of Er 7 Rh 3 were studied on single crystals. • The magnetic phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. • The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors. • The anomalies of electrical resistivity can also be described by the magnetic structure in Er 7 Rh 3 . - Abstract: Magnetic phase transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 with the Th 7 Fe 3 type hexagonal structure have been studied on single crystals by measuring magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Er 7 Rh 3 possesses antiferromagnetic state below T N = 13 K. In the ordered state, the two successive magnetic transitions at T t1 = 6.2 K and T t2 = 4.5 K were observed. Several field-induced magnetic transitions were also observed along the a- and c-axes below T N ; magnetic field H – temperature T phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors which were derived by the previous neutron diffraction studies. Electrical resistivity shows humps just below the magnetic transition temperatures, T N and T t1 due to the super-zone gap formation at the Fermi level; these anomalies can also be described by the magnetic structure changes in Er 7 Rh 3
Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition.
Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei
2012-07-14
The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.
Impurity effects on the magnetic ordering in chromium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishman, R.S.
1992-05-01
It is well-known that impurities profoundly alter the magnetic properties of chromium. While vanadium impurities suppress the Neel temperature T N , manganese impurities enhanced T N substantially. As evidenced by neutron scattering experiments, doping with as little as 0.2% vanadium changes the transition from weakly first order to second order. Young and Sokoloff explained that the first-order transition in pure chromium is caused by a charge-density wave which is the second harmonic of the spin-density wave. By examining the subtle balance between the spin-density and charge- density wave terms in the mean-field free energy, we find that the first-order transition is destroyed when the vanadium concentration exceeds about 0.15%, in agreement with experiments
Pressure-driven phase transitions in TiOCl and the family (Ca, Sr, Ba)Fe2As2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang YuZhong; Opahle, Ingo; Jeschke, Harald O; ValentI, Roser
2010-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental measurements on pressure-driven phase transitions in Mott insulators as well as the new iron pnictide superconductors, we show that first principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations are a powerful method to describe the microscopic origin of such transitions. We present results for (i) the pressure-induced insulator to metal phase transition in the prototypical Mott insulator TiOCl as well as (ii) the pressure-induced structural and magnetic phase transitions in the family of correlated metals AFe 2 As 2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba). Comparison of our predictions with existing experimental results yields very good agreement.
Wang, Shenghao; Nazuka, Takehiro; Hagiya, Hideki; Takabayashi, Yutaro; Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru; Islam, Muhammad M.; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Sakurai, Takeaki
2018-02-01
For copper indium gallium selenide [Cu(In1-x ,Ga x )Se2, CIGS]-based solar cells, defect states or impurity phase always form due to both the multinary compositions of CIGS film and the difficulty of controlling the growth process, especially for high Ga concentration. To further improve device performance, it is important to understand such formation of impurity phase or defect states during fabrication. In the work presented herein, the formation mechanism of impurity phase Cu2-δ Se and its depth profile in CIGS film with high Ga content, in particular CuGaSe2 (i.e., CGS), were investigated by applying different growth conditions (i.e., normal three-stage process and two-cycle three-stage process). The results suggest that impurity phase Cu2-δ Se is distributed nonuniformly in the film because of lack of Ga diffusion. The formed Cu2-δ Se can be removed by etching the as-deposited CGS film with bromine-methanol solution, resulting in improved device performance.
Impurity effects in superconducting UPt3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aronson, M.C.; Vorenkamp, T.; Koziol, Z.; de Visser, A.; Bakker, K.; Franse, J.J.M.; Smith, J.L.
1991-01-01
Superconducting UPt 3 is characterized by a novel and complex magnetic field-temperature phase diagram, with two superconducting transitions at T c1 and T c2 in zero field. We have studied the effects of Pd and Y impurities on the zero field superconducting properties of UPt 3 . Resistance measurements show that both dopants increase the residual resistivity and decrease the spin fluctuation temperature in the normal state. T c1 is depressed by both dopants, but more effectively by Pd. |T c1 - T c2 | is essentially unaffected by Y doping, but increases dramatically with Pd doping
Laser-induced fluorescence of metal-atom impurities in a neutral beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrell, C.F.; Pyle, R.V.; Sabetimani, Z.; Schlachter, A.S.
1984-10-01
The need to limit impurities in fusion devices to low levels is well known. We have investigated, by the technique of laser-induced fluorescence, the concentration of heavy-metal atoms in a neutral beam caused by their evaporation from the hot filaments in a conventional high-current multifilament hydrogen-ion source
Theory of structural phase transition in MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talanov, V. M., E-mail: valtalanov@mail.ru [South Russian State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Shirokov, V. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, South Science Centre (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V. V. [South Russian State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Talanov, M. V. [South Federal University (Russian Federation)
2015-01-15
A theory of phase transition in MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} is proposed based on a study of the order-parameter symmetry, thermodynamics, and mechanisms of formation of the atomic and orbital structure of the low-symmetry MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase. The critical order parameter (which induces a phase transition) is determined. It is shown that the calculated MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} tetragonal structure is a result of displacements of magnesium, titanium, and oxygen atoms; ordering of oxygen atoms; and the participation of d{sub xy}, d{sub xz}, and d{sub yz} orbitals. The contribution of noncritical representations to ion displacements is proven to be insignificant. The existence of various metal clusters in the tetragonal phase has been established by calculation in correspondence with experimental data. It is shown (within the Landau theory of phase transitions) that phase states can be changed as a result of both first- and second-order phase transitions: the high-symmetry phase borders two low-symmetry phases by second-order transition lines, while the border between low-symmetry phases is a first-order transition line.
The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.
2001-01-01
In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)
The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph
2001-07-01
In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)
Identification and characterization of potential impurities of donepezil.
Krishna Reddy, K V S R; Moses Babu, J; Kumar, P Anil; Chandrashekar, E R R; Mathad, Vijayavitthal T; Eswaraiah, S; Reddy, M Satyanarayana; Vyas, K
2004-09-03
Five unknown impurities ranging from 0.05 to 0.2% in donepezil were detected by a simple isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated from crude sample of donepezil using isocratic reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the spectral data (IR, NMR and MS), the structures of these impurities were characterised as 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(4-pyridylmethyl)-1-indanone (impurity I), 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity II), 2-(1-benzyl-4-piperdylmethyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanol (impurity III) 1-benzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity IV) and 1,1-dibenzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-2H-2-indenylmethyl)hexahydropyridinium bromide (impurity V). The synthesis of these impurities and their formation was discussed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Spěváček, Jiří
2012-01-01
Roč. 290, č. 17 (2012), s. 1811-1817 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : temperature induced phase transition * thermosensitive copolymer * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2012
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang
2014-01-01
Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Formation of the gaseous phase of impurity elements from coal combustion at a thermal power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kizil'shtein, L.Ya.; Levchenko, S.V.; Peretyakt'ko, A.G.
1991-01-01
Data are reported on the distribution of impurity elements in their principal carriers: organic matter, iron sulfides, and clays. Tests with high-temperature combustion of coals and argillites indicate that elements associated with clay minerals largely remain in ash and slag. They do not pass to the gas phase - a factor to be considered in assessment of environmental impact from thermal power plants and specification of toxic concentration levels of impurity elements in coal
Condensate-induced transitions and critical spin chains
Månsson, T.; Lahtinen, V.; Suorsa, J.; Ardonne, E.
2013-01-01
We show that condensate-induced transitions between two-dimensional topological phases provide a general framework to relate one-dimensional spin models at their critical points. We demonstrate this using two examples. First, we show that two well-known spin chains, namely, the XY chain and the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douniazed Lamrous
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The microstructure of two Al-Zn alloys (with 10 and 30 wt.%Zn content produced by melting in the high frequency induction furnace were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and the microhardness tests. The results indicate that the presence of iron impurity causes the formation of eutectic (Al,Zn3Fe in both alloys. The presence of the silicon impurity results in the formation of the phase separation in the Al-10%Zn as-cast alloy. The columnar to equiaxed transition was produced only in the Al-30%Zn as-cast alloy. The Vickers microhardness is higher in the equiaxed zone than in the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET zone. The presence of iron causes intermetallic phase formation (Al, Fe, Si3,6Zn in the Al-30%Zn as-cast alloy enabling an increase in the lattice parameter. After a homogenization treatment, the microstructure of Al-Zn treated alloys consists only of α dendrites and stable eutectic phase.
Magnetic resonance of phase transitions
Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A
1979-01-01
Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also
Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements
Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun
2016-11-01
It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.
Orbital-selective Mott phase of Cu-substituted iron-based superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Song, Yun
2016-01-01
We study the phase transition in Cu-substituted iron-based superconductors with a new developed real-space Green’s function method. We find that Cu substitution has strong effect on the orbital-selective Mott transition introduced by the Hund’s rule coupling. The redistribution of the orbital occupancy which is caused by the increase of the Hund’s rule coupling, gives rise to the Mott–Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the half-filled d xy orbital. We also find that more and more electronic states appear inside that Mott gap of the d xy orbital with the increase of Cu substitution, and the in-gap states around the Fermi level are strongly localized at some specific lattice sites. Further, a distinctive phase diagram, obtained for the Cu-substituted Fe-based superconductors, displays an orbital-selective insulating phase, as a result of the cooperative effect of the Hund’s rule coupling and the impurity-induced disorder. (paper)
Zhang, Tao; Gu, Yuanxin; Fan, Haifu
2016-06-01
In serial crystallography (SX) with either an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) or synchrotron radiation as the light source, huge numbers of micrometre-sized crystals are used in diffraction data collection. For a SAD experiment using a derivative with introduced heavy atoms, it is difficult to completely exclude crystals of the native protein from the sample. In this paper, simulations were performed to study how the inclusion of native crystals in the derivative sample could affect the result of SAD phasing and how the post-experimental purification proposed by Zhang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 2513-2518] could be used to remove the impurities. A gadolinium derivative of lysozyme and the corresponding native protein were used in the test. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) diffraction snapshots were generated by CrystFEL. SHELXC/D, Phaser, DM, ARP/wARP and REFMAC were used for automatic structure solution. It is shown that a small amount of impurities (snapshots from native crystals) in the set of derivative snapshots can strongly affect the SAD phasing results. On the other hand, post-experimental purification can efficiently remove the impurities, leading to results similar to those from a pure sample.
Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in InN x Bi y Sb1-x-y /InSb quantum wells
Song, Zhigang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yan Yang; Shen Li, Shu
2017-07-01
Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter and topological phase transitions are characteristics of a kind of electronic material, popularly referred to as topological insulators (TIs). TIs are similar to ordinary insulator in terms of their bulk bandgap, but have gapless conducting edge-states that are topologically protected. These edge-states are facilitated by the time-reversal symmetry and they are robust against nonmagnetic impurity scattering. Recently, the quest for new materials exhibiting non-trivial topological state of matter has been of great research interest, as TIs find applications in new electronics and spintronics and quantum-computing devices. Here, we propose and demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that QSH effect and topological phase transitions can be realized in {{InN}}x{{Bi}}y{{Sb}}1-x-y/InSb semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). The simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and bismuth in InSb is instrumental in lowering the bandgap, while inducing opposite kinds of strain to attain a near-lattice-matching conducive for lattice growth. Phase diagram for bandgap shows that as we increase the QW thickness, at a critical thickness, the electronic bandstructure switches from a normal to an inverted type. We confirm that such transition are topological phase transitions between a traditional insulator and a TI exhibiting QSH effect—by demonstrating the topologically protected edge-states using the bandstructure, edge-localized distribution of the wavefunctions and edge-state spin-momentum locking phenomenon, presence of non-zero conductance in spite of the Fermi energy lying in the bandgap window, crossover points of Landau levels in the zero-mode indicating topological band inversion in the absence of any magnetic field and presence of large Rashba spin-splitting, which is essential for spin-manipulation in TIs.
Phase Transition and Thermodynamics of Ruthenium Diboride via First-Principles Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fen, Luo; Yan, Cheng; Xiang-Rong, Chen; Guang-Fu, Ji
2009-01-01
The pressure induced phase transitions of RuB 2 from the OsB 2 -type structure to the ReB 2 -type structure are investigated by first-principles calculations based on the plane-wave basis set with the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. It is found that the phase transition occurs at 18.6 GPa. We predict the phase transition from the OsB 2 -type RuB 2 to the ReB 2 -type RuB 2 at high temperatures for the first time. The dependences of the heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and the Grüneisen parameter on pressure and temperature for OsB 2 -type RuB 2 and ReB 2 -type RuB 2 are also investigated
Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities
Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred
2013-12-01
Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other.
Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treberspurg, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.treberspurg@oeaw.ac.at; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred
2013-12-21
Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other.
Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred
2013-01-01
Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other
Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yiming; Fu, Yuting; Shi, Yahui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hua; Zhao, Lijuan
2016-01-01
Tm 3+ ions doped β-PbF 2 nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm 3+ doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an O h to D 4h site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm 3+ doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field
Soft x-ray induced femtosecond solid-to-solid phase transition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tavella, F.; Höppner, H.; Tkachenko, V.; Medvedev, Nikita; Capotondi, F.; Golz, T.; Kai, Y.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Prandolini, M.J.; Stojanovic, N.; Tanikawa, T.; Teubner, U.; Toleikis, S.; Ziaja, B.
Roč. 24, Sep (2017), s. 22-27 ISSN 1574-1818 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : soft x-ray * ultrashort x-ray pulses * grafitization of diamond * non-thermal phase transition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2016
Effect of transition metal impurities on the strength of grain boundaries in vanadium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Xuebang; Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2016-09-07
Effects of 3d (Ti-Ni), 4d (Zr-Pd), and 5d (Hf-Pt) transition metal impurities on strength of two representative vanadium grain boundaries (GBs), symmetric Σ3(111) and asymmetric Σ5(210), were studied by first-principles calculations within the framework of the Rice-Wang thermodynamic model and within the computational tensile test. The desirable elements to increase the GB cohesion were predicted based on their segregation and strengthening behaviors across the different GB sites. It reveals that the elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta are good choices for the GB cohesion enhancers. In addition, the GB strengthening by solutes is sensitive to the GB structures. The elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni decrease the GB strength of the Σ3(111) GB but they can increase the cohesion of the Σ5(210) GB. Furthermore, the origin of Ti-induced change of the GB strength was uncovered by analyzing the atomic bonds and electronic structures as well as the tensile strength. This work provides a theoretical guidance to screen promising alloying elements in V-based materials with improved resistance to GB decohesion and also helps us to understand the formation mechanism of Ti-rich precipitates in the V-Cr-Ti alloys under neutron or ion irradiation environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J Franzbach
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The strain- and polarization-electric field behavior was characterized at room temperature for Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr1−xTix0.98Nb0.02O3, 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.60. The investigated compositions were located in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary, giving insight into the influence of crystal structure on the hysteretic ferroelectric behavior. The remanent strain of particular compositions is shown to be larger than theoretically allowed by ferroelectric switching alone, indicating the presence of additional remanent strain mechanisms. A phenomenological free energy analysis was used to simulate the effect of an applied electric field on the initial equilibrium phase. It is shown that electric-field-induced phase transitions in polycrystalline ferroelectrics can account for the experimental observations. The experimental and simulation results are contrasted to neutron diffraction measurements performed on representative compositions in the virgin and remanent states.
Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sellmyer, D.J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M.J.
1988-01-01
The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed
Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets
Sellmyer, D. J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M. J.
1988-04-01
The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed.
Kuramoto-type phase transition with metronomes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boda, Sz; Ujvári, Sz; Tunyagi, A; Néda, Z
2013-01-01
Metronomes placed on the perimeter of a disc-shaped platform, which can freely rotate in a horizontal plane, are used for a simple classroom illustration of the Kuramoto-type phase transition. The rotating platform induces a global coupling between the metronomes, and the strength of this coupling can be varied by tilting the metronomes’ swinging plane relative to the radial direction on the disc. As a function of the tilting angle, a transition from spontaneously synchronized to unsynchronized states is observable. By varying the number of metronomes on the disc, finite-size effects are also exemplified. A realistic theoretical model is introduced and used to reproduce the observed results. Computer simulations of this model allow a detailed investigation of the emerging collective behaviour in this system. (paper)
SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.
1985-01-01
Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs
Kopaev, YuV
1992-01-01
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Pressure-induced transition in Tl2MoO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machon, Denis; Friese, Karen; Breczewski, Tomasz; Grzechnik, Andrzej
2010-01-01
Tl 2 MoO 4 has been studied under high-pressure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and optical absorption measurements. A first-order phase transition is observed at 3.5±0.5 GPa. The nature (ordered vs. disordered) of the high-pressure phase strongly depends on the local hydrostatic conditions. Optical absorption measurements tend to show that this transition is concomitant with an electronic structure transformation. Prior to the transition, single crystal X-ray diffraction shows that pressure induces interactions between MoO 4 fragments and the Mo coordination number tends to increase. In addition, the stereoactivity of the lone-pair electrons on the three symmetrically independent Tl-sites is not uniform; while for two sites the stereoactivity decreases with increasing pressures for the third site the stereoactivity increases. - Graphical Abstract: (up) Structural evolutions of Tl 2 MoO 4 in the low-pressure phase. (Down) Optical properties of the high-pressure phase as a function of pressure. Display Omitted
The phase transition in the SU(5) model at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daniel, M.; Vayonakis, C.E.
1981-01-01
Within the minimum GUT model we have studied the nature of the fluctuation-induced transition between the SU(5) and the SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2) x U(1) phase which occurs at high temperatures. Our analysis is limited to the case when the phase transition occurs outside the critical (fluctuation-dominated) region. For this to happen the SU(5) model has to be in a mode analogous to the type I superconductor. This corresponds to having the scalar quartic couplings in the Higgs sector less than the squared gauge coupling. For generic values of the coupling constants the phase transition is found to be weakly first order. As we approach the boundaries for the region of the SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2) x U(1) phase, however, a strong first-order transition occurs. The SU(5) mode (analogous to the type II superconductor) when the phase transition occurs inside the fluctuation-dominated region has been recently studied by Ginsparg. His results together with ours show that there is a continuous merging of the type I mode into the type II mode. Finally our analysis elucidates some aspects of the monopole problem in grand unified theories. (orig.)
Unconventional phase transitions in liquid crystals
Kats, E. I.
2017-12-01
According to classical textbooks on thermodynamics or statistical physics, there are only two types of phase transitions: continuous, or second-order, in which the latent heat L is zero, and first-order, in which L ≠ 0. Present-day textbooks and monographs also mention another, stand-alone type—the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, which exists only in two dimensions and shares some features with first- and second-order phase transitions. We discuss examples of non-conventional thermodynamic behavior (i.e., which is inconsistent with the theoretical phase transition paradigm now universally accepted). For phase transitions in smectic liquid crystals, mechanisms for nonconventional behavior are proposed and the predictions they imply are examined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Nekrasov, I. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.
2008-01-01
The DOS, the dynamic (optical) conductivity, and the phase diagram of a strongly correlated and strongly disordered paramagnetic Anderson-Hubbard model are analyzed within the generalized dynamical mean field theory (DMFT + Σ approximation). Strong correlations are taken into account by the DMFT, and disorder is taken into account via an appropriate generalization of the self-consistent theory of localization. The DMFT effective single-impurity problem is solved by a numerical renormalization group (NRG); we consider the three-dimensional system with a semielliptic DOS. The correlated metal, Mott insulator, and correlated Anderson insulator phases are identified via the evolution of the DOS and dynamic conductivity, demonstrating both the Mott-Hubbard and Anderson metal-insulator transition and allowing the construction of the complete zero-temperature phase diagram of the Anderson-Hubbard model. Rather unusual is the possibility of a disorder-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition
Rao, R Nageswara; Nagaraju, V
2004-11-19
A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for separation and determination of process-related impurities of difloxacin (DFL) was developed. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C(18) column using methanol-water-acetic acid (78:21.9:0.1, v/v/v) as a mobile solvent at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min at 28 degrees C using UV detection at 230 nm. It was linear over a range of 0.03 x 10(-6) to 1.60 x 10(-6)g for process related impurities and 0.05 x 10(-6) to 2.40 x 10(-6)g for difloxacin. The detection limits were 0.009 x 10(-6) to 0.024 x 10(-6)g for all the compounds examined. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 97.6-102.0% for impurities as well as difloxacin. The precision and robustness of the method were evaluated. It was used for not only quality assurance, but also monitoring the synthetic reactions involved in the process development work of difloxacin. The method was found to be specific, precise and reliable for the determination of unreacted levels of raw materials, intermediates in the reaction mixtures and the finished products of difloxacin.
Strongly first-order electroweak phase transition and classical scale invariance
Farzinnia, Arsham; Ren, Jing
2014-10-01
In this work, we examine the possibility of realizing a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition within the minimal classically scale-invariant extension of the standard model (SM), previously proposed and analyzed as a potential solution to the hierarchy problem. By introducing one complex gauge-singlet scalar and three (weak scale) right-handed Majorana neutrinos, the scenario was successfully rendered capable of achieving a radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry (by means of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism), inducing nonzero masses for the SM neutrinos (via the seesaw mechanism), presenting a pseudoscalar dark matter candidate (protected by the CP symmetry of the potential), and predicting the existence of a second CP-even boson (with suppressed couplings to the SM content) in addition to the 125 GeV scalar. In the present treatment, we construct the full finite-temperature one-loop effective potential of the model, including the resummed thermal daisy loops, and demonstrate that finite-temperature effects induce a first-order electroweak phase transition. Requiring the thermally driven first-order phase transition to be sufficiently strong at the onset of the bubble nucleation (corresponding to nucleation temperatures TN˜100-200 GeV) further constrains the model's parameter space; in particular, an O(0.01) fraction of the dark matter in the Universe may be simultaneously accommodated with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. Moreover, such a phase transition disfavors right-handed Majorana neutrino masses above several hundreds of GeV, confines the pseudoscalar dark matter masses to ˜1-2 TeV, predicts the mass of the second CP-even scalar to be ˜100-300 GeV, and requires the mixing angle between the CP-even components of the SM doublet and the complex singlet to lie within the range 0.2≲sinω ≲0.4. The obtained results are displayed in comprehensive exclusion plots, identifying the viable regions of the parameter space
Nag, Tanay; Rajak, Atanu
2018-04-01
We investigate the effect of a time-reversal-breaking impurity term (of strength λd) on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical properties of entanglement entropy (EE) in a three-spin-interacting transverse Ising model, which can be mapped to a p -wave superconducting chain with next-nearest-neighbor hopping and interaction. Importantly, we find that the logarithmic scaling of the EE with block size remains unaffected by the application of the impurity term, although, the coefficient (i.e., central charge) varies logarithmically with the impurity strength for a lower range of λd and eventually saturates with an exponential damping factor [˜exp(-λd) ] for the phase boundaries shared with the phase containing two Majorana edge modes. On the other hand, it receives a linear correction in term of λd for an another phase boundary. Finally, we focus to study the effect of the impurity in the time evolution of the EE for the critical quenching case where the impurity term is applied only to the final Hamiltonian. Interestingly, it has been shown that for all the phase boundaries, contrary to the equilibrium case, the saturation value of the EE increases logarithmically with the strength of impurity in a certain regime of λd and finally, for higher values of λd, it increases very slowly dictated by an exponential damping factor. The impurity-induced behavior of EE might bear some deep underlying connection to thermalization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Qi-Jun, E-mail: qijunliu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Ning-Chao; Sun, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Fu-Sheng [Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liu, Zheng-Tang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)
2014-03-01
Using first-principles density-functional theory, we have investigated the pressure-induced phase transition in hydronitrogen compound N{sub 4}H{sub 4} and discussed the potential tetragonal structure. We find that tetragonal structure with P4{sub 2}/n space group is mechanically stable and ductile. The thermodynamic stability of Pmna>P1{sup ¯}>P4{sub 2}/n>P2{sub 1}/m has been obtained. With increasing pressure, the phase transition pressures of T{sub Pmna→P4{sub 2/n}}, T{sub P4{sub 2/n→Pmna}}, T{sub Pmna→P1{sup ¯}} and T{sub P1{sup ¯}→P2{sub 1/m}} are 5.6, 15.0, 30.0 and 69.2 GPa, respectively, which are in agreement with the available data. Moreover, the mechanical stability of four structures under pressure has been analyzed.
Phase transition induced anelasticity in Fe–Ga alloys with 25 and 27%Ga
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golovin, I.S., E-mail: i.golovin@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky ave. 4, 119049, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balagurov, A.M., E-mail: bala@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bobrikov, I.A. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Palacheva, V.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky ave. 4, 119049, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cifre, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. De Valldemossa, km.7.5, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2016-08-05
Neutron diffraction and mechanical spectroscopy techniques were applied to study phase transitions in Fe–Ga alloys with 25 and 27 at.% Ga. The following sequences of phase transitions at continuous heating and subsequent cooling in the 20–900 °C temperature range were recorded: D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} (limited amount) → A2(B2) was recorded at heating and A2(B2) → D0{sub 3} at cooling for Fe-24.8Ga alloy, and the D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} → D0{sub 19} → A2(B2) was recorded at heating and A2(B2) → L1{sub 2} at cooling for Fe-27.4Ga alloy. Thus, the difference in 2.6 at.%Ga between two studied compositions with D0{sub 3} structure leads to their different structures after heating to 900 °C. These transition sequences determine different temperature dependencies of elastic and anelastic properties. The D0{sub 3} → A2(B2) transition (in Fe-25Ga) does not lead to a well-pronounced anelastic effect, in contrast the D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} transition (in Fe-27Ga) generates internal stresses due to a different rate of an increase in the lattice parameter with temperature and leads to a well-pronounced transient internal friction effect. - Highlights: • Neutron diffraction technique is used to study in situ phase transitions in Fe-25 and 27 at.% Ga. • D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} → D0{sub 19} → A2/B2 transitions were recorded at instant heating in Fe-27 at.% Ga. • D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} (limited amount) → A2(B2) was recorded at instant heating in Fe-25 at.% Ga • The D0{sub 3} → L1{sub 2} transition generates internal stresses and leads to elastic and anelastic response.
Effects of low-Z and high-Z impurities on divertor detachment and plasma confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.Q. Wang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The impurity-seeded detached divertor is essential for heat exhaust in ITER and other reactor-relevant devices. Dedicated experiments with injection of N2, Ne and Ar have been performed in DIII-D to assess the impact of the different impurities on divertor detachment and confinement. Seeding with N2, Ne and Ar all promote divertor detachment, greatly reducing heat flux near the strike point. The upstream plasma density at the onset of detachment decreases with increasing impurity-puffing flow rates. For all injected impurity species, the confinement and pedestal pressure are correlated with the impurity content and the ratio of separatrix loss power to the l-H transition threshold power. As the divertor plasma approaches detachment, the high-Z impurity seeding tends to degrade the core confinement owing to the increased core radiation. In particular, Ar injection with up to 50% of the injected power radiating in the core cools the pedestal and core plasmas, thus significantly degrading the confinement. As for Ne seeding, medium confinement with H98∼0.8 can be maintained during the detachment phase with the pedestal temperature being reduced by about 50%. In contrast, in the N2 seeded plasmas, radiation is predominately confined in the boundary plasma, which leads to less effect on the confinement and pedestal. In the case of strong N2 gas puffing, the confinement recovers during the detachment, from ∼20% reduction at the onset of the detachment to greater than unity comparable to that before the seeding. The core and pedestal temperatures feature a reduction of 30% from the initial attached phase and remain nearly constant during the detachment phase. The improvement in confinement appears to arise from the increase in pedestal and core density despite the temperature reduction.
Valence change in rare earth semiconductors in many-impurity Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocharyan, A.N.
1986-01-01
Green functions averaged over point impurity localization are found out in the simplest many-impurity model of rare earth semiconductor taking into account local Coulomb repulsion and hybridization of s- and f-electrons. Analytical expressions for s- and f-electron states density are obtained in the appoximation linear in can centration. Behaviour of a state density nearly the continuous spectrum edge and in the vicinity of the f-level is studied as a function of electron parameters. A comparison with the Anderson one-impurity model is performed. It is shown that essential energy spectrum conversion occurs in the case of a great number of impurities close to the continuous spectrum. Continuous spectrum boundaries are found out, and conditions are defined, at which the forbidden energy gap occurs in the continuous spectrum nearly a f-level. Effect of the coherent conversion of spectrum on behaviour of valence in changing f-level position is analyzed. It is shown that in the lack of electron-lattice interaction the phase transition with valence change occurs in a smooth manner as in the model with strictly periodic Andersen lattice
Structural phase transitions and Huang scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yasusada
1980-01-01
The usefulness of the application of the concept of Huang scattering to the understandings of the origin of diffuse scatterings near structural phase transitions are discussed. It is pointed out that in several phase transitions, the observed diffuse scatterings can not be interpreted in terms of critical fluctuations of the order parameters associated with the structural phase transitions, and that they are rather interpreted as Huang scattering due to random distribution of individual order parameter which is 'dressed' by strain fields. Examples to show effective applications of this concept to analyze the experimental X-ray data and whence to understand microscopic mechanisms of structural phase transitions are presented. (author)
External non-white noise and nonequilibrium phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sancho, J.M.; San Miguel, M.
1980-01-01
Langevin equations with external non-white noise are considered. A Fokker Planck equation valid in general in first order of the correlation time tau of the noise is derived. In some cases its validity can be extended to any value of tau. The effect of a finite tau in the nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by the noise is analyzed, by means of such Fokker Planck equation, in general, for the Verhulst equation under two different kind of fluctuations, and for a genetic model. It is shown that new transitions can appear and that the threshold value of the parameter can be changed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The effect of point defects on phase transitions in Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 was studied. ► When x = 0.45, normal ferroelastic phase transition happens. ► When x = 0.7, a “glassy-like” frozen process appears. ► Point defects weaken the thermodynamic stability of ferroelastic phase. ► Point defects induce a “glassy-like” frozen process. -- Abstract: In the present paper, La-doped CaTiO 3 is studied to investigate the effect of point defects on ferroelastic phase transition of the ceramics. The dynamic mechanical measurements show that the transition temperature of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition of Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 decreases with increasing dopant (La) concentration x. The samples with the dopant content of x = 0.45 and 0.7 exhibit different structure evolution features during their transition processes as revealed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. Moreover, when x = 0.7, the storage modulus shows a frequency-dependent minimum at T g , which can be well fitted with the Vogel–Fulcher relation, and the corresponding internal friction also exhibits a frequency-dependent peak within the same temperature regime. These results thus indicate that doping La suppresses ferroelastic phase transition in CaTiO 3 and induces a “glassy-like” behavior in Ca (1−x) La 2x/3 TiO 3 , which is similar to “strain glass” in Ni-doped Ti 50−x Ni 50+x
Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature initiated βδ solid phase transitions in HMX
Zaug, Joseph M.; Farber, Daniel L.; Craig, Ian M.; Blosch, Laura L.; Shuh, David K.; Hansen, Donald W.; Aracne-Ruddle, Chantel M.
2000-04-01
The phase transformation of β-HMX (>0.5% RDX) to δ phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an high-contrast optical second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al. [1] in 1978. However, the stability field favors the β polymorph over δ as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any thermodynamically reasonable isotherm. In this experiment, strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced β→δ transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The 1 bar 25 °C δ→β transition is not immediate, occuring over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and consequently this paper describes our work in progress.
Kinetics of the stress induced phase transition in quartz by real-time neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibhardt, H.; Eckold, G.; Guethoff, F.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The stability regime of the incommensurate phase of quartz is influenced by uniaxial stress. Hence, the phase transition can be induced under isothermal conditions by the application of external mechanical forces. Using real-time neutron scattering the time evolution of structural changes is investigated id detail during stress variations. The time dependent behaviour of the satellite reflection is compared with that one of the fundamental Bragg reflection which - via primary extinction - gives information about the perfection of the crystal. On increasing stress the perfection of the lattice is destroyed immediately while the modulated structure is built up with a delay of about 1 s. Decreasing the stress leads to a reverse behaviour. Moreover, there is evidence that under periodical load residual non-relaxed strain fields survive leading to a different temperature dependence as compared to static conditions. This finding is compatible with pronounced hysteresis effects observed under cycling stress. It is argued that these residual strains are associated with non-relaxed topological 4-line defects, that drive the structural changes in quartz (1). (author)
Lu, Qiyang; Yildiz, Bilge
2016-02-10
Topotactic phase transition of functional oxides induced by changes in oxygen nonstoichiometry can largely alter multiple physical and chemical properties, including electrical conductivity, magnetic state, oxygen diffusivity, and electrocatalytic reactivity. For tuning these properties reversibly, feasible means to control oxygen nonstoichiometry-dependent phase transitions in functional oxides are needed. This paper describes the use of electrochemical potential to induce phase transition in strontium cobaltites, SrCoOx (SCO) between the brownmillerite (BM) phase, SrCoO₂.₅, and the perovskite (P) phase, SrCoO₃₋δ. To monitor the structural evolution of SCO, in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on an electrochemical cell having (001) oriented thin-film SrCoOx as the working electrode on a single crystal (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte in air. In order to change the effective pO₂ in SCO and trigger the phase transition from BM to P, external electrical biases of up to 200 mV were applied across the SCO film. The phase transition from BM to P phase could be triggered at a bias as low as 30 mV, corresponding to an effective pO₂ of 1 atm at 500 °C. The phase transition was fully reversible and the epitaxial film quality was maintained after reversible phase transitions. These results demonstrate the use of electrical bias to obtain fast and easily accessible switching between different phases as well as distinct physical and chemical properties of functional oxides as exemplified here for SCO.
Diamond to β-Sn phase transition of silicon under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic compressions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durandurdu, Murat
2008-01-01
We have carried out constant pressure ab initio simulations to study the pressure-induced phase transition of silicon. The diamond to β-Sn phase change under hydrostatic pressure is successfully observed in the simulation. The transformation is based on a fourfold coordinated tetragonal intermediate state having the space group I4 1 /amd. The energy barrier for the transformation is calculated to be about 0.35 eV/atom. Additionally, we investigate the influence of nonhydrostatic compressions on the phase transition of silicon and find that up to 20% stress deviations, silicon converts to a β-Sn structure with a reduced transition pressure. The triaxial compressions cause more reduction in the transition pressure than the uniaxial compressions. The transformation mechanism is practically identical under both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic conditions
Modern theories of phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajaraman, R.
1979-01-01
Modern applications of the ideas of phase transitions to nuclear systems and the modern techniques as applied to familiar phase transitions in solid-state physics are discussed with illustrations. The phenomenon of pion condensation in nuclei and neutron stars, is presented as an example of phase transitions in nuclear systems. The central physical ideas behind this subject as well as techniques used to tackle it are broadly summarised. It is pointed out that unlike familiar examples of ferromagnetism or superconductivity, the order parameter here has spatial variation even in the ground state. Possible experimental consequences are discussed. As an example of the second category, the use of renormalisation group techniques in solid state physics is reviewed. The basic idea behind the renormalisation group in the infra-red (thermodynamic) limit is presented. The observed universality and scaling of critical exponents in second order phase transitions is explained in a model-independent way. (auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szafranski, M.; Ståhl, Kenny
2000-01-01
The crystals of diguanidinium tetrachlorostannate [C(NH2)(3)](2)(+).SnCl4-2, were studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction at various temperatures and by calorimetric and dielectric measurements at ambient and high hydrostatic pressures. At room temperature the crystal structure is orthorhombic......) cations. At ambient pressure the crystals undergo two first-order phase transitions at 354.8 and 395.4 K. The former, between two orthorhombic phases (Pbca --> Cmca), is characterized by antiphase displacement of the double sheets along the b direction of the low-temperature unit cell which is coupled...... to dynamical disordering of G(2) and transformation of its hydrogen bonding scheme. At elevated pressures the coupling between the displacive and order-disorder contributions is modified and its breaking near a triple point at 180 MPa and 270 K results in a pressure-induced phase observed between Pbca and Cmca...
Multiple pathways in pressure-induced phase transition of coesite
Liu, Wei; Wu, Xuebang; Liu, Changsong; Miranda, Caetano R.; Scandolo, Sandro
2017-01-01
High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a high-pressure octahedral (HPO) phase, or coesite-II and coesite-III. Given that the pressure is believed to be hydrostatic in two recent experiments, the different transformation pathways are striking. Based on molecular dynamic simulations with an ab initio parameterized potential, we reproduced all of the above experiments in three transformation pathways, including the one leading to an HPO phase. This octahedral phase has an oxygen hcp sublattice featuring 2 × 2 zigzag octahedral edge-sharing chains, however with some broken points (i.e., point defects). It transforms into α-PbO2 phase when it is relaxed under further compression. We show that the HPO phase forms through a continuous rearrangement of the oxygen sublattice toward hcp arrangement. The high-pressure amorphous phases can be described by an fcc and hcp sublattice mixture. PMID:29162690
Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in irradiated silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seidman, D.N.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.; Baily, A.C.
1986-01-01
The amorphous(a)-to-crystalline (c) phase transition has been studied in electron(e - ) and/or ion irradiated silicon (Si). The irradiations were performed in situ in the Argonne High Voltage Microscope-Tandem Facility. The irradiation of Si, at 0 K, with 1-MeV e - to a fluence of 14 dpa failed to induce the c-to-a transition. Whereas an irradiation, at 0 K, with 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ ions induced the c-to-a transition by a fluence of approx.0.37 dpa. Alternatively a dual irradiation, at 10 0 K, with 1.0-MeV e - and 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ to a Kr+ fluence of 1.5 dpa - where the ratio of the displacement rates for e - to ions was approx.0.5 - resulted in the Si specimen retaining a degree of crystallinity. These results are discussed in terms of the degree of dispersion of point defects in the primary state of damage and the mobilities of point defects
On the search for experimentally observed grain boundary phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balluffi, R.W.; Hsieh, T.E.
1987-07-01
The phase space for a heterogeneous system containing a grain boundary involves a relatively large number of variables (i.e., at least six plus the number of components), and it is therefore conceptually possible to induce a large variety of grain boundary phase transitions by selectively varying these parameters. Despite this, a review of the literature reveals that there have been virtually no clear-cut experimental observations of transitions reported in which the boundary structure has been observed as a function of time under well defined conditions. In current work, we are searching for roughening/faceting transitions and melting transitions for boundaries in Al by hot stage transmission electron microscopy. A clear example of a reversible roughening/faceting transition has been found. No evidence for melting has been found for temperatures as high as 0.96 T/sub m/ (by monitoring GBD core delocalization in several special boundaries with Σ ≤ 13) or 0.999 T/sub m/ (by observing the local diffraction contrast at general boundaries in polycrystalline specimens)
Topological phase transitions and quantum Hall effect in the graphene family
Ledwith, P.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.
2018-04-01
Monolayer staggered materials of the graphene family present intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and can be driven through several topological phase transitions using external circularly polarized lasers and static electric or magnetic fields. We show how topological features arising from photoinduced phase transitions and the magnetic-field-induced quantum Hall effect coexist in these materials and simultaneously impact their Hall conductivity through their corresponding charge Chern numbers. We also show that the spectral response of the longitudinal conductivity contains signatures of the various phase-transition boundaries, that the transverse conductivity encodes information about the topology of the band structure, and that both present resonant peaks which can be unequivocally associated with one of the four inequivalent Dirac cones present in these materials. This complex optoelectronic response can be probed with straightforward Faraday rotation experiments, allowing the study of the crossroads between quantum Hall physics, spintronics, and valleytronics.
High-pressure phase transitions of deep earth materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirose, Kei
2009-01-01
Recent developments in synchrotron XRD measurements combined with laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) techniques have enabled us to search for a novel phase transition at extremely high pressure and temperature. A phase transition from MgSiO 3 perovskite to post-perovskite was discovered through a drastic change in XRD patterns above 120 GPa and 2500 K, corresponding to the condition in the lowermost mantle (Murakami et al., 2004; Oganov and Ono, 2004). A pressure-induced phase transformation from ABO 3 -type perovskite to any denser structures was not known at that time. This new MgSiO 3 polymorph called post-perovskite has an orthorhombic symmetry (space group: Cmcm) with a sheet-stacking structure. The Mg site in post-perovskite is smaller than that in perovskite, which results in a volume reduction by 1.0-1.5% from perovskite structure. The electrical conductivity of post-perovskite is higher by three orders of magnitude than that of perovskite at similar pressure range (Ohta et al., 2008). This is likely due to a shorter Fe-Fe distance in post-perovskite structure, while conduction mechanism is yet to be further examined. Phase transition boundary between perovskite and post-perovskite has been determined in a wide temperature range up to 4400 K at 170 GPa (Tateno et al., 2008). Phase relations of Fe alloys have been also studied at core pressures (>135 GPa), although the generation of high temperature is more difficult at higher pressures. A new high-pressure B2 phase of B2 phase of FeS was recently discovered above 180 GPa (Sata et al., 2008). The Fe-Ni alloys have a wide pressure-temperature stability field of fcc phase at the core pressure range, depending on the Ni content (Kuwayama et al., 2008). (author)
Raman-scattering observation of the rutile-to-CaCl2 phase transition in RuO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenblum, S.S.; Weber, W.H.; Chamberland, B.L.
1997-01-01
Using a diamond-anvil cell, we have probed the pressure-induced rutile-to-CaCl 2 ferroelastic phase transition in RuO 2 with Raman spectroscopy. The transition is marked by a splitting of the degenerate E g mode of the rutile phase into two nondegenerate components and by an abrupt change in the Grueneisen parameters for all the phonons. The behavior of this splitting shows good agreement with Landau close-quote s theory for a second-order phase transition, application of which yields a transition pressure of 11.8±0.3 GPa. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
On a mechanism of antenna phasing effect on impurity production during ICRF plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chechkin, V.V.; Grigor'eva, L.I.
1990-01-01
An appreciable reduction of the metal impurity in flux and a decrease in SOL plasma parameter disturbance occure during ICRP heating in some tokamaks when toroidally adjacent antennae are driven in anti-phase. Also cancelled are low-frequency electric field fluctuations arising in the sheaths and the associated charged particle flux fluctuations. 24 refs.; 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.; Sperber, D.
1976-01-01
In two recent papers the instability of the quasi-particle vacuum was related to the high-spin anomaly in rotational nuclear states. The direct consequence of this fact is that the system will make a ''phase transition'' under that situation. Studying the induced rotational asymmetry effect, in the present paper another theoretical fact is discussed, which support this ''phase transition''. Furthermore, it is shown that when this ''phase transition'' occurs, in order to have a proper description of the system, a modification of the physical ground state is necessary which suggests a microscopic theory of band mixing for high spin anomaly in rotational nuclear states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Dongdong; Zhang Na; Feng Yujun; Du Jinmei; Gu Yan
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Shock wave induces the FE-to-AFE phase transition in PbNb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O 3 . ► Depoling current due to phase transition depends on shock pressure and load resistance. ► Shock pressure promotes the phase transition in short-circuit case. ► Increasing load resistance decreases the released charge. - Abstract: Shock-wave-enforced ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transition releases a large electrical polarization, having application in pulse power technology. In the present work, the depoling currents under shock wave compression were investigated in Pb 0.99 [(Zr 0.90 Sn 0.10 ) 0.968 Ti 0.032 ] 0.98 Nb 0.02 O 3 (PZST) ceramics with composition close to the FE/AFE phase boundary. Shock wave was generated by gas-gun and propagated in a direction perpendicular to the remanent polarization. It was found that the shock pressure promoted the phase transition under the short-circuit condition. The shock pressure dependence of the released charge was associated with the evolution of FE-to-AFE phase transition. The onset of phase transition was about 0.40 GPa and complete transformation occurred at 1.23 GPa. However, the released charge decreased with increasing load resistance. The reason may be that the electric field suppresses the phase transition in uncompressed zone and/or shock induces conductivity in compressed zone. Results lay the foundation for application of PZST ceramics in shock-activated power supply.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraman, A.; Kourouklis, G.A.; Cooper, A.S.; Espinosa, G.P.
1990-01-01
High-pressure Raman scattering and optical absorption studies have been carried out on lead pyroniobate (Pb 2 Nb 2 O 7 ) up to 33 GPa, using a gasketed diamond anvil cell. The Raman study reveals the occurrence of two, possibly three, pressure-induced phase changes; a rather subtle change is indicated near 4.5 GPa. The transition near 13 GPa is attributed to a structural transition from the rhombohedral to the cubic pyrochlore structure. The third phase change occurs near 20 GPa. From the broad Raman feature that is observed at about 800 cm -1 , it is concluded that the system turns amorphous at pressures above 20 GPa. The amorphous phase recrystallizes to the original rhombohedral phase, on release of pressure. The broad Raman peaks of the recrystallized phase indicate a high degree of disorder in the material. Lead pyroniobate turns deep red near 30 GPa, from light yellow at ambient pressure. Semi quantitative absorption measurements show that the energy gap shifts red at a rate of 30 meV/GPa. This shift is attributed to the downward motion of the 5d (es) conduction band of Pb
Quantum phase transitions of strongly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imada, Masatoshi
1998-01-01
Interacting electrons in solids undergo various quantum phase transitions driven by quantum fluctuations. The quantum transitions take place at zero temperature by changing a parameter to control quantum fluctuations rather than thermal fluctuations. In contrast to classical phase transitions driven by thermal fluctuations, the quantum transitions have many different features where quantum dynamics introduces a source of intrinsic fluctuations tightly connected with spatial correlations and they have been a subject of recent intensive studies as we see below. Interacting electron systems cannot be fully understood without deep analyses of the quantum phase transitions themselves, because they are widely seen and play essential roles in many phenomena. Typical and important examples of the quantum phase transitions include metal-insulator transitions, (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) metal-superconductor transitions, superconductor-insulator transitions, magnetic transitions to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic phases in metals as well as in Mott insulators, and charge ordering transitions. Here, we focus on three different types of transitions
Co-ordination of heterovalent cation impurities in molten salts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreoni, W.; Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.
1982-01-01
The local liquid structure around heterovalent cation impurities in molten chlorides is discussed in relation to spectroscopic data on solutions of transition metal ions. A tightly packed, low co-ordination shell is shown to be favoured by Coulomb ionic interactions for physically reasonable values of the size of the impurity. A competition between these forces and ''crystal field'' interactions favouring octahedral co-ordination is thus to be expected for many transition metal ions, as suggested by Gruen and McBeth. The transition observed for some transition metal ions from higher to lower co-ordination with increasing temperature is attributed primarily to entropy differences, that are roughly estimated in a solid-like model. (author)
Decoherence-induced transition from photon correlation to anti-correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Q
2014-01-01
Decoherence tends to induce the quantum-to-classical transition, which leads to a crucial obstacle in the realization of reliable quantum information processing. Counterintuitively, we propose that the decoherence due to phase decay brings about the switch from photon correlation to anti-correlation. Stronger decoherence also gives rise to an enhancement of the transition from photon correlation to anti-correlation. This breaks the conventional correlation of strong decoherence with fast decorrelation. (letters)
Phase transition study in strongly correlated VO{sub 2} based sensing systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simo, A., E-mail: alinesimo.aline@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kaviyarasu, K. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Madjoe, R. [Physics Department, University of Western Cape, 7535 Belville Cape Town (South Africa); Gibaud, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, Université du Maine Faculte des sciences, UPRESA 6087, 72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience’s/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • At 230 °C for about 48 h to prepare successfully VO{sub 2} nanobelts. • 1D shows good sensing performance due to the large active surface of the material. • The good selectivity of methanol compared to acetone and isopropanol. • VOC compounds was observed at room temperature. - Abstract: Intermediate phase monoclinic M2 was observed by inducing in situ X-ray thermo diffraction on VO{sub 2} (M) nanoplatelets. The solid-solid phase transition occurs at around 65 °C assisted with the percolative transition metal-insulator. The existence of an intermediate crystalline phase with room temperature insulator phase and high temperature metallic phase across MIT in VO{sub 2} could be of relevance to understand structural contributions to the phase transition dynamics. In addition, pellet of VO{sub 2} nanostructures have shown to present good sensing properties to various alcohols vapors at room temperature and good selectivity of methanol with 5.54% sensitivity and limit detection below 5 ppm, compared to isopropanol 3.2% and acetone 2.4% respectively.
High temperature-induced phase transitions in Sr2GdRuO6 complex perovskite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triana, C.A.; Corredor, L.T.; Landínez Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Crystal structure, thermal expansion and phase transitions at high-temperature of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite has been investigated. ► X-ray diffraction pattern at 298 K of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with P2 1 /n space group. ► Evolution of X-ray diffraction patterns at high-temperature shows that the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite suffers two-phase transitions. ► At 573 K the X-ray diffraction pattern of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m space group. ► At 1273 K the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite suffers a complete phase-transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87). -- Abstract: The crystal structure behavior of the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 complex perovskite at high-temperature has been investigated over a wide temperature range between 298 K ≤ T ≤ 1273 K. Measurements of X-ray diffraction at room-temperature and Rietveld analysis of the experimental patterns show that this compound crystallizes in a monoclinic perovskite-like structure, which belongs to the P2 1 /n (no. 14) space group and 1:1 ordered arrangement of Ru 5+ and Gd 3+ cations over the six-coordinate M sites. Experimental lattice parameters were obtained to be a =5.8103(5) Å, b =5.8234(1) Å, c =8.2193(9) Å, V = 278.11(2) Å 3 and angle β = 90.310(5)°. The high-temperature analysis shows the occurrence of two-phase transitions on this material. First, at 573 K it adopts a monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m (no. 12) space group with lattice parameters a = 5.8275(6) Å, b = 5.8326(3) Å, c = 8.2449(2) Å, V = 280.31(3) Å 3 and angle β = 90.251(3)°. Close to 1273 K it undergoes a complete phase-transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87), with lattice parameters a = 5.8726(1) Å, c = 8.3051(4) Å, V = 286.39(8) Å 3 and angle β = 90.0°. The high-temperature phase transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87) is characterized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouyang, Bin; Lan, Guoqiang; Song, Jun; Guo, Yinsheng; Mi, Zetian
2015-01-01
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the phase stability and transition within four monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) systems, i.e., MX 2 (M = Mo or W and X = S or Se) under coupled electron doping and lattice deformation. With the lattice distortion and electron doping density treated as state variables, the energy surfaces of different phases were computed, and the diagrams of energetically preferred phases were constructed. These diagrams assess the competition between different phases and predict conditions of phase transitions for the TMDs considered. The interplay between lattice deformation and electron doping was identified as originating from the deformation induced band shifting and band bending. Based on our findings, a potential design strategy combining an efficient electrolytic gating and a lattice straining to achieve controllable phase engineering in TMD monolayers was demonstrated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.
2011-01-01
Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally
Phase transitions in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2002-07-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Phase transitions in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.
2002-01-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Thermoelectric power and phase transitions in lanthanides under pressure up to 20 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Goshchitskii, Boris N.
2007-01-01
Pressure dependencies of thermopower S of rare-earth metals (Ce and Pr) in a pressure P range of 0-20 GPa and at room temperature are reported. A non-monotonic behaviour of S(P) has been established both at pressure-induced phase transitions: fcc → modified fcc → monoclinic → tetragonal lattice for Ce, and double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) → fcc → modified fcc → monoclinic for Pr. S kept a positive sign for the all high-pressure phases mentioned. Simultaneous measurements of sample contraction have revealed anomalies in the vicinity of the transitions in qualitative agreement with diffraction volumetric data published before. The S(P) dependencies were analysed on the basis of the known results of electronic structure calculation for the Ce and Pr phases. An advantage was demonstrated of the thermopower method in the study of phase transitions and electronic structure of high-pressure phases
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
Phase Transitions in Mechanically Milled Mn-Al-C Permanent Magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. Lucis
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Mn-Al powders were prepared by rapid solidification followed by high-energy mechanical milling. The rapid solidification resulted in single-phase ε. The milling was performed in both the ε phase and the τ phase, with the τ-phase formation accomplished through a heat treatment at 500 °C for 10 min. For the ε-milled samples, the conversion of the ε to the τ phase was accomplished after milling via the same heat treatment. Mechanical milling induced a significant increase in coercivity in both cases, reaching 4.5 kOe and 4.1 kOe, respectively, followed by a decrease upon further milling. The increase in coercivity was the result of grain refinement induced by the high-energy mechanical milling. Additionally, in both cases a loss in magnetization was observed. Milling in the ε phase showed a smaller decrease in the magnetization due to a higher content of the τ phase. The loss in magnetization was attributed to a stress-induced transition to the equilibrium phases, as no site disorder or oxidation was observed. Surfactant-assisted milling in oleic acid also improved coercivity, but in this case values reached >4 kOe and remained stable at least through 32 h of milling.
Boundary Induced Phase Transition in Cellular Automata Models of Pedestrian Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 327-338 ISSN 1557-5969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive time-span * Cellular automata model * Floor-field * Pedestrian flow * Phase transition * Principle of bonds Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2016
Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yalong; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun
2016-02-01
Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological phase transitions. Our findings greatly enrich the 2D families of transition metal dichalcogenides and offer a feasible way to control the electronic states of 2D topological insulators for the fabrication of high-speed spintronics devices.Single layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted tremendous research interest due to their structural phase diversities. By using a global optimization approach, we have discovered a new phase of transition metal dichalcogenides (labelled as T''), which is confirmed to be energetically, dynamically and kinetically stable by our first-principles calculations. The new T'' MoS2 phase exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect with a nontrivial gap as large as 0.42 eV, suggesting that a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator can be achieved at room temperature. Most interestingly, there is a topological phase transition simply driven by a small tensile strain of up to 2%. Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and strain controlled topological
A phase transition close to room temperature in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreisel, J; Jadhav, P; Chaix-Pluchery, O [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, Grenoble INP, CNRS, Minatec, 3, parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Varela, M [Departamento Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer MartI i Franques 1. 08028 Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Dix, N; Sanchez, F; Fontcuberta, J, E-mail: jens.kreisel@grenoble-inp.fr [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)
2011-08-31
BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) multiferroic oxide has a complex phase diagram that can be mapped by using appropriately substrate-induced strain in epitaxial films. By using Raman spectroscopy, we conclusively show that films of the so-called supertetragonal T-BFO phase, stabilized under compressive strain, display a reversible temperature-induced phase transition at about 100 deg. C, and thus close to room temperature. (fast track communication)
Theoretical study of orbital ordering induced structural phase transition in iron pnictides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jena, Sushree Sangita, E-mail: sushree@iopb.res.in; Rout, G. C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in [Physics Enclave, Plot No-664/4825, Lane-4A, Shree Vihar, Bhubaneswar-24, Odisha (India); Panda, S. K., E-mail: skp@iopb.res.in
2016-05-06
We attribute the structural phase transition (SPT) in the parent compounds of the iron pnictides to orbital ordering. Due to anisotropy of the d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} orbitals in the xy plane, orbital ordering makes the orthorhombic structure more favorable and thus inducing the SPT. We consider a one band model Hamiltonian consisting of first and second-nearest-neighbor hopping of the electrons. We introduce Jahn-Tellar (JT) distortion in the system arising due to the orbital ordering present in this system. We calculate the electron Green’s function by using Zuvareb’s Green’s function technique and hence calculate an expression for the temperature dependent lattice strain which is computed numerically and self-consistently. The temperature dependent electron specific heat is calculated by minimizing the free energy of the system. The lattice strain is studied by varying the JT coupling and elastic constant of the system. The structural anomaly is studied through the electron occupation number and the specific heat by varying the physical parameters like JT coupling, lattice constant, chemical potential and hopping integrals of the system.
Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir
2016-11-15
We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
First order electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.
1993-01-01
In this work, the authors have studied the phase transition in the SU(2)gauge theory at finite temperature. The authors' improved perturbative approach does not suffer from the infrared problems appearing in the ordinary loop expansion. The authors have calculated the effective potential up to cubic terms in the couplings. The higher order terms suggest that the method is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than 80 GeV. The authors have obtained a non-vanishing magnetic mass which further weakens the transitions. By use of Langer's theory of metastability, the authors have calculated the nucleation rate for critical bubbles and have discussed some cosmological consequences. For m H <80 GeV the phase transition is first order and proceeds via bubble nucleation and growth. The thin wall approximation is only marginally applicable. Since the phase transition is quite weak SM baryogenesis is unlikely. 8 refs., 5 figs
Electron correlation influenced magnetic phase transitions in f-electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauenheim, T.; Ropke, G.
1980-01-01
The temperature-induced phase transition (on lowering the temperature) antiferromagnet-ferromagnet in the heavy rare earth and some of actinide compounds is qualitatively explained in the scope of a two-band Hubbard model and the more complex RKKY model as the result of electron correlation effects in the conduction bands. (orig.)
Sim, Taeyong; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan
2017-10-01
The transition phase of a golf swing is considered to be a decisive instant required for a powerful swing. However, at the same time, the low back torsional loads during this phase can have a considerable effect on golf-related low back pain (LBP). Previous efforts to quantify the transition phase were hampered by problems with accuracy due to methodological limitations. In this study, vector-coding technique (VCT) method was proposed as a comprehensive methodology to quantify the precise transition phase and examine low back torsional load. Towards this end, transition phases were assessed using three different methods (VCT, lead hand speed and X-factor stretch) and compared; then, low back torsional load during the transition phase was examined. As a result, the importance of accurate transition phase quantification has been documented. The largest torsional loads were observed in healthy professional golfers (10.23 ± 1.69 N · kg -1 ), followed by professional golfers with a history of LBP (7.93 ± 1.79 N · kg -1 ), healthy amateur golfers (1.79 ± 1.05 N · kg -1 ) and amateur golfers with a history of LBP (0.99 ± 0.87 N · kg -1 ), which order was equal to that of the transition phase magnitudes of each group. These results indicate the relationship between the transition phase and LBP history and the dependency of the torsional load magnitude on the transition phase.
Determination of impurities in silicon nitride by particle induced x-ray emission analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Ishizuka, Toshio; Miyagawa, Soji
1985-01-01
A method is presented for quantitative particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of impurities in the thick samples of silicon nitride. In the analysis of ceramic materials such as silicon nitride, chemical treatments are required to prepare thin enough samples. However, the chemical treatments are undesirable for the PIXE analysis, because another complications are brought about. Our method does not need any chemical treatments and thick samples can be subjected to the measurements. The determination of impurities were made by on-line use of a personal computer in which standard X-ray intensity data were stored. The method and procedures are as follows: After subtracting a buckground spectrum from an observed PIXE spectrum, the resultant peaks are assigned to individual elements. Then, in order to determine the contents of the impurities, the intensity of each peak is compared with a Gaussian curve which is generated from the standard X-ray intensity data. The latter data were determined theoretically. The results were in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by ICP emission spectrometry. (author)
Revealing novel quantum phases in quantum antiferromagnets on random lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum magnets represent an ideal playground for the controlled realization of novel quantum phases and of quantum phase transitions. The Hamiltonian of the system can be indeed manipulated by applying a magnetic field or pressure on the sample. When doping the system with non-magnetic impurities, novel inhomogeneous phases emerge from the interplay between geometric randomness and quantum fluctuations. In this paper we review our recent work on quantum phase transitions and novel quantum phases realized in disordered quantum magnets. The system inhomogeneity is found to strongly affect phase transitions by changing their universality class, giving the transition a novel, quantum percolative nature. Such transitions connect conventionally ordered phases to unconventional, quantum disordered ones - quantum Griffiths phases, magnetic Bose glass phases - exhibiting gapless spectra associated with low-energy localized excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsui, Y.; Bruehl, A.; Removic-Langer, K.; Pashchenko, V.; Wolf, B.; Donath, G.; Pikul, A.; Kretz, T.; Lerner, H.-W.; Wagner, M.; Salguero, A.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Rahaman, B.; Valenti, R.; Lang, M.
2007-01-01
We report on the results obtained from studying electron spin resonance, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and thermal expansion experiments on a metalorganic spin-dimer system, C 36 H 48 Cu 2 F 6 N 8 O 12 S 2 (TK91). According to the first principle Density Functional Theory calculations, the compound represents a 3D-coupled dimer system with intradimer coupling J 1 /k B ∼ 10K and interdimer couplings J 2 /k B ∼J 3 /k B ∼ 1K. The measurements have been performed on both pressed powder and single-crystal samples in external magnetic fields up to 12T and at low temperatures down to ∼ 0.2K. Susceptibility measurements reveal a spin-gap behavior consistent with the theoretical results. Furthermore, clear indications of a field-induced phase transition have been observed. A similar field-induced phase transition was also detected in an inorganic compound TlCuCl 3 and was interpreted as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. The possibility of changing both the intradimer and interdimer couplings in TK91 by chemical substitutions makes the system a potentially good system to study BEC of magnons
Pressure induced phase transition in HfTiO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, A.K.; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M.; Panneerselvam, G.
2012-01-01
Hafnium titanate is a low thermal expansion ceramic with a very good absorption cross section for thermal neutrons and a high refractoriness, thus making it a desirable nuclear material. At ambient conditions it crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure (space group Pbcn). The material properties of this ceramic have been studied as a function of temperature. However, apart from a lone shock study several decades ago there is no study at static high pressure on this compound. Since this ceramic is used as control rods in nuclear reactors it is important to understand its phase stability at different thermodynamic conditions. Therefore to understand the high pressure behaviour of hafnium titanate we have carried out diamond anvil cell based X-ray diffraction studies up to ∼20 GPa. The studies on this ceramic show that its structure is stable till 11 GPa. However, at ∼11.7 GPa appearance of new diffraction peaks indicate that it undergoes a structural phase transition to a low symmetry structure
Comments on the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.
1992-01-01
We report on an investigation of various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes a determination of the nature of the phase transition, a discussion of the possible role of higher order radiative corrections and the theory of the formation and evolution of the bubbles of the new phase. We find in particular that no dangerous linear terms appear in the effective potential. However, the strength of the first-order phase transition is 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. This rules out baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory with light Higgs bosons. (orig.)
Effect of hyperons on nuclear phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.
2016-01-01
Phase transition of nuclear system in heavy ion-collisions at intermediate energy has been studied well for many years and it has also been extended to strange nuclear matter. Recently, using the Canonical Thermodynamical Model (CTM), detailed work on multiplicity distribution of fragments produced from fragmentation of hypernuclear system shows the existence of phase transition or phase coexistence in strange system with Λ-hyperons. In present work we want to continue the investigation on phase transition with respect to some other thermodynamic observables like free energy, specific heat etc. in order to be confirmed about the nature of the transition
The role of solid-solid phase transitions in mantle convection
Faccenda, Manuele; Dal Zilio, Luca
2017-01-01
With changing pressure and temperature conditions, downwelling and upwelling crustal and mantle rocks experience several solid-solid phase transitions that affect the mineral physical properties owing to structural changes in the crystal lattice and to the absorption or release of latent heat. Variations in density, together with phase boundary deflections related to the non-null reaction slope, generate important buoyancy forces that add to those induced by thermal perturbations. These buoyancy forces are proportional to the density contrast between reactant and product phases, their volume fraction, the slope and the sharpness of the reaction, and affect the style of mantle convection depending on the system composition. In a homogeneous pyrolitic mantle there is little tendency for layered convection, with slabs that may stagnate in the transition zone because of the positive buoyancy caused by post-spinel and post-ilmenite reactions, and hot plumes that are accelerated by phase transformations in the 600-800 km depth range. By adding chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities as on Earth, phase transitions introduce bulk rock and volatiles filtering effects that generate a compositional gradient throughout the entire mantle, with levels that are enriched or depleted in one or more of these components. Phase transitions often lead to mechanical softening or hardening that can be related to a different intrinsic mechanical behaviour and volatile solubility of the product phases, the heating or cooling associated with latent heat, and the transient grain size reduction in downwelling cold material. Strong variations in viscosity would enhance layered mantle convection, causing slab stagnation and plume ponding. At low temperatures and relatively dry conditions, reactions are delayed due to the sluggish kinetics, so that non-equilibrium phase aggregates can persist metastably beyond the equilibrium phase boundary. Survival of low-density metastable olivine
Generalized definitions of phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Gulminelli, F.
2001-09-01
We define a first order phase transition as a bimodality of the event distribution in the space of observations and we show that this is equivalent to a curvature anomaly of the thermodynamical potential and that it implies the Yang Lee behavior of the zeros of the partition sum. Moreover, it allows to study phase transitions out of equilibrium. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-07-15
Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)
Resonant States in High-Temperature Superconductors with Impurities
Kovacevic, Z L; Hayn, R
2002-01-01
A microscopic theory of resonant states for the Zn-doped CuO_2 plane in superconducting phase is formulated within the effective t-J model. In the model derived from the original p-d model Zn impurities are considered as vacancies for the d states on Cu sites. In the superconducting phase in addition to the local static perturbation induced by the vacancy a dynamical perturbation appears which results in frequency-dependent perturbation matrix. By employing the T-matrix formalism for the Green functions in terms of the Hubbard operators the local density of electronic states with d-, p- and s-symmetry is calculated.
Pressure induced magneto-structural phase transitions in layered RMn2X2 compounds (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, Shane; Wang, Jianli; Campbell, Stewart; Hofmann, Michael; Dou, Shixue
2014-01-01
We have studied a range of pseudo-ternaries derived from the parent compound PrMn 2 Ge 2 , substituting for each constituent element with a smaller one to contract the lattice. This enables us to observe the magneto-elastic transitions that occur as the Mn-Mn nearest neighbour distance is reduced and to assess the role of Pr on the magnetism. Here, we report on the PrMn 2 Ge 2−x Si x , Pr 1−x Y x Mn 2 Ge 2 , and PrMn 2−x Fe x Ge 2 systems. The pressure produced by chemical substitution in these pseudo-ternaries is inherently non-uniform, with local pressure variations dependent on the local atomic distribution. We find that concentrated chemical substitution on the R or X site (e.g., in Pr 0.5 Y 0.5 Mn 2 Ge 2 and PrMn 2 Ge 0.8 Si 1.2 ) can produce a separation into two distinct magnetic phases, canted ferromagnetic and canted antiferromagnetic, with a commensurate phase gap in the crystalline lattice. This phase gap is a consequence of the combination of phase separation and spontaneous magnetostriction, which is positive on transition to the canted ferromagnetic phase and negative on transition to the canted antiferromagnetic phase. Our results show that co-existence of canted ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases depends on chemical pressure from the rare earth and metalloid sites, on local lattice strain distributions and on applied magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effects of chemical pressure bear close resemblance to those of mechanical pressure on the parent compound
Structural and impurity phase transitions of LiNaSO4:RE probed using cathodo-thermoluminescence
Maghrabi, M.; Finch, A. A.; Townsend, P. D.
2008-11-01
Spectrally resolved cathodo-thermoluminescence spectra of rare earth (RE) doped LiNaSO4 measured from 20 to 673 K reveal several anomalies in the RE emission lines and intensities. The low (20-300 K) temperature data show a discontinuous change in intensity at ~170 K that is either a marked intensity enhancement or a drop truncating the entire spectrum. Such an effect on the host luminescence has previously been assigned to a transition between cubic and hexagonal polymorphs of ice nanoparticle inclusions. Similar, but less profound anomalies are seen above room temperature (300-673 K) where the changes take the form of either a discontinuity in intensity at ~480 K or reduced intensity in the range 430-530 K. There are changes in the relative intensities of different emission lines of the same dopant in this temperature range. Such high temperature variations are ascribed to structural phase changes within the LiNaSO4 crystals. The behaviours may result from Li-poor surfaces or twin boundaries behaving like Na2SO4. This phase change is suggested in the open literature for LiNaSO4 but not yet fully documented, perhaps because the effects span a wide range of temperatures or due to experimental features inherent in most luminescence facilities.
Impurities in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13 (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Willis, J.O.; Batlogg, B.; Ott, H.R.
1984-01-01
Small amounts of Sc, Lu, Gd, Np, Ce, Th, La, and Ba have been substituted for uranium in UBe 13 to observe their effects on the superconducting and normal state properties. The thorium, which was the most complete study, resulted in an extremely unusual nonmonotonic depression of the transition temperature for a nonmagnetic impurity. This comes from an interplay that exists between the lowest temperature resistivity peak and the transition temperature, as the peak is depressed. These results suggest that heavy Fermion superconductivity is only one of the possible ground states for heavy mass electron systems. All of the impurities tested resulted in a transition temperature depression
Evaluation of Thermodynamic Models for Predicting Phase Equilibria of CO2 + Impurity Binary Mixture
Shin, Byeong Soo; Rho, Won Gu; You, Seong-Sik; Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Chul Soo
2018-03-01
For the design and operation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes, equation of state (EoS) models are used for phase equilibrium calculations. Reliability of an EoS model plays a crucial role, and many variations of EoS models have been reported and continue to be published. The prediction of phase equilibria for CO2 mixtures containing SO2, N2, NO, H2, O2, CH4, H2S, Ar, and H2O is important for CO2 transportation because the captured gas normally contains small amounts of impurities even though it is purified in advance. For the design of pipelines in deep sea or arctic conditions, flow assurance and safety are considered priority issues, and highly reliable calculations are required. In this work, predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong, cubic plus association, Groupe Européen de Recherches Gazières (GERG-2008), perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory, and non-random lattice fluids hydrogen bond EoS models were compared regarding performance in calculating phase equilibria of CO2-impurity binary mixtures and with the collected literature data. No single EoS could cover the entire range of systems considered in this study. Weaknesses and strong points of each EoS model were analyzed, and recommendations are given as guidelines for safe design and operation of CCS processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masek, P.; Chmelik, F.; Sima, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Metal Physics; Brinck, A.; Neuhaeuser, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallphysik und Nukleare Festkoerperphysik
1999-01-15
Combined acoustic emission measurements and surface cinematography observations have been applied to determine the structure evolution during thermal loading of the CuAu alloy. Thermal history and the fashion of thermal loading have been shown to affect considerably the structure response of the CuAu alloy on temperature changes. On thermal loading, intense plastic deformation occurs in certain temperature intervals due to the relaxation of internal stresses induced by phase transitions and structure anisotropy. The main mechanism is twinning taking place most probably in (110) planes. Dislocation glide and grain-boundary sliding have also been observed as minor mechanisms. A shape-restoration effect associated with the order-disorder transition is revealed. Thermal cycling with upper temperatures over 500 C may also result in structural damage.
Antiferrodistortive phase transitions and ground state of PZT ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, Dhananjai
2013-01-01
The ground state of the technologically important Pb(Zr x Ti (1-x) )O 3 , commonly known as PZT, ceramics is currently under intense debate. The phase diagram of this material shows a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) for x∼0.52 at 300K, across which a composition induced structural phase transition occurs leading to maximization of the piezoelectric properties. In search for the true ground state of the PZT in the MPB region, Beatrix Noheda and coworkers first discovered a phase transition from tetragonal (space group P4mm) to an M A type monoclinic phase (space group Cm) at low temperatures for x=0.52. Soon afterwards, we discovered yet another low temperature phase transition for the same composition in which the M A type (Cm) monoclinic phase transforms to another monoclinic phase with Cc space group. We have shown that the Cm to Cc phase transition is an antiferrodistortive (AFD) transition involving tilting of oxygen octahedra leading to unit cell doubling and causing appearance of superlattice reflections which are observable in the electron and neutron diffraction patterns only and not in the XRD patterns, as a result of which Noheda and coworkers missed the Cc phase in their synchrotron XRD studies at low temperatures. Our findings were confirmed by leading groups using neutron, TEM, Raman and high pressure diffraction studies. The first principles calculations also confirmed that the true ground state of PZT in the MPB region has Cc space group. However, in the last couple of years, the Cc space group of the ground state has become controversial with an alternative proposal of R3c as the space group of the ground state phase which is proposed to coexist with the metastable Cm phase. In order to resolve this controversy, we recently revisited the issue using pure PZT and 6% Sr 2+ substituted PZT, the latter samples show larger tilt angle on account of the reduction in the average cationic radius at the Pb 2+ site. Using high wavelength neutrons and high
Invasion-wave-induced first-order phase transition in systems of active particles.
Ihle, Thomas
2013-10-01
An instability near the transition to collective motion of self-propelled particles is studied numerically by Enskog-like kinetic theory. While hydrodynamics breaks down, the kinetic approach leads to steep solitonlike waves. These supersonic waves show hysteresis and lead to an abrupt jump of the global order parameter if the noise level is changed. Thus they provide a mean-field mechanism to change the second-order character of the phase transition to first order. The shape of the wave is shown to follow a scaling law and to quantitatively agree with agent-based simulations.
A pressure-induced displacive phase transition in Tris(ethylenediamine) Nickel(II) nitrate
Cameron, C.A.; Allan, D.R.; Kamenev, K.V.; Moggach, S.A.; Murrie, M.; Parsons, S.
2014-01-01
[Ni(en)(3)] [NO3](2) undergoes a displacive phase transition from P6(3)22 at ambient pressure to a lower symmetry P6(1)22/P6(5)22 structure between 0.82 and 0.87 GPa, which is characterized by a tripling of the unit cell c-axis and the number of molecules per unit cell. The same transition has been previously observed at 108 K. The application of pressure leads to a general shortening of O H hydrogen bonding interactions in the structure, with the greatest contraction (24%) occurring diagonal...
Quantum percolation phase transition and magnetoelectric dipole glass in hexagonal ferrites
Rowley, S. E.; Vojta, T.; Jones, A. T.; Guo, W.; Oliveira, J.; Morrison, F. D.; Lindfield, N.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.
2017-07-01
Hexagonal ferrites not only have enormous commercial impact (£2 billion/year in sales) due to applications that include ultrahigh-density memories, credit-card stripes, magnetic bar codes, small motors, and low-loss microwave devices, they also have fascinating magnetic and ferroelectric quantum properties at low temperatures. Here we report the results of tuning the magnetic ordering temperature in PbF e12 -xG axO19 to zero by chemical substitution x . The phase transition boundary is found to vary as TN˜(1-x /xc ) 2 /3 with xc very close to the calculated spin percolation threshold, which we determine by Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that the zero-temperature phase transition is geometrically driven. We find that this produces a form of compositionally tuned, insulating, ferrimagnetic quantum criticality. Close to the zero-temperature phase transition, we observe the emergence of an electric dipole glass induced by magnetoelectric coupling. The strong frequency behavior of the glass freezing temperature Tm has a Vogel-Fulcher dependence with Tm finite, or suppressed below zero in the zero-frequency limit, depending on composition x . These quantum-mechanical properties, along with the multiplicity of low-lying modes near the zero-temperature phase transition, are likely to greatly extend applications of hexaferrites into the realm of quantum and cryogenic technologies.
1982-04-16
P. J. Estrup Chemisorption-Induced Phase Transitions and Adatom Interactions on GaAs(110) P. Skeath, C. Y. Su, P. W. Chye , I. Lindau and W. E. Spicer...Transitions and Adatom Interactions on GaAs(ll0)* Perry Skeath, C. Y. Su, P. W. Chye , I Lindau, and W. E. Spicer Stanford Electronics Labs Stanford...ORDER PHASE TRANSITIONS* P. KLEBAN and CHIN -KUN HU, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology University of
Microscopic origin of black hole reentrant phase transitions
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Mann, R. B.
2018-04-01
Understanding the microscopic behavior of the black hole ingredients has been one of the important challenges in black hole physics during the past decades. In order to shed some light on the microscopic structure of black holes, in this paper, we explore a recently observed phenomenon for black holes namely reentrant phase transition, by employing the Ruppeiner geometry. Interestingly enough, we observe two properties for the phase behavior of small black holes that leads to reentrant phase transition. They are correlated and they are of the interaction type. For the range of pressure in which the system underlies reentrant phase transition, it transits from the large black holes phase to the small one which possesses higher correlation than the other ranges of pressures. On the other hand, the type of interaction between small black holes near the large/small transition line differs for usual and reentrant phase transitions. Indeed, for the usual case, the dominant interaction is repulsive whereas for the reentrant case we encounter an attractive interaction. We show that in the reentrant phase transition case, the small black holes behave like a bosonic gas whereas in the usual phase transition case, they behave like a quantum anyon gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derakhshan, V; Ketabi, S A; Moghaddam, A G
2016-01-01
We employed the formalism of bond currents, expressed in terms of non-equilibrium Green’s function to obtain the local currents and transport features of zigzag silicene ribbon in the presence of magnetic impurity. When only intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions are present, silicene behaves as a two-dimensional topological insulator with gapless edge states. But in the presence of finite intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the edge states start to penetrate into the bulk of the sample by increasing Rashba interaction strength. The exchange interaction induced by local impurities breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the gapless edge states and influences the topological properties strongly. Subsequently, the singularity of partial Berry curvature disappears and the silicene nanoribbon becomes a trivial insulator. On the other hand, when the concentration of the magnetic impurities is low, the edge currents are not affected significantly. In this case, when the exchange field lies in the x – y plane, the spin mixing around magnetic impurity is more profound rather than the case in which the exchange field is directed along the z -axis. Nevertheless, when the exchange field of magnetic impurities is placed in the x – y plane, a spin-polarized conductance is observed. The resulting conductance polarization can be tuned by the concentration of the impurities and even completely polarized spin transport is achievable. (paper)
Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Scherr, Claudia; Bodrova, Natalia Borisovna; Baumgartner, Stephan
2018-05-16
Methods based on phase-transition-induced pattern formation (PTPF) are increasingly used in medical research. Frequent application fields are medical diagnosis and basic research in homeopathy. Here, we present a systematic review of experimental studies concerning PTPF-based methods applied to homeopathy research. We also aimed at categorizing the PTPF methods included in this review. Experimental studies were collected from scientific databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Russian eLibrary) and from experts in the research field in question, following the PRISMA guidelines. The studies were rated according to pre-defined scientific criteria. The review included 15 experimental studies. We identified seven different PTPF methods applied in 12 experimental models. Among these methods, phase-transition was triggered through evaporation, freezing, or solution, and in most cases led to the formation of crystals. First experimental studies concerning the application of PTPF methods in homeopathic research were performed in the first half of the 20th century; however, they were not continued in the following years. Only in the last decade, different research groups re-launched the idea, introducing new experimental approaches and computerized pattern evaluation techniques. The here-identified PTPF methods are for the first time proposed to be classified as one group of methods based on the same basic physical phenomenon. Although the number of experimental studies in the area is still rather limited, the long tradition in the application of PTPF methods and the dynamics of the present developments point out the high potential of these methods and indicate that they might meet the demand for scientific methods to study potentized preparations. The Faculty of Homeopathy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arash Joushaghani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The optical and electrical characteristics of the insulator-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 enable the realization of power-efficient, miniaturized hybrid optoelectronic devices. This work studies the current-controlled, two-step insulator-metal phase transition of VO2 in varying microwire geometries. Geometry-dependent scaling trends extracted from current-voltage measurements show that the first step induced by carrier injection is delocalized over the microwire, while the second, thermally-induced step is localized to a filament about 1 to 2 μm wide for 100 nm-thick sputtered VO2 films on SiO2. These effects are confirmed by direct infrared imaging, which also measures the change in optical absorption in the two steps. The difference between the threshold currents of the two steps increases as the microwires are narrowed. Micron- and sub-micron-wide VO2 structures can be used to separate the two phase transition steps in photonic and electronic devices.
Field-induced valence transition in rare-earth system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhaya, A.; Ghatak, S.K.
2000-01-01
The magnetic field-induced valence transition in rare-earth compound has been examined based on a pseudospin S=1 Ising model proposed earlier for valence transition. The model includes finite mixing between two pertinent ionic configurations (magnetic and non-magnetic) separated by an energy gap and with intersite interaction between rare-earth ions. Using the mean field approximation the magnetic behaviour and the critical field (H c ) for transition are obtained as a function of energy gap and temperature. The phase boundary defined in terms of reduced field H c /H co and reduced temperature T/T v (T v being valence transition temperature in absence of field) is nearly independent of energy gap. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observation in Yb- and Eu-compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Min, E-mail: zmzmi1987@163.com; Liu, Ligang; Yang, Hui
2016-09-05
We report the observation of ferromagnetism in topological insulator Co{sub 0.08}Bi{sub 1.92}Se{sub 3} single crystal. The structural, magnetic, and microstructure properties of Co{sub 0.08}Bi{sub 1.92}Se{sub 3} are investigated. The existence of complicated ferromagnetic ordering, indicates the anomalous second ferromagnetic phase transition below 30 K. Well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis in the magnetization was found in the sample. The origin of bulk ferromagnetism in Co{sub 0.08}Bi{sub 1.92}Se{sub 3} is concerned with three aspects: Co cluster, RKKY interactions, and the spin texture of Co impurities. - Highlights: • The bulk ferromagnetism have been found in the C{sub o0.08}Bi{sub 1.92}Se{sub 3} single crystal. • The anomalous second ferromagnetic phase transition is found below 30 K. • The origin of bulk ferromagnetism in Co{sub 0.08}Bi{sub 1.92}Se{sub 3} is concerned with three aspects.
Corrosion behavior of pyroclore-rich titanate ceramics for plutonium disposition; impurity effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakel, A. J.
1999-01-01
The baseline ceramic contains Ti, U, Ca, Hf, Gd, and Ce, and is made up of only four phases, pyrochlore, zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite. The impurities present in the three other ceramics represent impurities expected in the feed, and result in different phase distributions. The results from 3 day, 90 C MCC-1 tests with impurity ceramics were significantly different than the results from tests with the baseline ceramic. Overall, the addition of impurities to these titanate ceramics alters the phase distributions, which in turn, affects the corrosion behavior
The quantum phase-transitions of water
Fillaux, François
2017-08-01
It is shown that hexagonal ices and steam are macroscopically quantum condensates, with continuous spacetime-translation symmetry, whereas liquid water is a quantum fluid with broken time-translation symmetry. Fusion and vaporization are quantum phase-transitions. The heat capacities, the latent heats, the phase-transition temperatures, the critical temperature, the molar volume expansion of ice relative to water, as well as neutron scattering data and dielectric measurements are explained. The phase-transition mechanisms along with the key role of quantum interferences and that of Hartley-Shannon's entropy are enlightened. The notions of chemical bond and force-field are questioned.
Phase transitions in the random field Ising model in the presence of a transverse field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Calcutta (India); Stinchcombe, R.B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Calcutta (India); Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)
1996-09-07
We have studied the phase transition behaviour of the random field Ising model in the presence of a transverse (or tunnelling) field. The mean field phase diagram has been studied in detail, and in particular the nature of the transition induced by the tunnelling (transverse) field at zero temperature. Modified hyper-scaling relation for the zero-temperature transition has been derived using the Suzuki-Trotter formalism and a modified 'Harris criterion'. Mapping of the model to a randomly diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model in uniform longitudinal and transverse field is also given. (author)
Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung
2017-04-01
We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z2 topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe /CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe /CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.
Phase transition in SO(3) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, Saumen; Gavai, Rajiv V.
1998-01-01
The phase transition in SO(3) lattice gauge theory is investigated by Monte Carlo techniques with a view (i) to understand the relationship between the bulk transition and the deconfinement transition, and (ii) to resolve the current ambiguity about the nature of the high temperature phase. By introduction of a magnetic field, it was shown that the +ve and -ve values of a > correspond to the same phase. Studies on different sized lattices lead to the conclusion that in SO(3), there is only one transition, which is deconfining in nature. (author)
What's new with the electroweak phase transition?
Laine, M.
1999-01-01
We review the status of non-perturbative lattice studies of the electroweak phase transition. In the Standard Model, the complete phase diagram has been reliably determined, and the conclusion is that there is no phase transition at all for the experimentally allowed Higgs masses. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), in contrast, there can be a strong first order transition allowing for baryogenesis. Finally, we point out possibilities for future simulations, such as the problem of CP-violation at the MSSM electroweak phase boundary.
Radiation-induced phase transformation in ferromagnetic perovskite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podsekin, A K; Dem' yanov, V V; Ivanova, V V; Venevtsev, Yu N [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)
1976-12-01
An effect of neutron irradiation inducing a phase transition in ferromagnetic perovskite, Sr/sub 0.3/La/sub 0.7/MnO/sub 3/, has been discovered and studied. It is shown that a change in the Curie temperature is proportional to the dose of reactor irradiation. A decrease in the temperature of the phase transition with the concentration of radiation defects is accompanied by an increase in the electrical specific resistance and a change in the initial lattice parameters. It is shown that the radiation shift is due to at least two causes, viz. to an increase in the parameters of the elementary cell and the growth of the electrical specific resistance as a result of bounded electron states' forming on the radiation defects.
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Wilson loop's phase transition probed by non-local observable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui-Ling Li
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In order to give further insights into the holographic Van der Waals phase transition, it would be of great interest to investigate the behavior of Wilson loop across the holographic phase transition for a higher dimensional hairy black hole. We offer a possibility to proceed with a numerical calculation in order to discussion on the hairy black hole's phase transition, and show that Wilson loop can serve as a probe to detect a phase structure of the black hole. Furthermore, for a first order phase transition, we calculate numerically the Maxwell's equal area construction; and for a second order phase transition, we also study the critical exponent in order to characterize the Wilson loop's phase transition.
The role of the excited impurity levels on the metal-non metal transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.S.F. da; Makler, S.S.; Anda, E.V.
1983-01-01
The electronic density of states for the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is calculated using the Green function method. The system is described by a Hamiltonian with local Coulomb interactions represented in a tight binding basis composed by two orbitals per site. The electronic correlation is treated in the CPA approximation. To calculate the configurational average for this structural disordered system a diagrammatic scheme is developed. It represents an extension of the Matsubara and Toyozawa method for the case of two hybridized bands in the presence of electronic correlation. The excited levels show to play a crutial role in the undestanding of the metal-non metal transition. This work represents an improvement of a previous result. The particular case of Si : P is analyzed. (author) [pt
The role of the excited impurity levels on the metal-non metal transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.S.F. da; Makler, S.S.; Anda, E.V.
1983-01-01
The electronic density of states for the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is calculated using the Green function method. The system is described by a Hamiltonian with local Coulomb interactions represented in a tight binding basis composed by two orbitals per site. The electronic correlation is treated in the CPA approximation. To calculate the configurational average for this structural disordered system a diagrammatic scheme is developed. It represents an extension of the Matsubara and Toyozawa method for the case of two hybridized bands in the presence of electronic correlation. The excited levels shown to play a crutial role in the understanding of the metal-non metal transition. This work represents an improvement of a previous result. The particular case of Si:P is analyzed. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Huai-Yong; Zhao, Ying-Qin; Lu, Qing [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education
2016-11-01
Lattice dynamics, structural phase transition, and the thermodynamic properties of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) are investigated by using first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the GGA-WC exchange-correlation functional can produce better results. The imaginary frequencies that indicate structural instability are observed for the cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases of BaTiO{sub 3} and no imaginary frequencies emerge in the rhombohedral phase. By examining the partial phonon density of states (PDOSs), we find that the main contribution to the imaginary frequencies is the distortions of the perovskite cage (Ti-O). On the basis of the site-symmetry consideration and group theory, we give the comparative phonon symmetry analysis in four phases, which is useful to analyze the role of different atomic displacements in the vibrational modes of different symmetry. The calculated optical phonon frequencies at Γ point for the four phases are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental data. The pressure-induced phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} among four phases and the thermodynamic properties of BaTiO{sub 3} in rhombohedral phase have been investigated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA). The sequence of the pressure-induced phase transition is rhombohedral → orthorhombic → tetragonal → cubic, and the corresponding transition pressure is 5.17, 5.92, 6.65 GPa, respectively. At zero pressure, the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub V}, heat capacity C{sub V}, Grueneisen parameter γ, and bulk modulus B of the rhombohedral phase BaTiO{sub 3} are estimated from 0 K to 200 K.
Baker, Michael J.; Breitbach, Moritz; Kopp, Joachim; Mittnacht, Lukas
2018-03-01
The cosmological abundance of dark matter can be significantly influenced by the temperature dependence of particle masses and vacuum expectation values. We illustrate this point in three simple freeze-in models. The first one, which we call kinematically induced freeze-in, is based on the observation that the effective mass of a scalar temporarily becomes very small as the scalar potential undergoes a second order phase transition. This opens dark matter production channels that are otherwise forbidden. The second model we consider, dubbed vev-induced freeze-in, is a fermionic Higgs portal scenario. Its scalar sector is augmented compared to the Standard Model by an additional scalar singlet, S, which couples to dark matter and temporarily acquires a vacuum expectation value (a two-step phase transition or "vev flip-flop"). While ≠ 0, the modified coupling structure in the scalar sector implies that dark matter production is significantly enhanced compared to the = 0 phases realised at very early times and again today. The third model, which we call mixing-induced freeze-in, is similar in spirit, but here it is the mixing of dark sector fermions, induced by non-zero , that temporarily boosts the dark matter production rate. For all three scenarios, we carefully dissect the evolution of the dark sector in the early Universe. We compute the DM relic abundance as a function of the model parameters, emphasising the importance of thermal corrections and the proper treatment of phase transitions in the calculation.
Lightning-Discharge Initiation as a Noise-Induced Kinetic Transition
Iudin, D. I.
2017-10-01
The electric fields observed in thunderclouds have the peak values one order of magnitude smaller than the electric strength of air. This fact renders the issue of the lightning-discharge initiation one of the most intriguing problems of thunderstorm electricity. In this work, the lightning initiation in a thundercloud is considered as a noise-induced kinetic transition. The stochastic electric field of the charged hydrometeors is the noise source. The considered kinetic transition has some features which distinguish it from other lightning-initiation mechanisms. First, the dynamic realization of this transition, which is due to interaction of the electron and ion components, is extended for a time significantly exceeding the spark-discharge development time. In this case, the fast attachment of electrons generated by supercritical bursts of the electric field of hydrometeors is balanced during long-term time intervals by the electron-release processes when the negative ions are destroyed. Second, an important role in the transition kinetics is played by the stochastic drift of electrons and ions caused by the small-scale fluctuations of the field of charged hydrometeors. From the formal mathematical viewpoint, this stochastic drift is indistinguishable from the scalar-impurity advection in a turbulent flow. In this work, it is shown that the efficiency of "advective mixing" is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the ordinary diffusion. Third, the considered transition leads to a sharp increase in the conductivity in the exponentially rare compact regions of space against the background of the vanishingly small variations in the average conductivity of the medium. In turn, the spots with increased conductivity are polarized in the mean field followed by the streamer initiation and discharge contraction.
Pressure induced structural phase transition in SnS—An ab initio study
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Abstract. The structural behaviour of SnS under pressure has been investigated by first principle density functional ... tural phase transition from orthorhombic type to monoclinic type structure around 17 GPa which is in good agreement with the ... is achieved by performing the electronic structure and total energy calculation ...
Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.
Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M
2018-01-01
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Chimera at the phase-flip transition of an ensemble of identical nonlinear oscillators
Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.
2018-06-01
A complex collective emerging behavior characterized by coexisting coherent and incoherent domains is termed as a chimera state. We bring out the existence of a new type of chimera in a nonlocally coupled ensemble of identical oscillators driven by a common dynamic environment. The latter facilitates the onset of phase-flip bifurcation/transitions among the coupled oscillators of the ensemble, while the nonlocal coupling induces a partial asynchronization among the out-of-phase synchronized oscillators at this onset. This leads to the manifestation of coexisting out-of-phase synchronized coherent domains interspersed by asynchronous incoherent domains elucidating the existence of a different type of chimera state. In addition to this, a rich variety of other collective behaviors such as clusters with phase-flip transition, conventional chimera, solitary state and complete synchronized state which have been reported using different coupling architectures are found to be induced by the employed couplings for appropriate coupling strengths. The robustness of the resulting dynamics is demonstrated in ensembles of two paradigmatic models, namely Rössler oscillators and Stuart-Landau oscillators.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1990-11-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx-gt 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies (ΔT/T) approx-lt 10 -5 can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of ∼100M pc for large-scale structure as well as ∼1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs
Energy barriers between metastable states in first-order quantum phase transitions
Wald, Sascha; Timpanaro, André M.; Cormick, Cecilia; Landi, Gabriel T.
2018-02-01
A system of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice and dispersively coupled to the field of an optical cavity can realize a variation of the Bose-Hubbard model with infinite-range interactions. This model exhibits a first-order quantum phase transition between a Mott insulator and a charge density wave, with spontaneous symmetry breaking between even and odd sites, as was recently observed experimentally [Landig et al., Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409]. In the present paper, we approach the analysis of this transition using a variational model which allows us to establish the notion of an energy barrier separating the two phases. Using a discrete WKB method, we then show that the local tunneling of atoms between adjacent sites lowers this energy barrier and hence facilitates the transition. Within our simplified description, we are thus able to augment the phase diagram of the model with information concerning the height of the barrier separating the metastable minima from the global minimum in each phase, which is an essential aspect for the understanding of the reconfiguration dynamics induced by a quench across a quantum critical point.
Effects of impurities on radiation damage in InP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, M.; Ando, K.
1986-01-01
Strong impurity effects upon introduction and annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects in InP irradiated with 1-MeV electrons have been found. The main defect center of 0.37-eV hole trap H4 in p-InP, which must be due to a point defect, is annealed even at room temperature. Its annealing rate is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the preirradiation carrier concentration in InP. Moreover, the density of the hole trap H5 (E/sub v/+0.52 eV) in p-InP, which must be due to a point defect--impurity complex, increases with increase in the InP carrier concentration. These results suggest that the radiation-induced defects in InP must recover through long-range diffusion mediated by impurity atoms. A model is proposed in which point defects diffuse to sinks through impurities so as to disappear or bind impurities so as to form point defect--impurity complexes. In addition to the long-range diffusion mechanism, the possibility of charge-state effects responsible for the thermal annealing of radiation-induced defects in InP is also discussed
Keefe, Peter
2004-01-01
Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of tradi...
Structural and electronic phase transitions of ThS2 from first-principles calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Yongliang; Wang, Changying; Qiu, Wujie; Ke, Xuezhi
2016-01-01
Performed a systematic study using first-principles methods of the pressure-induced structural and electronic phase transitions in ThS_2, which may play an important role in the next generation nuclear energy fuel technology.
Predictions for impurity-induced Tc suppression in the high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radtke, R.J.; Levin, K.; Schuettler, H.; Norman, M.R.
1993-01-01
We address the question of whether anisotropic superconductivity is compatible with the evidently weak sensitivity of the critical temperature T c to sample quality in the high-T c copper oxides. We examine this issue quantitatively by solving the strong-coupling Eliashberg equations numerically as well as analytically for s-wave impurity scattering within the second Born approximation. For pairing interactions with a characteristically low energy scale, we find an approximately universal dependence of the d-wave superconducting transition temperature on the planar residual resistivity which is independent of the details of the microscopic pairing. These results, in conjunction with future systematic experiments, should help elucidate the symmetry of the order parameter in the cuprates
Phase transitions and neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirane, G.
1993-01-01
A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)
Do medium heavy fragments give evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trockel, R.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Rabe, H.J.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Wada, R.; Brummund, N.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Santo, R.; Pelte, D.; Pochodzalla, J.; Eckert, E.
1985-09-01
Light and medium heavy fragments have been measured in light ion induced reactions at intermediate energies. The energy spectra have been parametrized with moving source fits. The resulting temperatures and yields do not confirm the expectations of a liquid-gas phase transition. (orig.)
Quantum phase transitions in random XY spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunder, J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.
2000-01-01
Full text: The XY spin chain in a transverse field is one of the simplest quantum spin models. It is a reasonable model for heavy fermion materials such as CeCu 6-x Au x . It has two quantum phase transitions: the Ising transition and the anisotropic transition. Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature. We are investigating what effect the introduction of randomness has on these quantum phase transitions. Disordered systems which undergo quantum phase transitions can exhibit new universality classes. The universality class of a phase transition is defined by the set of critical exponents. In a random system with quantum phase transitions we can observe Griffiths-McCoy singularities. Such singularities are observed in regions which have no long range order, so they are not classified as critical regions, yet they display phenomena normally associated with critical points, such as a diverging susceptibility. Griffiths-McCoy phases are due to rare regions with stronger than! average interactions and may be present far from the quantum critical point. We show how the random XY spin chain may be mapped onto a random Dirac equation. This allows us to calculate the density of states without making any approximations. From the density of states we can describe the conditions which should allow a Griffiths-McCoy phase. We find that for the Ising transition the dynamic critical exponent, z, is not universal. It is proportional to the disorder strength and inversely proportional to the energy gap, hence z becomes infinite at the critical point where the energy gap vanishes
Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis
Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho
2015-06-01
This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)
2010-01-11
Low-temperature specific-heat measurements on YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} at the second order antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition reveal a sharp peak at T{sub N}=72 mK. The corresponding critical exponent alpha turns out to be alpha=0.38, which differs significantly from that obtained within the framework of the fluctuation theory of second order phase transitions based on the scale invariance, where alphaapprox =0.1. We show that under the application of magnetic field the curve of the second order AF phase transitions passes into a curve of the first order ones at the tricritical point leading to a violation of the critical universality of the fluctuation theory. This change of the phase transition is generated by the fermion condensation quantum phase transition. Near the tricritical point the Landau theory of second order phase transitions is applicable and gives alphaapprox =1/2. We demonstrate that this value of alpha is in good agreement with the specific-heat measurements.
Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesnic, S.S.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Couture, P.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Morris, W.
1987-01-01
Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Z eff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n met /n e ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm 3 , consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft X-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6x10 10 and 10x10 10 particles/cm 2 s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3x10 12 and 1x10 12 particles/cm 2 s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained. (orig.)
Models for impurity effects in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogan, J.T.
1980-03-01
Models for impurity effects in tokamaks are described with an emphasis on the relationship between attainment of high β and impurity problems. We briefly describe the status of attempts to employ neutral beam heating to achieve high β in tokamaks and propose a qualitative model for the mechanism by which heavy metal impurities may be produced in the startup phase of the discharge. We then describe paradoxes in impurity diffusion theory and discuss possible resolutions in terms of the effects of large-scale islands and sawtooth oscillations. Finally, we examine the prospects for the Zakharov-Shafranov catastrophe (long time scale disintegration of FCT equilibria) in the context of present and near-term experimental capability
Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.
2017-07-01
We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.
Toleddano, J.C.; Glazer, A.M.; Hahn, Th.; Parthe, E.; Roth, R.S.; Berry, R.S.; Metselaar, R.; Abrahams, S.C.
1998-01-01
A compact and intuitive nomenclature is recommended for naming each phase formed by a given material in a sequence of phase transitions as a function of temperature and/or pressure. The most commonly used label for each phase in a sequence, such as [alpha], [beta], ..., I, II, ... etc., is included
Method for detecting trace impurities in gases
Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.
A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parfitt, L.J.; Karpenko, O.P.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.
1997-01-01
Both the sign and magnitude of residual stress can vary with the thickness of sputter deposited films. The origins of this behavior are not well understood. In this work, the authors consider the correlation between the residual stress behavior and the depth dependence of impurities in thin (2.5 nm--150 nm) sputtered Mo and Ta films. They also consider the effects of phase transformations and microstructural changes on the stress behavior. Films were deposited onto Si substrates with native oxide. The residual stress observed in the Mo films varied from highly compressive at 2.5 nm film thickness to ∼0 at 10 nm thickness. Ta films also exhibited a high compressive stress, which relaxed from highly compressive to tensile between 10 nm and 50 nm film thickness. Impurities in the films may originate from the sputtering targets, the background gases, and the substrate surfaces. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results showed the presence of O and C contamination near the film/Si interface; these impurities contributed to the compressive stresses in the thinner films. As anticipated, both Mo and Ta films exhibited grain growth as a function of film thickness, which may have contributed to the relaxation in the compressive stress. The Mo films were entirely bcc. The Ta films showed a transformation from the amorphous phase to the β crystalline phase between 2.5 nm and 20 nm film thickness, which contributed to the relaxation in stress observed in that thickness regime
Phase transition detection by surface photo charge effect in liquid crystals
Ivanov, O.; Petrov, M.; Naradikian, H.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.
2018-05-01
The surface photo charge effect (SPCE) was applied for the first time at structure and phase transitions study of hydrogen bonded in dimer liquid crystals (HBDLCs). Due to the high sensitivity of this method, besides first-order phase transitions, characteristic for the p,n-octyloxibenzoic acids (8OBA), an order transition was definitely detected within the nematic range. We state that the SPCE, arising at the solid-HBDLCs interface due to the double electrical layer, is invariably concomitant with solid surface-liquid interfaces, and indicates that the changes of the characteristics of this layer, under incident optical irradiation, induce surface charge rearrangement and alternating potential difference. A mechanism of induction of the SPCE at the interface of solid surface-anisotropic liquids is proposed. We also indicate that this mechanism can be adapted for solid surface-isotropic liquid interface, including colloids (milk) and fog (aerosols)-condensed medium.
The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.
1977-01-01
The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...... this evidence and indicate that the mechanism of the phase transition may well be the instability of a zone boundary acoustic mode of librational character. The structure of the low-temperature phase has been refined and the Raman spectra of the upper and lower phases are reported....
Windows open for highly tunable magnetostructural phase transitions
Li, Y.
2016-07-18
An attempt was made to tailor the magnetostructural transitions over a wide temperature range under the principle of isostructural alloying. A series of wide Curie-temperature windows (CTWs) with a maximal width of 377 K between 69 and 446 K were established in the Mn1− yCoyNiGe1− xSix system. Throughout the CTWs, the magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic behavior and giant magnetocaloric effects are obtained. The (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) system shows great potential as multifunctional phase-transition materials that work in a wide range covering liquid-nitrogen and above water-boiling temperatures. Moreover, general understanding of isostructural alloying and CTWs constructed in (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) as well as (Mn,Fe)Ni(Ge,Si) is provided.
Phases and phase transitions of S=1 bosons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
smukerjee
Quantum phases and phase transitions of bosons. Subroto Mukerjee. Dept. of Physics & Centre for Quantum. Information and Quantum Computing (CQIQC). Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 77th annual meeting of the IAS, Nov. 20 2011, PRL Ahmedabad ...
Cresswell, Alexander J; Wheatley, Richard J; Wilkinson, Richard D; Graham, Richard S
2016-10-20
Impurities from the CCS chain can greatly influence the physical properties of CO 2 . This has important design, safety and cost implications for the compression, transport and storage of CO 2 . There is an urgent need to understand and predict the properties of impure CO 2 to assist with CCS implementation. However, CCS presents demanding modelling requirements. A suitable model must both accurately and robustly predict CO 2 phase behaviour over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, and maintain that predictive power for CO 2 mixtures with numerous, mutually interacting chemical species. A promising technique to address this task is molecular simulation. It offers a molecular approach, with foundations in firmly established physical principles, along with the potential to predict the wide range of physical properties required for CCS. The quality of predictions from molecular simulation depends on accurate force-fields to describe the interactions between CO 2 and other molecules. Unfortunately, there is currently no universally applicable method to obtain force-fields suitable for molecular simulation. In this paper we present two methods of obtaining force-fields: the first being semi-empirical and the second using ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. In the first approach we optimise the impurity force-field against measurements of the phase and pressure-volume behaviour of CO 2 binary mixtures with N 2 , O 2 , Ar and H 2 . A gradient-free optimiser allows us to use the simulation itself as the underlying model. This leads to accurate and robust predictions under conditions relevant to CCS. In the second approach we use quantum-chemical calculations to produce ab initio evaluations of the interactions between CO 2 and relevant impurities, taking N 2 as an exemplar. We use a modest number of these calculations to train a machine-learning algorithm, known as a Gaussian process, to describe these data. The resulting model is then able to accurately
Uniaxial pressure-induced half-metallic ferromagnetic phase transition in LaMnO3
Rivero, Pablo; Meunier, Vincent; Shelton, William
2016-03-01
We use first-principles theory to predict that the application of uniaxial compressive strain leads to a transition from an antiferromagnetic insulator to a ferromagnetic half-metal phase in LaMnO3. We identify the Q2 Jahn-Teller mode as the primary mechanism that drives the transition, indicating that this mode can be used to tune the lattice, charge, and spin coupling. Applying ≃6 GPa of uniaxial pressure along the [010] direction activates the transition to a half-metallic pseudocubic state. The half-metallicity opens the possibility of producing colossal magnetoresistance in the stoichiometric LaMnO3 compound at significantly lower pressure compared to recently observed investigations using hydrostatic pressure.
Unconventional phase transitions in a constrained single polymer chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klushin, L I; Skvortsov, A M
2011-01-01
Phase transitions were recognized among the most fascinating phenomena in physics. Exactly solved models are especially important in the theory of phase transitions. A number of exactly solved models of phase transitions in a single polymer chain are discussed in this review. These are three models demonstrating the second order phase transitions with some unusual features: two-dimensional model of β-structure formation, the model of coil–globule transition and adsorption of a polymer chain grafted on the solid surface. We also discuss models with first order phase transitions in a single macromolecule which admit not only exact analytical solutions for the partition function with explicit finite-size effects but also the non-equilibrium free energy as a function of the order parameter (Landau function) in closed analytical form. One of them is a model of mechanical desorption of a macromolecule, which demonstrates an unusual first order phase transition with phase coexistence within a single chain. Features of first and second order transitions become mixed here due to phase coexistence which is not accompanied by additional interfacial free energy. Apart from that, there exist several single-chain models belonging to the same class (adsorption of a polymer chain tethered near the solid surface or liquid–liquid interface, and escape transition upon compressing a polymer between small pistons) that represent examples of a highly unconventional first order phase transition with several inter-related unusual features: no simultaneous phase coexistence, and hence no phase boundary, non-concave thermodynamic potential and non-equivalence of conjugate ensembles. An analysis of complex zeros of partition functions upon approaching the thermodynamic limit is presented for models with and without phase coexistence. (topical review)
Indirect phase transition of TiC, ZrC, and HfC crystal structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abavare, Eric K.K.; Dodoo, Samuel N.A. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Uchida, Kazuyuki; Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo (Japan); Nkurumah-Buandoh, George K.; Yaya, Abu [Department of Physics, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)
2016-06-15
We have performed first-principles calculations to analyze the electronic structures, static, and dynamical structural stabilities of the pressure-induced phase transformation of refractory compounds (transition-metal carbides) from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) via zinc-blende phase using the plane-wave pseudopotential approach in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation functional. The ground-state properties, equilibrium lattice constant, bulk moduli, and band structures are determined for the stoichiometry of the compounds and compared with known experimental and theoretical values. We find that the phase-transition pressure for the indirect phase transition from B1→B2 via zinc-blende structure is about 17-fold for TiC, 12-fold for both ZrC and HfC, respectively, when compared with the direct phase transition. Calculated phonon instability exists for the CsCl-B2 phase, which can prevent the structures from forming and contrary to the zinc-blende and the NaCl-B1 phases. The band dispersion and electronic density of states for B1 and B2 crystal phases were explored and found to indicate metallic character in contrast with the zinc-blende phase, which has a pseudogap opening in the bandgap region suggesting a semiconducting property and also a frequency gap in the phonon spectrum. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charit, I.; Seok, C.S.; Murty, K.L.
2007-01-01
Ferritic steels are generally used in pressure vessels and various reactor support structures in light water reactors. They are known to exhibit radiation embrittlement in terms of decreased toughness and increased ductile-brittle transition temperature as a result of exposure to neutron radiation. The superimposed effects of strain aging due to interstitial impurity atoms on radiation embrittlement were considered first by Wechsler, Hall and others. Here we summarize some of our efforts on the investigation of synergistic effects between interstitial impurity atoms (IIAs) and radiation-induced point defects, which result in interesting effects at appropriate temperature and strain rate conditions. Two materials, a mild steel and a pressure vessel steel (A516 Gr.70), are evaluated using tensile and three-point bend tests
Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin
2015-02-04
Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.
Phase transitions and baryogenesis from decays
Shuve, Brian; Tamarit, Carlos
2017-10-01
We study scenarios in which the baryon asymmetry is generated from the decay of a particle whose mass originates from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This is realized in many models, including low-scale leptogenesis and theories with classical scale invariance. Symmetry breaking in the early universe proceeds through a phase transition that gives the parent particle a time-dependent mass, which provides an additional departure from thermal equilibrium that could modify the efficiency of baryogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. We characterize the effects of various types of phase transitions and show that an enhancement in the baryon asymmetry from decays is possible if the phase transition is of the second order, although such models are typically fine-tuned. We also stress the role of new annihilation modes that deplete the parent particle abundance in models realizing such a phase transition, reducing the efficacy of baryogenesis. A proper treatment of baryogenesis in such models therefore requires the inclusion of the effects we study in this paper.
Tengdin, Phoebe; You, Wenjing; Chen, Cong; Shi, Xun; Zusin, Dmitriy; Zhang, Yingchao; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Keller, Mark; Oppeneer, Peter M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Tao, Zhensheng; Murnane, Margaret M
2018-03-01
It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time- and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel. This is evidenced by several observations. First, we observe a divergence of the transient heat capacity of the electron spin system preceding material demagnetization. Second, when the electron temperature is transiently driven above the Curie temperature, we observe an extremely rapid change in the material response: The spin system absorbs sufficient energy within the first 20 fs to subsequently proceed through the phase transition, whereas demagnetization and the collapse of the exchange splitting occur on much longer, fluence-independent time scales of ~176 fs. Third, we find that the transient electron temperature alone dictates the magnetic response. Our results are important because they connect the out-of-equilibrium material behavior to the strongly coupled equilibrium behavior and uncover a new time scale in the process of ultrafast demagnetization.
Impurity gettering in semiconductors
Sopori, Bhushan L.
1995-01-01
A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.
Sound speed during the QCD phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagasawa, Michiyasu; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
1998-01-01
The Jeans scale is estimated during the coexistence epoch of quark-gluon and hadron phases in the first-order QCD phase transition. It is shown that, contrary to previous claims, reduction of the sound speed is so little that the phase transition does not affect evolution of cosmological density fluctuations appreciably. (author)
Modulated phases of phospholipid bilayers induced by tocopherols.
Kamal, Md Arif; Raghunathan, V A
2012-11-01
The influence of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols on the structure and phase behavior of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers has been determined from X-ray diffraction studies on oriented multilayers. In all the three cases the main-transition temperature (T(m)) of DPPC was found to decrease with increasing tocopherol concentration up to around 25 mol%. Beyond this the main transition is suppressed in the case of γ-tocopherol, whereas T(m) becomes insensitive to composition in the other two cases. The pre-transition is found to be suppressed over a narrow tocopherol concentration range between 7.5 and 10 mol% in DPPC-γ-tocopherol and DPPC-δ-tocopherol bilayers, and the ripple phase occurs down to the lowest temperature studied. In all the three cases a modulated phase is observed above a tocopherol concentration of about 10 mol%, which is similar to the P(β) phase reported in DPPC-cholesterol bilayers. This phase is found to occur even in excess water conditions at lower tocopherol concentrations, and consists of bilayers with periodic height modulation. These results indicate the ability of tocopherols to induce local curvature in membranes, which could be important for some of their biological functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Local distortion induced metal-to-insulator phase transition in PrRu4P12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, D.; Heffner, R.H.; Jeong, I.-K.; Bauer, E.D.; Bridges, F.; Yuhasz, W.M.; Maple, M.B.
2005-01-01
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on PrRu 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 P 12 to study the metal-to-insulator (MI) phase transition in PrRu 4 P 12 . No Pr displacement was observed across the MI transition temperature from the EXAFS data. Instead, our EXAFS data clearly show that a Ru displacement is associated with this MI transition. The very high Debye temperature for the Ru-P bond (Θ D =690 K) suggests that a slight rotation/displacement of relatively rigid RuP 6 octahedra leads to this small Ru displacement, which accompanies the MI transition at 62 K in PrRu 4 P 12
Impurities block the alpha to omega martensitic transformation in titanium.
Hennig, Richard G; Trinkle, Dallas R; Bouchet, Johann; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G; Albers, Robert C; Wilkins, John W
2005-02-01
Impurities control phase stability and phase transformations in natural and man-made materials, from shape-memory alloys to steel to planetary cores. Experiments and empirical databases are still central to tuning the impurity effects. What is missing is a broad theoretical underpinning. Consider, for example, the titanium martensitic transformations: diffusionless structural transformations proceeding near the speed of sound. Pure titanium transforms from ductile alpha to brittle omega at 9 GPa, creating serious technological problems for beta-stabilized titanium alloys. Impurities in the titanium alloys A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V (wt%) suppress the transformation up to at least 35 GPa, increasing their technological utility as lightweight materials in aerospace applications. These and other empirical discoveries in technological materials call for broad theoretical understanding. Impurities pose two theoretical challenges: the effect on the relative phase stability, and the energy barrier of the transformation. Ab initio methods calculate both changes due to impurities. We show that interstitial oxygen, nitrogen and carbon retard the transformation whereas substitutional aluminium and vanadium influence the transformation by changing the d-electron concentration. The resulting microscopic picture explains the suppression of the transformation in commercial A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In general, the effect of impurities on relative energies and energy barriers is central to understanding structural phase transformations.
Merker, L.; Costi, T. A.
2012-08-01
We introduce a method to obtain the specific heat of quantum impurity models via a direct calculation of the impurity internal energy requiring only the evaluation of local quantities within a single numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation for the total system. For the Anderson impurity model we show that the impurity internal energy can be expressed as a sum of purely local static correlation functions and a term that involves also the impurity Green function. The temperature dependence of the latter can be neglected in many cases, thereby allowing the impurity specific heat Cimp to be calculated accurately from local static correlation functions; specifically via Cimp=(∂Eionic)/(∂T)+(1)/(2)(∂Ehyb)/(∂T), where Eionic and Ehyb are the energies of the (embedded) impurity and the hybridization energy, respectively. The term involving the Green function can also be evaluated in cases where its temperature dependence is non-negligible, adding an extra term to Cimp. For the nondegenerate Anderson impurity model, we show by comparison with exact Bethe ansatz calculations that the results recover accurately both the Kondo induced peak in the specific heat at low temperatures as well as the high-temperature peak due to the resonant level. The approach applies to multiorbital and multichannel Anderson impurity models with arbitrary local Coulomb interactions. An application to the Ohmic two-state system and the anisotropic Kondo model is also given, with comparisons to Bethe ansatz calculations. The approach could also be of interest within other impurity solvers, for example, within quantum Monte Carlo techniques.
Pressure-induced quantum phase transition in the itinerant ferromagnet UCoGa
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Míšek, Martin; Prokleška, J.; Opletal, P.; Proschek, P.; Kaštil, Jiří; Kamarád, Jiří; Sechovský, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 055712. ISSN 2158-3226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-06422S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum phase transition * high pressure * itinerant ferromagnet * UCoGa Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4976300
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.
Diffusionless phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vejman, K.M.
1987-01-01
Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered
Phase transition of aragonite in abalone nacre
An, Yuanlin; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian
2013-04-01
Nacre is composed of about 95 vol.% aragonite and 5 vol.% biopolymer and famous for its "brick and mortar" microstructure. The phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre is lower than the pure aragonite. In situ XRD was used to identify the phase transition temperature from aragonite to calcite in nacre, based on the analysis of TG-DSC of fresh nacre and demineralized nacre. The results indicate that the microstructure and biopolymer are the two main factors that influence the phase transition temperature of aragonite in nacre.
Anisotropy effects in superconductors with magnetic impurities. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entel, P.
1976-01-01
The influence of Fermi surface anisotropy on the specific heat jumps, ΔC, at the phase transition for superconductors containing magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is discussed. In the framework of a simple two-band or two-zone model we find for small interband electron-phonon coupling constants characteristic maxima in the ΔC(Tsub(c))-curve. These departures from the corresponding ΔC-curve of a single-band isotropic superconductor are mostly pronounced for weak and strong interband Coulomb scattering of conduction electrons on nonmagnetic ions. There is only a small range of intermediate scattering rates for which the maxima are smeared out. (orig.) [de
Impurity-defect induced noncentrosymmetricity in nonlinear optical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, M. Idrish
2009-01-01
Noncentrosymmetric nanosize-material processes in cadmium iodide are formed by doping it with the impurity copper. The noncentrosymmetricity in the processes are probed by the observation of the second-order optical susceptibility χ ijk (2) . The value of χ ijk (2) is found to depend fashionably on the impurity content of the nanomaterials. The results also show that a significant enhancement in the noncentrosymmetric response is achieved in nanomaterials with reduced sizes and at low temperatures.
Leahy, Ian; Bornstein, Alex; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Minhyea
α -RuCl3, a quasi -two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is known to be a candidate material to realize the Heisenberg-Kitaev spin model of a highly anisotropic bond-dependent exchange interaction. We investigate in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) as a function of temperature (T) and in-plane applied field (H). At H = 0 , the onset of a strong increase in κ marks the spontaneous long range ordering temperature, Tc = 6 . 5 K , corresponding to ``zigzag'' antiferromagnetic ordering. A broad peak appearing below Tc in κ was found to be suppressed significantly as H increases up to ~ 7 T , implying the system undergoes a field-induced transition from ordered to a new spin-disordered state analogous to the transverse-field Ising model. Further increasing H above 7 . 1 T , the large field seems to begin polarizing spins thus increasing the phonon mean free path, resulting in a significant rise in κ. This tendency is clearly shown in the field dependence of κ below Tc, which has a pronounced minimum at Hmin = 7 . 1 T . We will discuss our scaling analysis to characterize this field-induced phase transition and compare to the transverse-field Ising spin system. Work at the University of Colorado was supported by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0006888.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Hong [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2017-06-28
Majorana bound states in topological Josephson junctions induce a 4π period current-phase relation. Direct detection of the 4π periodicity is complicated by the quasiparticle poisoning. We reveal that Majorana bound states are also signaled by the anomalous enhancement on the critical current of the junction. We show the landscape of the critical current for a nanowire Josephson junction under a varying Zeeman field, and reveal a sharp step feature at the topological quantum phase transition point, which comes from the anomalous enhancement of the critical current at the topological regime. In multi-band wires, the anomalous enhancement disappears for an even number of bands, where the Majorana bound states fuse into Andreev bound states. This anomalous critical current enhancement directly signals the existence of the Majorana bound states, and also provides a valid signature for the topological quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We introduce the critical current step as a signal for the topological quantum phase transition. • We study the quantum phase transition in the topological nanowire under a rotating Zeeman field. • We show that the critical current anomaly gradually disappears for systems with more sub-bands.
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
High temperature phase transitions without infrared divergences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetradis, N.; Wetterich, C.
1993-09-01
The most commonly used method for the study of high temperature phase transitions is based on the perturbative evaluation of the temperature dependent effective potential. This method becomes unreliable in the case of a second order or weakly first order phase transition, due to the appearance of infrared divergences. These divergences can be controlled through the method of the effective average action which employs renormalization group ideas. We report on the study of the high temperature phase transition for the N-component φ 4 theory. A detailed quantitative picture of the second order phase transition is presented, including the critical exponents for the behaviour in the vicinity of the critical temperature. An independent check of the results is obtained in the large N limit, and contact with the perturbative approach is established through the study of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. (orig.)
Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wójcik Tadeusz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.
Impurity-defect induced noncentrosymmetricity in nonlinear optical processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)
2009-12-15
Noncentrosymmetric nanosize-material processes in cadmium iodide are formed by doping it with the impurity copper. The noncentrosymmetricity in the processes are probed by the observation of the second-order optical susceptibility {chi}{sub ijk}{sup (2)}. The value of {chi}{sub ijk}{sup (2)} is found to depend fashionably on the impurity content of the nanomaterials. The results also show that a significant enhancement in the noncentrosymmetric response is achieved in nanomaterials with reduced sizes and at low temperatures.
Mott Transition of Cerium Compound CeCu2Si2 in the Anderson ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Exact-Diagonalization (ED) technique is applied to the Single Site Impurity Anderson Model (SIAM) and the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) to elucidate the nature of the ground-state energy and the phase diagram of the two models. The results obtained show a smooth phase transition from an antiferromagnetic ...
Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan
2016-07-15
Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e. before-transition state, pre-transition state and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. By exploring the rich dynamical information provided by high-throughput data, we present a novel computational method, i.e. hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach, to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e. the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the computational results. The source code and some supporting files are available at https://github.com/rabbitpei/HMM_based-method lnchen@sibs.ac.cn or liyj@scut.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state
Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.
Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state
Zhu, Zhiyong
2014-02-07
Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.
Renormalization group approach to QCD phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midorikawa, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; So, H.
1987-01-01
Effective scalar theories for QCD are proposed to investigate the deconfining and chiral phase transitions. The orders of the phase transitions are determined by infrared stabilities of the fixed points. It is found that the transitions in SU(3) gauge theories are of 1st order for any number of massless flavors. The cases of SU(2) and SU(4) gauge theories are also discussed. (orig.)
Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H.M.
2000-02-01
This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.
A computational study of pressure-induced structural transition in ThSb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trinadh, Ch.U.M.; Rajagopalan, M.; Natarajan, S.
1997-01-01
The pressure induced phase transition from NaCl-type to CsCl-type structure in ThSb was studied using total energy calculations by tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital (TBLMTO) method within atomic sphere approximation (ASA). The density of states (DOS) at ambient pressure was compared with resonant photoemission studies (PES). The variation in interatomic distances during the transition was found to be in agreement with high pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD) studies. (author)
Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review
Heyl, Markus
2018-05-01
Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review.
Heyl, Markus
2018-05-01
Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.
Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.
Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.
2018-01-01
) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions...
Investigation of impurity defects in α-iron by molecular dynamics method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kevorkyan, Yu.R.
1986-01-01
Investigation of the configuration of impurity defects in α-iron by the molecular dynamics method is presented. The Jhonson model potential has been used to calculate the interaction of matrix atoms. The impurity-matrix atom interaction is described by the same form of the potential shifted along the axis of interatomic distances for a definite value. The correspondence between the shift value and change in the radius of the impurity defect is established on the basis of calculation of the relaxation volume. Possible configurations of the impurity - interstitial matrix atom complexes are obtained for the given model of the impurity defect, dimensional boundaries of possible transitions between different configurations are determined. Formation and bound energies, relaxation volumes of impurity defects are calculated
Structural Phase Transition and Compressibility of CaF2 Nanocrystals under High Pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingshu Wang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The structural phase transition and compressibility of CaF2 nanocrystals with size of 23 nm under high pressure were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement. A pressure-induced fluorite to α-PbCl2-type phase transition starts at 9.5 GPa and completes at 20.2 GPa. The phase-transition pressure is lower than that of 8 nm CaF2 nanocrystals and closer to bulk CaF2. Upon decompression, the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type structure co-exist at the ambient pressure. The bulk modulus B0 of the 23 nm CaF2 nanocrystals for the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type phase are 103(2 and 78(2 GPa, which are both larger than those of the bulk CaF2. The CaF2 nanocrystals exhibit obviously higher incompressibility compare to bulk CaF2. Further analysis demonstrates that the defect effect in our CaF2 nanocrystals plays a dominant role in the structural stability.
Computational advances in transition phase analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, K.; Kondo, S.; Tobita, Y.; Shirakawa, N.; Brear, D.J.; Fischer, E.A.
1994-01-01
In this paper, historical perspective and recent advances are reviewed on computational technologies to evaluate a transition phase of core disruptive accidents in liquid-metal fast reactors. An analysis of the transition phase requires treatment of multi-phase multi-component thermohydraulics coupled with space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics. Such a comprehensive modeling effort was initiated when the program of SIMMER-series computer code development was initiated in the late 1970s in the USA. Successful application of the latest SIMMER-II in USA, western Europe and Japan have proved its effectiveness, but, at the same time, several areas that require further research have been identified. Based on the experience and lessons learned during the SIMMER-II application through 1980s, a new project of SIMMER-III development is underway at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan. The models and methods of SIMMER-III are briefly described with emphasis on recent advances in multi-phase multi-component fluid dynamics technologies and their expected implication on a future reliable transition phase analysis. (author)
Critical Line of the Deconfinement Phase Transitions
Gorenstein, Mark I.
Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ B , and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or μ B . The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag massvolume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the μ B /T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1 st order transition at a high μ B/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2 nd order phase transition at an intermediate μ B/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low μ B /T. This talk is based on a recent paper (Gorenstein, Gaździcki, and Greiner, 2005).
Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2017-02-15
We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.
The MSSM Electroweak Phase Transition on the Lattice
Laine, Mikko
1998-01-01
We study the MSSM finite temperature electroweak phase transition with lattice Monte Carlo simulations, for a large Higgs mass (m_H ~ 95 GeV) and light stop masses (m_tR ~ 150...160 GeV). We employ a 3d effective field theory approach, where the degrees of freedom appearing in the action are the SU(2) and SU(3) gauge fields, the weakly interacting Higgs doublet, and the strongly interacting stop triplet. We determine the phase diagram, the critical temperatures, the scalar field expectation values, the latent heat, the interface tension and the correlation lengths at the phase transition points. Extrapolating the results to the infinite volume and continuum limits, we find that the transition is stronger than indicated by 2-loop perturbation theory, guaranteeing that the MSSM phase transition is strong enough for baryogenesis in this regime. We also study the possibility of a two-stage phase transition, in which the stop field gets an expectation value in an intermediate phase. We find that a two-stage transi...
Electronic structure of deep impurity centers in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosten, A.B. van.
1989-01-01
This thesis reports an experimental study of deep level impurity centers in silicon, with much attention for theoretical interpretation of the data. A detailed picture of the electronic structure of several centers was obtained by magnetic resonance techniques, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and field scanned ENDOR (FSE). The thesis consists of two parts. The first part deals with chalcogen (sulfur, selenium and tellurium) related impurities, which are mostly double donors. The second part is about late transition metal (nickel, palladium and platinum) impurities, which are single (Pd,Pt) or double (Ni) acceptor centers. (author). 155 refs.; 51 figs.; 23 tabs
Synthesis, Isolation and Characterization of Process-Related Impurities in Oseltamivir Phosphate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yogesh Kumar Sharma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Three known impurities in oseltamivir phosphate bulk drug at level 0.1% (ranging from 0.05-0.1% were detected by gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. These impurities were preliminarily identified by the mass number of the impurities. Different experiments were conducted and finally the known impurities were synthesized and characterized.
Hadronization during quark-gluon plasma phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanty, A.K.; Kataria, S.K.
1996-01-01
The hadron multiplicity distributions and factorial moments are studied in the framework of Landau theory of phase transitions. The factorial moments show a scaling law with a scaling exponent ν which characterizes the intermittency properties of the hadron phase for T c (or T t ) where T c (or T t ) is the transition temperature for second (or first) order transition. The scaling exponent ν is weakly dependent on the free energy parameters as well as on temperature. It is shown that ν remains practically constant in the hadron phase for which T c or T t whether the transition is second order or first order of second kind where the free energy expansion includes cubic term. This universality in the scaling exponent is also maintained above T c over a wide range of temperature even if the transition is strongly first order of first kind where the free energy expansion has only even order coefficients, except around the critical temperature T t where T t approx-gt T c . Therefore, the scaling exponent ν is rather more universal and only indicates the presence of a possible phase transition. It is further shown that the hadron multiplicity distribution is quite sensitive to the free energy parameters. The study of hadron multiplicity distribution at various resolution or bin size reveals more information about the dynamics of the phase transition. The calculated hadron multiplicity distributions are also compared with the negative binomial distribution, often used to explain the experimental multiplicity distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Impurity bound states in mesoscopic topological superconducting loops
Jin, Yan-Yan; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping
2018-06-01
We study numerically the effect induced by magnetic impurities in topological s-wave superconducting loops with spin-orbit interaction based on spin-generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the case of a single magnetic impurity, it is found that the midgap bound states can cross the Fermi level at an appropriate impurity strength and the circulating spin current jumps at the crossing point. The evolution of the zero-energy mode can be effectively tuned by the located site of a single magnetic impurity. For the effect of many magnetic impurities, two independent midway or edge impurities cannot lead to the overlap of zero modes. The multiple zero-energy modes can be effectively realized by embedding a single Josephson junction with impurity scattering into the system, and the spin current displays oscillatory feature with increasing the layer thickness.
Two kinds of phase transitions in a voting model
Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.
2012-08-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C0 and C1. We consider two types of voters—herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values, while the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in the Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper limit of the time t by using the analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.
Traffic jams induce dynamical phase transition in spatial rock-paper-scissors game
Nagatani, Takashi; Ichinose, Genki; Tainaka, Kei-ichi
2018-02-01
Spatial and temporal behaviors of the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game is key to understanding not only biodiversity but also a variety of cyclic systems. It has been demonstrated that, in the stochastic cellular automaton of RPS game, three species cannot survive on one-dimensional (1-d) lattice; only a single species survives. Previous studies have shown that three species are able to coexist if the migration of species is considered. However, their definitions of migration are the swapping of two species or the random walk of species, which rarely occurs in nature. Here, we investigate the effect of migration by using the 1-d lattice traffic model in which species can move rightward if the site ahead is empty. Computer simulations reveal that three species can survive at the same time within the wide range of parameter values. At low densities, all species can coexist. In contrast, the extinction of two species occurs if the density exceeds the critical limit of the jamming transition. This dynamical phase transition between the coexistence and single (non-coexistence) phase clearly separates due to the self-organized pattern: condensation and rarefaction in the stripe-pattern of three species.
Ul Haq, Bakhtiar
2014-08-01
Stimulation of novel features in ZnO by impurity electrons has attracted a remarkable attention of researchers from the past decade. Consequently, ZnO has found several applications in the field of spintronics and optoelectronics. We report, the effect of 3d-(V, Ag) electrons on the properties of ZnO in stable wurtzite (WZ) and metastable zincblende (ZB) phase using the density functional theory. Introduction of V-3d electrons was found to induce a high magnetic moment value of 5.22 in WZ and 3.26 in the ZB phase, and moreover transform the semiconductor character of ZnO into a metallic nature. Ag-d electrons result in the p-type half-metallic nature of ZnO with a weak ferromagnetic background. Our calculations for ground-state magnetic ordering show that ZnO in the presence of impure 3d-(V, Ag) electrons favors ferromagnetic ordering, and obey the double exchange mechanism. However, impurity atoms have very marginal effect on the lattice parameters of ZnO, thereby exposing its potential to absorb the impurity atoms in high concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System.
Jurcevic, P; Shen, H; Hauke, P; Maier, C; Brydges, T; Hempel, C; Lanyon, B P; Heyl, M; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2017-08-25
The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.
Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System
Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.
2017-08-01
The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.
Ultrafast photo-induced hidden phases in strained manganite thin films
Zhang, Jingdi; McLeod, A. S.; Zhang, Gu-Feng; Stoica, Vladimir; Jin, Feng; Gu, Mingqiang; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Freeland, John W.; Wu, Wenbin; Rondinelli, James; Wen, Haidan; Basov, D. N.; Averitt, R. D.
Correlated transition metal oxides (TMOs) are particularly sensitive to external control because of energy degeneracy in a complex energy landscape that promote a plethora of metastable states. However, it remains a grand challenge to actively control and fully explore the rich landscape of TMOs. Dynamic control with pulsed photons can overcome energetic barriers, enabling access to transient or metastable states that are not thermally accessible. In the past, we have demonstrated that mode-selective single-laser-pulse excitation of a strained manganite thin film La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 initiates a persistent phase transition from an emergent antiferromagnetic insulating ground state to a ferromagnetic metallic metastable state. Beyond the photo-induced insulator to metal transition, we recently discovered a new peculiar photo-induced hidden phase, identified by an experimental approach that combines ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, THz spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cryogenic near-field spectroscopy and SHG probe. This work is funded by the DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science under Award Numbers DE-SC0012375 and DE-SC0012592.
Quarks-bags phase transition in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenshtejn, M.I.
1981-01-01
Phase transitions in the quark-gluon plasma are considered at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. A phenomenological account for a complicated structure of the QCD vacuum results in the necessity to use the formalism of isobaric ensembles to describe the system. The phase transition curve separating the regions of the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic bag phase in the μT plane is calculated [ru
Phase Transitions in Algebraic Cluster Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez-Martinez, H.; Cseh, J.; Hess, P.O.
2006-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Phase transitions in nuclear systems are of utmost interest. An interesting class of phase transitions can be seen in algebraic models of nuclear structure. They are called shapephase transitions due to the following reason. These models have analytically solvable limiting cases, called dynamical symmetries, which are characterized by a chain of nested subgroups. They correspond to well-defined geometrical shape and behaviour, e.g. to rotation of an ellipsoid, or spherical vibration. The general case of the model, which includes interactions described by more than one groupchain, breaks the symmetry, and changing the relative strengths of these interactions, one can go from one shape to the other. In doing so a phase-transition can be seen. A phase transition is defined as a discontinuity of some quantity as a function of the control parameter, which gives the relative strength of the interactions of different symmetries. Real phase transitions can take place only in infinite systems, like in the classical limits of these algebraic models, when the particle number N is very large: N → ∞. For finite N the discontinuities are smoothed out, nevertheless, some indications of the phase-transitions can still be there. A controlled way of breaking the dynamical symmetries may reveal another very interesting phenomenon, i.e. the appearance of a quasidynamical (or effective) symmetry. This rather general symmetry-concept of quantum mechanics corresponds to a situation, in which the symmetry-breaking interactions are so strong that the energy-eigenfunctions are not symmetric, i.e. are not basis states of an irreducible representation of the symmetry group, rather they are linear combinations of these basis states. However, they are very special linear combinations in the sense that their coefficients are (approximately) identical for states with different spin values. When this is the case, then the underlying intrinsic state is the
Unconventional transformation of spin Dirac phase across a topological quantum phase transition
Xu, Su-Yang; Neupane, Madhab; Belopolski, Ilya; Liu, Chang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Jia, Shuang; Landolt, Gabriel; Slomski, Batosz; Dil, J. Hugo; Shibayev, Pavel P.; Basak, Susmita; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Cava, Robert J.; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Hasan, M. Zahid
2015-01-01
The topology of a topological material can be encoded in its surface states. These surface states can only be removed by a bulk topological quantum phase transition into a trivial phase. Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to image the formation of protected surface states in a topological insulator as we chemically tune the system through a topological transition. Surprisingly, we discover an exotic spin-momentum locked, gapped surface state in the trivial phase that shares many important properties with the actual topological surface state in anticipation of the change of topology. Using a spin-resolved measurement, we show that apart from a surface bandgap these states develop spin textures similar to the topological surface states well before the transition. Our results offer a general paradigm for understanding how surface states in topological phases arise from a quantum phase transition and are suggestive for the future realization of Weyl arcs, condensed matter supersymmetry and other fascinating phenomena in the vicinity of a quantum criticality. PMID:25882717
Shock wave produced by hadron-quark phase transition in neutron star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustavo de Almeida, Luis, E-mail: lgalmeida@cbpf.br [Universidade Federal do Acre – Campus Floresta, Estrada do Canela Fina, km 12, CEP 69980-000, Cruzeiro do Sul, AC (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sérgio José Barbosa, E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilário, E-mail: harg.astrophys@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca Av. Maracanã, 229, CEP 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-12-17
In this work we present a schematic description of the detonation wave in hadronic matter inside a neutron star core. We have used a simplified two shells model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by a large outer shell composed of hadronic matter. We have utilized an equation of state (EOS) based on Relativistic Mean Field Theory with the parameter set NL3 to describe the nuclear and subnuclear phases. We use the MIT bag model to describe the strange quark matter. The hadron-quark phase transition actually induces highly non equilibrium modes, which may become a detonation process (faster) or a burning process (slower). The main purpose of the work is to study the formation of a remnant quark star and the possibility of mass ejection caused by the hadron-quark phase transition. We have found that the total amount of ejected mass is dependant of the bag constant utilized in the strange matter description.
Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals
Ivancevic, Vladimir G
2008-01-01
Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong Bo, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang Lin, E-mail: zhanglinbox@263.net [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen Xiangrong [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zeng Tixian [College of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Cai Lingcang [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2012-06-15
The structures, structural relative stabilities, pressure-induced phase transitions, and equations of state for lanthanide trihydrides REH{sub 3} (RE=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) are systematically studied using ab initio calculations under a core state model (CSM). The obtained ground-state parameters, such as lattice constants and bulk modulus, agree well with the available data. Among the P6{sub 3}/mm, P3-bar c1, and P6{sub 3}cm structures, the P6{sub 3}cm structure is found to be the most stable structure for lanthanide trihydride via the comparison of the calculated total energies. With the help of Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the structural transitions from hexagonal to cubic for REH{sub 3} (RE=Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, and Lu) under pressure are affirmed; especially, the similar behavior of REH{sub 3} (RE= Tb, Dy, and Tm) is reasonably predicted for the first time by this means. For the transitions, the repulsive interactions of H-H atoms may play an important role in terms of the analysis of the structures in the vicinity of the theoretical phase transition.
Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.
Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor
2011-08-01
We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser.
An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2007-02-14
In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.
Chiral and color-superconducting phase transitions with vector interaction in a simple model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio
2002-01-01
We investigate effects of the vector interaction on chiral and color superconducting (CSC) phase transitions at finite density and temperature in a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is shown that the repulsive density-density interaction coming from the vector term, which is present in the effective chiral models but has been omitted, enhances the competition between the chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and CSC phase transition, and thereby makes the thermodynamic potential have a shallow minimum over a wide range of values of the correlated chiral and CSC order parameters. We find that when the vector coupling is increased, the first order transition between the χSB and CSC phases becomes weaker, and the coexisting phase in which both the chiral and color-gauge symmetry are dynamically broken comes to exist over a wider range of the density and temperature. We also show that there can exist two endpoints, which are tricritical points in the chiral limit, along the critical line of the first order transition in some range of values of the vector coupling. Although our analysis is based on a simple model, the nontrivial interplay between the χSB and CSC phases induced by the vector interaction is expected to be a universal phenomenon and might give a clue to understanding results obtained with two-color QCD on the lattice. (author)
Rate-induced solubility and suppression of the first-order phase transition in olivine LiFePO4.
Zhang, Xiaoyu; van Hulzen, Martijn; Singh, Deepak P; Brownrigg, Alex; Wright, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Niels H; Wagemaker, Marnix
2014-05-14
The impact of ultrahigh (dis)charge rates on the phase transition mechanism in LiFePO4 Li-ion electrodes is revealed by in situ synchrotron diffraction. At high rates the solubility limits in both phases increase dramatically, causing a fraction of the electrode to bypass the first-order phase transition. The small transforming fraction demonstrates that nucleation rates are consequently not limiting the transformation rate. In combination with the small fraction of the electrode that transforms at high rates, this indicates that higher performances may be achieved by further optimizing the ionic/electronic transport in LiFePO4 electrodes.
Fractal growth in impurity-controlled solidification in lipid monolayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogedby, Hans C.; Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1987-01-01
A simple two-dimensional microscopic model is proposed to describe solidifcation processes in systems with impurities which are miscible only in the fluid phase. Computer simulation of the model shows that the resulting solids are fractal over a wide range of impurity concentrations and impurity...... diffusional constants. A fractal-forming mechanism is suggested for impurity-controlled solidification which is consistent with recent experimental observations of fractal growth of solid phospholipid domains in monolayers. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand
2005-01-01
It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase
Singlet Higgs phenomenology and the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Profumo, Stefano; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Shaughnessy, Gabe
2007-01-01
We study the phenomenology of gauge singlet extensions of the Standard Model scalar sector and their implications for the electroweak phase transition. We determine the conditions on the scalar potential parameters that lead to a strong first order phase transition as needed to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. We analyze the constraints on the potential parameters derived from Higgs boson searches at LEP and electroweak precision observables. For models that satisfy these constraints and that produce a strong first order phase transition, we discuss the prospective signatures in future Higgs studies at the Large Hadron Collider and a Linear Collider. We argue that such studies will provide powerful probes of phase transition dynamics in models with an extended scalar sector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The ferroelectric phase transition is diffuse in nature and broadening of the peak increases with La content. Keywords. PLZT ... Marssi et al (1998) concluded the PLZTs x/65/35 as a model. ∗ ... by analysing field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) dielectric ... material are fitted with universal dielectric behaviour within.
Rare earth substitutional impurities in germanium: A hybrid density functional theory study
Igumbor, E.; Omotoso, E.; Tunhuma, S. M.; Danga, H. T.; Meyer, W. E.
2017-10-01
The Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional by means of density functional theory has been used to model the electronic and structural properties of rare earth (RE) substitutional impurities in germanium (REGe) . The formation and charge state transition energies for the REGe (RE = Ce, Pr, Er and Eu) were calculated. The energy of formation for the neutral charge state of the REGe lies between -0.14 and 3.13 eV. The formation energy result shows that the Pr dopant in Ge (PrGe) has the lowest formation energy of -0.14 eV, and is most energetically favourable under equilibrium conditions. The REGe induced charge state transition levels within the band gap of Ge. Shallow acceptor levels were induced by both the Eu (EuGe) and Pr (PrGe) dopants in Ge. The CeGe and ErGe exhibited properties of negative-U ordering with effective-U values of -0.85 and -1.07 eV, respectively.
Stacking change in MoS2 bilayers induced by interstitial Mo impurities.
Cortés, Natalia; Rosales, Luis; Orellana, Pedro A; Ayuela, Andrés; González, Jhon W
2018-02-01
We use a theoretical approach to reveal the electronic and structural properties of molybdenum impurities between MoS 2 bilayers. We find that interstitial Mo impurities are able to reverse the well-known stability order of the pristine bilayer, because the most stable form of stacking changes from AA' (undoped) into AB' (doped). The occurrence of Mo impurities in different positions shows their split electronic levels in the energy gap, following octahedral and tetrahedral crystal fields. The energy stability is related to the accommodation of Mo impurities compacted in hollow sites between layers. Other less stable configurations for Mo dopants have larger interlayer distances and band gaps than those for the most stable stacking. Our findings suggest possible applications such as exciton trapping in layers around impurities, and the control of bilayer stacking by Mo impurities in the growth process.
Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jiangfeng; Li Hui; Xu Xiaodong; Zhou Xianyi; Han Rongdian
2003-01-01
The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour
Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games
Du Jiang Feng; Xu Xiao Dong; Zhou Xian Yi; Han Rong Dian
2003-01-01
The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour.
Structural response in FeCl2 (iron chloride) to pressure-induced electro-magnetic transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rozenberg, G Kh [TEL AVIV UNIV; Pasternak, M P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Gorodetsky, P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Xu, W M [TEL AVIV UNIV; Dubrovinsky, L S [UNIV OF BAYREUTH; Le Bihan, T L [FRANCE
2009-01-01
High pressure (HP) synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were carried out in FeCl{sub 2} together with resistivity (R) studies, at various temperatures and pressures to 65 GPa using diamond anvil cells. This work follows a previous HP {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer study in which two pressure-induced (PI) electronic transitions were found interpreted as: (i) quenching of the orbital-term contribution to the hyperfine field concurring with a tilting of the magnetic moment by 55 degrees and (ii) collapse of the magnetism concurring with a sharp decrease of the isomer shift (IS). The R(P,T) studies affirm that the cause the collapse of the magnetism is a PI p-d correlation breakdown, leading to an insulator-metal transition at {approx}45 GPa and is not due to a spi-Ir,crossover (S=2 {yields} S=0). The structure response to the pressure evolution of the two electronic phase transitions starting at low pressures (LP), through an intermediate phase (IP) 30-57 GPa, and culminating in a high-pressure phase (HP), P >32 GPa, can clearly be quantified. The IP-HP phases coexist through the 32-57 GPa range in which the HP abundance increases monotonically at the expense of the IP phase. At the LP-IP interface no volume change is detected, yet the c-axis increases and the a-axis shrinks by 0.21 Angstroms and 0.13 Angstroms, respectively. The fit of the equation of state of the combined LP-IP phases yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 35.3(1.8) GPa. The intralayer CI-CI distances increases, but no change is observed in Fe-CI bond-length nor are there substantial changes in the interlayer spacing. The pressure-induced electronic IP-HP transition leads to a first-order structural phase transition characterized by a decrease in Fe-CI bond length and an abrupt drop in V(P) by {approx}3.5% accompanying the correlation breakdown. In this transition no symmetry change is detected,and the XRD data could be satisfactorily fitted with the CdI{sub 2} structure. The bulk modulus of the HP phase is
Observation of the Photon-Blockade Breakdown Phase Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Fink
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium phase transitions exist in damped-driven open quantum systems when the continuous tuning of an external parameter leads to a transition between two robust steady states. In second-order transitions this change is abrupt at a critical point, whereas in first-order transitions the two phases can coexist in a critical hysteresis domain. Here, we report the observation of a first-order dissipative quantum phase transition in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics system. It takes place when the photon blockade of the driven cavity-atom system is broken by increasing the drive power. The observed experimental signature is a bimodal phase space distribution with varying weights controlled by the drive strength. Our measurements show an improved stabilization of the classical attractors up to the millisecond range when the size of the quantum system is increased from one to three artificial atoms. The formation of such robust pointer states could be used for new quantum measurement schemes or to investigate multiphoton phases of finite-size, nonlinear, open quantum systems.
Reliability of the one-crossing approximation in describing the Mott transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vildosola, V; Roura-Bas, P; Pourovskii, L V; Manuel, L O
2015-01-01
We assess the reliability of the one-crossing approximation (OCA) approach in a quantitative description of the Mott transition in the framework of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The OCA approach has been applied in conjunction with DMFT to a number of heavy-fermion, actinide, transition metal compounds and nanoscale systems. However, several recent studies in the framework of impurity models pointed out serious deficiencies of OCA and raised questions regarding its reliability. Here we consider a single band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice at finite temperatures and compare the results of OCA to those of a numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. The temperature-local repulsion U phase diagram for the particle-hole symmetric case obtained by OCA is in good agreement with that of QMC, with the metal–insulator transition captured very well. We find, however, that the insulator to metal transition is shifted to higher values of U and, simultaneously, correlations in the metallic phase are significantly overestimated. This counter-intuitive behaviour is due to simultaneous underestimations of the Kondo scale in the metallic phase and the size of the insulating gap. We trace the underestimation of the insulating gap to that of the second moment of the high-frequency expansion of the impurity spectral density. Calculations of the system away from the particle-hole symmetric case are also presented and discussed. (paper)
Reliability of the one-crossing approximation in describing the Mott transition
Vildosola, V.; Pourovskii, L. V.; Manuel, L. O.; Roura-Bas, P.
2015-12-01
We assess the reliability of the one-crossing approximation (OCA) approach in a quantitative description of the Mott transition in the framework of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The OCA approach has been applied in conjunction with DMFT to a number of heavy-fermion, actinide, transition metal compounds and nanoscale systems. However, several recent studies in the framework of impurity models pointed out serious deficiencies of OCA and raised questions regarding its reliability. Here we consider a single band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice at finite temperatures and compare the results of OCA to those of a numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. The temperature-local repulsion U phase diagram for the particle-hole symmetric case obtained by OCA is in good agreement with that of QMC, with the metal-insulator transition captured very well. We find, however, that the insulator to metal transition is shifted to higher values of U and, simultaneously, correlations in the metallic phase are significantly overestimated. This counter-intuitive behaviour is due to simultaneous underestimations of the Kondo scale in the metallic phase and the size of the insulating gap. We trace the underestimation of the insulating gap to that of the second moment of the high-frequency expansion of the impurity spectral density. Calculations of the system away from the particle-hole symmetric case are also presented and discussed.
CUSTOM RELAXATION INDUCED IMPURITY PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN THE UNITED AII BVI and AIII BV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. B. Atlukhanova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Two types of non-standard relaxation induced impurity photoconductivity (IIP observed in photoconductors CdS, ZnSe, GaAs and others, depending on the kinetic characteristics of the traps are described. In one case, at the stage of post flashing monotonic decay which is typical for relaxation associated with slow traps (the ratio of the speed of the electron capture to the recombination rate (R << 1, the photo response is experiencing vibrations of low frequency (f =0.03-0.3Hz. Relaxation of the second type characterized by rapid photoelectric traps (R >> 1: measurement alternating signal (f > 20 Hz relaxation curves take the form of curves usual impurity photoconductivity. Electronic processes responsible for relaxation of non-standard IIP are analyzed. For example, fast-centers, which include the characteristic AIIBVI donor Agi0, for the first time in semiconductors experimentally, investigated the dependence of the cross section of electron capture by traps energy released during localization.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-01-01
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.
1994-01-01
Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given
Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S; Vaidya, S
2003-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narimani, Mitra; Nourbakhsh, Zahra, E-mail: z.nourbakhsh@sci.ui.ac.ir
2017-07-15
Highlights: • Gd, Np and Cm impurities induce the magnetic moment in ScPdBi compound. • ScPdBi compound with Gd, Np and Cm impurities has normal band order. • The ε(0) and R(0) increase by increasing the atomic number of X atom. - Abstract: The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of X-doped ScPdBi (X = Gd, Np, Cm) are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential is treated using generalized gradient approximation with Coulomb interaction parameter. The band order and energy band gap of X-doped ScPdBi are investigated by calculation of band structure. The effect of doping impurity on magnetic properties of ScPdBi compound is studied by calculation of total and partial magnetic moments of X-doped ScPdBi compound. Furthermore, the optical properties of X-doped ScPdBi are calculated and compared in the energy range of 0–25 eV.
A grain boundary phase transition in Si–Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Shuailei; Meshinchi Asl, Kaveh; Tansarawiput, Chookiat; Cantwell, Patrick R.; Qi, Minghao; Harmer, Martin P.; Luo, Jian
2012-01-01
A grain boundary transition from a bilayer to an intrinsic (nominally clean) boundary is observed in Si–Au. An atomically abrupt transition between the two complexions (grain boundary stabilized phases) implies the occurrence of a first-order interfacial phase transition associated with a discontinuity in the interfacial excess. This observation supports a grain-boundary complexion theory with broad applications. This transition is atypical in that the monolayer complexion is absent. A model is proposed to explain the bilayer stabilization and the origin of this complexion transition.
Satellite NMR in Cu doped with transition impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slichter, C.P.
1979-01-01
Measurements were made of the conduction electron spin magnetization density, M/sub sigma/(R vector) near iron group atoms (Sc through Ni) in Cu. M/sub sigma/(R vector) produces an additional effective local field which shifts the NMR frequency of nearby shells of Cu nuclei relative to Cu nuclei far from all impurities. Resonances of nearby shells appear as weak satellites to the strong resonance of distant Cu nuclei (the main line). M/sub sigma/(R vector) at a given site is proportional through know constants to the splitting of the satellite from the main line. The shell was identified giving rise to the satellite in many cases by use of single crystals. A good approximation M/sub sigma/(R vector) is proportional to the spin susceptibility chi/sub s/ of the impurity. For CuCr we find a large temperature independent chi/sub s/, in contrast to CuMn and CuFe. The results lead to a picture of the electronic structure of Cr, Mn, and Fe along the lines of Schrieffer and Hirst as ions with integral numbers of d-electrons, possessing crystal field and spin-orbit couplings
Phase Transitions in Geomorphology
Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.
2015-12-01
Landscapes are patterns in a dynamic steady-state, due to competing processes that smooth or sharpen features over large distances and times. Geomorphic transport laws have been developed to model the mass-flux due to different processes, but are unreasonably effective at recovering the scaling relations of landscape features. Using a continuum approximation to compare experimental landscapes and the observed landscapes of the earth, one finds they share similar morphodynamics despite a breakdown of classical dynamical similarity between the two. We propose the origin of this effectiveness is a different kind of dynamic similarity in the statistics of initiation and cessation of motion of groups of grains, which is common to disordered systems of grains under external driving. We will show how the existing data of sediment transport points to common signatures with dynamical phase transitions between "mobile" and "immobile" phases in other disordered systems, particularly granular materials, colloids, and foams. Viewing landscape evolution from the lens of non-equilibrium statistical physics of disordered systems leads to predictions that the transition of bulk measurements such as particle flux is continuous from one phase to another, that the collective nature of the particle dynamics leads to very slow aging of bulk properties, and that the dynamics are history-dependent. Recent results from sediment transport experiments support these predictions, suggesting that existing geomorphic transport laws may need to be replaced by a new generation of stochastic models with ingredients based on the physics of disordered phase transitions. We discuss possible strategies for extracting the necessary information to develop these models from measurements of geomorphic transport noise by connecting particle-scale collective dynamics and space-time fluctuations over landscape features.
Influence of impurities on silicide contact formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazdaev, Kh.R.; Meermanov, G.B.; Kazdaev, R.Kh.
2002-01-01
Research objectives of this work are to investigate the influence of light impurities implantation on peculiarities of the silicides formation in molybdenum monocrystal implanted by silicon, and in molybdenum films sputtered on silicon substrate at subsequent annealing. Implantation of the molybdenum samples was performed with silicon ions (90 keV, 5x10 17 cm -2 ). Phase identification was performed by X ray analysis with photographic method of registration. Analysis of the results has shown the formation of the molybdenum silicide Mo 3 Si at 900 deg. C. To find out the influence of impurities present in the atmosphere (C,N,O) on investigated processes we have applied combined implantation. At first, molybdenum was implanted with ions of the basic component (silicon) and then -- with impurities ions. Acceleration energies (40keV for C, 45 keV for N and 50 keV for O) were chosen to obtain the same distribution profiles for basic and impurities ions. Ion doses were 5x10 17 cm -2 for Si-ions and 5x10 16 cm -2 - for impurities. The most important results are reported here. The first, for all three kinds of impurities the decreased formation temperatures of the phase Mo 3 Si were observed; in the case of C and N it was ∼100 deg. and in the case of nitrogen - ∼200 deg. Further, simultaneously with the Mo 3 Si phase, the appearance of the rich-metal phase Mo 5 Si 3 was registered (not observed in the samples without additional implantation). In case of Mo/Si-structure, the implantation of the impurities (N,O) was performed to create the peak concentration (∼4at/%) located in the middle of the molybdenum film (∼ 150nm) deposited on silicon substrate. Investigation carried out on unimplanted samples showed the formation of the silicide molybdenum MoSi 2 , observed after annealing at temperatures 900/1000 deg. C, higher than values 500-600 deg. C reported in other works. It is discovered that electrical conductivity of Mo 5 Si 3 -films synthesized after impurities
Late time phase transition as dark energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We show that the dark energy field can naturally be described by the scalar condensates of a non-abelian gauge group. This gauge group is unified with the standard model gauge groups and it has a late time phase transition. The small phase transition explains why the positive acceleration of the universe is ...
Phase transition with trivial quantum criticality in an anisotropic Weyl semimetal
Li, Xin; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu
2018-05-01
When a metal undergoes continuous quantum phase transition, the correlation length diverges at the critical point and the quantum fluctuation of order parameter behaves as a gapless bosonic mode. Generically, the coupling of this boson to fermions induces a variety of unusual quantum critical phenomena, such as non-Fermi liquid behavior and various emergent symmetries. Here, we perform a renormalization group analysis of the semimetal-superconductor quantum criticality in a three-dimensional anisotropic Weyl semimetal. Surprisingly, distinct from previously studied quantum critical systems, the anomalous dimension of anisotropic Weyl fermions flows to zero very quickly with decreasing energy, and the quasiparticle residue takes a nonzero value. These results indicate that the quantum fluctuation of superconducting order parameter is irrelevant at low energies, and a simple mean-field calculation suffices to capture the essential physics of the superconducting transition. We thus obtain a phase transition that exhibits trivial quantum criticality, which is unique comparing to other invariably nontrivial quantum critical systems. Our theoretical prediction can be experimentally verified by measuring the fermion spectral function and specific heat.
Spectroscopic impurity survey in Wendelstein 7-X
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buttenschoen, Birger; Burhenn, Rainer; Thomsen, Henning [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Assmann, Jochen; Hollfeld, Klaus-Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: the Wendelstein 7-X Team
2016-07-01
The High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) has been developed specifically for impurity identification and survey purposes on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. This spectrometer system, consisting of four individual spectrometers, covers the wavelength range between λ=2.5 nm and λ=160 nm, observing the intense resonance lines of relevant Mg-, Na-, Be- and Li-like impurity ions as well as the high-Z W/Ta quasi-continua. During the first operation phase of W7-X, commissioning of HEXOS was finished by providing an in-situ wavelength calibration. The permanently acquired spectra are evaluated to monitor the overall impurity content in the plasma, and serve as an indicator for unintended plasma-wall contact possibly leading to machine damage. HEXOS results from the first operation phase of W7-X are presented and discussed with respect to future scientific exploitation of the available data.
Impurity penetration and transport during VH-mode on DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lippmann, S.I.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.; West, W.P.
1992-05-01
A new modeling effort is made in order to understand the observed relatively low levels of impurity contamination during the VH-mode phase on DIII-D, as compared to those observed during the H-mode phase of selected discharges. The key element is the inclusion of the real 2-D flux surface geometry in the prediction of impurity penetration of sputtered atoms through the scrape-off layer into the core plasma. Of the elements which determine the impurity content in the plasma: sputtering yield, penetration, and core transport, the penetration through the scrape-off layer is found to be the most determinative factor. The low impurity content in VH-mode is attributed to the development of a scrape-off layer with higher density and temperature properties than those normally obtained in H-mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhernov, A.P.; Malov, Yu.A.; Panova, G.Kh.
1975-01-01
An anisotropic irregular semiconductor is under consideration. It is believed that the effective parameter of the interaction-lambda-which determines electron coupling is less or about 0.5. The Eliashberg integral equation system is solved for T→Tsub(c). A simple analytic expression is obtained for Tsub(c). The character of a varying critical temperature in superconductors with impurity atoms is analyzed in detail. The dependence of the critical temperature on parameters describing the phonon spectrum of an impurity system is investigated. The existence of impurity modes with quasilocal and local frequencies in the phonon spectra can lead both to relatively small and to rather noticeable variations in Tsub(c). The first case is typical of the situation when an impurity atom is practically an isotopic defect. If an impurity atom is very heavy (Msub(I) 1 0 ) or strongly (γ 1 >>γ 0 ) coupled with matrix atoms. A sharp decrease in the effective force constant γ 1 for an impurity atom results in the growth of delta Tsub(c): delta Tsub(c) approximately cγ0/γ 1 (lambda - μsup((0)). On the contrary a rise in the γ 1 value requires a negative correction to Tsub(c), and delta Tsub(c) approximately c/(lambda - μsup((0)), where c - an impurity concentration, μ - matrix element of the Coulomb screened interaction averaged over the Fermi surface and multiplied for the density of normal electron states on the Fermi level. Comparison with experimental data is made. A qualitative description of the Tsub(c) change due to the impurity presence is given for a set of solutions. There is a satisfactory quantitative agreement between calculated and experimental values of delta Tsub(c)
Okamoto, Yoshihide; Masum, Shah Md; Miyazawa, Haruna; Yamazaki, Masahito
2008-04-01
Cubic biomembranes, nonbilayer membranes with connections in three-dimensional space that have a cubic symmetry, have been observed in various cells. Interconversion between the bilayer liquid-crystalline (L(alpha)) phase and cubic phases attracted much attention in terms of both biological and physicochemical aspects. Herein we report the pH effect on the phase and structure of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS)/monoolein (MO) membranes under a physiological ion concentration condition, which was revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurement. At neutral pH, DOPS/MO membranes containing high concentrations of DOPS were in the L(alpha) phase. First, the pH effect on the phase and structure of the multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of the DOPS/MO membranes preformed at neutral pH was investigated by adding various low-pH buffers into the MLV suspension. For 20%-DOPS/80%-MO MLVs, at and below pH 2.9, a transition from the L(alpha) to cubic (Q(224)) phase occurred within 1 h. This phase transition was reversible; a subsequent increase in pH to a neutral one in the membrane suspension transformed the cubic phase into the original L(alpha) phase. Second, we found that a decrease in pH transformed large unilamellar vesicles of DOPS/MO membranes into the cubic phase under similar conditions. We have proposed the mechanism of the low-pH-induced phase transition and also made a quantitative analysis on the critical pH of the phase transition. This finding is the first demonstration that a change in pH can induce a reversible phase transition between the L(alpha) and cubic phases of lipid membranes within 1 h.
2015-05-01
vapor bubbles may generate near blades [40]. This is the phenomenon of cavitation and it is still a limiting factor for ship propeller design. Phase...van der Waals theory with hydrodynamics [39]. The fluid equations based on the van der Waals theory are called the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations... cavitating flows, the liquid- vapor phase transition induced by pressure variations. A potential challenge for such a simulation is a proper design of open
Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite
Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.
2016-02-01
We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.
Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system.
Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene
2010-01-01
We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Giovambattista
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.
Towards the theory of the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.
1992-01-01
We investigate various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes determination of the nature of the phase transition, discussion of the possible role of the higher-order radiative corrections, and the theory of the formation and evolution of bubbles of the new phase. We show, in particular, that no dangerous linear terms in the scalar field φ appear in the expression for the effective potential. We have found that, for the Higgs-boson mass smaller than the masses of W and Z bosons, the phase transition is of the first order. However, its strength is approximately 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. The phase transition occurs due to production and expansion of critical bubbles. Subcritical bubbles may be important only if the phase transition is very weakly first order. A general analytic expression for the probability of the bubble formation is obtained, which may be used for study of tunneling in a wide class of theories. The bubble-wall velocity depends on many factors, including the ratio of the mean free path of the particles to the thickness of the wall. Thin walls in the electroweak theory have a nonrelativistic velocity, whereas thick walls may be relativistic. A decrease of the cubic term by the factor 2/3 rules our baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory. Even though we concentrate in this paper on the phase transition in this theory, most of our results can be applied to more general models as well, where baryogenesis is possible
Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions
Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.
2017-11-01
We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.
The infinite limit as an eliminable approximation for phase transitions
Ardourel, Vincent
2018-05-01
It is generally claimed that infinite idealizations are required for explaining phase transitions within statistical mechanics (e.g. Batterman 2011). Nevertheless, Menon and Callender (2013) have outlined theoretical approaches that describe phase transitions without using the infinite limit. This paper closely investigates one of these approaches, which consists of studying the complex zeros of the partition function (Borrmann et al., 2000). Based on this theory, I argue for the plausibility for eliminating the infinite limit for studying phase transitions. I offer a new account for phase transitions in finite systems, and I argue for the use of the infinite limit as an approximation for studying phase transitions in large systems.
Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors
Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.
2017-09-01
The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.
Phase transitions in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1984-01-01
By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author) [pt
Sensing of phase transition in medium with terahertz pulsed spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaytsev, Kirill I; Fokina, Irina N; Fedorov, Aleksey K; Yurchenko, Stanislav O
2014-01-01
Phase state identification and phase transition registration in condensed matter are significant applications of terahertz spectroscopy. A set of fundamental and applied problems are associated with the phase state problem. Our report is devoted to the experimental analysis of the spectral characteristics of water and water solution during the phase transition from the solid state to the liquid state via the method of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. In this work transformation of the sample spectral characteristics during the phase transition were observed and discussed. Possible application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy as an effective instrument for phase transition sensing was considered
Gold fillings unravel the vacancy role in the phase transition of GeTe
Feng, Jinlong; Xu, Meng; Wang, Xiaojie; Lin, Qi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Xu, Ming; Tong, Hao; Miao, Xiangshui
2018-02-01
Phase change memory (PCM) is an important candidate for future memory devices. The crystalline phase of PCM materials contains abundant intrinsic vacancies, which plays an important role in the rapid phase transition upon memory switching. However, few experimental efforts have been invested to study these invisible entities. In this work, Au dopants are alloyed into the crystalline GeTe to fill the intrinsic Ge vacancies so that the role of these vacancies in the amorphization of GeTe can be indirectly studied. As a result, the reduction of Ge vacancies induced by Au dopants hampers the amorphization of GeTe as the activation energy of this process becomes higher. This is because the vacancy-interrupted lattice can be "repaired" by Au dopants with the recovery of bond connectivity. Our results demonstrate the importance of vacancies in the phase transition of chalcogenides, and we employ the percolation theory to explain the impact of these intrinsic defects on this vacancy-ridden crystal quantitatively. Specifically, the threshold of amorphization increases with the decrease in vacancies. The understanding of the vacancy effect sheds light on the long-standing puzzle of the mechanism of ultra-fast phase transition in PCMs. It also paves the way for designing low-power-consumption electronic devices by reducing the threshold of amorphization in chalcogenides.
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1998-01-01
The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...
Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Pressure Media on High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Natrolite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D Liu; W Lei; Z Liu; Y Lee
2011-12-31
Structural phase transitions in natrolite have been investigated as a function of pressure and different hydrostatic media using micro-Raman scattering and synchrotron infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Natrolite undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 0.86 and 1.53 GPa under pure water pressure medium. These phase transitions are characterized by the changes in the vibrational frequencies of four- and eight-membered rings related to the variations in the bridging T-O-T angles and the geometry of the elliptical eight-ring channels under pressure. Concomitant to the changes in the framework vibrational modes, the number of the O-H stretching vibrational modes of natrolite changes as a result of the rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds in the channels caused by a successive increase in the hydration level under hydrostatic pressure. Similar phase transitions were also observed at relatively higher pressures (1.13 and 1.59 GPa) under alcohol-water pressure medium. Furthermore, no phase transition was found up to 2.52 GPa if a lower volume ratio of the alcohol-water to natrolite was employed. This indicates that the water content in the pressure media plays a crucial role in triggering the pressure-induced phase transitions in natrolite. In addition, the average of the mode Grueneisen parameters is calculated to be about 0.6, while the thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter is found to be 1.33. This might be attributed to the contrast in the rigidity between the TO{sub 4} tetrahedral primary building units and other flexible secondary building units in the natrolite framework upon compression and subsequent water insertion.
Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model
Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_0 and C_1. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase trans...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.
2014-01-01
An electric-field-induced paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation has been directly observed in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO 3 at temperatures above the Curie point (T C ) using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The transformation persisted to a maximum temperature of 4 °C above T C . The nature of the observed field-induced transformation and the resulting development of domain texture within the induced phase were dependent on the proximity to the transition temperature, corresponding well to previous macroscopic measurements. The transition electric field increased with increasing temperature above T C , while the magnitude of the resultant tetragonal domain texture at the maximum electric field (4 kV mm −1 ) decreased at higher temperatures. These results provide insights into the phase transformation behavior of a prototypical ferroelectric and have important implications for the development of future large-strain phase-change actuator materials.
Transition from condensation-induced counter-current flow to dispersed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.
2004-01-01
Model of transition from the horizontally stratified condensation-induced counter-current flow to slug flow has been analyzed with computer code WAHA and compared to the experimental data obtained in the steamline of the PMK2 test facility of Hungarian Atomic Energy Institute. The experiment was performed in the steamline initially filled with hot vapor that was gradually flooded with cold liquid. Successful simulation of the condensation-induced water hammer that follows the transition, requires accurate description of the horizontally stratified and slug flow regimes and criteria for transition between both flow regimes. Current version of the WAHA code, not verified for the condensation induced type of the water hammer, predicts the water-hammer pressure peak that exceeds 600 bar, while the measured pressure is p m = 170 ± 50 bar. Sensitivity analysis of the inter-phase exchange terms and transition conditions, pointed to the most important closure relations for heat, mass and momentum transfer. The main conclusion of the analysis is large uncertainty of the simulations: minor modification of the crucial correlations can lead to a severe water-hammer in one case, or to the 'calm' transient without pressure peaks in the other case. Large uncertainty is observed in experiments. The same simulation was performed also with RELAP5 code. However, no water hammer was predicted. (author)
Friction forces on phase transition fronts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mégevand, Ariel
2013-01-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling
The amorphous phase transition in irradiated NiTi alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brimhall, J.L.; Kissinger, H.E.; Pelton, A.R.
1985-01-01
Observed supralinear dose dependence for the amorphous transformation during irradiation of NiTi is compatible with a cascade overlap model for heavy ion (2.5 MeV Ni + , 6 MeV Ta +++ ) irradiations. A model based on total defect build-up, however, is necessary to explain the amorphous transition induced by electron irradiation and can also be applied to heavy ion irradiation. The cascade effects in this latter model are manifested by non-uniform defect distribution in the lattice. The defect build-up model requires a high activation energy for interstitial migration which is not incompatible with recent findings. The form of the temperature dependence can also be rationalized using a defect build-up model (amorphous phase transition, heavy-ion irradiation, electron irradiation, NiTi, defect build-up, cascade overlap). (author)
Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm
2013-05-01
Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.
Phase transition and water incorporation into Eu2Sn2O7 pyrochlore at high pressure
Zhang, F. X.; Lang, M.; Ewing, R. C.
2016-04-01
Structural changes of europium stannate pyrochlore, Eu2Sn2O7, have been investigated at high pressures with in situ Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The XRD measurements suggest that a pressure-induced phase transition starts at 34.4 GPa. The PL spectrum from Eu3+ cations also suggests a phase transition above 36 GPa. XRD analysis shows that the unit cell of the cubic phase deviates from the equation of state at pressures above 23.8 GPa. This is due to the incorporation of water from the pressure medium in the structure at high pressures, which is confirmed by optical spectroscopy measurements.
Multiple topological phase transitions in a gyromagnetic photonic crystal
Chen, Zeguo
2017-04-19
We present the design of a tunable two-dimensional photonic crystal that exhibits multiple topological phases, including a conventional insulator phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, and a quantum anomalous Hall phase under different combinations of geometric parameters and external magnetic fields. Our photonic crystal enables a platform to study the topology evolution attributed to the interplay between crystalline symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. A four-band tight-binding model unambiguously reveals that the topological property is associated with the pseudospin orientations and that it is characterized by the spin Chern number. The emerging quantum anomalous Hall phase features a single helical edge state that is locked by a specific pseudospin. Simulation results demonstrate that the propagation of such a single helical edge state is robust against magnetic impurities. Potential applications, such as spin splitters, are described.
Scaling theory and the classification of phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilfer, R.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the recent classification theory for phase transitions and its relation with the foundations of statistical physics is reviewed. First it is outlined how Ehrenfests classification scheme can be generalized into a general thermodynamic classification theory for phase transitions. The classification theory implies scaling and multiscaling thereby eliminating the need to postulate the scaling hypothesis as a fourth law of thermodynamics. The new classification has also led to the discovery and distinction of nonequilibrium transitions within equilibrium statistical physics. Nonequilibrium phase transitions are distinguished from equilibrium transitions by orders less than unity and by the fact the equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics become inapplicable at the critical point. The latter fact requires a change in the Gibbs assumption underlying the canonical and grandcanonical ensembles in order to recover the thermodynamic description in the critical limit
A perturbative RS I cosmological phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bunk, Don [Skidmore College, Department of Physics, Saratoga Springs, NY (United States); Hubisz, Jay [Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, NY (United States); Jain, Bithika [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2018-01-15
We identify a class of Randall-Sundrum type models with a successful first order cosmological phase transition during which a 5D dual of approximate conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. Our focus is on soft-wall models that naturally realize a light radion/dilaton and suppressed dynamical contribution to the cosmological constant. We discuss phenomenology of the phase transition after developing a theoretical and numerical analysis of these models both at zero and finite temperature. We demonstrate a model with a TeV-Planck hierarchy and with a successful cosmological phase transition where the UV value of the curvature corresponds, via AdS/CFT, to an N of 20, where 5D gravity is expected to be firmly in the perturbative regime. (orig.)
Thermal study of monovalent-divalent phase transition in npBifc-F1TCNQ System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Michiko; Nishio, Yutaka; Kajita, Koji; Mochida, Tomoyuki
2009-01-01
In a new molecular solid composed of di-neopentyl-biferrocene (npBifc) and fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F 1 TCNQ) 3 , Mochida reported the discovery of a reversible valence transfer that can be regarded as an 'ionic(I)-ionic(II)' phase transfer between the monovalent state (D + A - ) and the divalent state (D 2+ A 2- ). We have studied thermo-dynamical properties of this transformation for this complex using the differential thermal analyses (DTA). We observed a broad excess specific heat with multi-peaks attributed to micro-domain structure over the corresponding temperature range (100-150K) accompanied by temperature hysteresis of 7K. The transition entropy (ΔS) was determined to be 22 ± 2 J/mol-K and almost satisfied a Clausius-Clapeyron relation. These experimental results provide an experimental confirmation of the first order phase transition for the monovalent-divalent transfer. At the transition, we observe that the electronic degrees of freedom remained constant values, while large entropy absorbed crossing from low temperature phase to high temperature one is contributed by the lattice one. We finally estimated the internal energy and concluded that delicate energy valance between Madelung, ionization and affinity energies enable this system to exhibit a temperature induce monovalent-divalent phase transition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Liang; Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yanfei; Guo, Zhenyu; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We study the doping effect on B4, B1 structures and phase transition of ZnO. ► We calculate the phase transition barrier and phase transition path of doped ZnO. ► The transition metal doping decreases the bulk modulus and phase transition pressure. ► The magnetic properties are influenced by the phase transition process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising material for its wide application in solid-state devices. With the pressure raised from an ambient condition, ZnO transforms from fourfold wurtzite (B4) to sixfold coordinated rocksalt (B1) structure. Doping is an efficient approach to improve the structures and properties of materials. Here we use density-functional theory (DFT) to study doped ZnO and find that the transition pressure from B4 phase to B1 phase of ZnO always decreases with different types of transition metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) doped, but the phase transition path is not affected by doping. This is consistent with the available experimental results for Mn-doped ZnO and Co-doped ZnO. Doping in ZnO causes the lattice distortion, which leads to the decrease of the bulk modulus and accelerates the phase transition. Mn-doped ZnO shows the strongest magnetic moment due to its half filled d orbital. For V-doped ZnO and Cr-doped ZnO, the magnetism is enhanced by phase transition from B4 to B1. But for Mn-doped ZnO, Fe-doped ZnO, Co-doped ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO, B1 phase shows weaker magnetic moment than B4 phase. These results can be explained by the amount of charge transferred from the doped atom to O atom. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the doping approach to change the structures and properties of ZnO.
A Bayesian Interpretation of First-Order Phase Transitions
Davis, Sergio; Peralta, Joaquín; Navarrete, Yasmín; González, Diego; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo
2016-03-01
In this work we review the formalism used in describing the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions from the point of view of maximum entropy inference. We present the concepts of transition temperature, latent heat and entropy difference between phases as emergent from the more fundamental concept of internal energy, after a statistical inference analysis. We explicitly demonstrate this point of view by making inferences on a simple game, resulting in the same formalism as in thermodynamical phase transitions. We show that analogous quantities will inevitably arise in any problem of inferring the result of a yes/no question, given two different states of knowledge and information in the form of expectation values. This exposition may help to clarify the role of these thermodynamical quantities in the context of different first-order phase transitions such as the case of magnetic Hamiltonians (e.g. the Potts model).
Ball solitons in kinetics of the first order magnetic phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nietz, V.V.; Osipov, A.A.
2007-01-01
The theory of magnetic ball solitons (BS), arising as a result of the energy fluctuations at the spin-flop transition induced by a magnetic field in antiferromagnets with uniaxial anisotropy, is presented. Such solitons are possible in a wide range of amplitudes and energies, including the negative energy relative to an initial condition. When such an antiferromagnet is in a metastable condition, ball solitons are born with the greatest probability if the energy of solitons is close to zero. Evolution of these solitons, at which they develop into macroscopic domains of a new magnetic phase, is analyzed, thus carrying out full phase reorganization
Thermal effects induced by laser ablation in non-homogeneous limestone covered by an impurity layer
Cocean, Alexandru; Pelin, Vasile; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Cocean, Iuliana; Sandu, Ion; Gurlui, Silviu; Iacomi, Felicia
2017-12-01
This paper reports preliminary results concerning thermal effects induced by urban/industrial air pollutants deposited on a limestone rock when heated by pulsed laser in the cleaning process. The process of laser cleaning treatment of the crust is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, finite element analysis software. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy techniques have been used to analyze the chemical composition of the samples. Two elements found as being present into the dust and in the crust, such as iron and magnesium particles are used for simulation in COMSOL. Therefore, the profiles heat evolutions on the crust surface and inside limestone are obtained as thermal interactions between the three components (iron, magnesium and limestone), simulating the non-homogeneous materials. It has been observed that iron impurities caused by the dust deposition may damage the limestone through a process of overheating, as a consequence of a high thermal conduction phenomenon, recorded for the region with iron impurities and sizes of micrometric order are localized. The thermal contact between the three components results in plots that reflect their thermal interactions.
Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar; Ramírez, Santiago
2017-06-15
Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yesilgul, U.; Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.
2011-01-01
We have calculated the intersubband transitions and the ground-state binding energies of a hydrogenic donor impurity in a quantum well in the presence of a high-frequency laser field and hydrostatic pressure. The calculations are performed within the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We conclude that the laser field amplitude and the hydrostatic pressure provide an important effect on the electronic and optical properties of the quantum wells. According to the results obtained from the present work, it is deduced that (i) the binding energies of donor impurity decrease as the laser field increase, (ii) the binding energies of donor impurity increase as the hydrostatic pressure increase, (iii) the intersubband absorption coefficients shift toward lower energies as the hydrostatic pressure increases, (iv) the magnitude of absorption coefficients decrease and also shift toward higher energies as the laser field increase. It is hopeful that the obtained results will provide important improvements in device applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Reconstructive structural phase transitions in dense Mg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Yansun; Klug, Dennis D
2012-01-01
The question raised recently about whether the high-pressure phase transitions of Mg follow a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) → body centered cubic (bcc) or hcp → double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) → bcc sequence at room temperature is examined by the use of first principles density functional methods. Enthalpy calculations show that the bcc structure replaces the hcp structure to become the most stable structure near 48 GPa, whereas the dhcp structure is never the most stable structure in the pressure range of interest. The characterized phase-transition mechanisms indicate that the hcp → dhcp transition is also associated with a higher enthalpy barrier. At room temperature, the structural sequence hcp → bcc is therefore more energetically favorable for Mg. The same conclusion is also reached from the simulations of the phase transitions using metadynamics methods. At room temperature, the metadynamics simulations predict the onset of a hcp → bcc transition at 40 GPa and the transition becomes more prominent upon further compression. At high temperatures, the metadynamics simulations reveal a structural fluctuation among the hcp, dhcp, and bcc structures at 15 GPa. With increasing pressure, the structural evolution at high temperatures becomes more unambiguous and eventually settles to a bcc structure once sufficient pressure is applied. (paper)
High temperature-induced phase transitions in Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} complex perovskite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Triana, C.A.; Corredor, L.T.; Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. A.A. 14490 (Colombia); Roa-Rojas, J., E-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. A.A. 14490 (Colombia)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure, thermal expansion and phase transitions at high-temperature of Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} perovskite has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray diffraction pattern at 298 K of Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with P2{sub 1}/n space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of X-ray diffraction patterns at high-temperature shows that the Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} perovskite suffers two-phase transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 573 K the X-ray diffraction pattern of Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1273 K the Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} perovskite suffers a complete phase-transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87). -- Abstract: The crystal structure behavior of the Sr{sub 2}GdRuO{sub 6} complex perovskite at high-temperature has been investigated over a wide temperature range between 298 K {<=} T {<=} 1273 K. Measurements of X-ray diffraction at room-temperature and Rietveld analysis of the experimental patterns show that this compound crystallizes in a monoclinic perovskite-like structure, which belongs to the P2{sub 1}/n (no. 14) space group and 1:1 ordered arrangement of Ru{sup 5+} and Gd{sup 3+} cations over the six-coordinate M sites. Experimental lattice parameters were obtained to be a =5.8103(5) Angstrom-Sign , b =5.8234(1) Angstrom-Sign , c =8.2193(9) Angstrom-Sign , V = 278.11(2) Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} and angle {beta} = 90.310(5) Degree-Sign . The high-temperature analysis shows the occurrence of two-phase transitions on this material. First, at 573 K it adopts a monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m (no. 12) space group with lattice parameters a = 5.8275(6) Angstrom-Sign , b = 5.8326(3) Angstrom-Sign , c = 8.2449(2) Angstrom-Sign , V = 280.31(3) Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} and angle {beta} = 90.251(3) Degree-Sign . Close
A Solvable Model for Nuclear Shape Phase Transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levai, G.; Arias, J. M.
2009-01-01
There has been considerable interest recently in phase transitions that occur between some well-defined nuclear shapes, e.g. the spherical vibrator, the axially deformed rotor and the γ-unstable rotor, which are assigned to the U(5), SU(3) and 0(6) symmetries. These shape phase transitions occur through critical points of the IBM phase diagram and correspond to rapid structural changes. The first transition of this type describes transition form the spherical to the γ-unstable phase and has been associated with an E(5) symmetry. Later further critical point symmetries e.g. X(5) and Y(5) have also been proposed for transitions between other nuclear shape phases. In another application the chain of even Ru isotopes was considered from A 98 to 112 [2]. The parameters were extracted from a fit to the low-lying energy spectrum of each nucleus and were used to plot the corresponding potential. It was found that up to A =102 the potential is essentially an harmonic oscillator, while at A =104 a rather flat potential was seen, in accordance with the expected phase transition and E(5) symmetry there. With increasing A then the minimum got increasingly deeper and moved away from β = 0. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the formalism in two ways: first by including dependence on the 7 variable allowing for the approximate description of nuclei close to the X(5) symmetry, and second, including higher-lying energy levels in the quasi-exactly solvable formalism
Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Topological Quantum Wires.
Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, Kun Woo
2017-06-05
We investigate the quantum phase transition of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model by inspecting the two-site entanglements in the ground state. It is shown that the topological phase transition of the SSH model is signified by a nonanalyticity of local entanglement, which becomes discontinuous for finite even system sizes, and that this nonanalyticity has a topological origin. Such a peculiar singularity has a universal nature in one-dimensional topological phase transitions of noninteracting fermions. We make this clearer by pointing out that an analogous quantity in the Kitaev chain exhibiting the identical nonanalyticity is the local electron density. As a byproduct, we show that there exists a different type of phase transition, whereby the pattern of the two-site entanglements undergoes a sudden change. This transition is characterised solely by quantum information theory and does not accompany the closure of the spectral gap. We analyse the scaling behaviours of the entanglement in the vicinities of the transition points.
High-pressure phase transition of alkali metal-transition metal deuteride Li2PdD2
Yao, Yansun; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Majumdar, Arnab; Wang, Hui; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Epshteyn, Albert; Purdy, Andrew P.
2017-06-01
A combined theoretical and experimental study of lithium palladium deuteride (Li2PdD2) subjected to pressures up to 50 GPa reveals one structural phase transition near 10 GPa, detected by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, and metadynamics simulations. The ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of Li2PdD2 transforms into a monoclinic C2/m phase that is distinct from all known structures of alkali metal-transition metal hydrides/deuterides. The structure of the high-pressure phase was characterized using ab initio computational techniques and from refinement of the powder x-ray diffraction data. In the high-pressure phase, the PdD2 complexes lose molecular integrity and are fused to extended [PdD2]∞ chains. The discovered phase transition and new structure are relevant to the possible hydrogen storage application of Li2PdD2 and alkali metal-transition metal hydrides in general.
Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.
1989-11-01
The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs
Impurity dynamics in stellarator W7-AS plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igitkhanov, Yuri; Beidler, Craig D.; Burhenn, Reiner; Polunovsky, Eduard; Yamazaki, Kozo
2006-01-01
Numerical efforts to understand the neoclassical transport of impurities in stellarator plasmas have been undertaken. The new code solves the radial continuity equations for each ionization stage of the impurity ions for given background plasma profiles and magnetic configuration. An analytic description of the neoclassical transport coefficients based on numerical results from the DKES (Drift Kinetic Equation Solver) code and monoenergetic Monte-Carlo calculation (C.D. Beidler et al., EPS 1994), is here applied for impurity transport coefficients. The transition between the different charge states due to the ionization and recombination in balance equation is described by using the ADAS (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure) database. The impurity behavior in some typical discharges from W7-AS with moderate (NC) and improved energy confinement (HDH) has been considered. It is shown that the spatial distribution results from the competition between the radial electric field and the thermal force (which together produce a convective flux), and the diffusive term, which flattens the radial impurity distribution. The impurity ions are localized at the radial position where the convective flux goes through zero. It is also shown that for typical stellarator discharges there is no pronounced temperature screening effect as in tokamak plasmas. (author)
Ruggenthaler, M; Grass, J; Schuh, W; Huber, C G; Reischl, R J
2017-09-05
For the first time, a comprehensive investigation of the impurity profile of the synthetic thyroid API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) liothyronine sodium (LT 3 Na) was performed by using reversed phase HPLC and advanced structural elucidation techniques including high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) and on-line hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange. Overall, 39 compounds were characterized and 25 of these related substances were previously unknown to literature. The impurity classification system recently developed for the closely related API levothyroxine sodium (LT 4 Na) could be applied to the newly characterized liothyronine sodium impurities resulting in a wholistic thyroid API impurity classification system. Furthermore, the mass-spectrometric CID-fragmentation of specific related substances was discussed and rationalized by detailed fragmentation pathways. Moreover, the UV/Vis absorption characteristics of the API and selected impurities were investigated to corroborate chemical structure assignments derived from MS data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Notes on Phase Transition of Nonsingular Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Meng-Sen; Zhao Ren
2015-01-01
On the belief that a black hole is a thermodynamic system, we study the phase transition of nonsingular black holes. If the black hole entropy takes the form of the Bekenstein—Hawking area law, the black hole mass M is no longer the internal energy of the black hole thermodynamic system. Using the thermodynamic quantities, we calculate the heat capacity, thermodynamic curvature and free energy. It is shown that there will be a larger black hole/smaller black hole phase transition for the nonsingular black hole. At the critical point, the second-order phase transition appears. (paper)
Novel phase transitions in B-site doped manganites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popovic, Z.V.; Cantarero, A.; Thijssen, W.H.A.; Paunovic, N.; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.; Sapina, F.
2005-01-01
We have examined the infrared reflectivity and the electrical resistivity of La 1- x [Sr(Ba)] x Mn 1- z [Cu(Zn)] z O 3 samples in ferromagnetic metallic and insulator regime. Several phase transitions are observed, the most obvious being the transition from a ferromagnetic metallic to a ferromagnetic insulator phase that is related to the formation of short-range orbitally ordered domains. The temperature T 1 of the phase transition is dependent on doping concentration and for optimally doped samples (∼32% of Mn 4+ ions) we have found T 1 ∼0.93 T C
Baryogenesis via leptonic CP-violating phase transition
Pascoli, Silvia; Turner, Jessica; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2018-05-01
We propose a new mechanism to generate a lepton asymmetry based on the vacuum CP-violating phase transition (CPPT). This approach differs from classical thermal leptogenesis as a specific seesaw model, and its UV completion, need not be specified. The lepton asymmetry is generated via the dynamically realised coupling of the Weinberg operator during the phase transition. This mechanism provides a connection with low-energy neutrino observables.