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Sample records for impulsion relative dans

  1. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713

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    LITA LIDYAWATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  2. Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L

    2018-06-01

    Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition. A subset of participants were randomized to a waitlist control group. Impulsivity, emotion regulation, and performance on near and far-transfer cognitive tasks were assessed at baseline and after completion of training. Emotion-related impulsivity declined significantly from pre-training to post-training and at two-week follow-up; improvements were not observed in the waitlist control group. A decrease in brooding rumination and an increase in reappraisal were also observed. Participants showed significant improvements on trained versions of the working memory and inhibition tasks as well as improvements on an inhibition transfer task. In sum, these preliminary findings show that cognitive training appears to be well-tolerated for people with significant emotion-driven impulsivity. Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of cognitive training interventions as a way to reduce emotion-related impulsivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PENGARUH MATERIALISM HAPPINESS, MATERIALISM CENTRALITY DAN MATERIALISM SUCCESS TERHADAP IMPULSIVE BUYING DAN EFEKNYA PADA COMPULSIVE BUYING BEHAVIOR (Studi empiris pada mahasiswa yang berbelanja pakaian di department store di Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    DITASARI, VALENTINA

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi materialisme (materialism happiness, centrality, dan success) terhadap impulsive buying dan efeknya pada compulsive buying behavior. Penelitian ini menggunakan responden mahasiswa dan mahasiswi yang berada di beberapa Universitas di Yogyakarta sebagai obyek penelitian. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah responden yang pernah dan cenderung sering melakukan pembelian atau berbelanja pakaian di Departement Store yang ada di Yogyakarta. ...

  4. Impulsivity facets’ predictive relations with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters

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    Roley, Michelle E.; Contractor, Ateka A.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has a well-established theoretical and empirical relation with impulsivity. Prior research has not used a multidimensional approach for measuring both PTSD and impulsivity constructs when assessing their relationship. Method The current study assessed the unique relationship of impulsivity facets on PTSD symptom clusters among a non-clinical sample of 412 trauma-exposed adults. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that impulsivity facets best accounted for PTSD’s arousal symptoms. The negative urgency facet of impulsivity was most predictive, as it was associated with all of PTSD’s symptom clusters. Sensation seeking did not predict PTSD’s intrusion symptoms, but did predict the other symptom clusters of PTSD. Lack of perseverance only predicted intrusion symptoms, while lack of premeditation only predicted PTSD’s mood/cognition symptoms. Conclusions Results extend theoretical and empirical research on the impulsivity-PTSD relationship, suggesting that impulsivity facets may serve as both risk and protective factors for PTSD symptoms. PMID:27243571

  5. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  6. Impulsivity traits and addiction-related behaviors in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Hesse, Morten

    2018-01-01

    problems to achieve a broad distribution of involvement in addiction-related behaviors. Participants completed the UPPS-P Questionnaire and standardized questionnaires assessing problematic use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs) and non-substances (Internet gaming, pornography, and food...... eating and lack of perseverance was associated with problematic use of pornography. Discussion and conclusions We emphasize the role of trait impulsivity across multiple addiction-related behaviors. Our findings in at-risk youth highlight urgency and lack of perseverance as potential predictors...

  7. Impulse control and related disorders in Mexican Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; González-Latapi, Paulina; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Camacho-Ordoñez, Azyadeh; Weintraub, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are a relatively recent addition to the behavioral spectrum of PD-related non-motor symptoms. Social and economic factors may play a role on the ICD phenotype of PD patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and characterize the clinical profile of ICDs in a sample of low-income, low-education PD patients with no social security benefits from a Latin American country. We included 300 consecutive PD patients and 150 control subjects. The presence of ICD and related disorders was assessed using a structured interview. After the interview and neurological evaluation were concluded, all subjects completed the Questionnaire for Impulsive-compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS). Regarding ICDs and related disorders (hobbyism-punding), 25.6% (n = 77) of patients in the PD group and 16.6% (n = 25) in the control group fulfilled criteria for at least one ICD or related disorder (p = 0.032). There was a statistically significant difference in the QUIP-RS mean score between PD and control subjects (5.6 ± 9.7 and 2.7 ± 4.21, p = 0.001). The most common ICD was compulsive eating for both PD (8.6%) and control (2.6%) groups. The results of this study confirm that for this population, symptoms of an ICD are significantly more frequent in PD subjects than in control subjects. Nevertheless, socioeconomic differences may contribute to a lower overall frequency and distinct pattern of ICDs in PD patients compared with what has been reported in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Relations Among Behavioral and Questionnaire Measures of Impulsivity in a Sample of Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Bagge, Courtney L.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the focus on impulsivity within suicide research, it remains unclear the extent to which impulsivity assessments, that purportedly tap similar constructs, show significant overlap in samples of individuals with suicidal behaviors. In a sample of 69 suicide attempters, we took a multitrait, multimethod approach to examine the relation among various questionnaire and behavioral assessments of impulsivity facets. With the exception of urgency and go-stop performance there was little evid...

  10. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impulse Control and Related Disorders in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Claassen, Daniel O

    2017-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. ICDs have been most closely related to the use of dopamine agonists (DAs), while DDS is primarily associated with shorter acting, higher potency dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), such as levodopa. However, in preliminary research ICDs have also been reported to occur with monoamine oxidase inhibitor-B and amantadine treatment, and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Other risk factors for ICDs may include sex (e.g., male sex for compulsive sexual behavior, and female sex for compulsive buying behavior); younger age overall at PD onset; a pre-PD history of an ICD; personal or family history of substance abuse, bipolar disorder, or gambling problems; and impulsive personality traits. Dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is thought to be the major neurobiological substrate for ICDs in PD, but there is preliminary evidence for alterations in opiate and serotonin systems too. The primary treatment of ICDs in PD is discontinuation of the offending treatment, but not all patients can tolerate this due to worsening motor symptoms or DA withdrawal syndrome. While psychiatric medications and psychosocial treatments are frequently used to treat ICDs in the general population, there is limited empirical evidence for their use in PD, so it is critical for patients to be

  12. Pengaruh Penempatan Produk di Kasir dan Sales Person terhadap Impulse Buying

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    Dian Tauriana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Product placement in the cashier and using sales person have important effects for impulse purchasing in a retail that will increase company selling. The purpose of this research is to acknowledge product placement influences in cashier and sales person towards buying impulse in GIANT hypermart in Plaza Semanggi, Jakarta. The research is associative research. Data collecting technique is done by spreading questionnaire to consumers in GIANT Hypermart Plaza Semanggi and interview with the management. Data analysis technique is by validation and reliability test, normality, simple and double regression test with software SPSS 16.0. The research result shows that the product placement variable in cashier and sales person influenced simultaneously and significantly to impulse buying.

  13. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

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    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying. 

  14. Impulsivity and hopelessness as predictors of suicide-related ideation among older adults.

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    Neufeld, Eva; O'Rourke, Norm

    2009-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that impulsivity is strongly associated with suicide-related ideation and behaviour among young adults. However, to date, the potential importance of impulsivity as a predictor of suicide-related ideation in later life has yet to be determined. Our study examined impulsivity, hopelessness, depressive symptomatology, and sociodemographic factors vis-à-vis suicide-related ideation among older adults at risk of self-harm. A sample (n = 117) of older adults was recruited from multiple sources for this study over a 1-year period. Suicide-related ideation was measured with the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale, a multidimensional measure of suicide-related ideation developed for use with older adults. Canonical correlation identified 2 pairings of linear composites in which impulsivity emerged along both as significantly associated with facets of suicide-related ideation. Of note, the greater proportion of variance in impulsivity was subsumed along the second set of vectors with somatic depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the impulse to self-harm may be even more pronounced among older adults less likely to present as typically depressed. It is further suggested that impulsivity is more broadly associated with suicide-related ideation than hopelessness, and that screening for impulsivity as well as hopelessness may increase clinicians' ability to identify older adults at greatest risk of self-harm.

  15. Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F

    2013-08-01

    Despite the focus on impulsivity within suicide research, it remains unclear the extent to which impulsivity assessments, that purportedly tap similar constructs, show significant overlap in samples of individuals with suicidal behaviors. In a sample of 69 suicide attempters, we took a multitrait, multimethod approach to examine the relation among various questionnaire and behavioral assessments of impulsivity facets. With the exception of urgency and go-stop performance, there was little evidence of concordance between questionnaire and behavioral measures. These findings suggest researchers cannot presume that measures of "impulsivity" assess similar psychological processes and that more nuanced terminology is needed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

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    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Multidimensional Assessment of Impulsivity in Relation to Obesity and Food Addiction

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    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K.; Beach, Steven R. H.; vanDellen, Michelle R.; MacKillop, James

    2017-01-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in “food addiction,” a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains. PMID:28087369

  18. Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBroek-Stice, Lauren; Stojek, Monika K; Beach, Steven R H; vanDellen, Michelle R; MacKillop, James

    2017-05-01

    Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pengaruh Website Quality, Electronic Word-of-mouth, dan Sales Promotion terhadap Impulse Buying pada Zalora

    OpenAIRE

    Ngurah Sugianto, Yonita Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of website quality, electronic word-of-mouth, and sales promotion against impulse buying at Zalora. This study uses a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 80 respondents who meet the requirements of the study. 80 respondents consisted of respondents who are browsing on the website Zalora encountered by researchers. Processing of research data using SPSS 24.0. the result of three independent variables: website quality, electroni...

  1. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  2. The error-related negativity (ERN is an electrophysiological marker of motor impulsiveness on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 during adolescence

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    Jasmine B. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. Methods: Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7–9 years and again at 12–18 years. The interval between testing sessions ranged from 5 to 9 years. The ERN was extracted in response to behavioural errors produced during a modified visual flanker task at both time points (i.e. childhood and adolescence. Participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale − a measure that considers impulsiveness to comprise three core sub-traits − during adolescence. Results: At adolescence, the ERN amplitude was significantly larger than during childhood. Additionally, ERN amplitude during adolescence significantly predicted motor impulsiveness at that time point, after controlling for age, gender, and the number of trials included in the ERN. In contrast, ERN amplitude during childhood did not uniquely predict impulsiveness during adolescence. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that ERN amplitude is an electrophysiological marker of self-reported motor impulsiveness (i.e. acting without thinking during adolescence. Keywords: Error-related negativity, ERN, Impulsivity, BIS, Development, Adolescence

  3. La construction relative dans Chrétien de Troyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Pieter

    1924-01-01

    1. On peut reléguer à la syntaxe figée la construction relative avec la pronom neutre que dans feire que sages, que je sache, (au) plus tost qu'il pot, je n'ai que feire; avec le pronom adjectif qui dans il n'i a celui (nul, un seul) qui, com cil qui; en outre qui vive dans riens (om) qui vive

  4. Impulsivity-related traits distinguish women with co-occurring bulimia nervosa in a psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L; Pedersen, Geir; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated impulsivity-related personality traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) in women diagnosed with co-occurring bulmia nervosa and borderline personality disorder (BN-BPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD no-BN), or major depressive disorder (MDD-only). The sample included 672 adult female admissions to a psychiatric day hospital treatment program. The NEO PI-R facets of impulsiveness (N5), excitement-seeking (E5), self-discipline (C5), and deliberation (C6) provided a proxy assessment of impulsivity-related traits tapping negative urgency, sensation-seeking, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation/planning. After adjusting for age, BN-BPD displayed significantly higher levels of negative urgency and lack of premeditation than BPD without co-occurring BN. Women with BN-BPD also had significantly higher levels of impulsivity traits than MDD across domains, except for lack of perseverance. Impulsivity-related traits of negative urgency and lack of premeditation significantly differentiated women with versus without co-occurring BN among women with borderline personality disorder. Lower levels of impulsivity-related traits in women with MDD indicated that effects were not simply attributable to any form of psychopathology. Of the impulsivity traits, negative urgency demonstrated the strongest effect, providing further evidence of the important relationship between negative urgency and the expression of bulimic symptomology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1093-1096). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Relation between Reflection-Impulsivity and Perceived Competence in Junior High School Children

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    桜井, 茂男

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between perceived competence and reflection-impulsivity in junior high school students. Two scales, i. e. , the Perceived Competence Scale for Children developed by Sakurai (1983) and the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) test developed by Sugihara (1977) , were administrated to 70 eighth male students and 70 eighth female students. The performance, Impulsivity (I) score, and Efficiency (E) score (see Salkind & Wright, 1977) in MFF test ...

  6. Poor Sleep and Its Relation to Impulsivity in Patients with Antisocial or Borderline Personality Disorders.

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    Van Veen, M M; Karsten, J; Lancel, M

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating sleep and personality disorders consistently demonstrate a relation between personality disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition and/or emotional dysregulation (traditionally termed cluster B personality disorders) and poor sleep. This finding is in line with previous studies associating insomnia with impulsive behavior, since this is a core characteristic of both antisocial and borderline personality disorder. The current study investigates a group (n = 112) of forensic psychiatric inpatients with antisocial or borderline personality disorder or traits thereof. Subjective sleep characteristics and impulsivity were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Sleep Diagnosis List, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, respectively. More than half of the patients (53.6%) report poor sleep quality and 22.3% appears to suffer from severe chronic insomnia. Both poor sleep quality and chronic insomnia are significantly associated with self-reported impulsivity, in particular with attentional impulsiveness. This association was not significantly influenced by comorbid disorders. Actively treating sleep problems in these patients may not only improve sleep quality, mental health, and physical well-being, but may also have impact on impulsivity-related health risks by increasing self-control.

  7. How do impulsivity and education relate to smoking initiation and cessation among young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Rise, Jostein

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the predictive value of impulsivity for starting and quitting smoking and whether education had an independent effect on smoking careers or moderated the impulsivity-smoking association. Two waves of the cohort study Young in Norway were used in the present study (third wave: 1999, age range: 19-32 years; fourth wave: 2005, age range: 25-38 years). Postal questionnaires were used for data collection. Subjects participating in 1999 and 2005 were eligible (N = 2,562). Stable smokers (daily smokers in 1999 and 2005) and nonsmokers (never smokers in 1999 and 2005), quitters (daily smokers in 1999, nonsmokers in 2005), and starters (never smokers in 1999, daily smokers in 2005) constituted the analytical sample (1,776 men and women). The associations between self-reported impulsivity and education and smoking were investigated using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratio (OR) for a 1-unit increase in the impulsivity score was 2.16 (95% CI [1.09, 4.30]) for smoking initiation, whereas the OR [95% CI] for low compared with high education was 2.55 (95% CI [1.36, 4.77]). Education, but not impulsivity, emerged as a significant determinant for smoking cessation compared with continued smoking. The OR for quitting smoking by low compared with high education was 0.61 (95% CI [0.42, 0.90]). Mutual adjustment for education and impulsivity did not change any of the results. The interaction term between impulsivity and education was not significantly related to smoking. Because impulsivity emerged as important for smoking initiation regardless of educational level, it should be considered when planning and implementing smoking prevention programs for both low and high socioeconomic groups.

  8. Impulse control disorders and related behaviours (ICD-RBs) in Parkinson's disease patients: Assessment using ?Questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease? (QUIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashish; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri; Srivastva, Achal; Shukla, Garima; Vibha, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited data on the prevalence of impulse control disorder and related behaviors (ICD-RBs) in Indian patients with Parkinson′s Disease (PD). In the context of potential genetic and environmental factors affecting the expression of ICD-RBs, studying other multiethnic populations may bring in-sights into the mechanisms of these disorders. Objectives: To ascertain point prevalence estimate of ICD-RBs in Indian PD patients, using the validated “Questionnaire for Impulsive-Com...

  9. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anger, impulsivity, and anger control in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Hamada, R S; Roitblat, H L; Muraoka, M Y

    1994-08-01

    Empirical evidence of a relationship between combat-related PTSD and increased anger is lacking. In this study, 24 veterans of the Vietnam War with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scored significantly higher on an Anger factor comprising multiple measures of anger than did comparison groups of 23 well-adjusted Vietnam combat veterans and 12 noncombat Vietnam-era veterans with psychiatric diagnoses. In contrast, the 3 groups did not differ significantly on orthogonal factors, one of which comprised cognitive impulsivity measures and the other of which reflected motor impulsivity. Changes in heart rate in response to provocation loaded positively on the Anger factor and negatively on the 2 Impulsivity factors. Concurrent depression and trait anxiety did not have an effect on level of anger in individuals with PTSD. These empirical findings support and extend the clinical evidence regarding PTSD and anger.

  11. Media Sosial dan Peran Manajerial Public Relations PT PLN Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Mahendra Prastya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Social media affect communication technicians and managerial roles in Public Relations (PR. This study observes PR managerial role in PT PLN Persero in the policy making of social media use for the company’s internal environment. This research use interviews, document studies, and observation as data collection techniques. The results show that the role of communicating the policy is more dominant than the managerial role. Factors influencing PR managerial role are organization’s recognition on the PR role and function in the organization, the number of personnel in the PR department, and the authority overlap within the organization.   Abstrak: Media sosial memengaruhi praktek Public Relations (PR sebagai teknisi komunikasi dan manajerial. Penelitian ini membahas peran manajerial PR d PT PLN Persero dalam penyusunan kebijakan penggunaan media sosial untuk lingkungan internal perusahaan. Penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data wawancara, studi dokumen, dan observasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Bidang Komunikasi Korporat PT PLN Persero sudah melaksanakan peran manajerial walaupun masih didominasi peran mengomunikasikan kebijakan. Peran manajerial PR dipengaruhi oleh pemahaman dan pengakuan formal organisasi terhadap peran dan fungsi PR dalam organisasi, jumlah personel di departemen PR, dan tumpang tindih kewenangan dengan bidang kerja lain dalam organisasi.

  12. Childhood inhibitory control and adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking as differential predictors of relational and overt aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Katherine; Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H H

    2017-04-01

    Impulsivity is commonly conflated with novelty seeking, but these traits are conceptually independent and hold different predictive implications. Using a multi-informant, longitudinal design, we examined childhood inhibitory control, as well as adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking, as predictors of aggression in a sample of 976 twins. Lower childhood inhibitory control and higher adolescent impulsivity predicted both overt and relational aggression in regression analyses that accounted for sex, puberty status, age, and socioeconomic status. As predicted, novelty seeking did not predict aggression, a finding that supports its independence from impulsivity.

  13. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  14. Impulsive and reflective processes related to alcohol use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePieters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples (for a meta-analysis see Rooke, Hine, & Thorsteinsson, 2008. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that working memory capacity would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = .78 who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility Test (SRC; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT and a Word Association Test (WAT. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. Working memory capacity was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT.Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in

  15. Assessing personal financial management in patients with bipolar disorder and its relation to impulsivity and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Marvi K; MacQueen, Glenda M; Hassel, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity and risk-taking behaviours are reported in bipolar disorder (BD). We examined whether financial management skills are related to impulsivity in patients with BD. We assessed financial management skills using the Executive Personal Finance Scale (EPFS), impulsivity using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and response inhibition using an emotional go/no-go task in bipolar individuals (N = 21) and healthy controls (HC; N = 23). Patients had fewer financial management skills and higher levels of impulsivity than HC. In patients and controls, increased impulsivity was associated with poorer personal financial management. Patients and HC performed equally on the emotional go/no-go task. Higher BIS scores were associated with faster reaction times in HC. In patients, however, higher BIS scores were associated with slower reaction times, possibly indicating compensatory cognitive strategies to counter increased impulsivity. Patients with BD may have reduced abilities to manage personal finances, when compared against healthy participants. Difficulty with personal finance management may arise in part as a result of increased levels of impulsivity. Patients may learn to compensate for increased impulsivity by modulating response times in our experimental situations although whether such compensatory strategies generalize to real-world situations is unknown.

  16. Students’ Relational Thinking of Impulsive and Reflective in Solving Mathematical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriawan, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive research which qualitatively investigates students’ relational thinking of impulsive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problem. The method used in this research are test and interview. The data analyzed by reducing, presenting and concluding the data. The results of research show that the students’ reflective cognitive style can possibly help to find out important elements in understanding a problem. Reading more than one is useful to identify what is being questioned and write the information which is known, building relation in every element and connecting information with arithmetic operation, connecting between what is being questioned with known information, making equation model to find out the value by using substitution, and building a connection on re-checking, re-reading, and re-counting. The impulsive students’ cognitive style supports important elements in understanding problems, building a connection in every element, connecting information with arithmetic operation, building a relation about a problem comprehensively by connecting between what is being questioned with known information, finding out the unknown value by using arithmetic operation without making any equation model. The result of re-checking problem solving, impulsive student was only reading at glance without re-counting the result of problem solving.

  17. Analisis Perilaku “Impulse Buying” dan “Locus of Control” pada Konsumen di Carrefour Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Widawati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern economy, credit card system substituted cash-payment system as well. Such situation affects people in many ways. A weak self-control in using credit card has resulted on immature and unplanned buying. Such was the case of 60 Carrefour consumers in Bandung which were carefully chosen as research respondents.  Employing Impulse Buying concept of Rook &Verplanken, combined with Locus of Control concept as proposed by Rooter, this descriptive research resulted in some conclusions.  One of the main conclusion to be found here is the fact that lots of consumer tend to have low Impulse Buying with Internal Locus of Control. Meanwhile, there were also a group of consumers who showed High Impulse with External Locus of Control.

  18. Peningkatan Impulse Buying Mahasiswa di Semarang terhadap Produk Fashion Lokal melalui Ethnocentrisme, Brand Image dan Country of Origin (COO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Impulse Buying Students in Semarang on Local Fashion Products Through Ethnocentrism, Brand Image, and Country of Origin (COOImpulse buying is a very interesting phenomenon for retailers and marketers because it is the biggest market share and occupy a very important position and can increase sales. The aim of the research is to analyze whether the Country of Origin ( COC, brand image and ethnocentrism significantly affect students impulse buying of local fashion in Semarang city. Data analysis used in this research is linier regression analysis. The result shows that COO the only variables that do not significantly affect students impulse buying. Need a strategy of brand image reinforcement and promotion emphasized on the love of domestic products. Promotion of products at the local level of Semarang city needs to be improved by taking into account the values of excellence and local wisdom.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.6979 

  19. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  20. The risk factors for impulsivity-related falls among hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marisa; Harrison, Barbara; Lewis, Doresea

    2012-01-01

    Falls among older adults are a common, preventable problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impulsivity is a known risk factor for older adult falls; however, there is a gap in evidence demonstrating the unique risk factors associated with impulsivity related falls (IRF). The research explored the association between seven fall risk factors and impulsivity related falls in hospitalized older adults in a community hospital. This retrospective descriptive study analyzed the association between seven fall risk factors and IRF in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 233) included patients age 65 years and older who had a documented in-patient fall in 2008. Of the falls, 29.7% were classified as IRF. The mean age of patients with IRF was 78 years, with the median day of fall being Day 5 of hospitalization/rehabilitation admission. Logistic regression demonstrated that only inattention and cognitive impairment were significant risk factors for IRF. The incidence of IRF was 29.7%. Our findings also indicate that cognitive impairment and inattention are strongest predictors for IRF among usual risk factors. Early identification of the unique risk factors associated with IRF could improve identification and reduce fall rates among hospitalized older adults. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  1. General habit propensity relates to the sensation seeking subdomain of impulsivity but not obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dietrich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to dual-system theory, instrumental learning and performance depend on the balance between goal-directed and habitual action control. Overreliance on habits has been argued to characterize clinical conditions such as drug addiction or obsessive-compulsive disorder as well as obesity and excessive impulsivity. A tendency towards habitual action control in obesity has already been indicated in the food domain. However, impairments might not be restricted to eating behavior. This has been suggested by domain-general obesity-associated disturbances in executive function as well as alterations in corticostriatal circuits underlying the goal-directed and habitual systems. In this study we examined the balance of goal-directed and habitual action control in a sample of normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants (n=105 using the slips-of-action test in a non-food context. We tested for continuous or group-based associations between body weight status (BMI and the devaluation sensitivity index (DSI, a parameter representing the balance of the goal-directed and habitual systems in action control. As personality differences in the domain of impulsivity might affect this relationship, we also examined whether the interaction between BMI and self-reported impulsivity, based on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, was related to the DSI. In addition to that, we tested for direct, i.e., weight status independent, relationships between UPPS subdomains of impulsivity and the DSI. We failed to find evidence for a relationship between weight status and sensitivity to devaluation as indexed by the DSI. However, independent of weight status, we observed lower sensitivity to devaluation in sensation seekers, a subtype of impulsivity. To conclude, behavioral flexibility in the sense of disturbances in the balance between the habitual and goal-directed systems seems to be unaffected by weight status in a non-food context. Consequently, stimuli and

  2. Impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time job status in relation to substance use and gambling in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-04-01

    Although impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time employment have each been linked to risky behaviors in adolescents, their inter-relationships are less well-understood. We examined data from adolescents to assess the following predictions: (1) sensation-seeking would relate closely to substance use and gambling; (2) impulsivity would relate closely to alcohol, drug, and gambling problems; and (3) these relationships would be particularly strong among those holding part-time jobs. High-school students (N = 3,106) were surveyed to provide data on impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time job status. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships with gambling, substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) and related problems. Both impulsivity and sensation-seeking related significantly to substance use and impulsivity to gambling. Impulsivity had stronger associations with drug and gambling problems than sensation-seeking did. Students with paid part-time jobs were more likely to drink alcohol, binge drink, and use marijuana. Sensation-seeking had a particularly strong relationship to heavy cigarette smoking among students with part-time jobs. Conversely, there was little relationship between part-time job status and smoking among low sensation-seekers. These findings further support the relevance of sensation-seeking, impulsivity, and part-time job status to risky behaviors among adolescents. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity had unique relationships to risky behaviors, in accordance with theory and prior evidence. Impulsive adolescents may be in particular need for interventions to reduce drug use and gambling. Although part-time jobs can be beneficial, parents and caregivers should be mindful of potential negative ramifications of paid work outside the home. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Détermination de la polarisation des gluons dans le nucléon par la production de hadrons à grande impulsion transverse à COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Procureur, Sébastien

    L\\'objectif principal de l\\'expérience COMPASS au CERN est la détermination de la polarisation des gluons dans le nucléon, $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. On mesure pour cela l\\'asymétrie d\\'hélicité du processus de fusion photon gluon, dans la diffusion de muons polarisés sur une cible de deutérons polarisés. Ce processus peut être sélectionné par la production de hadrons à grande impulsion transverse ($p_T$), ce qui permet de disposer d\\'une grande statistique. En contrepartie, la présence d\\'un bruit de fond physique complique l\\'extraction de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. Ce mémoire de thèse présente différentes études menées afin d\\'optimiser la détermination de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$ dans ce canal. Une étude sur l\\'alignement des quelques 200 plans de détection est notamment présentée, améliorant ainsi la résolution du spectromètre. Les performances des 12 détecteurs de type Micromegas ont également été déterminées au cours de la prise de données 2004. Puis, les asymétries obtenues...

  4. Testing the Relations Between Impulsivity-Related Traits, Suicidality, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Test of the Incremental Validity of the UPPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains—alone and in interaction—when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI. PMID:21833346

  5. Testing the relations between impulsivity-related traits, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury: a test of the incremental validity of the UPPS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Miller, Drew J; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2011-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains--alone and in interaction--when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI.

  6. Antisocial personality disorder and borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the change version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Symptoms are Differentially Related to Impulsivity and Course of Illness in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and –II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Conclusions Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. PMID:22835849

  8. Are Youth Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Toprak, Fatih; Goemans, Anouk; Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Vedder, Paul

    2017-10-01

    In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were found between bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. These results were not affected by publication bias. Anti-bullying interventions could potentially benefit from including elements that have been found effective in the treatment of youth psychopathy.

  9. Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.

  10. Clinical characteristics of impulse control and related disorders in Chinese Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; He, An Qi; Li, Lin; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-05-18

    Impulse control and related disorders (ICRDs) are clinically complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the clinical characteristics of ICRDs in Chinese PD patients were rarely reported. We aimed to explore the prevalence and the clinical profile of ICRDs in Chinese patients with PD. 142 Chinese PD patients were consecutively enrolled. The symptoms of ICRDs were assessed with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders. The clinical characteristics of patients with ICRDs and without ICRDs were compared. ICRDs were present in 31% of our patients. The most common ICRDs were compulsive medication use (11.3%) and punding (9.2%); the least frequent were walkabout (1.4%). Variables independently associated with ICRDs were earlier onset of the disease (≤55 years), severe cognitive impairment (MMSE 10-20), the dose of dopamine agonist (>1 mg/d) and dyskinesia. ICRDs was commonly found in Chinese PD patients. Earlier onset of the disease, the dose of dopamine agonist, severe cognitive impairment and dyskinesia are independent factors associated with ICRDs. Our results will be benefit for clinicians to assess the risk of developing ICRDs before delivering dopaminergic medication.

  11. Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes towards drugs in relation to drug usage, impulsiveness and other risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest.Method. High school pupils (n = 146 aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data.Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31 and gender (odds ratio = .32. Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89, positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63, and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11 predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Characteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys.Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for differences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.

  12. Impulse control disorders and related behaviours (ICD-RBs) in Parkinson's disease patients: Assessment using "Questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease" (QUIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri; Srivastva, Achal; Shukla, Garima; Vibha, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    There is limited data on the prevalence of impulse control disorder and related behaviors (ICD-RBs) in Indian patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). In the context of potential genetic and environmental factors affecting the expression of ICD-RBs, studying other multiethnic populations may bring in-sights into the mechanisms of these disorders. To ascertain point prevalence estimate of ICD-RBs in Indian PD patients, using the validated "Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (QUIP)" and to examine their association with Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). This was a hospital based observational cross-sectional study. After taking informed consent, patients and their informants (spouse, or primary caregiver) were made to complete the QUIP, and were instructed to answer questions based on behaviors that occurred anytime during PD that lasted at least four consecutive weeks. Total of 299 patients participated in the study. At least one ICD-RB was present in 128 (42.8%), at least one Impulse control disorder (ICD) was present in 74 (24.75%) and at least one Impulse control related compulsive behaviour (ICRB) was present in 93 (31.1%) patients. Punding was the most frequent (12.4%) followed by hyper sexuality (11.04%), compulsive hobbyism (9.4%), compulsive shopping (8.4%), compulsive medication use (7.7%), compulsive eating (5.35%), walkabout (4%) and pathological gambling (3.3%). ≥ 2 ICD-RBs were observed in 15.7% of patients. After multivariate analysis, younger age of onset, being unmarried were specifically associated with presence of ICD. Longer disease duration was specifically associated with presence of ICRB. Whereas smoking and higher dopamine levodopa equivalent daily doses (DA LEDD) were associated with both presence of ICD and ICRB. Higher LD LEDD was specifically associated with presence of ICD-RB. Our study revealed a relatively higher frequency of ICD-RBs, probably because of the use of screening instrument and because

  13. Background noise in amplifiers of pulse ionization rooms; Le bruit de fond dans les amplificateurs de chambre d'ionisation a impulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, G; Leveque, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The accuracy on the charge measures liberated in a pulse ionization room is limited by the background noise inherent to the used amplifier. Firstly we remind briefly the main features of the signal collected on the electrode collector of the room and the background noise, then the theory of Milatz and Keller. This theory establishes the existence of an absolute limit on the precision of the measures, characteristic of the preamplifier tube and permits its calculation. We define the transient answer of an ideal amplifier allowing effectively this precision. We propose a convenient circuit having this answer and we compare with the usually used circuits. In the case the method of Scherr and Peterson, we show that a supplementary condition render the previous theory insufficient. We calculate the optimum transient response in this case and the value of the limit of precision who ensues. We consider some simple circuits and compare to this limit the precision that they permit to get. (author) [French] La precision sur les mesures de charges liberees dans une chambre d'ionisation a impulsions est limitee par le bruit de fond inherent a l'amplificateur utilise. Nous rappelons brievement tout d'abord les caracteristiques principales du signal recueilli sur l'electrode collectrice de la chambre et du bruit de fond, puis la theorie de Milatz et Keller. Cette theorie etablit l'existence d'une limite absolue sur la precision des mesures, caracteristique du tube preamplificateur, et permet son calcul. Nous definissons la reponse transitoire de l'amplificateur ideal permettant d'attendre effectivement cette precision. Nous proposons un circuit pratique ayant cette reponse et nous lui comparons les circuits habituellement utilises. Dans le cas ou l'on emploie la methode de Scherr et Peterson, nous montrons qu'une condition supplementaire s'introduit rendant la theorie precedente insuffisante. Nous calculons donc la reponse transitoire optimum dans ce cas et la valeur de la

  14. Bidirectional Relations of Impulsive Personality and Alcohol Use Across Three Waves of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Alison J; Davis, Heather A; Milich, Richard; Smith, Gregory T; Charnigo, Richard

    2018-06-11

    To explore the bidirectional relations between alcohol use and three impulsive personality traits, to advance understanding of risk processes. 525 college students (mean age = 18.95 years) recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up annually for three years. Personality and past/current substance use were assessed. T2 sensation seeking mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 alcohol use, and T2 alcohol use mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 sensation seeking. In addition, T2 alcohol problems mediated the predictive relationship between T1 alcohol use and T3 negative urgency. Findings support a bidirectional relationship between sensation seeking and alcohol use, and drinking anticipates drinking problems, which predict increases in negative urgency. For some individuals, there appears to be an ongoing process of increased risk in the form of increases in both drinking and high-risk personality traits.

  15. Pengaruh Current Industry Relative Performance, Future Industry Relative Performance Dan Leverage Terhadap Praktik Manajemen Laba (Studi Komparasi Tiga Bank Konvensional Dan Tiga Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Wahyudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif qualitative yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh dari Current Industry Relative Performance (CRP, Future Industry Relative Performance (FRP dan Leverage (DEBT terhadap praktik manajemen laba pada Perbankan Indonesia. CRP, FRP dan DEBT diukur dengan mengggunakan rasio keuangan. Manajemen laba diukur dengan menggunakan total akrual. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder dengan karakteristik data time series yang berupa laporan keuangan triwulan bank (BM, BRI, BSM, BMI, dan BSMI tahun 2004 sampai dengan 2008. Dengan menggunakan regresi berganda dengan taraf nyata 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada bank konvensional berdasarkan Uji Simultan, peubah CRP, FRP dan DEBT mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba (AD, sedangkan berdasarkan Uji Parsial, hanya peubah CRP dan DEBT yang mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba. Pada bank syariah, berdasarkan uji Simultan, peubah CRP, FRP, dan DEBT tidak ada yang mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba (AD, sedangkan berdasarkan Uji Parsial, peubah CRP, FRP dan DEBT tidak mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba.JEL Classification : G21, M12, M40Kata kunci : Current Industry Relative Performance (CRP, Future Industry Relative Performance (FRP, Leverage (DEBT, Manajemen Laba (Accrual Discretionary

  16. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...... and the AQ or BIS-11 total scores. Also, there was no significant interaction between gender and frontal cortex 5-HT2AR in predicting trait aggression and trait impulsivity. This is the first study to examine how 5-HT2AR relates to trait aggression and trait impulsivity in a large sample of healthy......Numerous studies indicate that the serotonergic (5-HT) transmitter system is involved in the regulation of impulsive aggression and there is from post-mortem, in vivo imaging and genetic studies evidence that the 5-HT2A receptor may be involved. We investigated 94 healthy individuals (60 men, mean...

  17. Relations de Dispersion et Diffusion des Glueballs et des Mesons dans la Theorie de Jauge U(1)(2+1) Compacte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chaara El Mouez

    Nous avons etudie les relations de dispersion et la diffusion des glueballs et des mesons dans le modele U(1)_{2+1} compact. Ce modele a ete souvent utilise comme un simple modele de la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), parce qu'il possede le confinement ainsi que les etats de glueballs. Par contre, sa structure mathematique est beaucoup plus simple que la QCD. Notre methode consiste a diagonaliser l'Hamiltonien de ce modele dans une base appropriee de graphes et sur reseau impulsion, afin de generer les relations de dispersion des glueballs et des mesons. Pour la diffusion, nous avons utilise la methode dependante du temps pour calculer la matrice S et la section efficace de diffusion des glueballs et des mesons. Les divers resultats obtenus semblent etre en accord avec les travaux anterieurs de Hakim, Alessandrini et al., Irving et al., qui eux, utilisent plutot la theorie des perturbations en couplage fort, et travaillent sur un reseau espace-temps.

  18. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, A; Chaudhuri, K R; Boroojerdi, B; Asgharnejad, M; Bauer, L; Grieger, F; Weintraub, D

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other compulsive behaviours (together called ICD behaviours). The frequency of ICD behaviours reported as adverse events (AEs) in long-term studies of rotigotine transdermal patch in PD was evaluated. This was a post hoc analysis of six open-label extension studies up to 6 years in duration. Analyses included patients treated with rotigotine for at least 6 months and administered the modified Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. ICD behaviours reported as AEs were identified and categorized. For 786 patients, the mean (±SD) exposure to rotigotine was 49.4 ± 17.6 months. 71 (9.0%) patients reported 106 ICD AEs cumulatively. Occurrence was similar across categories: 2.5% patients reported 'compulsive sexual behaviour', 2.3% 'buying disorder', 2.0% 'compulsive gambling', 1.7% 'compulsive eating' and 1.7% 'punding behaviour'. Examining at 6-month intervals, the incidence was relatively low during the first 30 months; it was higher over the next 30 months, peaking in the 54-60-month period. No ICD AEs were serious, and 97% were mild or moderate in intensity. Study discontinuation occurred in seven (9.9%) patients with ICD AEs; these then resolved in five patients. Dose reduction occurred for 23 AEs, with the majority (73.9%) resolving. In this analysis of >750 patients with PD treated with rotigotine, the frequency of ICD behaviour AEs was 9.0%, with a specific incidence timeline observed. Active surveillance as duration of treatment increases may help early identification and management; once ICD behaviours are present rotigotine dose reduction may be considered. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  19. Food-Related Impulsivity in Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder—A Systematic Update of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin E. Giel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific eating pattern of Binge Eating Disorder (BED patients has provoked the assumption that BED might represent a phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Following the guidelines of the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, we here provide a systematic update on the evidence on food-related impulsivity in obese individuals, with and without BED, as well as normal-weight individuals. We separately analyzed potential group differences in the impulsivity components of reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behavior. Our search resulted in twenty experimental studies with high methodological quality. The synthesis of the latest evidence consolidates conclusions drawn in our initial systematic review that BED represents a distinct phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Rash-spontaneous behavior in general, and specifically towards food, is increased in BED, while food-specific reward sensitivity is also increased in obese individuals without BED, but potentially to a lesser degree. A major next step for research entails the investigation of sub-domains and temporal components of inhibitory control in BED and obesity. Based on the evidence of impaired inhibitory control in BED, affected patients might profit from interventions that address impulsive behavior.

  20. Rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity in relation to risky drinking by university students: potential roles of frontal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyvers, Michael; Duff, Helen; Basch, Vanessa; Edwards, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Two forms of impulsivity, rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity, have been proposed to reflect aspects of frontal lobe functioning and promote substance use. The present study examined these two forms of impulsivity as well as frontal lobe symptoms in relation to risky drinking by university students. University undergraduates aged 18-26years completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), and a demographics questionnaire assessing age, gender, and age of onset of weekly drinking (AOD). AUDIT-defined harmful drinkers reported earlier AOD and scored higher on BIS-11, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale of the SPSRQ, and the Disinhibition and Executive Dysfunction scales of the FrSBe compared to lower risk groups. Differences remained significant after controlling for duration of alcohol exposure. Path analyses indicated that the influence of SR on AUDIT was mediated by FrSBe Disinhibition, whereas the influence of BIS-11 on AUDIT was mediated by both Disinhibition and Executive Dysfunction scales of the FrSBe. Findings tentatively suggest that the influence of rash impulsiveness on drinking may reflect dysfunction in dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal systems, whereas the influence of reward sensitivity on drinking may primarily reflect orbitofrontal dysfunction. Irrespective of the underlying functional brain systems involved, results appear to be more consistent with a pre-drinking trait interpretation than effects of alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Buying Impulses: A Study on Impulsive Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herabadi, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation's objectives were to validate impulse buying tendency as a genuinely distinctive construct related to impulse purchase behavior and attached to fundamental personality traits, and its relationships to a number of relevant factors. Studies reported were steps to a better

  2. Developmental Course of Impulsivity and Capability from Age 10 to Age 25 as Related to Trajectory of Suicide Attempt in a Community Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical linear models were used to examine trajectories of impulsivity and capability between ages 10 and 25 in relation to suicide attempt in 770 youths followed longitudinally: intercepts were set at age 17. The impulsivity measure assessed features of urgency (e.g., poor control, quick provocation, and disregard for external constraints); the capability measure assessed aspects of self-esteem and mastery. Compared to nonattempters, attempters reported significantly higher impulsivity ...

  3. How impulsivity relates to compulsive buying and the burden perceived by caregivers after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Lucien; Beni, Catia; Billieux, Joël; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the study is to investigate how a specific dimension of impulsivity, namely urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), might shed new light on the aetiology of compulsive buying proneness in patients with TBI and to explore how urgency and compulsive buying relate to the burden perceived by the caregivers. Caregivers of 74 patients with TBI were given 3 questionnaires in order to assess their subjective burden as well as patients' impulsivity and compulsive buying proneness. Both urgency and compulsive buying tendencies significantly increased after TBI. Furthermore, path analyses revealed that current urgency was both directly and indirectly related to the subjective burden perceived by the caregivers, and this indirect pathway was mediated by compulsive buying. Urgency plays a central role in understanding specific problematic behaviours after TBI and their impact on caregivers. These findings are discussed in light of the cognitive processes underlying the urgency component of impulsivity in relation to the occurrence of compulsive buying behaviours after TBI. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Impulsivity and related neuropsychological features in regular and addictive first person shooter gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Olivia; Pammer, Kristen

    2014-03-01

    Putative cyber addictions are of significant interest. There remains little experimental research into excessive use of first person shooter (FPS) games, despite their global popularity. Moreover, the role between excessive gaming and impulsivity remains unclear, with previous research showing conflicting findings. The current study investigated performances on a number of neuropsychological tasks (go/no-go, continuous performance task, Iowa gambling task) and a trait measure of impulsivity for a group of regular FPS gamers (n=25), addicted FPS gamers (n=22), and controls (n=22). Gamers were classified using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire. Addicted FPS gamers had significantly higher levels of trait impulsivity on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale compared to controls. Addicted FPS gamers also had significantly higher levels of disinhibition in a go/no-go task and inattention in a continuous performance task compared to controls, whereas the regular FPS gamers had better decision making on the Iowa gambling task compared to controls. The results indicate impulsivity is associated with FPS gaming addiction, comparable to pathological gambling. The relationship between impulsivity and excessive gaming may be unique to the FPS genre. Furthermore, regular FPS gaming may improve decision making ability.

  5. L'espace social du conseil dans les relations bancaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Roux

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L'usage croissant de la catégorie du conseil pour nommer un éventail très large d'activités professionnelles aujourd'hui, y compris dans le monde des professions intermédiaires, a généré un certain flou autour des réalités que cette catégorie désigne. Le cas étudié ici, celui des conseillers commerciaux d'une banque affectés à la clientèle des particuliers, illustre ce fait général et tente d'en explorer certaines conséquences. L'étude qualitative et quantitative de la réception par les clients de la référence au conseil promue par la banque, montre que ce flou radicalise les effets du monde social dans lequel les conseillers exercent sur la construction du sens de l'activité professionnelle par les divers acteurs concernés. Face à des chargés de clientèle nommés et présentés comme des « conseillers », les clients – envisagés ici dans leur capacité à légitimer ou à refuser la « définition de la situation » mise en avant par l'entreprise bancaire – semblent davantage susceptibles de jouer le jeu de la relation de conseil lorsqu'ils se situent eux-mêmes dans des positions sociales intermédiaires. Il semble par conséquent judicieux de parler, du côté des clients « particuliers », d'un espace social ou d'espaces sociaux de pertinence de la référence au conseil dans les relations bancaires. Ce résultat concerne à la fois les enjeux, symboliques, de la désignation de l'activité professionnelle et la genèse des décisions économiques prises par les clients.The social space of advice in bank-customer relationshipThe French word « conseil », which may refer both to consulting activities and to less prestigious or even non-professional advice, has been increasingly used as a name for various forms of work and occupations those past decades, including intermediate occupations and lower managerial and professional occupations. The meaning of the word has become, therefore

  6. Gender-related differences in the associations between sexual impulsivity and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Galit; Pilver, Corey E; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-08-01

    Sexual impulsivity (SI) has been associated with conditions that have substantial public health costs, such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. However, SI has not been examined systematically with respect to its relationships to psychopathology. We aimed to investigate associations between SI and psychopathology, including gender-related differences. We performed a secondary data analysis of Wave-2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national sample of 34,653 adults in the United States. DSM-IV-based diagnoses of mood, anxiety, drug and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Scheduled DSM-IV Version. The prevalence of SI was considerable (14.7%), with greater acknowledgment by men than women (18.9% versus 10.9%; p women and men, SI was positively associated with most Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders (OR range: Women, Axis-I:1.89-6.14, Axis-II:2.10-10.02; Men, Axis-I:1.92-6.21, Axis-II:1.63-6.05). Significant gender-related differences were observed. Among women as compared to men, SI was more strongly associated with social phobia, alcohol abuse/dependence, and paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. The robust associations between SI and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic relations among procrastination, impulsivity, and goal-management ability: implications for the evolutionary origin of procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has revealed a moderate and positive correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. However, little is known about why these two constructs are related. In the present study, we used behavior-genetics methodology to test three predictions derived from an evolutionary account that postulates that procrastination arose as a by-product of impulsivity: (a) Procrastination is heritable, (b) the two traits share considerable genetic variation, and (c) goal-management ability is an important component of this shared variation. These predictions were confirmed. First, both procrastination and impulsivity were moderately heritable (46% and 49%, respectively). Second, although the two traits were separable at the phenotypic level (r = .65), they were not separable at the genetic level (r genetic = 1.0). Finally, variation in goal-management ability accounted for much of this shared genetic variation. These results suggest that procrastination and impulsivity are linked primarily through genetic influences on the ability to use high-priority goals to effectively regulate actions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Comorbid Depression and Suicide Ideation in Patients with Combat-Related PTSD: The Role of Temperament, Character, and Trait Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Marčinko, Darko

    2017-03-01

    War veterans with PTSD have a high chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at some point, while they can also exhibit increased suicidal tendencies. The primary goal of this research was to investigate whether personality dimensions, including temperament, character, and trait impulsivity, were associated with comorbid MDD, as well as with suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients suffering from combat-related PTSD. The sample consisted of 148 Croatian male war veterans (mean age 49.53 years) treated for PTSD at the National Center for Psychotrauma, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Zagreb. Fifty-one (34%) of them met ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for current or lifetime MDD, while 97 (66%) were diagnosed with PTSD alone. All the participants were assessed with the M.I.N.I. diagnostic interview and they completed the following battery of self-report instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Comparisons between the two clinical groups showed that PTSD+MDD patients were more suicidal and differed with regard to temperament dimensions Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence, character dimension Self-Directedness, and trait impulsivity. In three multivariate regression analyses, it was revealed that character dimension Cooperativeness as well as trait impulsivity were unique predictors of suicidal ideation, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographics, length of treatment and comorbid depression. Combat-related PTSD patients with comorbid depression exhibit increased suicide thoughts and different personality profiles in comparison with those suffering from PTSD alone. Character dimension Cooperativeness and trait impulsivity seem to be uniquely predictive of suicide ideation in this population. Elucidation of individual psychological

  9. Which dimensions of impulsivity are related to problematic practice of physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotbagi, Gayatri; Morvan, Yannick; Romo, Lucia; Kern, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Problematic practice of physical exercise (PPPE) has been suggested to be a behavioral addiction. Impulsivity represents a core dimension of behavioral addictions. However, little is known about impulsivity facets in PPPE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of impulsivity facets in PPPE. Methods A total of 684 students (between 18 and 25 years) took part in this study and filled up a battery of questionnaire, which consisted of following measures - Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale - Revised, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in PPPE. Results Age, the total level of physical activity per day, sex (male), negative urgency, and sensation seeking were found to be significant predictors of PPPE. A categorical analysis of PPPE revealed that negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were significantly higher in the dependent category of PPPE. Discussion and conclusions Associations to negative urgency and sensation seeking might indicate that PPPE serves to regulate or alleviate negative affect or aversive emotional states. Thus, PPPE could be conceptualized as a short-term coping strategy dedicated to relieving negative affective states, like other maladaptive behaviors such as binge eating, binge drinking, or compulsive buying.

  10. Developmental Course of Impulsivity and Capability from Age 10 to Age 25 as Related to Trajectory of Suicide Attempt in a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical linear models were used to examine trajectories of impulsivity and capability between ages 10 and 25 in relation to suicide attempt in 770 youths followed longitudinally: intercepts were set at age 17. The impulsivity measure assessed features of urgency (e.g., poor control, quick provocation, and disregard for external constraints);…

  11. Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease are Associated with Alterations in Reward-Related Cortical Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Nicolas; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Delval, Arnaud; Derambure, Philippe; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy

    2016-06-28

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are related to treatment with dopamine agonists, which is thought to deregulate the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway and impair reward evaluation. EEG studies in healthy controls (HCs) have suggested that the increase in theta power observed after negative outcome is a marker of reward processing. To compare outcome-locked, event-related spectral perturbation in a gambling task in PD patients with and without ICDs and in HCs. Twelve PD patients with ICDs, 12 PD patients without ICDs and 14 HCs underwent EEG while performing a gambling task. The groups were compared in terms of (i) the peak EEG power in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands between 200 and 500 ms after the outcome, and (ii) time-frequency plots at Fz, FCz and Cz. Positive outcomes were associated with greater theta power than negative outcomes in patients without ICDs and in HCs, but not in patients with ICDs. Patients with ICDs and HCs displayed greater theta power following unexpectedly high outcomes. HCs displayed greater beta power following high amplitude than low amplitude outcomes, whereas patients with ICD showed the opposite pattern. In PD, ICDs are associated with (i) weaker modulation of frontocentral theta power by reward valence, (ii) greater frontocentral theta power following unexpected, high outcomes, and (iii) a reversal of the effect of risk on beta oscillations. These observations are consistent with an impairment in prediction error computation in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  12. Impulsive and reflective processes related to alcohol use in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Burk, W.J.; Vorst, H.V.D.; Engels, R.C.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in

  13. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.

  14. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-11-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than females, whereas impulsive choice is typically greater in females. In humans, women discount more steeply than men, but sex differences on measures of impulsive action depend on tasks and subject samples. We discuss implications of these findings as they relate to drug addiction. We also point out the major gaps in this research to date, including the lack of studies designed specifically to examine sex differences in behavioral impulsivity, and the lack of consideration of menstrual or estrous phase or sex hormone levels in the studies. © 2013.

  15. Analisis Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Tendency Dan Visual Merchandising Terhadap Impulse Buying Dengan Positive Emotion Sebagai Variabel Intervaning Pada Area Ladies Matahari Department Store Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yanthi, Devi

    2014-01-01

    This research tried to determine what factors are causing consumers to do impulse buying in the area of ladies at Matahari Department Store. Variables examined in this research include hedonic shopping tendency and visual merchandising as the independent variable, positive emotion as the intervening variable, and impulse buying as the dependent variable. The sample used amounted 100 rerspondents. By using PLS-SEM analysis technique, demonstrated that through positive emotion variables, hedoni...

  16. Affective status in relation to impulsive, motor and motivational symptoms: personality, development and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Tomas; Beninger, Richard J; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    The contributions of impulsive and risk-taking behaviour in depressive and bipolar disorders, motivational and motor behaviours in anhedonic and substance addictive states, and the factors, particularly distress and trauma, underlying the development of neuropathology in affective status are described from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory perspectives. In order to distinguish one case factor for biopsychological substrates of health, an array of self-reported characteristics, e.g., positive or negative affect, stress or energy, optimism, etc., that may be predictive or counterpredictive for the propensity for physical exercise and activity were analysed using a linear regression in twelve different studies. Several individual characteristics were found to be markedly and significantly predictive of the exercise propensity, i.e., positive affect, energy, health-seeking behaviour and character, while optimism was of lesser, though significant, importance. Several individual characteristics were found to be significantly counterpredictive: expression of BDI- and HAD-depression, major sleep problems and lack/negligence of health-seeking behaviour. The consequences of physical activity and exercise for both affective well-being, cognitive mobility and neurogenesis is noted, particularly with regard to developmental assets for younger individuals. Affective disorder states may be studied through analyses of personal characteristics that unfold predispositions for symptoms-profiles and biomarkers derived from properties of dysfunction, such as impulsiveness, temperament dimensions, anhedonia and 'over-sensitivity', whether interpersonal or to reward.

  17. Lower Frequency of co-Morbid Medical Disorders Related to Poor Impulse Control in Parkinson's than Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Erin K; Diaz, Natalie; Morrow, Julia; Chung, Julia; McMurtray, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with progressive degeneration of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons that are involved in reward-based behavior learning, including rewarding effects of food consumption and drugs of abuse. The importance of this pathway in development of addictive behaviors led us to hypothesize that medical disorders related to poor impulse control may occur less frequently among patients with Parkinson's disease than those with other progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients treated for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease in a community based clinic during a two-year period. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) estimated from logistic regression models, adjusted for differences in gender distribution between the groups. A total of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease and 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease were included. Patients with Parkinson's disease were less likely to have either past substance use (adjusted OR = 0.035, 95% CI = 0.009 - 0.130) or presence of co-morbid medical conditions related to poor dietary choices (adjusted OR = 0.157, 95% CI = 0.062 - 0.397). Co-morbid medical conditions related to poor impulse control occur less frequently among those with Parkinson's disease than those with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are consistent with dysfunction of dopamine dependent pathways involved in addiction during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease and support a biological basis for addiction.

  18. Rearing practices and impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms in relation to inflated responsibility and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smári, Jakob; Martinsson, Davíð Rúrik; Einarsson, Hjalti

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate potential precursors of inflated responsibility (responsibility attitudes) and obsessive-compulsive (OCD) symptoms. It was argued that both parental overprotection and impulsivity, separately and in interaction with each other, contribute to inflated responsibility and OCD symptoms. In a large sample of young adults (N = 570), self-report measures of OCD symptoms (OCI-R), responsibility attitudes (RAS), anxiety/depression (HADS), rearing practices (EMBU), present and past impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms (IMP/HY) were administered. Overprotection as well as IMP/HY were found to predict OCD symptoms as well as inflated responsibility. Finally, a significant interaction was found between IMP/HY and overprotection with regard to both OCD symptoms and inflated responsibility. This effect reflected that IMP/HY was more strongly related to OCD symptoms and responsibility in people who had not been overprotected than in people who had been. Conversely overprotection was related to OCD symptoms and responsibility in people low but not in people high in IMP/HY. The results seem to indicate that the inadequacy between offer and need for parental control may play a role in the development of OCD symptoms. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liye; Song, Yuehan; Li, Feng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jie; Mao, Meng; Wu, Fengzhi; Wu, Ying; Li, Sinai; Guan, Binghe; Liu, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang ...

  20. Decision-making deficits in pathological gambling: the role of executive functions, explicit knowledge and impulsivity in relation to decisions made under ambiguity and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Cristian; Alvarez-Moya, Eva M; Penelo, Eva; Aymami, M Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Vallejo-Ruiloba, Julio; Menchón, José Manuel; Lawrence, Natalia S; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2013-01-01

    A variety of cognitive and emotional processes influence the decision-making deficits observed in pathological gambling (PG). This study investigated the role of immediate/delayed sensitivity to reward and punishment, executive functions, impulsivity and explicit knowledge in relation to decision-making performance on the original Iowa Gambling Task (IGT-ABCD) and a variant (IGT-EFGH). We assessed 131 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PG by using executive functioning and decision-making tasks, self-report measures of impulsivity and explicit knowledge. The majority of pathological gamblers (PGs) showed deficits in decision-making, characterized mainly by myopia for the future. Decisions made under risk showed different predictors. Performance on the IGT-ABCD for decisions made under risk was predicted by medium and high levels of explicit knowledge of the task, as well as by scores on the Disorderliness subscale and the degree of Stroop interference. By contrast, IGT-EFGH results were only associated with self-report impulsivity measures. Decision making in PG involves distinct patterns of deficits, and the predictors differ depending on the reinforcement schedule. Decisions made under risk on the IGT-ABCD are associated with explicit knowledge, executive functions and impulsivity traits related to conscious awareness and control processes. On the IGT-EFGH, however, only impulsivity traits predict decision making. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Assessment of spirometry and impulse oscillometry in relation to asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Arvind; Anderson, William J; Lipworth, Joseph; Lipworth, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Guidelines advocate the use of spirometry to assess pulmonary function in asthmatic patients. Commonly used measures include forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC), and forced mid-expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75). Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is an effort-independent test performed during tidal breathing. IOS may be used to assess the total and central airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) and 20 Hz (R20), respectively, and hence derive the peripheral airway resistance from the difference (R5-R20). We compared spirometry and IOS as tests of global airway function (i.e., FEV1, FEV1/FVC, R5) and putative measures of small airways function (i.e., FEF25-75, R5-R20) and their relationship to oral steroid and short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) use as surrogates for long-term asthma control. Spirometry and IOS measurements from physician-diagnosed asthmatics were linked to a health informatics database for oral steroid and SABA use 1 year prior to the index measurements. Four hundred forty-two patients had both spirometry and IOS, mean FEV1 = 86 % predicted, 94 % on ICS, median dose 800 µg/day. IOS and spirometry measures were equally predictive of impaired asthma control for both oral steroid and SABA use. For oral steroid use, the adjusted odds ratio, OR (95 % CI) is as follows: FEV1 150 %: 1.91(1.25-2.95), p = 0.003; and R5-R20 > 0.1 kPa L(-1) s 1.73(1.12-2.66), p = 0.013. For SABA use, the adjusted OR (95 % CI) is as follows: FEV1 150 %: 1.76(1.18-2.63), p = 0.006; and R5-R20 > 0.1 kPa L(-1) s: 2.94(1.94-4.46), p Spirometry or IOS measurements were equally useful as potential markers of asthma control in persistent asthmatic patients.

  2. Relating small airways to asthma control by using impulse oscillometry in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yixin; Aledia, Anna S; Tatavoosian, Ahramahzd V; Vijayalakshmi, Shruthi; Galant, Stanley P; George, Steven C

    2012-03-01

    Previous reports suggest that the peripheral airways are associated with asthma control. Patient history, although subjective, is used largely to assess asthma control in children because spirometric results are many times normal values. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is an objective and noninvasive measurement of lung function that has the potential to examine independently both small- and large-airway obstruction. We sought to determine the utility of IOS in assessing asthma control in children. Asthmatic and healthy children (6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. Spirometric and IOS (resistance of the respiratory system at 5 Hz [R5] and 20 Hz [R20], reactance of the respiratory system at 5 Hz [X5], resonant frequency of reactance [Fres], and area under the reactance curve between 5 Hz and Fres [reactance area {AX}]) values were collected in triplicate before and after a bronchodilator was administered. The physicians were blinded to the IOS measurements and assessed asthma control using American Thoracic Society guidelines. Small-airway IOS measurements, including the difference of R5 and R20 [R5-20], X5, Fres, and AX, of children with uncontrolled asthma (n = 44) were significantly different from those of children with controlled asthma (n = 57) and healthy children (n = 14), especially before the administration of a bronchodilator. However, there was no difference in large-airway IOS values (R20). No differences were found between children with controlled asthma and healthy children in any of the end points. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed cut points for baseline R5-20 (1.5 cm H(2)O · L(-1) · s) and AX (9.5 cm H(2)O · L(-1)) that effectively discriminated controlled versus uncontrolled asthma (area under the curve, 0.86 and 0.84) and correctly classified more than 80% of the population. Uncontrolled asthma is associated with small-airways dysfunction, and IOS might be a reliable and noninvasive method to assess asthma control in children

  3. Association of DRD3 and GRIN2B with impulse control and related behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Sung Sup; Lim, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Jeon, Beom S

    2009-09-15

    We aimed to assess whether allelic variants of dopamine receptor, glutamate receptor, and serotonin transporter genes are associated with the appearance of impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). We surveyed ICRB in consecutive Korean patients with PD who were treated with stable DRT using modified Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview over a period of 4 months. In the 404 patients who completed the interview and the 559 Korean healthy normal controls, genotyping was performed for variants of the DRD3 p.S9G, DRD2 Taq1A, GRIN2B c.366C>G, c.2664C>T and c.-200T>G, and the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). Behavioral abnormalities suggestive of ICRB including compulsive buying, gambling, sexual behavior and eating, and punding, were present in 14.4% of the patients. Variants of DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR were not associated with the risk of developing ICRB. However, the AA genotype of DRD3 p.S9G and the CC genotype of GRIN2B c.366C>G were more frequent in patients with ICRB than in nonaffected patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21, P = 0.0094; and 2.14, P = 0.0087, after adjusting for age and sex). After controlling for clinical variables in the multivariate analysis, carriage of either AA genotype of DRD3 or CC genotype of GRIN2B was identified as an independent risk factor for ICRB (adjusted OR: 2.57, P = 0.0087). Variants of DRD3 p.S9G and GRIN2B c.366C>G may be associated with the appearance of ICRB in PD.

  4. Contingency management improves smoking cessation treatment outcomes among highly impulsive adolescent smokers relative to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Pittman, Brian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive adolescents have difficulty quitting smoking. We examined if treatments that provide behavioral incentives for abstinence improve treatment outcomes among impulsive adolescent smokers, who have been shown to be highly sensitive to reward. We ran secondary data analyses on 64 teen smokers (mean age=16.36 [1.44]; cigarettes/day=13.97 [6.61]; 53.1% female; 90.6% Caucasian) who completed a four-week smoking cessation trial to determine whether impulsive adolescents differentially benefit from receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), contingency management (CM), or the combination of the two (CM/CBT). Indices of treatment efficacy included self-report percent days abstinent and end of treatment biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence (EOT abstinence). We assessed self-reported impulsivity using the Brief Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. We used univariate Generalized Linear Modeling to examine main effects and interactions of impulsivity and treatment condition as predictors of self-reported abstinence, and exact logistic regression to examine EOT abstinence. CM/CBT and CM were comparably effective in promoting abstinence, so analyses were conducted comparing the efficacy of CBT to treatments with a CM component (i.e., CM and CM/CBT). CBT and deficient self-regulation predicted lower self-reported abstinence rates within the total analytic sample. Treatments containing CM were more effective than CBT in predicting 1) self-reported abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents (% days abstinent: CM 77%; CM/CBT 81%; CBT 30%) and 2) EOT point prevalence abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents and adolescents with significant deficits in self-regulation. CM-based interventions may improve the low smoking cessation rates previously observed among impulsive adolescent smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. KARAKTERISTIK DAN ANALISIS DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS (DRPs PASIEN PENDERITA TUBERKULOSIS DI PUSKESMAS TEMINDUNG SAMARINDA KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fauziah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the characteristics and Analysis of Drug Related Problems (DRPs Patients with Tuberculosis Patients in Public Health Center (PHC Temindung, Samarinda in East Kalimantan. The study was conducted using a prospective approach to the study of data sources in the form of primary data and secondary data. The primary data source is data from interviews with patients and through the provision of questionnaires and secondary data in this research is a Tuberculosis patient medical record data. Data collection was performed by analyzing the accuracy of the DRPs categories of accuracy of drugs, side effects and patient non-compliance. As well as the data recorded in the form of research support patient characteristics are age, sex, and education. Data were analyzed descriptively. Data obtained from patients with male gender 63.6% and women 36.4. Patient with age 50 years 27.3% . Based on the patient's level of education, no school 9.1%, graduated from elementary school22.7%, graduated from high school18.2%, graduated from high school40.1%, scholar 9.1%. Incidence of DRPs on drugs interactions 507%. Tuberculosis patient compliance rate of 81.8% in PHC Temindung adherent patients and 18.2% of patients do not comply Keywords: Tuberculosis, Drug Related Problems (DRPs drugs interactions and patient compliance   ABSTRAK Telah  dilakukan penelitian tentang Karakteristik dan Analisis Drug Related Problems(DRPs Pasien Penderita Tuberkulosis di Puskesmas Temindung, Samarinda Kalimantan Timur. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan prospektif dengan sumber data penelitian berupa data primer dan data sekunder. Sumber data primer  adalah data hasil wawancara dengan pasien dan melalui pemberian kuisioner sedangkan data sekunder dalam penelitian ini adalah data rekam medik pasien Tuberkulosis. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menganalisis DRPs kategori interaksi obat dan ketidakpatuhan pasien. Serta dicatat data pendukung penelitian

  6. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents : Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of

  7. Poor Sleep and Its Relation to Impulsivity in Patients with Antisocial or Borderline Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, M. M.; Karsten, J.; Lancel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating sleep and personality disorders consistently demonstrate a relation between personality disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition and/or emotional dysregulation (traditionally termed cluster B personality disorders) and poor sleep. This finding is in line with

  8. Perkembangan Teknologi Komunikasi dalam Menunjang Fungsi Periklanan dan Public Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Candrasari Masykuri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Society has been flooded by advertised communication atmosphere for every product to besocialized and introduced to the public. However, there are problems arising from the consumer whenthe product being advertised is felt only one-sided communication, because in an advertised productconsumers often encounter some problems in which they cannot consider them to be their choice. Thatis why at the present time the world of advertising does not seem to be a choice in marketing a productto consumers. Article presents the relationship among advertisement, public relation, andcommunication technology in five parts, those are age sequences from agriculture to conceptual eraand its relation to advertisement and public relation, developing advertisement network and publicrelation using new technology, difference between advertisement and public relation, andcommunication technology ethic supporting advertisement and public relation.

  9. Impulse control disorders and related behaviours (ICD-RBs in Parkinson′s disease patients: Assessment using “Questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson′s disease” (QUIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited data on the prevalence of impulse control disorder and related behaviors (ICD-RBs in Indian patients with Parkinson′s Disease (PD. In the context of potential genetic and environmental factors affecting the expression of ICD-RBs, studying other multiethnic populations may bring in-sights into the mechanisms of these disorders. Objectives: To ascertain point prevalence estimate of ICD-RBs in Indian PD patients, using the validated “Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson′s disease (QUIP” and to examine their association with Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based observational cross-sectional study. After taking informed consent, patients and their informants (spouse, or primary caregiver were made to complete the QUIP, and were instructed to answer questions based on behaviors that occurred anytime during PD that lasted at least four consecutive weeks. Results: Total of 299 patients participated in the study. At least one ICD-RB was present in 128 (42.8%, at least one Impulse control disorder (ICD was present in 74 (24.75% and at least one Impulse control related compulsive behaviour (ICRB was present in 93 (31.1% patients. Punding was the most frequent (12.4% followed by hyper sexuality (11.04%, compulsive hobbyism (9.4%, compulsive shopping (8.4%, compulsive medication use (7.7%, compulsive eating (5.35%, walkabout (4% and pathological gambling (3.3%. ≥ 2 ICD-RBs were observed in 15.7% of patients. After multivariate analysis, younger age of onset, being unmarried were specifically associated with presence of ICD. Longer disease duration was specifically associated with presence of ICRB. Whereas smoking and higher dopamine levodopa equivalent daily doses (DA LEDD were associated with both presence of ICD and ICRB. Higher LD LEDD was specifically associated with presence of ICD-RB. Conclusions: Our study revealed a relatively higher

  10. Ballistic impulse gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring.

  11. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  12. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.

  13. Public Relations dan Masyarakat dalam Memacu Pertumbuhan Pariwisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Safitri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important determinant for a region’s economic growth—the higher income from tourism, the higher its gross regional domestic product. To be successful in exposing potential tourism sites, a region does not only depend on the beauty of the nature but also how to access the sites, on-site accommodation and the mutual relationship between local government and local community.The fact is many regions have difficulties in developing mutual relationship between local government and local community. It means what most important is how the tourism industry is being managed. One most important aspect of managing the tourism industry is the cooperation and communication between the local community and the government. This article aims to discuss how public relations and the local community work to stimulate tourism growth in a synergy. Using descriptive qualitative method, this article recommends a model of communication strategy—in which the local community serves mainly as the tourism’s public relation agents, and also serves as a reference method in evaluating a local government’s communication strategies in regional tourism industry. 

  14. Study of relation of cognitive emotion regulation styles with impulsivity and borderline personality disorder among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozafar Ghaffari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cognitive emotion regulation plays an immense role to control mental disorders. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation styles and impulsivity and students, borderline personality disorders.   Materials and Methods: Statistical samples of this study included 200 students of Pyam-e-Noor university. Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS and Borderline Personality Scale (STB have been used for data collection. The data was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis.   Results: Between variable of borderline personality disorder, and styles self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing and blaming others there was a positive correlation, but a negative relationship with acceptance, positive refocusing and positive reappraisal styles was observed (p>0.05. There was a positive relationship between variable of impulsivity with styles of self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing and blaming others, but had a negative relationship with acceptance, positive refocusing and positive reappraisal styles (p>0.05. The results of multi-variable correlation coefficient with Enter method indicated that cognitive emotion regulation styles play a role in explaining borderline personality disorder (R2= 0.646 and impulsivity (R2= 0.645.  Conclusion: Training the effective strategies of cognitive emotion regulation should be considered as a part of the intervention in the treatment of impulsivity and borderline personality disorder.

  15. The Role of Emotion-Driven Impulse Control Difficulties in the Relation Between Social Anxiety and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura J; Tull, Matthew T; Lee, Aaron A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-01

    To enhance our understanding of the factors that may account for increased aggression in socially anxious individuals, this study examined associations among emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, social anxiety, and dimensions of aggression (i.e., hostility, anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression). Individuals (N = 107; 73.8% male; M age = 40.8 years) receiving residential substance abuse treatment participated in this cross-sectional study. Social anxiety symptoms were significantly positively correlated with emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, anger, and hostility, but not verbal or physical aggression. Separate models for each aggression facet were examined to test the direct and indirect paths. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated a significant indirect path from social anxiety symptoms to each facet of aggression through emotion-driven impulse control difficulties (ps aggression among socially anxious individuals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Psychopathy and the prediction of alcohol-related physical aggression: the roles of impulsive antisociality and fearless dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Giancola, Peter R; Lance, Charles E

    2013-02-01

    It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  18. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a ...

  19. Clarifying relations between dispositional aggression and brain potential response: overlapping and distinct contributions of impulsivity and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J; Hall, Jason R; Bernat, Edward M

    2011-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive individuals exhibit deficits in amplitude of the P3 brain potential response, however, it remains unclear how separable dispositional traits account for this association. The current study sought to clarify the basis of this association by examining contributions of trait impulsiveness and stress reactivity to the observed relationship between dispositional aggression and amplitude of the P3 brain potential response in a visual novelty-oddball procedure. A significant negative association was found between aggressiveness and amplitude of P3 response to both target and novel stimuli over frontal-central scalp sites. Impulsivity showed a parallel inverse relationship with P3 amplitude, attributable to its overlap with dispositional aggression. In contrast, stress reactivity did not exhibit a zero-order association with P3 amplitude, but modestly predicted P3 in a positive direction after accounting for its overlap with aggression. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for individual difference variables and brain processes underlying impulsive-aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trait impulsivity in suicide attempters: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doihara, Chiho; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Ohyama, Nene; Yamada, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Makiko; Iwamoto, Yohko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide. To investigate trait impulsivity among suicide attempters, 93 attempters admitted to an emergency department and 113 healthy controls were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11J). Impulsivity was analyzed in relation to clinical data in the attempters. Total BIS-11J, attention impulsiveness, and motor impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in the attempters than in the controls. Both total BIS-11J and non-planning impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in attempters with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among the diagnostic groups. Control of impulsivity should be considered as one of the targets for suicide prevention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. The relationship between impulsive choice and impulsive action: a cross-species translational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Broos

    Full Text Available Maladaptive impulsivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders. However, there is only limited evidence available on whether different measures of impulsivity represent largely unrelated aspects or a unitary construct. In a cross-species translational study, thirty rats were trained in impulsive choice (delayed reward task and impulsive action (five-choice serial reaction time task paradigms. The correlation between those measures was assessed during baseline performance and after pharmacological manipulations with the psychostimulant amphetamine and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. In parallel, to validate the animal data, 101 human subjects performed analogous measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting task, DDT and impulsive action (immediate and delayed memory task, IMT/DMT. Moreover, all subjects completed the Stop Signal Task (SST, as an additional measure of impulsive action and filled out the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11. Correlations between DDT and IMT/DMT were determined and a principal component analysis was performed on all human measures of impulsivity. In both rats and humans measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action did not correlate. In rats the within-subject pharmacological effects of amphetamine and atomoxetine did not correlate between tasks, suggesting distinct underlying neural correlates. Furthermore, in humans, principal component analysis identified three independent factors: (1 self-reported impulsivity (BIS-11; (2 impulsive action (IMT/DMT and SST; (3 impulsive choice (DDT. This is the first study directly comparing aspects of impulsivity using a cross-species translational approach. The present data reveal the non-unitary nature of impulsivity on a behavioral and pharmacological level. Collectively, this warrants a stronger focus on the relative contribution of distinct forms of impulsivity in psychopathology.

  2. The energy supplied to a body in the theory of relativity and the impulse-energy tensor of a compressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the relativity theory, the variation of a certain amount of energy supplied to a body, according to its speed, has been a matter of controversy. We study this variation either for a fluid that is submitted by a compression, or for a gas receiving heat from outward. It is shown that the problem is solved by a simple matter of definition of the energy received in the system of coordinate where the body is moving. Besides, we establish the impulse-energy tensor for a compressible fluid [fr

  3. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  4. Impulsive differential inclusions a fixed point approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahab, Abdelghani; Henderson, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations have been developed in modeling impulsive problems in physics, population dynamics, ecology, biotechnology, industrial robotics, pharmacokinetics, optimal control, etc. The questions of existence and stability of solutions for different classes of initial values problems for impulsive differential equations and inclusions with fixed and variable moments are considered in detail. Attention is also given to boundary value problems and relative questions concerning differential equations. This monograph addresses a variety of side issues that arise from its simple

  5. OPTIMASI PARAMETER MESIN LASER CUTTING TERHADAP KEKASARAN DAN LAJU PEMOTONGAN PADA SUS 316L MENGGUNAKAN TAGUCHI GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakasita R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimasi parameter adalah teknik yang digunakan pada proses manufaktur untuk menghasilkan produk terbaik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi parameter CNC laser cutting, yaitu titik fokus sinar laser, tekanan gas cutting dan cutting speed untuk mengurangi variasi terhadap respon kekasaran dan laju pemotongan pada material SUS 316L. Masing-masing parameter memiliki 3 level dan pada penelitian ini menggunakan matriks orthogonal L9 (34. Metode ANOVA dan Taguchi digunakan untuk menganalisis data hasil percobaan. Optimasi kekasaran minimum permukaan dan laju pemotongan maksimum pada proses laser cutting dilakukan dengan menggunakan Grey relational analysis. Eksperimen konfirmasi digunakan untuk membuktikan hasil optimal yang telah didapatkan dari metode Taguchi Grey relational analysis. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa Taguchi Grey relational analysis efektif digunakan untuk mengoptimasi parameter pemesinan pada laser cutting dengan multi respon.   Abstract Parameter optimization is used in manufacturing as an indicator to produce the best manufacturing product. This paper studies an optimization parameters of CNC laser cutting such as focus of laser beam, pressure cutting gases and cutting speed for reducing variation of surface roughness and cutting rate on material SUS 316L. Based on L9(34 orthogonal array parameters, it is analized using ANOVA based on Taguchi method. In order to optimaze the minimum surface roughness and maximum cutting rate in laser cutting process, it is used Grey relational analysis. The confirmation experiments used to validate the optimal results that has done by Taguchi method. The results show that the Taguchi Grey relational analysis is being effective to optimize the machining parameters for laser cutting process with two responses.

  6. Increased corticolimbic connectivity in cocaine dependence versus pathological gambling is associated with drug severity and emotion-related impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, Jose C; Martínez-Gonzalez, Jose M; Fernández-Serrano, Maria J; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar; Clark, Luke; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Neural biomarkers for the active detrimental effects of cocaine dependence (CD) are lacking. Direct comparisons of brain connectivity in cocaine-targeted networks between CD and behavioural addictions (i.e. pathological gambling, PG) may be informative. This study therefore contrasted the resting-state functional connectivity networks of 20 individuals with CD, 19 individuals with PG and 21 healthy individuals (controls). Study groups were assessed to rule out psychiatric co-morbidities (except alcohol abuse and nicotine dependence) and current substance use or gambling (except PG). We first examined global connectivity differences in the corticolimbic reward network and then utilized seed-based analyses to characterize the connectivity of regions displaying between-group differences. We examined the relationships between seed-based connectivity and trait impulsivity and cocaine severity. CD compared with PG displayed increased global functional connectivity in a large-scale ventral corticostriatal network involving the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus and amygdala. Seed-based analyses showed that CD compared with PG exhibited enhanced connectivity between the orbitofrontal and subgenual cingulate cortices and between caudate and lateral prefrontal cortex, which are involved in representing the value of decision-making feedback. CD and PG compared with controls showed overlapping connectivity changes between the orbitofrontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and between amygdala and insula, which are involved in stimulus-outcome learning. Orbitofrontal-subgenual cingulate cortical connectivity correlated with impulsivity and caudate/amygdala connectivity correlated with cocaine severity. We conclude that CD is linked to enhanced connectivity in a large-scale ventral corticostriatal-amygdala network that is relevant to decision making and likely to reflect an active cocaine detrimental effect. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Assessing the roles of impulsivity, food-related cognitions, BMI, and demographics in the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-08-01

    The dual pathway model is a widely accepted model of binge eating that focuses on the role of sociocultural factors, negative affect, and dietary restraint. However, less is known about demographic (e.g., gender and ethnicity) differences in the model and the role of other variables in the model. To further our understanding of the dual pathway model of binge eating, the current study examined the role of demographics (i.e., gender, race, BMI, parental education and obesity), impulsivity, and food-related cognitions in the dual pathway model. A sample of college students completed a battery of measures. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the dual pathway model separately for men and women. Results supported the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women, and also supported food-related cognitions as an important variable prior to binge eating. In other words, body shame was associated with more dietary restraint and negative affect, and in turn, dietary restraint and negative affect were associated with increased negative food-related cognitions. Then, food-related cognitions predicted binge eating. Additionally impulsivity was related to body shame, negative affect, and food-related cognitions, but was unrelated to binge eating after controlling for the other variables. Racial differences existed among women in BMI and body shame, but there were no racial differences among men. Our results suggest that the dual pathway model adequately explains binge eating among men and women, but that food-related cognitions may be an imporant anteceden to binge eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basar, K.; Sesia, T.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Visser-vandewalle, V.; Temel, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that different impulsivity aspects, mediated by different neural processes, influence behavior at different levels. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key component of the neural processes regulating impulsivity. In this review, we discuss the findings

  9. Relationship between relative net vertical impulse and jump height in jump squats performed to various squat depths and with various loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Kirby, Tyler J; Haines, Tracie L; Skinner, Jared

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the relationship between relative net vertical impulse (net vertical impulse (VI)) and jump height in the jump squat (JS) going to different squat depths and utilizing various loads. Ten males with two years of jumping experience participated in this investigation (Age: 21.8 ± 1.9 y; Height: 176.9 ± 5.2 cm; Body Mass: 79.0 ± 7.1 kg, 1RM: 131.8 ± 29.5 kg, 1RM/BM: 1.66 ± 0.27). Subjects performed a series of static jumps (SJS) and countermovement jumps (CMJJS) with various loads (Body Mass, 20% of 1RM, 40% of 1RM) in a randomized fashion to a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 m and a self-selected depth. During the concentric phase of each JS, peak force (PF), peak power (PP), jump height (JH) and relative VI were recorded and analyzed. Increasing squat depth corresponded to a decrease in PF and an increase in JH, relative VI for both SJS and CMJJS during all loads. Across all squat depths and loading conditions relative VI was statistically significantly correlated to JH in the SJS (r = .8956, P squat depths and loading conditions PF was statistically nonsignificantly correlated to JH in the SJS (r = -0.1010, P = .2095, power = 0.2401) and CMJJS (r = -0.0594, P = .4527, power = 0.1131). Across all squat depths and loading conditions peak power (PP) was significantly correlated with JH during both the SJS (r = .6605, P squat depths. Results indicate that relative VI and PP can be used to predict JS performance, regardless of squat depth and loading condition. However, relative VI may be the best predictor of JS performance with PF being the worst predictor of JS performance.

  10. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  11. L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Novello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde. « Tu es mon amie. Tu es la seule qui me comprenne. » Ces mots, toujours les mêmes, sont revenus sans cesse lors de l’enquête ethnographique que j’ai menée auprès des Hijra de Delhi. Les Hijra forment une catégorie sociale panindienne. Elles sont nées biologiquement hommes ou hermaphrodites, s’habillent et se parent continuellement comme des femmes et, parfois, sont émasculées. Les ethnologues parlent parfois de leur relation avec leurs informateurs en terme d’amitié sans que cette relation soit exprimée et pensée comme telle par ces derniers. Qu’en est-il lorsque la société étudiée désigne l’ethnologue en tant qu’ami et lorsque cette désignation transforme la nature des rapports qu’elle entretenait auparavant avec lui ? L’étude de l’amitié que les Hijra me proposèrent fournira, en premier lieu, un exemple de la façon dont l’ethnologue peut se trouver engagé dans ce rapport affectif. Il s’agira de qualifier cette relation ethnographique par la description du processus d’évolution de mon rôle d’une part, et par l’examen des comportements et des pratiques qui la sanctionnent et qui y sont engagés d’autre part. Cette réflexion sur les représentations et les valeurs auxquelles mes interlocutrices faisaient référence en me conférant la place d’amie, informera en second lieu sur le traitement de l’individu et de l’altérité prévalant dans la catégorie sociale « Hijra ».Friendship in ethnographical relations. Treatment of the individual and relation to the other in local groups of Hijra (Delhi, India. “You are my friend. You are the only person who understands me.” These words, always the same, were endlessly repeated during my ethnographical survey of the Hijra of Delhi. The Hijra form a pan-Indian social category. Born

  12. Campground marketing - the impulse camper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage; Dale P. Ragain

    1972-01-01

    Impulse or unplanned campground visits may account for one-fourth to one-half of all camping activity. The concepts of impulse travel and impulse camping appear to be potentially useful extensions of the broader concept of impulse purchasing, which has become an important influence in retail marketing. Impulse campers may also be impulse buyers; they were found to...

  13. Multiple modes of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nombela

    Full Text Available Cognitive problems are a major factor determining quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease. These include deficits in inhibitory control, ranging from subclinical alterations in decision-making to severe impulse control disorders. Based on preclinical studies, we proposed that Parkinson's disease does not cause a unified disorder of inhibitory control, but rather a set of impulsivity factors with distinct psychological profiles, anatomy and pharmacology. We assessed a broad set of measures of the cognitive, behavioural and temperamental/trait aspects of impulsivity. Sixty adults, including 30 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III and 30 healthy controls, completed a neuropsychological battery, objective behavioural measures and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses of variance confirmed group differences in nine out of eleven metrics. We then used factor analysis (principal components method to identify the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease. Four principal factors were identified, consistent with four different mechanisms of impulsivity, explaining 60% of variance. The factors were related to (1 tests of response conflict, interference and self assessment of impulsive behaviours on the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, (2 tests of motor inhibitory control, and the self-report behavioural approach system, (3 time estimation and delay aversion, and (4 reflection in hypothetical scenarios including temporal discounting. The different test profiles of these four factors were consistent with human and comparative studies of the pharmacology and functional anatomy of impulsivity. Relationships between each factor and clinical and demographic features were examined by regression against factor loadings. Levodopa dose equivalent was associated only with factors (2 and (3. The results confirm that impulsivity is common in Parkinson's disease, even in the absence of impulse control disorders, and

  14. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. RELATION TO SOFT X-RAY FLARES AND FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-08-10

    Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In {approx}60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than {+-}5 minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection.

  15. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  16. Studi Perbandingan Pemahaman Konsep Public relations Menurut Manajemen dan Staff public Relations Di Mirota Kampus

    OpenAIRE

    SAMODRA, FLORENSIA

    2014-01-01

    Sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang retail perlu mengkomunikasikan produk yang di jualnya. Oleh karena itu butuh komunikator yang mampu menyampaikan pesan secara kredibel kepada pelangganya. Praktisi public relations merupakan pihak yang bertugas menyampaikan pesan tersebut kepada publiknya. Praktisi public relations menjalankan fungsi manajemen komunikasi antara organisasi dengan publiknya. Agar kegiatan tersebut dapat terlaksana dengan lancer maka butuh dukungan dari pihak manajemen. ...

  17. Using Dual Process Models to Examine Impulsivity Throughout Neural Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Rotem

    2016-01-01

    The multivariate construct of impulsivity is examined through neural systems and connections that comprise the executive functioning system. It is proposed that cognitive and behavioral components of impulsivity can be divided into two distinct groups, mediated by (1) the cognitive control system: deficits in top-down cognitive control processes referred to as action/cognitive impulsivity and (2) the socioemotional system: related to bottom-up affective/motivational processes referred to as affective impulsivity. Examination of impulsivity from a developmental viewpoint can guide future research, potentially enabling the selection of more effective interventions for impulsive individuals, based on the cognitive components requiring improvement.

  18. Les relations entre attentes, valeur, buts, engagement cognitif et engagement comportemental dans un MOOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Poellhuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le présent article, nous nous intéressons aux relations entre attentes, valeur, buts et engagement dans un MOOC universitaire de l’initiative Edulib. À partir d’une perspective théorique globale fondée sur l’autorégulation et en utilisant un modèle de motivation sociocognitif des attentes et de la valeur (Pintrich, 2003, nous analysons les liens entre motivation et engagement. Pour ce faire, nous utilisons les données de 531 répondants à un questionnaire distribué aux participants d’un MOOC de l’initiative Edulib (HEC Montréal portant sur l’introduction au marketing, offert à l’automne 2014. Une analyse par correspondances multiples sur les activités rapportées nous a permis de concevoir un score composite d’engagement comportemental. Par la suite, nous utilisons une approche d’équations structurelles pour tester le modèle théorique, après avoir opérationnalisé tous les liens anticipés entre les différentes variables. Nos résultats suggèrent un modèle acceptable qui confirme plusieurs des prévisions théoriques. Ainsi, la valeur est liée aussi bien aux buts extrinsèques qu’aux buts intrinsèques, mais les buts intrinsèques sont beaucoup plus fortement liés à l’engagement cognitif que les buts extrinsèques. Toutefois, aucune relation significative n’est observée entre l’engagement cognitif et l’engagement comportemental, ce qui soulève des questions de mesure, mais aussi des questions de nature théorique pour une clientèle d’adultes participant à un MOOC.

  19. Integrative Understanding of Familial Impulsivity, Early Adversity and Suicide Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Isabela M. M.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.; de Miranda, Débora M.; Da Silva, Antônio G.; Neves, Fernando S.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Impulsivity is a core characteristic of bipolar disorder and it was observed as elevated in individuals with the disorder and in their relatives. Both impulsivity and history of maltreatment are risk factors for suicide attempts, however, these two key variables may not be independent, given the fact that parental impulsivity and associated social context could increase the risk of child maltreatment. In this study it was examined the association between the impulsivity of relat...

  20. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a wide range of risk and externalizing behavior. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a model in which differential activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum produces imbalance in the function of these brain regions. For youth high in sensation seeking, both regions were predicted to develop with age. However, for youth high in the tendency to act without thinking, the ventral striatum was expected to dominate. The model predicted that working memory ability would exhibit (1) early weakness in youth high in acting without thinking but (2) growing strength in those high in sensation seeking. In addition, it predicted that (3) acting without thinking would be more strongly related to risk and externalizing behavior than sensation seeking. Finally, it predicted that (4) controlling for acting without thinking, sensation seeking would predict later increases in risky and externalizing behavior. All four of these predictions were confirmed. The results indicate that the rise in sensation seeking that occurs during adolescence is not accompanied by a deficit in executive function and therefore requires different intervention strategies from those for youth whose impulsivity is characterized by early signs of acting without thinking. PMID:21884327

  1. Decreased resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity and the intrinsic functional connectivity within dorsal striatum is associated with greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making and BMI change at 6-month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Liang, Qianlin; Wu, Guorong; She, Ying; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2018-04-30

    Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes). Behaviorally, impulsivity in food-choice was indexed by the decision strength of the palatable high-calorie food rather than of the low-caloric food. Results on rs-fMRI showed that greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making was inversely correlated with spontaneous regional homogeneity in the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate), as well as the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the dorsal caudate seed and the rostral putamen. Furthermore, the caudate-putamen rs-FC inversely predicted BMI change at six-month follow-up. These findings may suggest the insensitivity to reward signals in dorsal caudate in decision-making coupled with an imbalance between goal-directed behaviors (modulated by dorsal caudate) and habitual actions (modulated by putamen) underlying impulsivity and future weight gain. In sum, these findings extend our understanding on the neural basis of food-related impulsivity, and provide evidence for the dorsal striatum as one of the landmarks in over eating and weight change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is impulsivity a common trait in bipolar and unipolar disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henna, Elaine; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark; Swann, Alan C; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is increased in bipolar and unipolar disorders during episodes and is associated with substance abuse disorders and suicide risk. Impulsivity between episodes predisposes to relapses and poor therapeutic compliance. However, there is little information about impulsivity during euthymia in mood disorders. We sought to investigate trait impulsivity in euthymic bipolar and unipolar disorder patients, comparing them to healthy individuals and unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder patients.   Impulsivity was evaluated by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11A) in 54 bipolar disorder patients, 25 unipolar disorder patients, 136 healthy volunteers, and 14 unaffected relatives. The BIS-11A mean scores for all four groups were compared through the Games-Howell test for all possible pairwise combinations. Additionally, we compared impulsivity in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempt and substance abuse disorder.   Bipolar and unipolar disorder patients scored significantly higher than the healthy controls and unaffected relatives on all measures of the BIS-11A except for attentional impulsivity. On the attentional impulsivity measures there were no differences among the unaffected relatives and the bipolar and unipolar disorder groups, but all three of these groups scored higher than the healthy participant group. There was no difference in impulsivity between bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with and without suicide attempt. However, impulsivity was higher among bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with past substance use disorder compared to patients without such a history.   Questionnaire-measured impulsivity appears to be relatively independent of mood state in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients; it remains elevated in euthymia and is higher in individuals with past substance abuse. Elevated attentional and lower non-planning impulsivity in unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder

  3. Subtypes of trait impulsivity differentially correlate with neural responses to food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Barendse, Marjolein E. A.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity is a personality trait that is linked to unhealthy eating and overweight. A few studies assessed how impulsivity relates to neural responses to anticipating and tasting food, but it is unknown how impulsivity relates to neural responses during food choice. Although impulsivity is a

  4. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  5. Differential effects of social stress on laboratory-based decision-making are related to both impulsive personality traits and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard J; Phung, Alissa L; Labuschagne, Izelle; Stout, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Urgency is the tendency to make impulsive decisions under extreme positive or negative emotional states. Stress, gender and impulsive personality traits are all known to influence decision-making, but no studies have examined the interplay of all of these factors. We exposed 78 men and women to a stress or a non-stress condition, and then administered the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. We found that stress effects varied as a function of gender and urgency traits. Under stress, women low in negative urgency and men high in negative urgency made fewer risky decisions. Positive urgency yielded a similar pattern. Thus, decisions under stress depend on a complex interplay between gender and impulsive personality traits. These findings have implications for clinical disorders, such as substance use disorders, in which there are known deficits in decision-making and high levels of impulsive traits.

  6. Social and Cultural Identity Pendekatan Face Negotation Theory dan Public Relations Multikulturalism Negara Jerman-China dan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasrun Hidayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity

  7. Impulse sales cooler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Per Henrik (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    In the past years, the use of impulse coolers has increased considerably and it is estimated that at least 30.000 are installed in shops in Denmark. In addition, there are many small barrel-shaped can coolers. Most impulse coolers are open, which results in a large consumption of energy, and the refrigeration systems are often quite inefficient. A typical impulse cooler uses app. 5 - 8 kWh/day corresponding to a consumption of energy in the magnitude of 60 GWh/year. For several years, the Danish company Vestfrost A/S has produced an impulse sales cooler in the high-efficiency end and the energy consumption of the cooler is measured to be 4.15 kWh/day. The POS72 cooler formed the baseline of this project. At the start-up meeting in 2008, several ideas were discussed with the objective to reduce energy consumption and to use natural refrigerants. Among the ideas were better air curtains, removable lids, better condensers, use of R600a refrigeration system and better insulation. Three generations of prototypes were built and tested in a climate chamber at Danish Technological Institute and the third generation showed very good performance: the energy consumption was measured to 2.215 kWh/day, which is a 47% reduction compared to the baseline. That was achieved by: 1) Improving the cold air cycling system including the air curtain. 2) Using the natural refrigerant R600a (isobutane) and the Danfoss NLE9KTK compressor, which has better efficiency compared to the compressor in the baseline product. 3) Using a box type condenser without fins (preventing dust build-up) and with a relatively high surface area. 4) Improving the insulation value of the plastic cabinet by reducing turbulence in the air gap between the plastic walls and improving the insulation value of the EPS moulded insulation surrounding the refrigeration system at the bottom of the cooler. 5) Preventing short-circuit of warm air around the condenser. 6) The improvements are cost efficient and will not add

  8. Integrative Understanding of Familial Impulsivity, Early Adversity and Suicide Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M. M. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impulsivity is a core characteristic of bipolar disorder and it was observed as elevated in individuals with the disorder and in their relatives. Both impulsivity and history of maltreatment are risk factors for suicide attempts, however, these two key variables may not be independent, given the fact that parental impulsivity and associated social context could increase the risk of child maltreatment. In this study it was examined the association between the impulsivity of relatives and child maltreatment taking into consideration the conjoint and unique effects of these two variables on the risk of suicide attempts among the patients.Materials and Methods: Participants of the study consisted of 117 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 25 first-degree relatives. Linear regression model was conducted to describe associations between facets of impulsivity of relatives and levels of child maltreatment reported by patients. The independent associations of suicide attempt history with the dimensions of impulsivity of the patient and maltreatment were tested by multinomial logistic regression.Results: Impulsivity of relatives and, more specifically, inhibitory control can predict the maltreatment of the patient. Inhibitory control and emotional abuse were related, conjointly, to a greater likelihood of having a history of more than one suicide attempt.Discussion: Considering that the impulsivity of relatives predicts child maltreatment, it is possible that a genetically shared impulsivity is an underlying feature associated with the history of multiple suicide attempts. These findings highlight the importance of considering child maltreatment, impulsivity and suicide attempt history in integrative models.

  9. Integrative Understanding of Familial Impulsivity, Early Adversity and Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabela M M; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; de Miranda, Débora M; Da Silva, Antônio G; Neves, Fernando S; Johnson, Sheri L

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Impulsivity is a core characteristic of bipolar disorder and it was observed as elevated in individuals with the disorder and in their relatives. Both impulsivity and history of maltreatment are risk factors for suicide attempts, however, these two key variables may not be independent, given the fact that parental impulsivity and associated social context could increase the risk of child maltreatment. In this study it was examined the association between the impulsivity of relatives and child maltreatment taking into consideration the conjoint and unique effects of these two variables on the risk of suicide attempts among the patients. Materials and Methods: Participants of the study consisted of 117 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 25 first-degree relatives. Linear regression model was conducted to describe associations between facets of impulsivity of relatives and levels of child maltreatment reported by patients. The independent associations of suicide attempt history with the dimensions of impulsivity of the patient and maltreatment were tested by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Impulsivity of relatives and, more specifically, inhibitory control can predict the maltreatment of the patient. Inhibitory control and emotional abuse were related, conjointly, to a greater likelihood of having a history of more than one suicide attempt. Discussion: Considering that the impulsivity of relatives predicts child maltreatment, it is possible that a genetically shared impulsivity is an underlying feature associated with the history of multiple suicide attempts. These findings highlight the importance of considering child maltreatment, impulsivity and suicide attempt history in integrative models.

  10. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Differences between Impulsive and Non-Impulsive Suicide Attempts among Individuals Treated in Emergency Rooms of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Objective A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner. Methods This study analyzed suicide attempters who visited the emergency departments of seven selected university hospitals. A total of 269 medical records in which impulsivity of suicide attempt were confirmed were subject to be analyzed. The impulsivity of the suicide attempt was examined using a summative score of items 6 and 15 on the Suicide Intent Scale. Results A total of 48.0% of the participants were impelled by sudden inclinations to attempt suicide. Impulsive attempters were younger, unmarried and less physical illness than non-impulsive attempters, whereas no significant differences were found on psychiatric history and previous suicide history. Impulsive suicide attempters had suicide ideations that were not as severe (χ2=55.33, pimpulsive suicide attempts were better than non-impulsive suicide attempts (t=-3.77, psuicide attempts were the result of sudden inclinations. Impulsive attempts were made in relatively earlier stages of suicide ideation; consequently, they have less intent than non-impulsive attempts. PMID:27482239

  12. Impulsive behavior in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: characterization of attentional, motor and cognitive impulsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, L; Fuentes, D; Leite, W Borges; Correa, H; Bechara, A

    2007-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Impulsivity persists in adults with ADHD and might be the basis of much of the impairment observed in the daily lives of such individuals. The objective of this study was to address the presence, and more importantly, the three dimensions of impulsivity: attentional, non-planning and motor, in how they may relate to neuropsychological mechanisms of impulse control. We studied a sample of 50 adults with ADHD and 51 healthy comparison controls using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Version 11 (BIS), and neuropsychological tasks, namely the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The ADHD group showed more signs of impulsivity on the three dimensions of BIS, committed more errors of omission and commission on the CPT-II, and made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT. These results support the existence of deficits related to three components of impulsivity: motor, cognitive, and attentional among adults with ADHD. Most importantly, this study also highlights the complementary nature of self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks in the assessment of impulsivity in ADHD adults.

  13. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice

    OpenAIRE

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than fem...

  14. The relevance of personality traits in impulsivity-related disorders: From substance use disorders and gambling disorder to bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Hakansson, Anders; Fagundo, Ana B.; Bolao, Ferran; Valdepérez, Ana; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Penelo, Eva; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Rigol-Cuadras, Assumpta; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype. Methods The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity. Results Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles. Discussion and conclusion Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness. PMID:28838248

  15. Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto

    2016-04-30

    Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effets du Cloud computing sur les relations inter-organisationnelles dans la supply chain en France

    OpenAIRE

    AGHHAVANI-SHAJARI, Benyamin

    2016-01-01

    National audience; Le cloud computing (CC) est en train de changer la façon dont les entreprises déploient et exploitent leur système d’information. 55% des entreprises françaises utilisent le Service Cloud type Software as a service (Saas). Les recherches se sont surtout focalisées sur la question de l'adoption du CC (ACC) dans une organisation ou encore sur les difficultés techniques et informatiques. À notre connaissance il existe peu de recherches portant sur l'ACC au niveau de la supply ...

  17. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  18. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impulsive action and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijda, Nico H

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, without prior intention (called impulsive actions), or intentionally. Impulsive actions reflect the simplest and biologically most general form in which emotions can cause action, since they require no reflection, no foresight, and no planning. Impulsive actions are determined conjointly by the nature of action readiness, the affordances perceived in the eliciting event as appraised, and the individual's action repertoire. Those actions from one's repertoire are performed that both match the perceived affordances and the aim of the state of action readiness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  1. La place de la relation soignant-soigné dans l'approche de soins transculturelle: travail de Bachelor

    OpenAIRE

    De Beul, Nathalie; Martinez, Cristian; Toppo, Marie-Laure; Diby, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: En Suisse, en lien avec le phénomène migratoire, la prise en soin de patients de culture différente se révèle être fréquente. L’approche des soins transculturelle est déjà abordée par d’autres disciplines. Objectif: L’objectif de cette revue de littérature est de définir quelle est la place de la relation soignant-soigné dans l’approche de soins transculturelle. Méthode: Revue de littérature utilisant les bases de données Pubmed, Cinahl, Psychinfo entre 2000 et 2014. Sur 7'761 a...

  2. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

  3. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  4. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use.

  5. Pulse-form discrimination in organic scintillation crystals; Discrimination d'apres la forme de l'impulsion dans les cristaux organiques de scintillation; Diskriminatsiya formy impul'sov v organicheskikh stsintillyatsionnykh kristallakh; Discriminacion de la forma de los impulsos en los cristales de compuestos organicos para contadores de centelleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, L J; Udo, F [Instituut voor Kernphysisch Onderzoek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1962-04-15

    Presented is a proton-electron discrimination circuit, based on the pulse-form differences between proton and electron-induced scintillation light pulses in stilbene. The circuit is stable and resolves proton from electron pulses down to a proton energy of 300 keV. The discrimination circuit, which contains only linear elements, is sensitive to pile-up-induced errors for only 0.1 {mu}s after the arrival of a pulse. The described circuit has now been used in a 1-30 MeV neutron spectrometer based on proton-recoil between two silbene crystals. A resolution of 10% at 14 MeV neutron energy was obtained with a detection efficiency of 1.3 x 10{sup -4}. A neutron monitor, also based on linear pulse-form discrimination, could be used to measure a neutron dose of 10% of the maximum permissible dose in the presence of a gamma flux of 4 times the maximum permissible dose. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit un circuit de discrimination proton/electron dont le principe repose sur les differences de forme entre les impulsions lumineuses dans du stilbene, produites par des protons, d'une part, et des electrons, d'autre part. Le circuit est stable et permet de separer les impulsions protoniques des impulsions electroniques, a partir d'une energie protonique de 300 keV. Ce circuit, qui ne contient que des elements lineaires, n'est sujet a des erreurs dues a l'accumulation que pendant 0,1 {mu}s apres l'arrivee de l'impulsion. Il a ete utilise dans un spectrometre neutronique de 1-30 MeV, fonde sur le recul des protons entre deux cristaux de stilbene. On a obtenu une resolution de 10% pour une energie neutronique de 14 MeV, avec une efficacite de detection de 1,3x10{sup -4}. Un detecteur de neutrons procedant egalement par discrimination d'apres la forme des impulsions, pourrait servir a mesurer une dose de neutrons representant 10% de la dose maximum admissible, en presence d'un flux gamma correspondant a une dose quatre fois superieure a la dose maximum admissible. (author

  6. Amygdala reactivity to fearful faces correlates positively with impulsive aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M; Hjordt, Liv V

    2018-01-01

    Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate...

  7. "Impulsive" youth suicide attempters are not necessarily all that impulsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K; Merrill, Katherine A; Stellrecht, Nadia E; Bernert, Rebecca A; Hollar, Daniel L; Schatschneider, Christopher; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    The relationship between impulsivity and suicide has been conceptualized in the literature as a direct one. In contrast, Joiner's [Joiner, T.E., 2005. Why people die by suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.] theory posits that this relationship is indirect in that impulsive individuals are more likely to engage in suicidal behavior because impulsivity makes one more likely to be exposed to painful and provocative stimuli. Adolescents were selected from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) sample between the years of 1993-2003 who had planned for a suicide attempt but did not actually attempt (n=5685), who did not plan but did attempt ("impulsive attempters;" n=1172), and who both planned and attempted (n=4807). Items were selected from the YRBS to assess demographic variables, suicidal behaviors, and impulsive behaviors. Participants who had planned suicide without attempting were significantly less impulsive than those who had attempted without planning and than those who had both planned and attempted. Crucially, participants who had made a suicide attempt without prior planning were less impulsive than those who had planned and attempted. We were unable to conduct a multi-method assessment (i.e., measures were self-report); the measure of impulsivity consisted of items pulled from the YRBS rather than a previously validated impulsivity measure. The notion that the most impulsive individuals are more likely to plan for suicide attempts is an important one for many reasons both theoretical and clinical, including that it may refine risk assessment and attendant clinical decision-making.

  8. A path model of different forms of impulsivity with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology: Towards greater specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Tharp, Jordan A; Peckham, Andrew D; Carver, Charles S; Haase, Claudia M

    2017-09-01

    A growing empirical literature indicates that emotion-related impulsivity (compared to impulsivity that is unrelated to emotion) is particularly relevant for understanding a broad range of psychopathologies. Recent work, however, has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity: A factor termed Pervasive Influence of Feelings captures tendencies for emotions (mostly negative emotions) to quickly shape thoughts, and a factor termed Feelings Trigger Action captures tendencies for positive and negative emotions to quickly and reflexively shape behaviour and speech. This study used path modelling to consider links from emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity to a broad range of psychopathologies. Undergraduates completed self-report measures of impulsivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, and substance use symptoms. A path model (N = 261) indicated specificity of these forms of impulsivity. Pervasive Influence of Feelings was related to anxiety and depression, whereas Feelings Trigger Action and non-emotion-related impulsivity were related to aggression and substance use. The findings of this study suggest that emotion-relevant impulsivity could be a potentially important treatment target for a set of psychopathologies. Recent work has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity. This study tests a multivariate path model linking emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity with multiple forms of psychopathology. Impulsive thoughts in response to negative emotions were related to anxiety and depression. Impulsive actions in response to emotions were related to aggression and substance use, as did non-emotion-related impulsivity. The study was limited by the reliance on self-report measures of impulsivity and psychopathology. There is a need for longitudinal work on how these forms of impulsivity predict the onset and course of psychopathology. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Fusion impulse containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  10. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  11. Tourette-like behaviors in the normal population are associated with hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors but do not relate to deficits in conditioned inhibition or response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eHeym

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (TS present as distinct conditions clinically; however, comorbidity and inhibitory control deficits have been proposed for both. Whilst such deficits have been studied widely within clinical populations, findings are mixed – partly due to comorbidity and/or medication effects - and studies have rarely distinguished between subtypes of the disorders. Studies in the general population are sparse. Using a continuity approach, the present study examined (i the relationships between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD and TS-like behaviors in the general population, and (ii their unique associations with automatic and executive inhibitory control, as well as (iii yawning (a proposed behavioral model of TS. One hundred and thirty-eight participants completed self-report measures for ADHD and TS-like behaviors as well as yawning, and a conditioned inhibition task to assess automatic inhibition. A sub-sample of fifty-four participants completed three executive inhibition tasks. An exploratory factor analysis of the TS behavior checklist supported a distinction between phonic and motor like pure TS behaviors. Whilst hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD were associated with increased pure and compulsive TS-like behaviors, inattention in isolation was related to reduced obsessive-compulsive TS-like behaviors. TS-like behaviors were associated with yawning during situations of inactivity, and specifically motor TS was related to yawning during stress. Phonic TS and inattention aspects of ADHD were associated with yawning during concentration/activity. Whilst executive interference control deficits were linked to hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors, this was not the case for inattentive ADHD or TS-like behaviors, which instead related to increased performance on some measures. No associations were observed for automatic conditioned inhibition.

  12. Impulsivity in bipolar disorders in a Tunisian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Ines; Moalla, Mariem; Baati, Imen; Trigui, Dorsaf; Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, Jaweher

    2016-08-01

    Impulsivity as a trait characteristic is increased in bipolar disorder and may be a core factor of the illness. The objectives of our work are to evaluate the level of impulsivity among patients with bipolar disorder and to study its relation with mood state, alcohol misuse, suicide attempts and other socio-demographic and clinical factors. We measured impulsivity in 60 subjects with bipolar disorder in relationship to socio-demographic and clinical variables. The subjects completed Data included socio-demographic details and clinical variables, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in an Arabic version to assess impulsivity, The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview "MINI" version 05 to screen for alcohol abuse or dependence and mood graphic rate scale (MGRS) to evaluate mood state. Our results show that the mean score of BIS-11 was 71.5. Fifty-five per cent of the patients had a high level of impulsiveness. No differences were found relating to mood state. Impulsivity was related to Male gender, lower educational level, early age of onset, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse and prior suicide attempts. The treatment of patients with BD should consider to reduce impulsivity to improve morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Miser, dépenser ou gaspiller ? Étude sur la relation entre l’argent, le jeu et l’addiction dans la vie moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de comprendre la relation complexe qui peut se nouer entre l’argent, le jeu et l’addiction dans la vie moderne. La conception de l’argent varie selon les significations données, les époques et les lieux. L’argent altère l’essence du jeu en y faisant entrer le défi du risque. Le fait de gagner de l’argent en jouant a souvent partagé les opinions : la séparation du jeu et du travail se base sur des croyances chrétiennes, mais aussi sur l’ambivalence dont le jeu a été doté dans la Modernité. La dépendance à l’habitude de jouer transforme l’usage et la valeur de l’argent chez les joueurs pathologiques. La dépense devient un jeu de gaspillage et la dépendance un outrage à la raison des joueurs. L’addiction est un mot-clé qui représenterait un dérangement dans la vie moderne : de nos jours, la dépendance est devenu un problème multiforme, car son développement n’est plus tributaire de l’usage des substances, mais souvent latent dans les habitudes quotidiennes (cf. les jeux, l’Internet, les achats.

  14. MANAJEMEN PUBLIC RELATIONS PENDIDIKAN ISLAM (Kajian Tematik Al Qur’an dan Al Hadits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Iskandar Jaelani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public Relations (PR has two senses. First, in terms of public relations as communication techniques. And second, public relations as a method of communication. The concept of Public Relations with respect to understanding through knowledge creation activities, and through these activities that impact the changes will appear. Public Relations itself is a combination of various immunization and included in the ranks of the social sciences such as political science, economics, history, psychology, sociology, communication and others.

  15. Are old people so gentle? Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vives, Fabia; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2012-03-01

    Although old people may seem less impulsive than adults, numerous experimental studies report that they have inhibitory deficits. Bearing in mind that there is a relationship between inhibition processes and impulsivity, age-related inhibition deficits suggest that older people could be more impulsive than adults. The aim of the current study was to compare the functional and dysfunctional impulsivity scores obtained in a sample of elderly people (65 years old and above) with those obtained in previous studies on samples of adolescents and adults. Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory was administered to 190 individuals aged between 65 and 94 years without dementia or cognitive impairment. Results indicated that the elderly sample showed higher dysfunctional impulsivity levels than the adult samples, which is consistent with the inhibition deficits mentioned above. There were no significant differences in functional impulsivity. Furthermore, old women had higher scores than old men on dysfunctional impulsivity. This study provides evidence of age-related changes in dysfunctional impulsivity. Functional impulsivity did not show the same pattern as dysfunctional impulsivity, being quite stable across the age span. it seems, then, that impulsivity cannot be considered to decrease with age and dysfunctional impulsivity may even increase.

  16. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  17. Analisis Model Struktural Faktor-Faktor Pembentuk Fashion-Oriented Impulse Buying Produk Ritel Fashion Berdasarkan Sudut Pandang Konsumen Usia Remaja [Structural Model Analysis of Fashion-Oriented Impulse Buying of Retail Products Based on the Teenage Customer's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Mulia Wibawa

    2018-05-01

    tendency, dan fashion-oriented impulse buying pada ritel fashion di Galaxy Mall Surabaya. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian deskriptif konklusif dengan tipe multiple cross-sectional dan judgmental sampling. Penyebaran kuesioner telah dilakukan dengan cara survei langsung ke 188 pelanggan Zara, Pull&Bear, dan Stradivarius yang berusia 15-21 yang pernah melakukan aktivitas pembelian di salah satu dari ketiga ritel tersebut dalam 1 bulan terakhir. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fashion involvement memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap positive emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, dan fashion-oriented impluse buying. kemudian hedonic consumption tendency memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap positif emotion dan fashion-oriented impulse buying, Temuan lainnya menunjukkan positive emotion tidak berpengaruh terhadap fashion-oriented impulse buying. Hasil penelitian ini juga merekomendasikan strategi retail mix dapat diterapkan oleh Zara, Pull&Bear, dan Stradivarius untuk memaksimalkan pendapatan ritel dari calon pelanggan dengan memanfaatkan perilaku impulse buying.

  18. Being impulsive and obese increases susceptibility to speeded detection of high-calorie foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Peggy; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Jansen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Overeating and obesity are associated with impulsivity. In studies among patients with a substance use disorder, impulsivity was found to be associated with substance-related attentional bias. This study examined whether obesity, impulsivity and food craving are associated with an attentional bias

  19. Impulsivity and self-harm in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Joanna; Daley, David; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2017-04-01

    Research supports an association between impulsivity and self-harm, yet inconsistencies in methodology across studies have complicated understanding of this relationship. This systematic review examines the association between impulsivity and self-harm in community-based adolescents aged 11-25 years and aims to integrate findings according to differing concepts and methods. Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, and manual searches of reference lists of relevant reviews identified 4496 articles published up to July 2015, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four of the studies reported an association between broadly specified impulsivity and self-harm. However, findings varied according to the conception and measurement of impulsivity and the precision with which self-harm behaviours were specified. Specifically, lifetime non-suicidal self-injury was most consistently associated with mood-based impulsivity-related traits. However, cognitive facets of impulsivity (relating to difficulties maintaining focus or acting without forethought) differentiated current self-harm from past self-harm. These facets also distinguished those with thoughts of self-harm (ideation) from those who acted on thoughts (enaction). The findings suggested that mood-based impulsivity is related to the initiation of self-harm, while cognitive facets of impulsivity are associated with the maintenance of self-harm. In addition, behavioural impulsivity is most relevant to self-harm under conditions of negative affect. Collectively, the findings indicate that distinct impulsivity facets confer unique risks across the life-course of self-harm. From a clinical perspective, the review suggests that interventions focusing on reducing rash reactivity to emotions or improving self-regulation and decision making may offer most benefit in supporting those who self-harm.

  20. The clinical assessment of impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Brahmavar Pai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The term impulsivity is often used to describe behavior that is both spontaneous and detrimental. Impulsivity is multidimensional and derives from personality, general psychopathology as well as specific mental disorders. Thus, the construct of impulsivity is important as it is associated with numerous mental disorders as well as socially deviant behaviors ranging from behaviors targeted towards others such as aggression, to behaviors targeted toward oneself, for example, self-harm and suicide. As a clinical construct impulsivity is highly predictive of poor prognosis thus further emphasizing its clinical relevance. Therefore, the need exists for impulsivity to be clinically assessed and this assessment should take place at the same time as the assessment of risk. As risk and impulsivity are interrelated and interact. Although there are existing self-report rating scales for trait-based impulsivity, a dearth exists in regards to assessment of impulsivity in clinical practice that is focused and pragmatic. Thus, a pragmatic rubric to guide the individualized assessment of impulsivity in a clinical population is proposed. The quadrants espoused will assist both with the formulation of questions and categorization of responses to determine the most appropriate interventions for the client.

  1. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  2. Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Cirilli

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale, which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.

  3. Chronotype differences in suicidal behavior and impulsivity among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Selvi, Fatih; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2011-03-01

    Morning- and evening-type individuals differ on a number of psychological and biological variables. There has been increasing interest in the relationship between chronotype and personality traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and chronotype in suicide attempters. Eighty-nine suicide attempters were included in the study, and systematic information on suicide attempts was recorded. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire was applied to determine chronotype, and attempter impulsivity was measured by the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Significant differences between chronotype and impulsivity scores were found. Evening-type subjects reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than both neither- and morning-types. A significant association between chronotype and type of suicide attempt was detected. The largest proportion of violent suicide attempters were evening-type subjects. Violent suicide attempters also reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than nonviolent attempters. Previous studies have pointed out possible relations between eveningness and impulsivity. Current findings suggest that eveningness may be a risk factor for violent suicide attempts by increasing impulsivity.

  4. Impulsivity, aggression and suicidal behavior in unipolar and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Baud, Patrick; Mouthon, Dominique; Courtet, Philippe; Malafosse, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Predictors of suicidal behaviors (SB) in bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients are poorly understood. It has been recognized that behavioral dysregulation characterizes SB with traits of impulsivity and aggression being particularly salient. However, little is known about how these traits are segregated among mood disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempt (SA). This article aims to compare impulsivity and aggression between 143 controls, 138 BD and 186 MDD subjects with or without a history of SA. BD and MDD patients showed higher impulsivity scores (BIS-10 = 57.9 vs. 44.7, p impulsivity helped to distinguish MDD subjects without a history of SA from those with such a history, this was not the case in BD subjects where no difference in impulsive traits was observed between BD without and with history of SA (57.2 vs. 63.2 for BIS-10; p = 0.259). Impulsive and aggressive traits were strongly correlated in suicide attempters (independently of the diagnosis) but not in non-suicide attempters. Dimensional traits were not characterized at different stages of illness. Impulsivity, as a single trait, may be a reliable suicide risk marker in MDD but not in BD patients, and its strong correlation with aggressive traits seems specifically related to SB. Our study therefore suggests that the specific dimension of impulsive aggression should be systematically assessed in mood disorder patients to address properly their suicidal risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pembentukan Sikap Konsumen Pada Cause Related Marketing Produk Utilitarian Dan High Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Singgih Santoso

    2016-01-01

    With popularity growing of social marketing concepts and consciousness of the environmental issues in recent days, cause related marketing activities oriented in environmental conservation issues is also growing. Research aims is to examine the formation of consumer attitudes on cause related marketing activities, a marketing activities which undertaken a commercial brand with a nonprofit organization; in this research product is utilitarian product and also high involvement product, namely A...

  6. Loyalitas Konsumen JNE Surabaya: Korelasi antara Marketing Public Relations dan Kualitas Pelayanan

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Krisna; Zulaikha, Zulaikha

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to know the influence of marketing public relation and service quality against customer loyalty at PT Tiki Jalur Nugraha Ekakurir (JNE) Surabaya. The variables used in this study i.e. marketing public relation, service quality, and customer loyalty. The population used in this study are all the consumers who use the service delivery on PT Tiki Jalur Nugraha Ekakurir (JNE) Surabaya.As for the sampling technique used was purposive sampling technique with the total sample as m...

  7. Sistem Kendali dan Strategi Penanganan (Manajemen Krisis Dalam Kajian Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Fajar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of Public Relations, especially in aspects of management (Public Relations Management to handle issues and crises will greatly depend on the type and systems as an organization. According to Anne Gregory at least in Crisis Management, PR is able to communicate to management about the structure of stakeholder from organizations and their characteristics which are expected to support the policy.

  8. Impulsive behaviors in female patients with eating disorders in a university hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Yu Liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.

  9. Internet et la recomposition territoriale des relations dans l'agriculture suisse

    OpenAIRE

    Gigon, Nathalie; Crevoisier, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    L'agriculture et l'industrie agro-alimentaire suisses se transformed très rapidement. À un monde industrial fonctionnant à l'échelle nationale et basé sur des normes techniques succède un monde domestique basé sur l'identité régionale et les relations interpersonnelles. L'utilisation d'Internet devrait participer à la recomposition des relations entre producteurs et consommateurs et refléter les transformations territoriales qu'elles impliquent. Or les sites Internet de promotion des produits...

  10. Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Manajer Public Relations terhadap Kualitas Manajemen Public Relations dan Korelasinya dengan Efektivitas Sistem Komunikasi Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Yulianita

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to study the personal skills and leadership functions of the public relations manager which is assumed will bear its influence on the quality of public relations management in order to enhance the effectiveness of the communication system of his organization. The approach used in this research was systems approach in the social-science context which is interlaced with interdicipliner approach from the psychology, communication, sociology,and management perspective. As for the method used was ""the Explanatory Survey Method"".  The research object was conducted in 19 BUMN in DKI Jakarta and West Java. Tocollect the data, the researcher used questionnaires, in depth interview, observation, and library study. The questionnaires were distributed to 85 respondents among Public Relations Officers (PRO and 96 respondents among corporate managers. To fullflll the research data, the researcher took in depth interview to 19 public relations manager from selected BUMN. The conclusion from the result of hypothesis using Path AnalySis-Statistical Test and ProductMoment Correlation Coefficient 'r' ofident that either the main hypothesis or subhypotheses proposed were accepted. The leadership (Viewed from the aspect of personal skills and leadership function of Public Relations Manager among BUMN significantly influenced the quality of Public Relations Management and the quality of PR Manajement had significantly correlation with the effectiveness of a corporate communication system.

  11. The interactive effect of hunger and impulsivity on food intake and purchase in a virtual supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, C; Guerrieri, R; Havermans, R C; Roefs, A; Jansen, A

    2009-08-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that impulsivity, obesity and food intake are related; obese people are more impulsive than lean people and impulsive people eat more than less impulsive people. The relation between impulsivity and food intake might be state dependent; hunger motivates food seeking behaviour and food consumption, especially of high caloric food. Difficulties to overrule automatic behavioural tendencies might make impulsive people more susceptible to the effects of hunger on food selection. Therefore, they are expected to increase their intake more than low impulsive people when feeling hungry. STUDY 1: Fifty-seven female participants were randomly assigned to a hunger or sated condition. Response inhibition (a measure of impulsivity) and food intake were measured. Results show that impulsive participants ate significantly more, but only when feeling hungry. STUDY 2: Ninety-four undergraduate students participated. Hunger, response inhibition and the purchase of food in a virtual supermarket were measured. The same interaction was found: impulsive participants bought most calories, especially from snack food, but only when feeling hungry. Hunger and impulsivity interact in their influence on consumption. These data suggest that reducing hunger during calorie restricting diets is important for successful weight loss, particularly for the impulsive dieters.

  12. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight.This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight.Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations.Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores.No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  13. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Eline W M; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef P J; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  14. Generalized synchronization via impulsive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Xu Zhenyuan; Yang, Simon X.; He Xueming

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates theoretically that two completely different systems can implement GS via impulsive control, moreover by using impulsive control, for a given manifold y = H(x) we construct a response system to achieve GS with drive system and the synchronization manifold is y = H(x). Our theoretical results are supported by numerical examples

  15. Impulsivity: A deficiency of inhibitory control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Impulsivity has been defined as acting without thinking. Impulsivity can be quantified by impulsivity questionnaires, but also by behavioral paradigms which tax inhibitory control. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated deficient inhibitory control in psychopathological samples characterized

  16. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  17. La gestion de la relation client dans la banque: Cas du marché marocain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL KORAICHI Mustapha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Face aux évolutions du secteur bancaire (concurrence accrue, crise de confiance l’adoption d’un système de gestion de la relation client représente un enjeu important pour les banques. Il contribue à l’optimisation de la gestion du portefeuille client, plus précisément ce système permet d’acquérir de nouveaux clients et d’augmenter la rentabilité des clients existants. Cet article a pour objectif de répondre à la problématique suivante: le système de gestion de la relation client permet-il aux banques d’atteindre les objectifs attendus? L’étude que nous avons réalisée auprès de 47 banques commerciales marocaines montre que malgré le potentiel anticipé, les bénéfices escomptés d’un tel système restent limités. En effet, l’utilisation de ce système reste à son état embryonnaire, il se centre principalement sur la collecte des informations clients au niveau des agences tandis que l’analyse et l’exploitation de ces informations se fait au niveau du siège de la banque. De même, les opérations basiques de la banque occupent une grande part du temps de travail des agents de la banque au dépend des services bancaires à valeur ajoutée. D’un autre côté, une grande part des banques adoptant ce système ne mesurent pas le coût de la relation avec leurs clients.

  18. In situ mortality experiments with juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in relation to impulsive sound levels caused by pile driving of windmill foundations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Debusschere

    Full Text Available Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa².s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa².s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies.

  19. [Kleptomania: an irresistible impulse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiou, K

    2011-01-01

    This review presents the historical-epidemiological and clinical aspects of Kleptomania. The diagnostic criteria, on the basis of which it is categorized in the group of Impulse Control Disorders, are defined precisely. All the aspects of its causative pathogenesis are deeply analyzed, as they are projected through its phenomenological, psychoanalytical and psycho-biological approach. Particular emphasis is given on its differential diagnosis from other psycho-pathological conditions and especially from the co-morbidities that often accompany it. The frame of treatment is established and its course and the final outcome are analyzed. Finally, it is determined what should be the objectives of future research, which will contribute decisively to the ascertainment of the exact incidence of Kleptomania in the general population, to the clarification of its causative pathogenesis and especially to the most effective treatment of this serious mental disorder.

  20. Reconnaissance de formes moléculaires dans les relations structure-activité

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis , Hervé

    1992-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Cette thèse présente un logiciel qui a pour but de mieux comprendre les relations entre caractéristiques structurales et propriétés thérapeutiques de molécules envisagées comme médicaments. L'idée majeure est de soumettre une famille de composés, d'une part à des calculs de chimie quantique, d'autre part à des méthodes de reconnaissance de formes, afin d'observer si certaines propriétés moléculaires sont discriminantes vis-à-vis d'une activité pharmacologique m...

  1. HUTAN DAN PERILAKU ALIRAN AIR: KLARIFIKASI KEBERADAAN HUTAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP BANJIR DAN KEKURANGAN AIR (Forest and Stream Flow Behaviour: Clarification on Forest Relation With Flood and Drought Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chay Asdak

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Banjir bandang di wilayah hilir Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS seringkali dihubungkan dengan penebangan hutan di wilayah hulu DAS. Hal ini terkait dengan dua hal: (1 perhatian masyarakat terhadap tingginya laju degradasi sumberdaya hutan di banyak tempat di Indonesia, dan (2 adanya kesenjangan pemahaman tentang keterkaitan antara vegetasi, air, dan tanah. kedua hal ini mendorong terbentuknya pemahaman bersama (masyarakat luas termasuk akademisi yang cenderung bersifat simplistik bahwa banjir bandang tersebut terjadi karena mengingkatnya penebangan hutan. Apakah pemahaman tersebut di atas didukung oleh bukti-bukti ilmiah? Atau karena didorong oleh emosi bahwa kerusakan hutan makin meningkat. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk menunjukkan hasil penelitian bahwa, pada banyak kasus, banjir bandang lebih disebabkan oleh tingginya intensitas curah hujan.   ABSTRACT Big floods found in downstream areas that occurred in the wettest months of rainy season are often said to be associated with forest cutting in the upper parts of a watershed. This is partly caused by an increasing strong concerned from many people on high rate of forest destruction in many parts of Indonesia. Partly by false perception on forest-water-soil interaction. In the mean time, there is a common perception among the people including some scientific communities that large floods with severe economic impact are closely linked with the increasing forest cutting. Does this allegation have scientific justification? Or is it just a public emotion driven by the fact that many forest stands are becoming degraded overtime. This article is trying to bring up some scientific findings that, in many cases, big floods were often associated with extreme rainfall. Some illustrations used in this article are mainly from research findings in the temperate climates, with small protions from tropical regions.

  2. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Y S; Knodt, A R; Radtke, S R; Hariri, A R

    2016-03-01

    Prior work suggests that there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and another associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24 years) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: (1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or (2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of AUD diagnosis at the time of neuroimaging but also subsequent problem drinking reported 3 months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention.

  3. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: Possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work suggests there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and one associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using BOLD fMRI in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: 1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or 2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of a DSM-IV diagnosed AUD at the time of neuroimaging, but also subsequent problem drinking reported three months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  4. Pulse polarography - special application; Polarographie a impulsions - applications particulieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The calculation of the current on a plane electrode in particular conditions is presented briefly, the first part of the report then consists of a theoretical and methodological presentation of pulse polarography. The calculation of the current in pulse polarography is given for different modes of measurement and for redox systems of variable reversibility. Various extensions are proposed with a view to extending the field of application of the method. The second part presents two particular applications. One application is to analytical chemistry: organometallic complexes applied to the pulse polarographic analysis; the other application is to electrochemical kinetics using integral pulse polarography. This research has enabled us to determine, in the first case, elements present in minute traces, and in the second case the kinetic parameters of an electrochemical reaction which is too fast to be analyzed by conventional polarography. (author) [French] Apres un rappel sur le calcul du courant sur electrode plane dans des conditions precises, la premiere partie du memoire est consacree a l'expose theorique et methodologique de la polarographie a impulsions. Le calcul du courant en polarographie a impulsions est donne pour divers modes de mesures et pour des systemes redox de reversibilites variees. Diverses extensions sont proposees de facon a elargir le domaine d'application de la methode. La deuxieme partie introduit deux applications particulieres. Une application a la chimie analytique: les complexes organometalliques appliques a l'analyse pulsopolarographique et une application a la cinetique electrochimique par polarographie a impulsions integrale. Ces recherches nous ont permis de determiner dans le premier cas, des elements a l'etat de traces infimes, dans le deuxieme cas, les parametres cinetiques d'une reaction electrochimique trop rapide pour etre analysee par polarographie classique. (auteur)

  5. Individual differences in impulsive action and dopamine transporter function in rat orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J R; Darna, M; Beckmann, J S; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2016-01-28

    Impulsivity, which can be subdivided into impulsive action and impulsive choice, is implicated as a factor underlying drug abuse vulnerability. Although previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) systems in prefrontal cortex are involved in impulsivity and substance abuse, it is not known if inherent variation in DA transporter (DAT) function contributes to impulsivity. The current study determined if individual differences in either impulsive action or impulsive choice are related to DAT function in orbitofrontal (OFC) and/or medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Rats were first tested both for impulsive action in a cued go/no-go task and for impulsive choice in a delay-discounting task. Following behavioral evaluation, in vitro [(3)H]DA uptake assays were performed in OFC and mPFC isolated from individual rats. Vmax in OFC, but not mPFC, was correlated with performance in the cued go/no-go task, with decreased OFC DAT function being associated with high impulsive action. In contrast, Vmax in OFC and mPFC was not correlated with performance in the delay-discounting task. The current results demonstrate that impulsive behavior in cued go/no-go performance is associated with decreased DAT function in OFC, suggesting that hyperdopaminergic tone in this prefrontal subregion mediates, at least in part, increased impulsive action. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet-induced impulsivity: Effects of a high-fat and a high-sugar diet on impulsive choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catherine C; Pirkle, Jesseca R A; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive choice is a common charactertistic among individuals with gambling problems, obesity, and substance abuse issues. Impulsive choice has been classified as a trans-disease process, and understanding the etiology of trait impulsivity could help to understand how diseases and disorders related to impulsive choice are manifested. The Western diet is a possible catalyst of impulsive choice as individuals who are obese and who eat diets high in fat and sugar are typically more impulsive. However, such correlational evidence is unable to discern the direction and causal nature of the relationship. The present study sought to determine how diet may directly contribute to impulsive choice. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure (high-fat, high-sugar, chow), the rats were tested on an impulsive choice task, which presented choices between a smaller-sooner reward (SS) and a larger-later reward (LL). Then, the rats were transferred to a chow diet and retested on the impulsive choice task. The high-sugar and high-fat groups made significantly more impulsive choices than the chow group. Both groups became more self-controlled when they were off the diet, but there were some residual effects of the diet on choice behavior. These results suggest that diet, specifically one high in processed fat or sugar, induces impulsive choice. This diet-induced impulsivity could be a precursor to other disorders that are characterized by impulsivity, such as diet-induced obesity, and could offer potential understanding of the trans-disease nature of impulsive choice.

  7. Trait impulsivity is associated with the risk of falls in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Katrijn; Esselink, Rianne A; Cools, Roshan; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a "tendency to act prematurely without foresight." Clinical experience suggests that such impulsive behavior can impact on the fall risk in Parkinson's disease (PD), but this has never been tested. We investigated whether trait impulsivity is related to fall risk in a large cohort of PD patients. We also investigated whether trait impulsivity affects the fall risk differently for patients with more or less postural instability and gait disability (PIGD). 388 patients with PD (H&Y ≤ 3) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, higher scores indicating greater impulsivity) to assess trait impulsivity, including three subscales: motor impulsivity (e.g. "I do things without thinking"), attentional impulsivity (e.g. "I concentrate easily") and non-planning (e.g. "I plan tasks carefully"). Falls were registered prospectively for 6 months. Patients classified as non-fallers (0 falls, n = 237) were compared to recurrent PD fallers (>1 fall, n = 78). Total impulsivity scores were higher for recurrent fallers (59.5) compared to non-fallers (56.8; p = .012). This effect was predominantly driven by higher scores on the subscale for attentional impulsivity (p = .003). The difference in attentional impulsivity was independent of gender, disease severity, dopaminergic medication, and cognitive function. Motor and non-planning impulsivity did not differ between recurrent fallers and non-fallers. There was no evidence that impulsivity modulated the association between PIGD and fall risk. This is the first evidence that impulsivity, in particular in the attentional domain, is related to fall risk in PD.

  8. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  9. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p users had larger, while female METH users had smaller, right superior frontal cortex (interaction-p = 0.0005). The male METH users with larger frontal volumes and female METH users with smaller or thinner frontal cortices had greater Cognitive impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use. PMID:27095357

  10. Does impulsivity predict outcome in treatment for binge eating disorder? A multimodal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Schumacher, Leah M; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Zhang, Fengqing; Forman, Evan M; Juarascio, Adrienne S

    2016-10-01

    Multiple dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., affect-driven impulsivity, impulsive inhibition - both general and food-specific, and impulsive decision-making) are associated with binge eating pathology cross-sectionally, yet the literature on whether impulsivity predicts treatment outcome is limited. The present pilot study explored impulsivity-related predictors of 20-week outcome in a small open trial (n = 17) of a novel treatment for binge eating disorder. Overall, dimensions of impulsivity related to emotions (i.e., negative urgency) and food cues emerged as predictors of treatment outcomes (i.e., binge eating frequency and global eating pathology as measured by the Eating Disorders Examination), while more general measures of impulsivity were statistically unrelated to global eating pathology or binge frequency. Specifically, those with higher levels of negative urgency at baseline experienced slower and less pronounced benefit from treatment, and those with higher food-specific impulsivity had more severe global eating pathology at baseline that was consistent at post-treatment and follow-up. These preliminary findings suggest that patients high in negative urgency and with poor response inhibition to food cues may benefit from augmentation of existing treatments to achieve optimal outcomes. Future research will benefit from replication with a larger sample, parsing out the role of different dimensions of impulsivity in treatment outcome for eating disorders, and identifying how treatment can be improved to accommodate higher levels of baseline impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mood instability and impulsivity as trait predictors of suicidal thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Evyn M; Balbuena, Lloyd; Marwaha, Steven; Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy

    2016-12-01

    Impulsivity, the tendency to act quickly without adequate planning or concern for consequences, is a commonly cited risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviour. There are many definitions of impulsivity and how it relates to suicidality is not well understood. Mood instability, which describes frequent fluctuations of mood over time, is a concept related to impulsivity that may help explain this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine whether impulsivity could predict suicidal thoughts after controlling for mood instability. This study utilized longitudinal data from the 2000 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N = 2,406). There was a time interval of 18 months between the two waves of the study. Trait impulsivity and mood instability were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate baseline impulsivity and mood instability as predictors of future suicidal thoughts. Impulsivity significantly predicted the presence of suicidal thoughts, but this effect became non-significant with mood instability included in the same model. Impulsivity may be a redundant concept when predicting future suicidal thoughts if mood instability is considered. The significance is that research and therapy focusing on mood instability along with impulsivity may be useful in treating the suicidal patient. Mood instability and impulsivity both predict future suicidal thoughts. Impulsivity does not predict suicidal thoughts after controlling for mood instability. Assessing and treating mood instability could be important aspects of suicide prevention and risk management. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  13. The Effect of Sales Promotion and Store Atmosphere on Hedonic Shopping Motivation and Impulsive Buying Behavior in Hypermart Manado City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Christian Mamuaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know and analyze the effect of sales promotion and store atmosphere on hedonic shopping motivation and impulsive buying of Hypermart consumers in Manado City. The method used in this research is explanatory survey method; with 175 consumers who shop at Hypermart in Manado City as sample with convenience sampling technique; primary data with data collecting technique using questionnaire instrument with Likert scale and structural equation modeling analysis technique with Lisrel 8.80 program. The result of this research shows that sales promotion has positive and significant effect on hedonic shopping motivation; store atmosphere has positive and significant effect on hedonic shopping motivation; sales promotion has positive and significant effect on impulsive buying; store atmosphere has positive and significant effect on impulsive buying; and hedonic shopping motivation has positive and significant effect on impulsive buying of Hypermart consumers in Manado City. Impulsive buying will be improved if Hypermart management in Manado City is able to increase hedonic shopping motivation with the most dominant indicator is “shopping for value”, where hedonic shopping motivation will be improved if Hypermart management in Manado City can increase sales promotion with the most dominant indicator is “sample giveaway program” and store atmosphere with the most dominant indicator is “in-store appearance”.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ingin mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh promosi penjualan dan atmosfir toko terhadap motivasi belanja hedonik dan pembelian impulsif konsumen Hypermart di Kota Manado. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah explanatory survey; dengan sampel 175 orang konsumen yang berbelanja di Hypermart Kota Manado dengan teknik convenience sampling; data primer dengan teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen kuesioner dengan skala Likert dan

  14. Self-reported impulsivity in Huntington's disease patients and relationship to executive dysfunction and reward responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia L; Potts, Geoffrey F; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Cimino, Cynthia R

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures. It was expected that HD patients would report higher impulsivity and executive dysfunction and that these measures would relate to a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS) were completed, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a reward-based flanker task with punishing and rewarding conditions were administered to 22 HD patients and 14 control participants. HD patients reported higher trait impulsivity (BIS-11) and executive dysfunction (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, FrSBE) but not increased impulsivity on the BIS/BAS relative to controls. Higher BIS-11 scores were related to increased self-reported executive dysfunction and the attention/working memory factor of the MMSE. On a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task, BAS was uniquely related to increased accuracy on rewarding trials of the flanker task, but was not related to punishing trials in HD patients. The relationships found suggest that trait impulsivity is reported higher in HD and may not be driven by altered reward evaluation and the appetitive nature of stimuli but rather by increased executive dysfunction and lack of sensitivity to punishment. Impulsivity in HD may represent a combination of trait impulsivity, altered dopaminergic circuitry, and executive dysfunction. Understanding impulsivity in HD is

  15. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  16. Impulsivity across the psychosis spectrum: Correlates of cortical volume, suicidal history, and social and global function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Pranav; Tandon, Neeraj; Mathew, Ian T; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychotic disorders appear to exhibit greater impulsivity-related behaviors relative to healthy controls. However, the neural underpinning of this impulsivity remains uncertain. Furthermore, it remains unclear how impulsivity might differ or be conserved between psychotic disorder diagnoses in mechanism and manifestation. In this study, self-reported impulsivity, measured by Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), was compared between 305 controls (HC), 139 patients with schizophrenia (SZ), 100 with schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and 125 with psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP). In each proband group, impulsivity was associated with regional cortical volumes (using FreeSurfer analysis of T1 MRI scans), suicide attempt history, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and Social Functioning Scale (SFS). BIS scores were found to differ significantly between participant groups, with SZA and PBP exhibiting significantly higher impulsivity than SZ, which exhibited significantly higher impulsivity than HC. BIS scores were significantly related to suicide attempt history, and they were inversely associated with GAF, SFS, and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume in both SZA and PBP, but not SZ. These findings indicate that psychotic disorders, particularly those with prominent affective symptoms, are characterized by elevated self-reported impulsivity measures. Impulsivity's correlations with suicide attempt history, GAF, and SFS suggest that impulsivity may be a mediator of clinical outcome. The observed impulsivity-OFC correlations corroborate the importance of OFC deficits in impulsivity. These correlations' presence in SZA and PBP but not in SZ suggests that impulsivity may have different underlying mechanisms in affective and non-affective psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  18. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  19. Domain-Specific Relationships in Sexual Measures of Impulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2018-04-25

    Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences. Undergraduate students (total N = 105; female n = 77, male n = 28) completed laboratory measures-delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD)-for two different outcomes-money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI), which measures difficulty with delaying gratification (i.e., impulsivity) across different domains, including money and physical pleasures. Findings indicated that DD and PD for money were not related to any of the DGI subscales. However, DD for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI Physical Pleasures subscale, but not other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures of impulsive choice may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavioral patterns, but further research is warranted.

  20. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  1. Relative measurement of the fluxes of thermal, resonant and rapid neutrons in reactor G1; Mesures relatives des flux thermique, resonnant et rapide dans le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R.; Mazancourt, T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    We sought to determine the behavior of the thermal, resonant and rapid neutron fluxes in the multiplier-reflector transition region, in the two principal directions of the system. We have also measured the variation of these different fluxes in the body of the multiplier medium in a canal filled with graphite and in an empty canal. The results are given in the form of curves representing: - the variation of the ratio of the thermal flux to the rapid flux in axial and radial transitions - the behavior of the thermal and resonant fluxes and the variation of their ratio in the same regions. (author) [French] Nous avons cherche a determiner le comportement des differents flux, thermique, resonnant et rapide a la transition milieu multiplicateur-reflecteur dans les deux directions principales du reseau. Nous avons egalement mesure la variation de ces differents flux au sein du milieu multiplicateur dans un canal rempli de graphite et dans un canal vide. Les resultats sont donnes sous forme de courbe representant: - La variation du rapport du flux thermique au flux rapide aux transitions axiale et radiale - L'allure des flux thermique et resonnant et la variation de leur rapport dans les memes regions. (auteur)

  2. Relative measurement of the fluxes of thermal, resonant and rapid neutrons in reactor G1; Mesures relatives des flux thermique, resonnant et rapide dans le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R; Mazancourt, T de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    We sought to determine the behavior of the thermal, resonant and rapid neutron fluxes in the multiplier-reflector transition region, in the two principal directions of the system. We have also measured the variation of these different fluxes in the body of the multiplier medium in a canal filled with graphite and in an empty canal. The results are given in the form of curves representing: - the variation of the ratio of the thermal flux to the rapid flux in axial and radial transitions - the behavior of the thermal and resonant fluxes and the variation of their ratio in the same regions. (author) [French] Nous avons cherche a determiner le comportement des differents flux, thermique, resonnant et rapide a la transition milieu multiplicateur-reflecteur dans les deux directions principales du reseau. Nous avons egalement mesure la variation de ces differents flux au sein du milieu multiplicateur dans un canal rempli de graphite et dans un canal vide. Les resultats sont donnes sous forme de courbe representant: - La variation du rapport du flux thermique au flux rapide aux transitions axiale et radiale - L'allure des flux thermique et resonnant et la variation de leur rapport dans les memes regions. (auteur)

  3. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Jonas J. de; Costa, Danielle de S.; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O.; Passos, Lídia R.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate ev...

  4. Impulsive Buying Pada Dewasa Awal Di YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Henrietta, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive than...

  5. IMPULSIVE BUYING PADA DEWASA AWAL DI YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    T his research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive...

  6. Impulsive responses to emotion as a transdiagnostic vulnerability to internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S; Joormann, Jutta

    2013-09-25

    This study explored the hypothesis that impulsive reactions to heightened emotion may reflect a transdiagnostic vulnerability to both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. A sample of undergraduates completed self-report measures of aggression, borderline personality disorder symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and alcohol problems, and a subset completed interviews that assessed suicidality. All participants also completed self-report measures relating to impulsivity. We predicted that emotion-reactive impulsivity, but not other aspects of impulsivity, would be related to the set of psychopathology symptoms. Multiple regression analyses found that emotion-reactive impulsivity was uniquely related to each of the psychopathology scales, whereas non-emotion-relevant impulsivity was uniquely related only to alcohol problems. Discussion focuses on limitations and clinical implications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aggression, impulsivity, and suicide behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Yari; Apter, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the association between impulsivity aggression and suicide. The key words impulsivity, aggression, and suicide were entered into the pubmed, psychlit, and proqest databases. Significant articles were scrutinized for relevant information. Impulsivity and aggression are highly correlated with suicidal behavior across psychiatric samples, nosological borders, and non-psychiatric populations. Impulsivity and aggression are related but the nature of this relationship remains unclear. The literature is confusing and contradictory. This is probably due to the difficulty in defining and separating out these concepts and the fact that there is much overlap between them. Future research should aim at clarifying and refining these concepts as well as their link to all the different forms of suicidal behavior.

  8. Heavy drinking, impulsivity and attentional narrowing following alcohol cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A

    2015-08-01

    Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.

  9. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.

  10. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  12. Analisis Implementasi Customer Relationship Management dan Marketing Public Relations terhadap Nilai Pelanggan dan Dampaknya terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan: Studi Kasus Grand Tropic Suites’ Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the globalization resulted in the business world being colored by the increase of high competition. Because of that the perpetrators of the business must continue to maintain the continuity of his business and to try to look for the opportunity by making use of the superiority that was owned. One of the methods that could be followed was constructive the customer's loyalty by maintaining the available customer so as they were loyal and did not move to the other competitor. Therefore, it is important for the company to create the value of the superior for the customers. The case study was about Customer Relationship Management program (CRM and Marketing Public Relations (MPR that was carried out by Grand Tropic Suites’ Hotel to create the value of the superior of the customers where being expected with this superior value to be able to affect the customer to loyal to the Hotel. The aim of this research was to analyze the implementation of Customer Relationship Management programs (CRM and Marketing Public Relations (MPR towards the Perceived Value and it impact towards Customer Loyalty.

  13. Depression in university students: associations with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Lust, Katherine; Grant, Jon E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the implications of depression in a sample of university students, particularly relating to impulse control disorders. While previous studies have shown high rates of depression among university students, no study to date has assessed whether levels of depression show associations with the incidence of impulse control disorders in this population. In all, 6000 students participated in the College Student Computer Use Survey. A total of 1717 students completed the scales of interest for this analysis. Participants were assigned to groups based on depression scores: severe (N = 75), mild/moderate (N = 647) and none (N = 995). The three groups were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate associations between depression and impulse control disorder diagnoses. Groups differed across demographic, health and academic variables. The severe depression group reported higher rates of skin-picking disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour and compulsive buying. Results suggest a significant association between depression and impulse control disorders. One possibility is that a facet of impulsivity contributes to both problems, which could be important information for clinicians. Future studies will need to clarify the exact nature of the relationship between depression and impulse control disorders.

  14. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew H; Strafella, Antonio P; Weintraub, Daniel; Stacy, Mark

    2009-08-15

    Antiparkinson therapy can be the primary cause of a range of nonmotor symptoms that include a set of complex disinhibitory psychomotor pathologies and are linked by their repetitive, reward or incentive-based natures. These behaviors relate to aberrant or excessive dopamine receptor stimulation and encompass impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding, and the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). Common ICDs include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and compulsive buying. This review focuses on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and methods to identify and rate these disorders. The management of dopaminergic drug-related compulsive behaviors is discussed in the light of the current understanding of the neurobiological substrate of these disorders. 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. NORMATIVE MODERATORS OF IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Jaya Negara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has presented the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between the impulsive buying trait and consumers’ buying behaviors. In this article the authors show that consumer tendency to buy something spontaneous, unreflectively and immediately can be perceived as a factor which describes buying impulsiveness. This article also shows conceptual and empirical evidence that there is some support for the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulse buying behaviors. Significance occurs when consumers believe that act on impulse is suitable. The result suggests that consumers’ normative evaluation can moderate the link between the trait and behavioral aspects of impulse buying.

  16. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  18. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  19. Dopamine Gene Profiling to Predict Impulse Control and Effects of Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Hayley J; Stinear, Cathy M; Ren, April; Coxon, James P; Kao, Justin; Macdonald, Lorraine; Snow, Barry; Cramer, Steven C; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine agonists can impair inhibitory control and cause impulse control disorders for those with Parkinson disease (PD), although mechanistically this is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesized that the extent of such drug effects on impulse control is related to specific dopamine gene polymorphisms. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to examine the effect of single doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg of the dopamine agonist ropinirole on impulse control in healthy adults of typical age for PD onset. Impulse control was measured by stop signal RT on a response inhibition task and by an index of impulsive decision-making on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. A dopamine genetic risk score quantified basal dopamine neurotransmission from the influence of five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, and those encoding receptors D1, D2, and D3. With placebo, impulse control was better for the high versus low genetic risk score groups. Ropinirole modulated impulse control in a manner dependent on genetic risk score. For the lower score group, both doses improved response inhibition (decreased stop signal RT) whereas the lower dose reduced impulsiveness in decision-making. Conversely, the higher score group showed a trend for worsened response inhibition on the lower dose whereas both doses increased impulsiveness in decision-making. The implications of the present findings are that genotyping can be used to predict impulse control and whether it will improve or worsen with the administration of dopamine agonists.

  20. Impulsivity and overeating in children in the absence and presence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn

    2015-10-01

    Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impulse purchases and trust: the mediating effect of stickiness and the mental budgeting account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Impulse purchasing is a pervasive yet relatively little-discussed phenomenon. This study investigates the effect of impulse purchases on trust, as well as the mediating effect of stickiness and the mental budgeting account in the group buying context. Questionnaires were sent to group buying participants. The results show that impulse purchases have a positive effect on trust and that both stickiness and the mental budgeting account present a mediating effect.

  2. Impulsive control of time-delay systems using delayed impulse and its application to impulsive master-slave synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jitao; Han Qinglong; Jiang Xiefu

    2008-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with impulsive control of a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. Some uniform stability criteria for the closed-loop time-delay system under delayed impulsive control are derived by using piecewise Lyapunov functions. Then the criteria are applied to impulsive master-slave synchronization of some secure communication systems with transmission delays and sample delays under delayed impulsive control. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived results

  3. LES RELATIONS ENTRE LE MILIEU NATUREL ET LE MILIEU ANTHROPIQUE DANS LE GEOSYSTEME DE LA DEPRESSION OZANA-TOPOLIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LETOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bien que le thème de l’article se réfère seulement à un géosystème particulier, lamanière d’investigation exige un élargissement du domaine de la recherche en ce quiconcerne la dimension temporelle et aussi la dimension fonctionnelle et socioéconomique.On a essayé un étude qui concerne la connexion de l’environnementà la composante anthropique du géosystème de la Dépression Ozana-Topoliţa à l’aide des indicateurs qui seront bonites dans une matrice pour identifier des différents niveaux de pression anthropique du géosystème en question. 

  4. Projectile Aerodynamic Jump Due to Lateral Impulsives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Gene

    2003-01-01

    .... The formulation shows for sufficiently long-range target interception; lateral impulse trajectory response for a guided projectile is independent of when the impulse is activated during the yaw cycle...

  5. A high temperature superconducting impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locker, J.R.; Geers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanism based upon the Superconducting Vector Switch (SVS) effect displays the property of impulse generation. In this paper the principle of operation of this impulse generator is discussed. Experimental results and analytical predictions are presented

  6. IMPULSIVE BUYING PADA DEWASA AWAL DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Henrietta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available T his research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive than man. The result also showed that married person was more impulsive than unmarried person. Based on the types of job, there was several different among those types. But there was no different of impulsive buying tendency based on the education background level. Keywords: impulsive buying, early adult

  7. Impulse: Memory System Support for Scientific Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Carter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulse is a new memory system architecture that adds two important features to a traditional memory controller. First, Impulse supports application‐specific optimizations through configurable physical address remapping. By remapping physical addresses, applications control how their data is accessed and cached, improving their cache and bus utilization. Second, Impulse supports prefetching at the memory controller, which can hide much of the latency of DRAM accesses. Because it requires no modification to processor, cache, or bus designs, Impulse can be adopted in conventional systems. In this paper we describe the design of the Impulse architecture, and show how an Impulse memory system can improve the performance of memory‐bound scientific applications. For instance, Impulse decreases the running time of the NAS conjugate gradient benchmark by 67%. We expect that Impulse will also benefit regularly strided, memory‐bound applications of commercial importance, such as database and multimedia programs.

  8. Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Basis of Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yazici

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘impulsivity’ encompasses a multitude of behaviours that are poorly conceived, premature, inappropriate, and that frequently result in unwanted or deleterious outcomes. Impulsivity manifests as impatience carelessness, risk-taking, sensation-seeking and pleasure-seeking, an underestimated sense of harm, and extroversion. Impulsivity is a core symptom of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Through focusing on different aspects of impulsive behavior, it has proved possible to devise a variety of behavioral paradigms to measure impulsivity in both human and non-human subjects. These can be broadly divided into two categories: those measuring impulsive action or motoric impulsivity, and those measuring impulsive choice or impulsive decision-making. Impulsive action can be broadly defined as the inability to withhold from making a response. Within the framework of behavioral neuroscience and cognitive psychology, impulse control has been described as an active inhibitory mechanism which modulates the internally or externally driven pre-potent desire for primary reinforcers such as food, sex or other highly desirable rewards. This inhibitory control mechanism may provide the substrate by which rapid conditioned responses and reflexes are transiently suppressed, so that slower cognitive mechanisms can guide behavior. This process is referred to as response inhibition. Two of the most common tests used to study inhibitory processes are the go/no-go and stop-signal reaction time tasks. Impulsivity is also evident in the making of impulsive decisions or choices as well as in impulsive actions. Here, there is no “pre-potent” response that is primed and then forcibly inhibited, but a decision-making processes. Impulsive decision making or impulsive choice is defined as initiating actions without adequately considering other possible choices or consequences. Impulsive choice is typically measured in the delay discounting paradigm. In

  9. Dan Johnson's impact on hearing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotland, Lawrence I.

    2003-04-01

    Daniel L. Johnson is well known for his many technical contributions to noise research. Throughout a long and distinguished career at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dan published the results of several significant experiments, including his landmark experiments on asymptotic threshold shift and exposure to impulse noise. His work in the area of noise exposure laid much of the groundwork for a greater understanding of the physiologic response to hazardous noise, much of which has since been incorporated in national and international standards. Dan is highly regarded for his tireless work on technical and advisory committees in noise, and most recently, ototoxicity. Throughout his career, Dan has adhered to a self-imposed standard of intellectual honesty and discovery. Dan's most recent endeavor, the development of a personal noise dosimeter designed for self-monitoring by the employee, is characteristic of his creativity and energy. Perhaps less well known are his contributions over the years to the success of his younger colleagues. He has accomplished this in an unselfish and egalitarian manner, oftentimes challenging and even contradicting his own research. The focus of this talk will elaborate on these facets of Dan's professional contributions.

  10. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram L. Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present Post-Modern Era, the competitive situation in the business is characterized by a cut throat competition, which subsequently results in companies and retailers to pay almost anything for undifferentiated merchandising. This merchandising tool is being used by today’s retailer to distinguish him from other competitors, to be prominent in the market and become a source of attraction for the customers. A few researchers contribute in this field by exploring the reasons which causes the customers impulsive buying, but still there is more to be determined. Purpose of this study is to identify the relation between the consumer impulsive buying and visual merchandising on buying behavior of customers. This study was based on primary data in the form of a questioner. A total of 350 questioners were floated in different consumer outlets (super marts and self-service stores of Rawalpindi, Pakistan out of which 344 questioners were completed and received. Defined four hypotheses were window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name. These hypotheses were tested for regression analysis by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS software. It was found that window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name (independent variables are significantly associated to consumer impulse buying behavior (dependent variable. Hence, forum display is negatively related to consumer impulse buying and window display; however, floor merchandising and shop brand name are positively related to consumer impulse buying behavior.

  11. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2013-09-15

    Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers.

  13. Choice-impulsivity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L

    2016-02-01

    Impulsive behavior is a core DSM-5 diagnostic feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is associated with several pejorative outcomes. Impulsivity is multidimensional, consisting of two sub-constructs: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity (i.e., choice-impulsivity). While previous research has extensively examined the presence and implications of rapid-response impulsivity in children with ADHD, reviews of choice-impulsive behavior have been both sparse and relatively circumscribed. This review used meta-analytic methods to comprehensively examine between-group differences in choice-impulsivity among children and adolescents with and without ADHD. Twenty-eight tasks (from 26 studies), consisting of 4320 total children (ADHD=2360, TD=1,960), provided sufficient information to compute an overall between-group effect size for choice-impulsivity performance. Results revealed a medium-magnitude between-group effect size (g=.47), suggesting that children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited moderately increased impulsive decision-making compared to TD children and adolescents. Further, relative to the TD group, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited similar patterns of impulsive decision-making across delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks. However, the use of single-informant diagnostic procedures relative to multiple informants yielded larger between-group effects, and a similar pattern was observed across samples that excluded females relative to samples that included females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The electromagnetic impulse pendulum and momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.; Graneau, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    Largely quantitative experiments by Pappas have indicated that the momentum imparted to an electrodynamic impulse pendulum was not balanced by an equal and opposite momentum change of field energy as required by the special theory of relativity. The authors repeated Pappas' experiment using discharge currents from a capacitor bank which contained a known amount of stored energy. It turned out that, for momentum conservation, the magnetic-field energy required would have been 1000 to 2000 times as large as the energy that was actually stored in the capacitors. In the second part of the paper the pendulum experiments are interpreted in terms of Ampere's force law

  15. [Validation of the French translation of the impulsive nonconformity scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foullu, S; Blanc-Foullu, S; Danet, F; Dumas, P; Brunelin, J; Travart, M; Elchardus, J-M; Saoud, M; d'Amato, T

    2008-12-01

    /BIS is statistically significant (0.65) and underlines the concomitant validity of the INCS with the BIS. The psychometric properties of the French version of the INCS are very similar to those of the English version. Hence, the INCS could provide a way to explore the two related dimensions: impulsivity and nonconformism.

  16. Random Fuzzy Differential Equations with Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the random fuzzy differential equations (RFDEs with impulses. Using Picard method of successive approximations, we shall prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions to RFDEs with impulses under suitable conditions. Some of the properties of solution of RFDEs with impulses are studied. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the results.

  17. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-hua; Sun, Ya-Wen; Chen, Xue; Zhou, Yan; Zhuang, Zhi-guo; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jian-rong; Du, Ya-song

    2014-05-30

    Recent studies suggest that Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an impulse disorder, or is at least related to impulse control disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that different facets of trait impulsivity may be specifically linked to the brain regions with impaired impulse inhibition function in IGA adolescents. Seventeen adolescents with IGA and seventeen healthy controls were scanned during performance of a response-inhibition Go/No-Go task using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)-11 was used to assess impulsivity. There were no differences in the behavioral performance on the Go/No-Go task between the groups. However, the IGA group was significantly hyperactive during No-Go trials in the left superior medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex, right superior/middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left precuneus and cuneus. Further, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule were significantly hypoactive during No-Go trials. Activation of the left superior medial frontal gyrus was positively associated with BIS-11 and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) total score across IGA participants. Our data suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity, while its impaired function may relate to high impulsivity in adolescents with IGA, which may contribute directly to the Internet addiction process.

  18. Impulsive Synchronization and Adaptive-Impulsive Synchronization of a Novel Financial Hyperchaotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impulsive synchronization and adaptive-impulsive synchronization of a novel financial hyperchaotic system are investigated. Based on comparing principle for impulsive functional differential equations, several sufficient conditions for impulsive synchronization are derived, and the upper bounds of impulsive interval for stable synchronization are estimated. Furthermore, a nonlinear adaptive-impulsive control scheme is designed to synchronize the financial system using invariant principle of impulsive dynamical systems. Moreover, corresponding numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  19. Crises et conflits dans les relations gréco-turques des années 1974-2000 : l’attitude des socialistes grecs

    OpenAIRE

    Rori, Lamprini

    2006-01-01

    Les relations gréco-turques et l’affaire Chypriote constituent les deux sujets les plus sensibles de la politique étrangère grecque, surtout après l’invasion turque dans l’île chypriote et la guerre gréco-turque en 1974. Le PASOK, a développé une ligne politique à l’égard de la Turquie évoluant de l’ultra-nationalisme au discours critique, puis à la neutralité stratégique mais ambiguë, et finalement au rapprochement définitif. Ce papier vise à examiner et à éclaircir les origines de l’évolut...

  20. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JLO COMPANY ESTABLISHMENT ISSUE IN ONLINE MEDIA AND MEDIA RELATIONS TREATMENT OF JASA MARGA COMPANY (ANALISIS WACANA ISU PENDIRIAN PT. JLO DI MEDIA ONLINE DAN TREATMENT MEDIA RELATIONS PT. JASA MARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icha Bella Widawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. discourse Analysis of Coverage in the Online Media Liputan6.com. Regarding to Establishment Issue of New Subsidiary PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi ( PT . JLO . The research is about coverage analysis to see the implementatiom issue management through me-dia relations activations at online media by Jasa Marga’s Public Relations Officer. This study aims to determine the discourse analysis of coverage regarding to establishment issue of new subsidiary PT. JLO in the online media and to see how Jasa Marga’s public relations of-ficer exercises issue management through media relations activations to handle the issues. Using the discourse analysis method with Halliday model of analysis. The results showed that the discourse in the news are based on fact that really happened. News content is served with a different point of view and very objective. The Media shows its position as a netral posi-tion between two sides of subjects, objective, and reporting the truth to the public. it shows that media relations activations is not bring much influence to the emerging issues and nega-tive news in the media. The conclusion of this study is the coverage was experiencing news balance between negative tone and positive tone after PRO did the media relations activations. But does not eliminate the negative news regarding the issue of the establish-ment of a subsidiary JLO. Abstrak. artikel ini merupakan sebuah analisis wacana pemberitaan di Media Online Liputan6.com mengenai Isu Pendirian Anak Usaha Baru PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (PT. JLO serta melihat Implementasi Manajemen Isu Melalui Media Relations pada Media Online yang Dilakukan Oleh Humas Jasa Marga dengan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menge-tahui analisis wacana dari Informasi pemberitaan mengenai isu pendirian anak usaha baru Jasa Marga, PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (JLO di media online Liputan6.com dan melihat bagaimana manajemen isu melalui kegiatan media relations dilakukan untuk mengatasi isu

  1. Impulsivity components measured by the Brazilian version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gomide Vasconcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Content item analysis was conducted by seven doctoral students. A convenience sample of 897 students was submitted to BIS-11 and they also filled self-reports about Minor Mental Disorder and ADHD symptoms, alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Mean age was 27.32 (SD=8.69 years, 56% were female and 52% had incomplete college degree. Content and factorial analyses revealed that impulsivity was best represented by two latent factors labeled non-planning and inhibition behaviors. Test retest agreement tended to produce similar score patterns seven months after the first evaluation. Additionally, BIS-11 scores discriminated subjects in terms of cigarette smoking and psychopathological symptoms, which indicated evidences regarding criterion-related validity. The theoretical discussion was present based on the neuropsychological model of hot and cool aspects of executive function.

  2. Impulsivity and test meal intake among women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Ojserkis, Rachel; Schebendach, Janet; Evans, Suzette M; Hildebrandt, Tom; Walsh, B Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions. Measures of impulsivity consisted of computerized and self-report measures, and laboratory test meals. Significant differences between individuals with BN with/without comorbid AUDs were not found for test meal intake, impulsivity measures, or self-reported psychological symptoms. As hypothesized, compared to healthy controls, individuals with BN had significantly higher scores on two subscales and the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a trait measure of impulsivity, and consumed significantly more calories in the binge instruction meal. Total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores were also significantly related to kcal consumed during the laboratory test meal when individuals were instructed to binge eat (BN groups). Data from this study add to the existing literature implicating impulsivity in the psychopathology of disorders of binge eating, including BN, and also support the use of laboratory meals as a symptom-specific measure of this trait in eating disorder populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a 'Sure' choice and a 'Gamble' choice of moderate risk. To commence each trial, in the 'Gain' condition, individuals started at $0 and in the 'Loss' condition individuals started at -$50 below the 'Sure' amount. The difference between the maximum and minimum outcomes from each gamble (i.e. range) was used as an index of risk ('Gamble Risk'). Sixteen healthy volunteers were behaviourally tested. Fourteen impulse control disorder (problem gambling or compulsive shopping) and 14 matched Parkinson's disease controls were tested ON and OFF dopamine agonists. Patients with impulse control disorder made more risky choices in the 'Gain' relative to the 'Loss' condition along with decreased orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activity, with the opposite observed in Parkinson's disease controls. In patients with impulse control disorder, dopamine agonists were associated with enhanced sensitivity to risk along with decreased ventral striatal activity again with the opposite in Parkinson's disease controls. Patients with impulse control disorder appear to have a bias towards risky choices independent of the effect of loss aversion. Dopamine agonists enhance sensitivity to risk in patients with impulse control disorder possibly by impairing risk evaluation in the striatum. Our results provide a potential explanation of why dopamine agonists may lead to an unconscious bias towards risk in susceptible individuals.

  4. Caffeine's influence on gambling behavior and other types of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2018-01-01

    Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Caffeine intake over the preceding month was quantified using the Caffeine Use Questionnaire. Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between caffeine intake and demographic, gambling symptom, and neurocognitive measures were evaluated using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Average weekly caffeine intake in the gamblers was 1218.5mg (a figure higher than previously reported in the general population). PLS yielded an optimal model with one latent factor, which explained 14.8% of variation in demographic/clinical/cognitive measures and 32.3% of variation in caffeine intake. In this model, higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with earlier age at first gambling, higher personality-related impulsiveness, more nicotine consumption, older age, and more impulsive decision-making. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between caffeine intake, earlier age of first gambling, and certain types of impulsivity in gamblers. Providing education about healthy caffeine use may be especially valuable in gamblers. Future work should explore whether the relationship between caffeine use and gambling is due to a common predisposing factor (impulsive tendencies) or, rather, constitutes a form of self-medication in gamblers (or a means of sustaining gambling habits for longer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tourisme national et international dans des pays andins: quelles relations? l'exemple du Pérou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les études portant sur le tourisme dans les pays du tiers monde omettent souvent l’analyse du tourisme des nationaux dans leur propre pays, le considérant sans doute comme marginal. L’observation du phénomène dans les pays andins et en particulier au Pérou, à Cuzco par exemple, révèle qu’il n’en est rien. Quantitativement, il est aussi important, voire plus, que le tourisme des étrangers, et qualitativement, les différences des pratiques introduisent une complémentarité évidente entre les deux types de tourisme. Cette complémentarité permet la survie d’un secteur diversifié et elle a joué un rôle d’atténuateur lors de la forte crise de fréquentation touristique qu’a connue le Pérou au début des années 90. En ce sens, elle apparaît comme vitale. TURISMO NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL EN LOS PAÍSES ANDINOS: ¿QUÉ LAZOS? EL EJEMPLO DEL PERÚ Los estudios sobre el turismo en los países del tercer mundo generalmente no toman en cuenta el análisis del turismo nacional interno, considerado como marginal. La observación del fenómeno en los países andinos y especialmente en el Perú, en Cuzco por ejemplo, revela que no es así. Cuantitativamente, es tan importante como el turismo de los extranjeros y tal vez aún más, y cualitativamente las diferencias de prácticas introducen una complementariedad evidente entre los dos tipos de turismo. Dicha complementariedad permite la supervivencia de un sector diversificado y representó un papel de atenuación durante la fuerte crisis de frecuentación turística que conoció el Perú a principios de los años 90. En este sentido, aparece como vital. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL TOURISM IN ANDEAN COUNTRIES: CONNECTIONS AND LINKS. THE CASE OF PERU Studies on tourism in third world countries often fail to take into account national tourism, possibly because it is viewed as a marginal phenomenon. Observations in the Andean countries and especially in Peru, in Cuzco for example, prove

  6. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  7. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  8. Attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predict 'food addiction' in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and constitutes a common risk factor for a range of behaviors associated with poor self-control (e.g., substance use or binge eating). The short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsive behaviors related to attentional (inability to focus attention or concentrate), motor (acting without thinking), and non-planning (lack of future orientation or forethought) impulsivity. Eating-related measures appear to be particularly related to attentional and motor impulsivity and recent findings suggest that interactive effects between these two facets may play a role in eating- and weight-regulation. One-hundred thirty-three obese individuals presenting for bariatric surgery (77.4% female) completed the BIS-15 and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) 2.0, which measures addiction-like eating based on the eleven symptoms of substance use disorder outlined in the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Sixty-three participants (47.4%) were classified as being 'food addicted'. Scores on attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted 'food addiction' status: higher attentional impulsivity was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving a YFAS 2.0 diagnosis only at high (+1 SD), but not at low (-1 SD) levels of motor impulsivity. Results support previous findings showing that non-planning impulsivity does not appear to play a role in eating-related self-regulation. Furthermore, this is the first study that shows interactive effects between different impulsivity facets when predicting 'food addiction' in obese individuals. Self-regulatory failure in eating-regulation (e.g., addiction-like overeating) may particularly emerge when both attentional and motor impulsivity levels are elevated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood : Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence

  10. Impulse control disorders in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Lut; Bican, Mehtap; Keskin, Necla

    2014-05-01

    There is no epidemiological study on the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in the elderly population. The studies on ICDs in elderly patients are limited and some of them are case reports about pathological gambling and kleptomania. The comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders makes diagnosis difficult and has negative effects on both treatment and the prognosis of ICDs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICDs among elderly patients and to evaluate the related sociodemographic and clinical features. A total of 76 patients aged 60 and over who have been referred to our outpatient clinics in a one-year period were included in the study. A demographic data form was completed. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) was used to determine axis I psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of ICDs was investigated by using the modified version of the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview (MIDI). Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of patients and to exclude the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, all patients completed Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The prevalence rate of at least one comorbid ICD in our sample was 17%. When patients with a diagnosis of ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) were included, the prevalence rate increased to 22.4%. The most common ICD was intermittent explosive disorder (15.8%), followed by pathological gambling (9.2%). The majority of the sample was men (54%), married (80%), had a high school education (51%), and mid-level socioeconomic status (79%). The only statistically significant difference between the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with or without ICDs was gender. The lifetime prevalence of ICDs was 34.1% in men and 8.6% in women. The prevalence of childhood conduct disorder

  11. Trait and state impulsivity in males with tendency towards Internet-pornography-use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antons, Stephanie; Brand, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    Impulsivity has been identified to be involved in the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders (IUD). It can be differentiated between relatively stable trait impulsivity and state impulsivity which is dependent on environmental and affective factors such as craving. Following the I-PACE (Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution) model, both trait and state impulsivity may play an interactive role in IUD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between trait and state impulsivity and symptom severity of Internet-pornography-use disorder (IPD) as one form of IUD. Fifty heterosexual males participated in this study. State impulsivity was measured with reaction times in a modified stop-signal task. Each participant conducted two blocks of this task which included neutral and pornographic pictures. Moreover, current subjective craving, trait impulsivity, and symptom severity of IPD were assessed using several questionnaires. Results indicate that trait impulsivity was associated with higher symptom severity of IPD. Especially those males with higher trait impulsivity and state impulsivity in the pornographic condition of the stop-signal task as well as those with high craving reactions showed severe symptoms of IPD. The results indicate that both trait and state impulsivity play a crucial role in the development of IPD. In accordance with dual-process models of addiction, the results may be indicative of an imbalance between the impulsive and reflective systems which might be triggered by pornographic material. This may result in loss of control over the Internet-pornography use albeit experiencing negative consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Being impulsive and obese increases susceptibility to speeded detection of high-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Jansen, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Overeating and obesity are associated with impulsivity. In studies among patients with a substance use disorder, impulsivity was found to be associated with substance-related attentional bias. This study examined whether obesity, impulsivity and food craving are associated with an attentional bias for high-calorie food. Obese (n = 185, mean BMI = 38.18 ± 6.17) and matched healthy-weight (n = 134, mean BMI = 22.35 ± 1.63) men (27.9%) and women (72.1%), aged 18-45 years, took part in the study. Participants were tested on several self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (i.e., response inhibition and reward sensitivity) and self-reported trait craving. In addition, they performed a visual search task to measure attentional bias for high- and low-caloric foods. Self-reported impulsivity influenced the relationship between weight status and detection speed of high- and low-caloric food items: High-impulsive participants with obesity were significantly faster than high-impulsive healthy-weight participants in detecting a high-caloric food item among neutral items, whereas no such difference was observed among low-impulsive participants. No significant effects were found on low-caloric food items, for trait craving or any of the behavioral measures of impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity, but not trait craving or behavioral measures of impulsivity, is associated with an attentional bias for high-caloric foods, but only in people with obesity. It is in particular the speedy detection of high-caloric foods in the environment that characterizes the impulsive person with obesity, which in turn may cause risky eating patterns in a society were high-caloric food is overly present. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Production of high energy {eta}' in B meson decays from BaBar experiment; Etude de la production de {eta}' de haute impulsion dans les desintegrations du meson B dans l'experience BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicheur, A

    2003-04-01

    The work presented in this thesis relies on the analysis of data collected between october 1999 and July 2002 by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II collider located at SLAC (Stanford, California). Electron-positron collisions at a center of mass energy equal to the {upsilon}(4S) resonance mass are used for the production of B meson pairs. In July 2001, the BaBar collaboration published the first measurement of CP violation in the neutral B mesons system. Since then, the precision of the measurement has been continually being improved with the increasing data sample. Two devices are dedicated to the reconstruction of charged particles: the Silicon Vertex Tracker and the Drift Chamber. The Silicon Vertex Tracker is crucial for the reconstruction of the B meson decay vertex. Its motion with regard to the Drift Chamber needs a rolling calibration of the corresponding alignment parameters roughly every two hours. The relation between the Drift Chamber geometry and the alignment has been studied. Beside CP violation, Heavy Flavour Physics is an other important issue of BaBar research program. Rare decays are of particular interest as they are sensible to a new physics beyond the Standard Model. The production of high energy {eta}' in B decays has been studied through the two main contributions, B{yields} {eta}' X{sub s} coming from the rare decay b {yields} sg*, and B-bar{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'D{sup 0} coming from the internal tree color suppressed decay b {yields} cud. The improvement of the measurement of the process B {yields} {eta}'X-s and the first. observation of the decay B-bar{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'D{sup 0} have led to the conclusion that the {eta}' production is dominated by the decay b {yields} sg* and enables to constrain its quark content. (author)

  14. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P. G.; Cardoso, Ricardo L.; Linhares, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making. PMID:29375440

  15. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P G; Cardoso, Ricardo L; Linhares, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  16. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. G. Jelihovschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper. These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  17. M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

  18. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  19. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-12-31

    The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts.

  20. Understanding Impulsivity among Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in Inclusion Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is a characteristic of children with specific learning disabilities (SLD), and is related to learning ability. The present study aims to identify impulsivity behavior in children with SLD who attend inclusion schools, from their resource room teachers' perspectives. A 31-item questionnaire that addressed four subscales was…

  1. Gender differences in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Alyssa; Wahlstrom, Laura C; Christ, Christa C; Stoltenberg, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    We investigated relationships among gender, impulsivity and disordered eating in healthy college students. Participants (N=1223) were healthy, undergraduate men (28.5%) and women (71.5%), who completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Version 11 (BIS-11) and a four-factor version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-16). As predicted, mean scores on all four EAT-16 factors were significantly higher for women than for men. Attentional impulsivity was related to poorer self-perception of body shape, more dieting, and a greater preoccupation with food for the sample as a whole. Moreover, motor impulsivity was related to poorer self-perceptions of body shape and a greater preoccupation with food. However, no gender differences emerged in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating attitudes. This study elucidates the role of impulsivity in disordered eating behaviors among non-clinical college students. For both women and men, attentional and motor impulsivity were related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these findings suggest that different facets of impulsivity are related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a non-clinical college population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuronal codes for the inhibitory control of impulsive actions in the rat infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Ohmura, Yu; Izumi, Takeshi; Matsushima, Toshiya; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Poor impulse control is a debilitating condition observed in various psychiatric disorders and could be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. The rat infralimbic cortex (IL), located in the ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in impulse control. To elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control, we recorded single unit activity in the IL of a rat performing a 3-choiceserial reaction time task (3-CSRTT) and 2-choice task (2-CT), which are animal models for impulsivity. The inactivation of IL neuronal activity with an injection of muscimol (0.1 μg /side) disrupted impulse control in the 3-CSRTT. More than 60% (38/56) of isolated IL units were linked to impulse control, while approximately 30% of all units were linked to attentional function in the 3-CSRTT. To avoid confounding motor-related units with the impulse control-related units, we further conducted the 2-CT in which the animals' motor activities were restricted during recording window. More than 30% (14/44) of recorded IL units were linked to impulse control in the 2-CT. Several types of impulse control-related units were identified. Only 16% of all units were compatible with the results of the muscimol experiment, which showed a transient decline in the firing rate immediately before the release of behavioral inhibition. This is the first study to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control in the IL and to propose that IL neurons control impulsive actions in a more complex manner than previously considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impulsivity-like traits and risky driving behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Murphy, Elaine M; Doane, Ashley N

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive effects of five impulsivity-like traits (Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Negative Urgency, and Positive Urgency) on driving outcomes (driving errors, driving lapses, driving violations, cell phone driving, traffic citations, and traffic collisions). With a convenience sample of 266 college student drivers, we found that each of the impulsivity-like traits was related to multiple risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency (tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative affect) was the most robust predictor of risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency is a relatively newly conceptualized impulsivity-like trait that was not examined in the driving literature previously, suggesting a strong need to further examine its role as a personality trait related to risky driving. These findings generally support the multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-like traits, and they specifically support the addition of Positive Urgency to a list of risk factors for risky driving behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anger biting. The hidden impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R D

    1985-09-01

    Based upon the paralogical reasoning of the anger-impulsive biter, this paper addresses the overload of emotional catharsis which can block a full memory of the biting event and suspend the logical infrastructure of rational behavior. In an effort to overcome these types of investigative difficulties, the paper suggests an approach to resolve dilemma through decompressing the emotional content into path ways of logical understanding. By offering a network of rationale hooks, the perpetrator becomes better equipped to acknowledge the deed.

  5. Research of Two Different Impulsive Faults of Rolling Element Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhinong; Xing Chenghong; Feng Kun; Gao Jinji

    2012-01-01

    Fans and pumps are key machines in process industries such as petrochemical and petroleum industries. Their faults can be catastrophic and result in costly downtime. Bearing fault is almost the most common fault of fans and pumps as rolling element bearings are widely used in these machines. Hence, condition monitoring and diagnosis of bearings are important. Two different impulsive faults of bearings have been observed and studied in previous research. The first fault presents very clear impulsive symptom in envelope spectrum, but the bearing can work for a long time. The other fault shows relatively indistinct symptom, but the bearing will break down in a short time. To overcome the problems of inaccurate diagnosis, a combinational approach based on an impulsive energy indicator and traditional enveloping analysis is proposed in this paper. This approach discriminate these two faults well and can support the maintenance decision for the machines with rolling element bearings.

  6. Model Predictive Control based on Finite Impulse Response Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasath, Guru; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    We develop a regularized l2 finite impulse response (FIR) predictive controller with input and input-rate constraints. Feedback is based on a simple constant output disturbance filter. The performance of the predictive controller in the face of plant-model mismatch is investigated by simulations...... and related to the uncertainty of the impulse response coefficients. The simulations can be used to benchmark l2 MPC against FIR based robust MPC as well as to estimate the maximum performance improvements by robust MPC....

  7. Cued to Act on Impulse: More Impulsive Choice and Risky Decision Making by Women Susceptible to Overeating after Exposure to Food Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Yeomans

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that individual differences in tendency to overeat relate to impulsivity, possibly by increasing reactivity to food-related cues in the environment. This study tested whether acute exposure to food cues enhanced impulsive and risky responses in women classified on tendency to overeat, indexed by scores on the three factor eating questionnaire disinhibition (TFEQ-D, restraint (TFEQ-R and hunger scales. Ninety six healthy women completed two measures of impulsive responding (delayed discounting, DDT and a Go No-Go, GNG, task and a measure of risky decision making (the balloon analogue risk task, BART as well as questionnaire measures of impulsive behaviour either after looking at a series of pictures of food or visually matched controls. Impulsivity (DDT and risk-taking (BART were both positively associated with TFEQ-D scores, but in both cases this effect was exacerbated by prior exposure to food cues. No effects of restraint were found. TFEQ-D scores were also related to more commission errors on the GNG, while restrained women were slower on the GNG, but neither effect was modified by cue exposure. Overall these data suggest that exposure to food cues act to enhance general impulsive responding in women at risk of overeating and tentatively suggest an important interaction between tendency for impulsive decision making and food cues that may help explain a key underlying risk factor for overeating.

  8. Cued to Act on Impulse: More Impulsive Choice and Risky Decision Making by Women Susceptible to Overeating after Exposure to Food Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Brace, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individual differences in tendency to overeat relate to impulsivity, possibly by increasing reactivity to food-related cues in the environment. This study tested whether acute exposure to food cues enhanced impulsive and risky responses in women classified on tendency to overeat, indexed by scores on the three factor eating questionnaire disinhibition (TFEQ-D), restraint (TFEQ-R) and hunger scales. Ninety six healthy women completed two measures of impulsive responding (delayed discounting, DDT and a Go No-Go, GNG, task) and a measure of risky decision making (the balloon analogue risk task, BART) as well as questionnaire measures of impulsive behaviour either after looking at a series of pictures of food or visually matched controls. Impulsivity (DDT) and risk-taking (BART) were both positively associated with TFEQ-D scores, but in both cases this effect was exacerbated by prior exposure to food cues. No effects of restraint were found. TFEQ-D scores were also related to more commission errors on the GNG, while restrained women were slower on the GNG, but neither effect was modified by cue exposure. Overall these data suggest that exposure to food cues act to enhance general impulsive responding in women at risk of overeating and tentatively suggest an important interaction between tendency for impulsive decision making and food cues that may help explain a key underlying risk factor for overeating.

  9. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  10. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  11. Latent class analysis of eating and impulsive behavioral symptoms in Taiwanese women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nightside High Latitude Magnetic Impulse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Connors, M. G.; Braun, D.; Posch, J. L.; Kaur, M.; Guillon, S.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Behlke, R.; Reiter, K.; Jackel, B. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude Magnetic Impulse Events (MIEs), isolated pulses with periods 5-10 min, were first noted in ground-based magnetometer data near local noon, and are now understood to be signatures of transient pressure increases in the solar wind (sudden impulses - SIs) and/or in the ion foreshock (traveling convection vortex events - TCVs). However, solitary pulses with considerably larger amplitude (ΔB up to 1500 nT) have often been observed in the night sector at these same latitudes. These events are not directly associated with transient external pressure increases, and are often large enough to produce significant ground induced currents. Although many night sector MIEs occur in association with substorm signatures, others appear to be very isolated. We present here a survey of intense MIE events identified in magnetometer data from the AUTUMNX and MACCS arrays in eastern Arctic Canada at all local times between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2017. We also show maps of horizontal and vertical perturbations and maximum dB/dt values, as well as sample magnetograms, for several example events using data from these and other arrays in Arctic Canada, as well as in West Greenland and Antarctica, the latter to show the conjugate nature of these events. A basic relation to GIC data in the Hydro-Québec electrical transmission network in eastern Canada has been determined and will be discussed.

  13. Force-Time Entropy of Isometric Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M

    2016-01-01

    The relation between force and temporal variability in discrete impulse production has been viewed as independent (R. A. Schmidt, H. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979 ) or dependent on the rate of force (L. G. Carlton & K. M. Newell, 1993 ). Two experiments in an isometric single finger force task investigated the joint force-time entropy with (a) fixed time to peak force and different percentages of force level and (b) fixed percentage of force level and different times to peak force. The results showed that the peak force variability increased either with the increment of force level or through a shorter time to peak force that also reduced timing error variability. The peak force entropy and entropy of time to peak force increased on the respective dimension as the parameter conditions approached either maximum force or a minimum rate of force production. The findings show that force error and timing error are dependent but complementary when considered in the same framework with the joint force-time entropy at a minimum in the middle parameter range of discrete impulse.

  14. Concrete structures under impact and impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauk, G.

    1982-05-01

    This book contains papers contributed to the RILEM/CEB/IABSE/IASS-Interassociation Symposium on 'Concrete Structures under Impact and Impulsive Loading'. The essential aim of this symposium is to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on existing and current research relating to impact problems as well as to identify areas to which further research activities should be directed. The subject of the symposium is far ranging. Fifty five papers were proposed and arranged in six technical sessions, a task which sometimes posed difficulties for the Organization Committee and the Advisory Group, because some of the papers touched several topics and were difficult to integrate. However, we are confident that these minor difficulties were solved to the satisfaction of everyone involved. Each session of the symposium is devoted to a major subject area and introduced by a distinguished Introductory Reporter. The large international attendance, some 21 countries are represented, and the large number of excellent papers will certainly produce a lively discussion after each session and thus help to further close the gaps in our knowledge about the behaviour of structures and materials under impact and impulsive loading. (orig./RW)

  15. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  16. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  17. Impulse-response analysis of the market share attraction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a simulation-based technique to calculate impulse-response functions and their confidence intervals in a market share attraction model [MCI]. As an MCI model implies a reduced form model for the logs of relative market shares, simulation techniques have to be used to obtain

  18. Aktivitas Humas Dalam Menjalankan Media Relations (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif pada Bagian Humasy dan Protokoler Pemerintah Kota Sibolga)

    OpenAIRE

    Puspadini, Meilisa

    2016-01-01

    This research contains a study entitled Activities PR in The Run Media Relations (Descriptive-Qualitatif Study in Section Humasy and Protocoler Sibolga City Government). The goals of the research is to know what and how the activities of media relations undertaken by The Sibolga Government Public Relations, the obstacles faced by The Sibolga Government Public Relations in running media relations, what the Sibolga Government Public Relations do to overcome the barriers in imp...

  19. Age and impulsive behavior in drug addiction: A review of past research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, A C; Cassis, L A; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2013-08-01

    A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The current animal model shows that

  1. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Handel, S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Psychology

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF`s) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25 Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition.

  2. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF's) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25 Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition

  3. Overlapping and disease specific aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Rydkjær, Jacob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    Objectives: To identify disease specific and overlapping aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders or ADHD. Methods: Motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task), reflection impulsivity (Information Sampling Task), and trait impulsivity (Barratt ...... their decision making to gather more information in a condition with a conflict between reward and certainty. The reduced information sampling may also reflect an increased conviction in the decision at a point of relative uncertainty....

  4. Chaotification of complex networks with impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Feng; Li, Juan; Wang, Yan-Wu

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates the chaotification problem of complex dynamical networks (CDN) with impulsive control. Both the discrete and continuous cases are studied. The method is presented to drive all states of every node in CDN to chaos. The proposed impulsive control strategy is effective for both the originally stable and unstable CDN. The upper bound of the impulse intervals for originally stable networks is derived. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by numerical examples.

  5. Impulsive synchronization of Chen's hyperchaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mahsa

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter the impulsive synchronization of the Chen's hyperchaotic systems is discussed. Some new and sufficient conditions on varying impulsive distance are established in order to guarantee the synchronizabillity of the systems using the synchronization method. In particular, some simple conditions are derived in synchronizing the systems by equal impulsive distances. Two illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method. The boundaries of the stable regions are also estimated

  6. Impulsivity, impulsive and reflective processes and the development of alcohol use and misuse in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout Wiers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contrasts dual-process and personality approaches in the prediction of addictive behaviors and related risk behaviors. In dual-process models, behavior is described as the joint outcome of qualitatively different “impulsive” (or associative and “reflective” processes. There are important individual differences regarding both types of processes, and the relative strength of both in a specific situation is influenced by prior behavior and state variables (e.g., fatigue, alcohol use. From this perspective, a specific behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse can be predicted by the combined indices of the behavior-related impulsive processes (e.g., associations with alcohol, and reflective processes, including the ability to refrain from a motivationally salient action. Personality approaches have reported that general traits such as impulsivity predict addictive behaviors. Here we contrast these two approaches, with supplementary analyses on four datasets. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity can predict specific risky behaviors, but that its predictive power disappears once specific behavior-related associations, indicators of executive functioning, and their interaction are entered into the equation. In all four studies the observed interaction between specific associations and Executive Control (EC was robust: trait impulsivity did not diminish the prediction of alcohol use by the interaction. Trait impulsivity was not always related to alcohol use, and when it was, the predictive power disappeared after entering the interaction between behavior-specific associations and EC in one study, but not in the other. These findings are interpreted in relation to the validity of the measurements used, which leads to a more refined hypothesis.

  7. Study of a preamplifier for the detection of weak impulses of neutrons from a critical medium (Proserpine) (1960); Etude d'un preamplificateur pour la detection d'impulsions faibles de neutrons issues d'un milieu critique (proserpine) (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agaisse, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In a critical experiment the small detection instruments supply weak impulses, and these must be brought outside the pile for counting. The important parameter is the ratio of the signal to the background. For the preamplifier studied in this report the background, considered at the input, is 12 micro-volts; a factor 2 is thus gained with respect to ordinary preamplifiers. (author) [French] Dans une experience critique, les appareils de detection, de petite taille, fournissent des impulsions faibles. Elles doivent etre transportees en dehors de la pile pour y etre comptees. Le rapport du signal au bruit de fond est le parametre important. Pour le preamplificateur etudie dans ce rapport, le bruit, ramene a l'entree est de 12 microvolts, ce qui permet de gagner un facteur 2 par rapport aux preamplificateurs usuels. (auteur)

  8. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Novia

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross secti...

  9. [Association of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use with suicidal behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo G, Lilian; Castro S, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Suicide and suicide attempts are public health problems. Their prevention requives the detection of predictor factors. To determine the predictive valué of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use on suicidal behavior in adolescents. Suicidal behavior, Loneliness (UCLA), Impulsivity (Barratt) scales and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were applied to 763 high school students aged 14 to 19 years (49% males), living in Chillan, Chile. Nineteen percent of participants had attempted suicide and 34.3% had suicidal ideation. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use were directly related to suicidal behavior. These predictors explained 31 % of the suicidal behavior. The most important risk factor was loneliness, followed by femóle gender, impulsivity and alcohol use. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use are risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Women are at higher risk than men.

  10. Differentiating risk for mania and borderline personality disorder: The nature of goal regulation and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Daniel; Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-30

    Researchers and clinicians have long noted the overlap among features and high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. The shared features of impulsivity and labile mood in both disorders make them challenging to distinguish. We tested the hypothesis that variables related to goal dysregulation would be uniquely related to risk for mania, while emotion-relevant impulsivity would be related to risk for both disorders. We administered a broad range of measures related to goal regulation traits and impulsivity to 214 undergraduates. Findings confirmed that risk for mania, but not for borderline personality disorder, was related to higher sensitivity to reward and intense pursuit of goals. In contrast, borderline personality disorder symptoms related more strongly than did mania risk with threat sensitivity and with impulsivity in the context of negative affect. Results highlight potential differences and commonalities in mania risk versus borderline personality disorder risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impulsivity and Gambling Type Among Treatment-Seeking Disordered Gamblers: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutri, Vittorio; Soldini, Emiliano; Ronzitti, Silvia; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Blaszczynski, Alex; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2018-03-03

    Several studies have found that certain traits of impulsivity are associated with gambling disorder, and influence its severity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some forms of gambling, particularly electronic gambling machines, are particularly widespread among pathological gamblers. In the present, exploratory study, we aim to clarify the role played by impulsivity in influencing the choice of specific gambling activities, by examining the relation between individual dimensions of impulsivity, and the choice of specific gambling activities in a clinical population. 100 consecutively admitted pathological gamblers at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London (UK) in 2014 were administered the UPPS-P and BIS-11 impulsivity questionnaires, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and underwent a structured interview concerning their gambling activities in the month and year prior to assessment. The correlation between individual gambling activities and impulsivity dimensions was analyzed both at a bivariate level, and using logistic regression. We found a significant correlation between Negative Urgency, Motor impulsivity and low-stakes machine gambling on multivariate analysis. Negative urgency (i.e. the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect), and Motor impulsivity (a tendency to rash action and restlessness) might be mediating factors in the choice of electronic gambling machines, particularly among patients whose gambling is escape-oriented. Structural and situational characteristics of gambling machines, particularly the widespread availability of low-stakes-rather than high-stakes-gaming machines, might concur to the choice of this form of gambling among individuals who present higher negative urgency and restlessness.

  12. Linking Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci to human male impulsive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Cao, Yin; Dong, Guoying; Zhang, Shuyou; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhao, Hanqing; Zhou, Xianju

    2017-11-01

    Men are more susceptible to impulsive behavior than women. Epidemiological studies revealed that the impulsive aggressive behavior is affected by genetic factors, and the male-specific Y chromosome plays an important role in this behavior. In this study, we investigated the association between the impulsive aggressive behavior and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) loci. The collected biologic samples from 271 offenders with impulsive aggressive behavior and 492 healthy individuals without impulsive aggressive behavior were amplified by PowerPlex R Y23 PCR System and the resultant products were separated by electrophoresis and further genotyped. Then, comparisons in allele and haplotype frequencies of the selected 22 Y-STRs were made in the two groups. Our results showed that there were significant differences in allele frequencies at DYS448 and DYS456 between offenders and controls ( p  impulsive aggression. However, the DYS448-DYS456-22-15 is less related to impulsive aggression. Our results suggest a link between Y-chromosomal allele types and male impulsive aggression.

  13. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  14. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control - a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lieb, Klaus; Schmahl, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control, and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive vs. reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, patients with BPD exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas patients with ADHD displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  15. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control – a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSebastian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive versus reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, BPD patients exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas ADHD patients displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  16. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  17. Pengaruh Marketing Public Relations Terhadap Brand Image Dan Loyalitas Pelanggan (Survei Pada Wisatawan Taman Rekreasi Selecta, Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Rehulina Desviora

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to: investigate the influence of Marketing Public Relations on Brand Image, investigate the influence of Brand Image on Customer Loyalty and investigate the influence of Marketing Public Relations on Customer Loyalty. The research method that used is explanatory research with quantitative approach. Variables that used in this research are Marketing Public Relations, Brand Image, and Customer Loyalty. The respondents of this research are the visitors of Selecta Recreational ...

  18. Laser impulse coupling at 130 fs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, C.; Luke, J.; Funk, D.; Moore, D.; Glownia, J.; Lippert, T.

    2006-01-01

    We measured the momentum coupling coefficient C m and laser-generated ion drift velocity and temperature in the femtosecond (fs) region, over a laser intensity range from ablation threshold to about one hundred times threshold. Targets were several pure metals and three organic compounds. The organic compounds were exothermic polymers specifically developed for the micro-laser plasma thruster, and two of these used 'tuned absorbers' rather than carbon particles for laser absorption. The metals ranged from Li to W in atomic weight. We measured time of flight (TOF) profiles for ions. Specific impulse reached record values for this type of measurement and ablation efficiency was near 100%. These measurements extend the laser pulsewidth three orders of magnitude downward in pulsewidth relative to previous reports. Over this range, we found C m to be essentially constant. Ion velocity ranged from 60 to 180 km/s

  19. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  20. The nature of impulsivity: visual exposure to natural environments decreases impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available The benefits of visual exposure to natural environments for human well-being in areas of stress reduction, mood improvement, and attention restoration are well documented, but the effects of natural environments on impulsive decision-making remain unknown. Impulsive decision-making in delay discounting offers generality, predictive validity, and insight into decision-making related to unhealthy behaviors. The present experiment evaluated differences in such decision-making in humans experiencing visual exposure to one of the following conditions: natural (e.g., mountains, built (e.g., buildings, or control (e.g., triangles using a delay discounting task that required participants to choose between immediate and delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants viewed the images before and during the delay discounting task. Participants were less impulsive in the condition providing visual exposure to natural scenes compared to built and geometric scenes. Results suggest that exposure to natural environments results in decreased impulsive decision-making relative to built environments.

  1. Materialism moderates the impact of mortality salience on impulsive tendencies toward luxury brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrin, Catherine; Cheval, Boris; Chanal, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Luxury goods have been shown to help individuals coping with death-related anxiety. However, the extent to which the symbolic value allocated to possessions (i.e., materialism) moderates this effect is still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of materialism on impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands in a context of mortality salience. Results showed that the impact of mortality salience was moderated by materialism with lower impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands observed in non-materialistic participants. These findings highlight how materialism values may impact luxury consumption through impulsive pathways in a situation of death-related anxiety.

  2. Bahasa, Simbol, dan Religi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi, Supriyadi

    1999-01-01

    Manusia sering disebut sebagai makhluk sosial, makhluk berakal, makhluk berseni, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini secara tidak langsung membicarakan manusia sebagai makhluk berbahasa, bersimbol, dan bereligi . Meskipun demikian, titik tolaknya bukan pada manusia itu sendiri, tetapi pada bahasa, simbol, dan religinya, terutama pada hubungan di antara ketiganya . Hubungan antara bahasa dan simbol tidak diragukan lagi karena bahasa merupakan jenis simbol . Demikian juga hubungan antara simbol dengan ...

  3. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  4. Islam, Media, dan Politik : Sebuah Perdebatan dan Kontempelasi Nilai Berdemokrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infact, press or media is one of pilar democracy. Media in democracy is a public sphere to communi-cation and makes relation, and a same time as public arena to gain information. But, media also could not release from streotypes and tendency that usually bring of interest, either the owner or ideology. It is meaning media can not released from perspective distorsion, values bias and take a side. Media also effective to become propaganda instrument for a political interest and an ideology. It is seen like how media in US, for example, stereotype of Islam in discourses contradiction and glob-al interest opposition. Then, Islam dominantly identified as doctrine teaches radicalism, fundamen-talism and terorism. Thus, it is often be justification for US to operate the military mission in the name of democracy. Tak dipungkiri pers atau media menjadi salah satu pilar bagi demokrasi. Media dalam demokrasi adalah sebagai ruang bagi publik berkomunikasi dan berinteraksi, sekaligus sarana publik mem-peroleh informasi tentang banyak hal. Namun, media juga tak bisa dilepaskan dari stereotip dan kecenderungan-kecenderungan, yang biasanya membawa kepentingan, baik pemilik maupun ide-ologi. Media karenanya tak lepas dari distorsi perspektif, bias nilai dan berpihak. Media juga efektif menjadi alat propaganda bagi sebuah kepentingan politik dan ideologi, seperti bagaimana media di negara Amerika, misalnya, menstereotipkan Islam dalam analisis pertentangan wacana dan kepent-ingan global. Sehingga, dominan Islam diidentikkan dengan sematan sebagai ajaran yang mengajarkan radikalisme, fundamentalisme dan terorisme. Karenanya pula seringkali menjadi alasan pembenar bagi Amerika untuk menjalankan misi militer atas nama demokrasi.

  5. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Mehta, Arpan R; Hallett, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim is to review the recent advances in the epidemiology and pathophysiology of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease. Large cross-sectional and case-control multicentre studies show that ICDs in Parkinson's disease are common, with a frequency of 13.6%. These behaviours are associated with impaired functioning and with depressive, anxiety and obsessive symptoms, novelty seeking and impulsivity. Behavioural subtypes demonstrate differences in novelty seeking and impulsivity, suggesting pathophysiological differences. Observational and neurophysiological studies point towards a potential mechanistic overlap between behavioural (ICDs) and motor (dyskinesias) dopaminergic sequelae. Converging data suggest dopamine agonists in ICDs appear to enhance learning from rewarding outcomes and impulsive choice. ICD patients also have enhanced risk preference and impaired working memory. Neuroimaging data point towards enhanced bottom-up ventral striatal dopamine release to incentive cues, gambling tasks and reward prediction, and possible inhibition of top-down orbitofrontal influences. Dopamine agonist-related ventral striatal hypoactivity to risk is consistent with impaired risk evaluation. Recent large-scale studies and converging findings are beginning to provide an understanding of mechanisms underlying ICDs in Parkinson's disease, which can guide prevention of these behaviours and optimize therapeutic approaches.

  6. The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Michael

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low serotonergic (5-HT activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test their association with 5-HT and functionally related genes using a family-based association test (FBAT-PC. Methods Our sample consisted of 1180 offspring from 607 families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE study. Impulsive symptoms were assessed using the long forms of the Conners and the Strengths and Difficulties parent and teacher questionnaires. Factor analysis showed that the symptoms aggregated into parent- and teacher-rated behavioral and cognitive impulsivity. We then selected 582 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 14 genes directly or indirectly related to 5-HT function. Associations between these SNPs and the behavioral/cognitive groupings of impulsive symptoms were evaluated using the FBAT-PC approach. Results In the FBAT-PC analysis for cognitive impulsivity 2 SNPs from the gene encoding phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the rate-limiting enzyme for adrenalin synthesis attained corrected gene-wide significance. Nominal significance was shown for 12 SNPs from BDNF, DRD1, HTR1E, HTR2A, HTR3B, DAT1/SLC6A3, and TPH2 genes replicating reported associations with ADHD. For overt aggressive impulsivity nominal significance was shown for 6 SNPs from BDNF, DRD4, HTR1E, PNMT, and TPH2 genes that have also been reported to be associated with ADHD. Associations for cognitive impulsivity with a SERT/SLC6A4 variant (STin2: 12 repeats and aggressive behavioral impulsivity with a DRD4 variant (exon 3: 3 repeats are also described

  7. Mindful eating reduces impulsive food choice in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2017-03-01

    The present study tested the extent to which age and obesity predicted impulsive choices for food and monetary outcomes and tested how a brief mindful-eating training would alter delay discounting for food and money choices compared with control groups. First, 172 adolescents (M age = 13.13 years) and 176 (M age = 23.33 years) adults completed the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) as measures of food and money delay discounting, respectively. Then, participants returned to the lab and were randomly assigned to complete a brief mindful-eating training, watch a DVD on nutrition, or serve as a control. Participants completed the FCQ and MCQ again as a postmanipulation measure. Participants with high percent body fat (PBF) were more impulsive for food than those with low PBF. Adults with high PBF were also more impulsive for money compared with adults with low PBF; no PBF-related differences were found for adolescents. Participants in the mindful-eating group exhibited more self-controlled choices for food, but not for money. The control conditions did not exhibit changes. The study suggests that individuals with high PBF make more impulsive food choices relative to those with low PBF, which could increase the risk of obesity over time. It also is the first to demonstrate shifts in choice patterns for food and money using a brief mindful-eating training with adolescents. Mindful eating is a beneficial strategy to reduce impulsive food choice, at least temporarily, that may impede weight gain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of discrete-time delayed neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Lu, Xiaomei; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the problems of impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of discrete-time delayed neural networks (DDNNs). Two types of DDNNs with stabilizing impulses are studied. By introducing the time-varying Lyapunov functional to capture the dynamical characteristics of discrete-time impulsive delayed neural networks (DIDNNs) and by using a convex combination technique, new exponential stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The stability criteria for DIDNNs are independent of the size of time delay but rely on the lengths of impulsive intervals. With the newly obtained stability results, sufficient conditions on the existence of linear-state feedback impulsive controllers are derived. Moreover, a novel impulsive synchronization scheme for two identical DDNNs is proposed. The novel impulsive synchronization scheme allows synchronizing two identical DDNNs with unknown delays. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization and impulsive synchronization of DDNNs. Finally, an application of the obtained impulsive synchronization result for two identical chaotic DDNNs to a secure communication scheme is presented.

  9. Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesekin, A. N., E-mail: sesekin@list.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation); Nepp, A. N., E-mail: anepp@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.

  10. Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesekin, A. N.; Nepp, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.

  11. Non-instantaneous impulses in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; O'Regan, Donal

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is the first published book devoted to the theory of differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses. It aims to equip the reader with mathematical models and theory behind real life processes in physics, biology, population dynamics, ecology and pharmacokinetics. The authors examine a wide scope of differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses through three comprehensive chapters, providing an all-rounded and unique presentation on the topic, including: - Ordinary differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses (scalar and n-dimensional case) - Fractional differential equa tions with non-instantaneous impulses (with Caputo fractional derivatives of order q ϵ (0, 1)) - Ordinary differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses occurring at random moments (with exponential, Erlang, or Gamma distribution) Each chapter focuses on theory, proofs and examples, and contains numerous graphs to enrich the reader’s understanding. Additionally, a carefully selected bibliogr...

  12. Impulsivity in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A comparative tunisian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Khaoula; Boudabous, Jaweher; Cherif, Leila; Ayadi, Hela; Walha, Adel; Moalla, Yousr; Hadjkacem, Imen; Ghribi, Farhat

    2017-08-01

    The association between impulsivity and depressive disorders in adolescence has been little studied at the literature and in our country, yet impulsivity is a major risk factor for suicide. Thus we aimed on this study to evaluate impulsivity in 25 adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder MDD compared to a control sample and to analyze the correlations between impulsivity and clinical features of MDD. Employing a matched case-control design, participants included 25 adolescents with MDD and 75 controls. We have administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale BIS-11 for the two groups to evaluate impulsivity. Semi structured interviews according DSM 5 criteria were conducted for adolescents with MDD. The Child Depressive Inventory CDI was used to measure depressive symptoms in the control sample. Adolescents with MDD were more impulsive compared to controls according to the BIS-11 in its three domains: motor (24.96±6.26 against 20.6±4.84; p=0.000), attentional (20.88±5.03 against 16.64±3.2; p=0.000) and non planning (28.2±7.26 against 24.44±4.32; p=0.02). Impulsivity was not correlated with clinical features of MDD (suicide attempts, psychiatric comorbidities, antidepressant medication …). Adolescents with MDD seem to be more impulsive than control subjects regardless their clinical features. Whether it is a specific characteristic or a symptom among others of MDD, impulsivity predicts health-related behaviors and associated damage that need to be detected and prevented in time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Three Different Types of Behavioral Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction While central nervous system serotonin has been implicated in a variety of problematic impulsive behaviors, biological manipulation of brain serotonin using acute tryptophan depletion for studying changes in impulsive behavior has received little attention. Methods Using identical treatment conditions, we examined the effects of reduced serotonin synthesis for each of three matched groups using acute tryptophan depletion. Thirty healthy men and women (ages 18–45 were assigned to perform one of three tasks assessing different types of behavioral impulsivity: response initiation, response inhibition, and consequence sensitivity ( N = 90. Participants completed two experimental days during which each consumed either a tryptophan-depletion or balanced-placebo amino-acid formulation and completed 5 sessions of their respective tasks at 0.25 h before and 1.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 h after beverage consumption. Results During peak effectiveness (5.0 h to 6.0 h following amino-acid consumption, depletion produced selective differences dependent on the type of impulsivity being tested. Specifically, relative to baseline testing (pre-depletion, response initiation impulsivity was significantly increased during the peak effects of depletion. And, when compared to placebo control, both response initiation and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were increased during the peak effects of depletion. Conclusion Though response initiation and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were affected by tryptophan depletion, response inhibition impulsivity was not, suggesting that other biological processes may underlie this specific component of impulsivity. Future research in other populations or using different pharmacological agents is warranted to further examine the biological processes underlying these components of impulsivity.

  14. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Three Different Types of Behavioral Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While central nervous system serotonin has been implicated in a variety of problematic impulsive behaviors, biological manipulation of brain serotonin using acute tryptophan depletion for studying changes in impulsive behavior has received little attention. Methods: Using identical treatment conditions, we examined the effects of reduced serotonin synthesis for each of three matched groups using acute tryptophan depletion. Thirty healthy men and women (ages 18–45 were assigned to perform one of three tasks assessing different types of behavioral impulsivity: response initiation, response inhibition, and consequence sensitivity (N = 90. Participants completed two experimental days during which each consumed either a tryptophan-depletion or balanced-placebo amino-acid formulation and completed 5 sessions of their respective tasks at 0.25 h before and 1.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 h after beverage consumption. Results: During peak effectiveness (5.0 h to 6.0 h following amino-acid consumption, depletion produced selective differences dependent on the type of impulsivity being tested. Specifically, relative to baseline testing (pre-depletion, response initiation impulsivity was significantly increased during the peak effects of depletion. And, when compared to placebo control, both response initiation and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were increased during the peak effects of depletion. Conclusion: Though response initiation and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were affected by tryptophan depletion, response inhibition impulsivity was not, suggesting that other biological processes may underlie this specific component of impulsivity. Future research in other populations or using different pharmacological agents is warranted to further examine the biological processes underlying these components of impulsivity.

  15. Pengaruh Bauran Hubungan Masyarakat (Public Relations Mix Terhadap Citra Merek Dan Kesadaran Merek Serta Implikasinya Terhadap Keputusan Siswa Memilih Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbi Saepul Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and assess the Influence of Public Relations Mix on Brand Image and Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Student Decisions Choosing to study at vocational school Medikacom Bandung. This study uses the theory of Marketing Management, the method used in this research is an explanatory survey approach, and the type of research is descriptive and verificative. The method of data collection is done by interviews, questionnaires, and documentation. Data analysis method used is the analysis of SEM (stuctural Equation Modeling. This research used a sample of students at vocational school Medikacom Bandung as much as 248 students. The results showed that simultaneous Brand Image and Brand Awareness significant effect on Student Decisions choosing to study at vocational school Medikacom Bandung, Public Relations mix significant effect on Brand Image and Public Relations mix significant effect on Brand Awareness.Simultaneous influence of Brand Image and Brand Awareness of the student decisions amounted to 0.860 or 86%, whereas 0.140 or 14% is influenced by other variables not examined in this research. Effect of partial variable mix of Public Relations of the brand image is of 0.640 or 64%, a variable mix of the Public Relations Student decisions amounted to 0.720 or 72%. From the results of research conducted, then Public Relations Mix, Brand Image and Brand Awareness variables when combined would have a significant effect on Student Decisions Choosing to study at vocational school Medikacom Bandung. Keywords: public relations mix; brand image; brand awareness; student decisions

  16. Depression and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease : two sides of the same coin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Chris; Pattij, Tommy; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Voorn, Pieter; Booij, Jan; Rutten, Sonja; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    Depression and impulse control disorders (ICD) are two common neuropsychiatric features in Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have revealed that both phenomena are associated with aberrations in ventral striatal dopamine signaling and concomitant dysfunction of the reward-related (limbic)

  17. Reduced dopamine transporter binding predates impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Chris; Nordbeck, Anna H; Booij, Jan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Pattij, Tommy; Voorn, Pieter; Raijmakers, Pieter; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generally are regarded as adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy, although certain demographic and clinical risk factors are also involved. Previous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

  18. Reduced Dopamine Transporter Binding Predates Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, C.; Nordbeck, A.H.; Booij, J.; van der Werf, Y.D.; Pattij, T.; Voorn, P.; Raijmakers, P.; Foncke, E.M.J.; van der Giessen, E.; Berendse, H.W.; van den Heuvel, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generally are regarded as adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy, although certain demographic and clinical risk factors are also involved. Previous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

  19. Destabilizing Effects of Impulse in Delayed Bam Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuandong; Li, Chaojie; Liu, Chao

    This paper further studies the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the delayed bidirectional associative memory (DBAM) neural networks with impulse effects. Several results characterizing the aggregated effects of impulse and dynamical property of the impulse-free DBAM on the exponential stability of the considered DBAM have been established. It is shown that the impulsive DBAM will preserve the global exponential stability of the impulse-free DBAM even if the impulses have enlarging effects on the states of neurons.

  20. Impulsivity and Cluster B Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Sebastian, Alexandra; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and an important personality trait in various mental health conditions. Among personality disorders (PDs), especially cluster B PDs are affected. The aims of this review are to summarize the relevant findings of the past 3 years concerning impulsivity in cluster B PDs and to identify those subcomponents of self-reported impulsivity and experimentally measured impulse control that are most affected in these disorders. All studies referred to antisocial (ASPD) or borderline PD (BPD), and none were found for narcissistic or histrionic PD. In ASPD as well as BPD, self-report scales primarily revealed heightened impulsivity compared to healthy controls. In experimental tasks, ASPD patients showed impairments in response inhibition, while fewer deficits were found in delay discounting. BPD patients showed specific impairments in delay discounting and proactive interference, while response inhibition was less affected. However, after inducing high levels of stress, deficits in response inhibition could also be observed in BPD patients. Furthermore, negative affect led to altered brain activation patterns in BPD patients during impulse control tasks, but no behavioral impairments were found. As proposed by the DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorders, heightened impulsivity is a core personality trait in BPD and ASPD, which is in line with current research findings. However, different components of experimentally measured impulse control are affected in BPD and ASPD, and impulsivity occurring in negative emotional states or increased distress seems to be specific for BPD. Future research could be focused on measures that assess impulsive behaviors on a momentary basis as this is a promising approach especially for further ecological validation and transfer into clinical practice.

  1. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness.

  2. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  3. Berpikir Rasional-Ilmiah dan Pendekatan Interdisipliner dan Multidisipliner dalam Studi Hukum Keluarga Islam

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    Khoiruddin Nasution

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This short article tries to explain how important it is to think rationally and scientifically, place the position of approachment in the Study of Islamic Family Law, also describe the use of Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach to understand and practice the Islamic Family Law. In conclusion, there are three conclutions. First, students need to get used to think, write, speak and act rationallly and scientifically. The process can be carried out by integrating with the entire subjecy. Second,  needs a good and comprehensive understanding of approachment positions in the study of Islamic Family Law, both in relation to habituation of thinking, writing, speaking and acting rational and scientific as well as in effort to integrate and interconnect Islam and science. Third, it is necessary to habituate using an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach to understand and observe all matters  that related to the Islamic Family Law.   [Tulisan singkat ini mencoba menjelaskan bagaimana pentingnya berpikir rasional dan ilmiah, meletakkan dimana posisi pendekatan dalam Studi Hukum Keluarga Islam, sekaligus menggambarkan penggunaan Pendekatan Interdisipliner dan Multidisipliner dalam memahami dan mengamalkan Hukum Keluarga Islam. Kesimpulannya ada tiga. Pertama, mahasiswa perlu dibiasakan berpikir, menulis, berbicara dan bentindak rasional dan ilmiah. Proses pembiasaannya dapat dilakukan secara terintegrasi dengan seluruh mata kuliah. Kedua, perlu pemahaman yang baik dan konprehensif bagaimana posisi pendekatan dalam studi Hukum Keluarga Islam, baik dalam kaitannya dengan pembiasaan berpikir, menulis, berbicara dan bentindak rasional dan ilmiah maupun dalam upaya integrasi dan/atau interkoneksi keilmuan. Ketiga, perlu pembiasaan menggunakan pendekatan interdisipliner dan multidisipliner dalam memahami dan mengamalkan segala persoalan yang berkaitan dengan Hukum Keluarga Islam.

  4. Impulsivity in borderline personality disorder: a matter of disturbed impulse control or a facet of emotional dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Impulsivity is regarded as a clinical, diagnostic and pathophysiological hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Self-report measures of impulsivity consistently support the notion of higher impulsive traits in BPD patients as compared to healthy control subjects. Laboratory tests of impulsivity, i.e. neuropsychological tests of impulse control render weak and inconsistent results both across different cognitive components of impulse control and within the same cognitive component of impulse control. One important factor worsening impulsive behaviors and impulse control deficits in BPD is comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, emotional dysregulation interacts with impulse control especially for BPD salient emotions. In sum, although basic mechanisms of impulse control seem not to be disturbed in BPD, clinically well observed impulsive behaviors may be explained by comorbid ADHD or may be the consequence of dysregulation of BPD salient emotions.

  5. Impulsive suicide attempts: a systematic literature review of definitions, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-15

    Extensive research on impulsive suicide attempts, but lack of agreement on the use of this term indicates the need for a systematic literature review of the area. The aim of this review was to examine definitions and likely correlates of impulsive attempts. A search of Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. Additional articles were identified using the cross-referencing function of Google Scholar. 179 relevant papers were identified. Four different groups of research criteria used to assess suicide attempt impulsivity emerged: (a) time-related criteria, (b) absence of proximal planning/preparations, (c) presence of suicide plan in lifetime/previous year, and (d) other. Subsequent analysis used these criteria to compare results from different studies on 20 most researched hypotheses. Conclusions regarding the characteristics of impulsive attempts are more consistent than those on the risk factors specific to such attempts. No risk factors were identified that uniformly related to suicide attempt impulsivity across all criteria groups, but relationships emerged between separate criteria and specific characteristics of suicide attempters. Only published articles were included. Large inconsistencies in methods of the studies included in this review prevented comparison of effect sizes. The vast disparities in findings on risk factors for impulsive suicide attempts among different criteria groups suggest the need to address the methodological issues in defining suicide attempt impulsivity before further research into correlates of such attempts can effectively progress. Specific recommendations are offered for necessary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain functional connectivity changes in children that differ in impulsivity temperamental trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eInuggi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents’ report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior.

  8. Brain functional connectivity changes in children that differ in impulsivity temperamental trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuggi, Alberto; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; González-Salinas, Carmen; Valero-García, Ana V; García-Santos, Jose M; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN) whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents' report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior.

  9. 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D

    2014-01-01

    The Roman Low- and High-Avoidance rat strains (RLA-I vs RHA-I) have been bidirectionally selected and bred according to their performance in the two-way active avoidance response in the shuttle-box test. Numerous studies have reported a pronounced divergence in emotionality between the two rat st...... difference in mGlu2 receptor protein levels. We suggest that the differences in the serotonergic system may mediate some of the phenotypic characteristics in this strain such as hyper-impulsivity and susceptibility to drug addiction....

  10. Lesions to the subthalamic nucleus decrease impulsive choice but impair autoshaping in rats: the importance of the basal ganglia in Pavlovian conditioning and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Baunez, Christelle; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-06-01

    Although the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in regulating motor function, and inactivation of this structure relieves the motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients, recent data indicate that corticosubthalamic connections are involved in both the regulation of attention and the ability to withhold from responding. Considerable evidence suggests that the neural circuitry underlying such behavioural disinhibition or impulsive action can be at least partially dissociated from that implicated in impulsive decision-making and it has been suggested that the tendency to choose impulsively is related to the ability to form and use Pavlovian associations. To explore these hypotheses further, STN-lesioned rats were tested on the delay-discounting model of impulsive choice, where impulsivity is defined as the selection of a small immediate over a larger delayed reward, as well as in a rodent autoshaping paradigm. In contrast to previous reports of increased impulsive action, STN lesions decreased impulsive choice but dramatically impaired the acquisition of the autoshaping response. When the STN was lesioned after the establishment of autoshaping behaviour, lesioned subjects were more sensitive to the omission of reward, indicative of a reduction in the use of Pavlovian associations to control autoshaping performance. These results emphasize the importance of the STN in permitting conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associations to regulate goal-seeking, a function which may relate to the alterations in impulsive choice observed in the delay-discounting task. These data bear a striking similarity to those observed after lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex and are suggestive of an important role for corticosubthalamic connections in complex cognitive behaviour.

  11. Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegling, Ina; Olgiati, Paolo; Hartmann, Annette M; Calati, Raffaella; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt.

  12. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eMcClure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive choice — the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards — has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of modifying reward sizes during the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present the methods for isolating delay in detail, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between postnatal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders.

  13. Teori Dan Metodologi Penelitian “Public Relations”

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianto, Elvinaro

    2004-01-01

    Artikel Public Relations (PR) yang banyak tersaji di media massa atau pun jurnal, lebih banyak membahas tentang PR is Art atau PR is Practice. Paparan kali ini mencoba membahas tentang PR is Science, sebagai kajian keilmuan, dengan mengemukakan tentang teori dan model Public Relations, serta teori kontemporer yang diadopsi menjadi teori dan model PR, serta membahas pula bentuk penelitian kualitatif dan penelitian kuantitatif PR. Tulisan ini diakhiri dengan rekomendasi komisi pendidikan yang t...

  14. Teori dan Metodologi Penelitian “Public Relations”

    OpenAIRE

    Elvinaro Ardianto

    2004-01-01

    Artikel Public Relations (PR) yang banyak tersaji di media massa atau pun jurnal, lebih banyak membahas tentang PR is Art atau PR is Practice. Paparan kali ini mencoba membahas tentang PR is Science, sebagai kajian keilmuan, dengan mengemukakan tentang teori dan model Public Relations, serta teori kontemporer yang diadopsi menjadi teori dan model PR, serta membahas pula bentuk penelitian kualitatif dan penelitian kuantitatif PR. Tulisan ini diakhiri dengan rekomendasi komisi pendidikan yang t...

  15. Prinsip Transparansi dalam Perjanjian TBT dan SPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Widyaputri Kariodimedjo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transparency principle in the TBT and SPS Agreement is implemented by notification. Its application is prepared by related agencies through the making of regulations, establishment of enquiry points, building capacity and infrastructure. It guarantees certainty, predictability and credibility of Indonesia in international trade, and its application should not undermine national trade policy. Prinsip transparansi dalam Perjanjian TBT dan SPS diterapkan melalui notifikasi. Penerapan prinsip ini dilakukan oleh instansi-instansi terkait melalui pembuatan peraturan, upaya terkait kelembagaan, SDM dan infrastruktur. Prinsip yang bertujuan menciptakan kepastian, konsistensi bagi perdagangan dan kredibilitas Indonesia dalam perdagangan internasional, harus dilakukan tanpa mengorbankan kepentingan untuk mengamankan kebijakan impor nasional.

  16. Media Sosial dan Perkembangan Komunikasi Korporat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Juwita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran media sosial telah mengubah aktivitas komunikasi korporat dan dengan cepat merevolusi bagaimana kampanye atau program public relations berjalan. Jika dibandingkan dengan cara tradisional yang mengandalkan pada output murni, media sosial memaksa komunikasi korporat beralih pada proses dialog dimana para pemangku kepentingan, dan bukan hanya perusahaan sama-sama memiliki kekuasaan terhadap pesan yang beredar. Media sosial merupakan alat komunikasi revolusioner yang mengubah secara cepat bagaimana praktik PR menjadi bagian integral dari komunikasi korporat bagi sejumlah perusahaan dan menawarkan pilihan baru bagi para praktisi PR pada setiap aspek proses komunikasi yang dilakukan.

  17. DAMPAK PUBLIC RELATIONS DALAM MANAJEMEN KRISIS KEAMANAN DAN KESELAMATAN ANCAMAN TERORISME DI BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL I GUSTI NGURAH RAI DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghannez Novaldi Loreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out how does the public relations may involved in the security and safety crisis management of terrorism threat in  I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar, and how it may affect the image of the airport itself. Several informants were being interviewed and as much as 116 repondents gave their answers related to I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar’s image. This research use descriptive qualitative data analysis technique by collected the data, reductions, presented the results, and draw a conclusion. This research also use the triangulation data technique to ensure the informations given by the informants were valid. The results shown that security and safety crisis management in I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar has twice security check point, using the recent technology, corporate with the authorities, and do the silent investigation. The roles of public relations itself are planning the terrorism encounters training programme, make a positive image of the airport, and build communications during and after the crisis. I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar has a good image of security based on the result of the questioners. There was several issues in the applications of terrorism encounters in the airport such as, some of the check in counter agents didn’t ask the security questions to the passenger and the x-ray officer didn’t check the luggage thoroughly that caused Qatar Airways flight had to return to base in 2015.

  18. Analisa Pengaruh Functional Dan Convenience Related Factor Terhadap Consumer Loyaly Melalui Consumer Well Being Pada Auto 2000 Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Limantoro, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian Automotive Industry Association shows that the sales volume from January to November 2015 has reached 923 212 units. One car dealer selling car in the data products is the best-selling cars Auto 2000 Auto 2000 Surabaya included in the dealers with high sales figures and continues to rise. The condition indicates that the customer or consumer loyalty towards 2000 Auto Surabaya tend to be high. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the effect of functional related f...

  19. An analysis of regional cerebral blood flow in impulsive murderers using single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Hanks, Chris; Prunella, Jill R; Green, Aisa

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored differences in regional cerebral blood flow in 11 impulsive murderers and 11 healthy comparison subjects using single photon emission computed tomography. The authors assessed subjects at rest and during a computerized go/no-go concentration task. Using statistical parametric mapping software, the authors performed voxel-by-voxel t tests to assess significant differences, making family-wide error corrections for multiple comparisons. Murderers were found to have significantly lower relative rCBF during concentration, particularly in areas associated with concentration and impulse control. These results indicate that nonemotionally laden stimuli may result in frontotemporal dysregulation in people predisposed to impulsive violence.

  20. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  1. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J

    2009-05-01

    Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR=7.17), a family history of suicide (OR=4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR=2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR=1.84-2.42). Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure.

  2. Increased multiaxial lumbar motion responses during multiple-impulse mechanical force manually assisted spinal manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunzburg Robert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal manipulation has been found to create demonstrable segmental and intersegmental spinal motions thought to be biomechanically related to its mechanisms. In the case of impulsive-type instrument device comparisons, significant differences in the force-time characteristics and concomitant motion responses of spinal manipulative instruments have been reported, but studies investigating the response to multiple thrusts (multiple impulse trains have not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine multi-axial segmental and intersegmental motion responses of ovine lumbar vertebrae to single impulse and multiple impulse spinal manipulative thrusts (SMTs. Methods Fifteen adolescent Merino sheep were examined. Tri-axial accelerometers were attached to intraosseous pins rigidly fixed to the L1 and L2 lumbar spinous processes under fluoroscopic guidance while the animals were anesthetized. A hand-held electromechanical chiropractic adjusting instrument (Impulse was used to apply single and repeated force impulses (13 total over a 2.5 second time interval at three different force settings (low, medium, and high along the posteroanterior axis of the T12 spinous process. Axial (AX, posteroanterior (PA, and medial-lateral (ML acceleration responses in adjacent segments (L1, L2 were recorded at a rate of 5000 samples per second. Peak-peak segmental accelerations (L1, L2 and intersegmental acceleration transfer (L1–L2 for each axis and each force setting were computed from the acceleration-time recordings. The initial acceleration response for a single thrust and the maximum acceleration response observed during the 12 multiple impulse trains were compared using a paired observations t-test (POTT, alpha = .05. Results Segmental and intersegmental acceleration responses mirrored the peak force magnitude produced by the Impulse Adjusting Instrument. Accelerations were greatest for AX and PA measurement axes. Compared to

  3. The Effects of Oral d-Amphetamine on Impulsivity in Smoked and Intranasal Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Evans, Suzette M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Effective treatments for cocaine use disorders remain elusive. Two factors that may be related to treatment failures are route of cocaine used and impulsivity. Smoked cocaine users are more likely to have poorer treatment outcomes compared to intranasal cocaine users. Further, cocaine users are impulsive and impulsivity is associated with poor treatment outcomes. While stimulants are used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attenuate certain cocaine-related behaviors, few studies have comprehensively examined whether stimulants can reduce behavioral impulsivity in cocaine users, and none examined route of cocaine use as a factor. METHODS The effects of immediate release oral d-amphetamine (AMPH) were examined in 34 cocaine users (13 intranasal, 21 smoked). Participants had three separate sessions where they were administered AMPH (0, 10, or 20 mg) and completed behavioral measures of impulsivity and risk-taking and subjective measures of abuse liability. RESULTS Smoked cocaine users were more impulsive on the Delayed Memory Task, the GoStop task and the Delay Discounting Task than intranasal cocaine users. Smoked cocaine users also reported more cocaine craving and negative mood than intranasal cocaine users. AMPH produced minimal increases on measures of abuse liability (e.g., Drug Liking). CONCLUSIONS Smoked cocaine users were more impulsive than intranasal cocaine users on measures of impulsivity that had a delay component. Additionally, although AMPH failed to attenuate impulsive responding, there was minimal evidence of abuse liability in cocaine users. These preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger samples that control for route and duration of cocaine use. PMID:27114203

  4. L' approche des options stratégiques des acteurs dans i' etude des relations tu travail

    OpenAIRE

    López Pino, Carmen Marina

    2011-01-01

    Faire une analyse de la proposition analytique développée par le MIT (Masachussetts Institute of Tecnology) inspirée du concept des options stratégiques pour I' objet de cet article. En premier lieu, les sujets traités seront la problematique des relations du travail et les découvertes fondamentales des différentes recherches de I' equipe du MIT. Après, I' étude fait une courte présentatión sur I' approche des systémes de Dunlop dont I' èquipe cherche améliorer. Ensuite, sont présentés...

  5. Stability analysis of impulsive functional differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2009-01-01

    This book is devoted to impulsive functional differential equations which are a natural generalization of impulsive ordinary differential equations (without delay) and of functional differential equations (without impulses). At the present time the qualitative theory of such equationsis under rapid development. After a presentation of the fundamental theory of existence, uniqueness and continuability of solutions, a systematic development of stability theory for that class of problems is given which makes the book unique. It addresses to a wide audience such as mathematicians, applied research

  6. Impulsive phase of solar flares: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the theoretical interpretation of impulsive phase phenomena in solar flares. The impulsive phase is defined to be that period of approx. 10 - 100s duration, during which the flare radiative output undergoes its most rapid, dramatic increase and decrease. The interpretation of the various impulsive phase radiation signatures are examined, including the i) hard x-ray emission, ii) radio emission, iii) UV, Hα and white light emissions and iv) gamma-ray emission. The acceleration mechanisms are discussed with respect to candidate acceleration mechanisms, and the synthesis of the theory and observations. (UK)

  7. Impulse control disorders in Chinese Parkinson's disease patients: the effect of ergot derived dopamine agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, M; Tsoi, T H; Tang, W K; Cheung, C M; Lee, C N; Li, R; Yeung, Eric

    2011-09-01

    We studied the prevalence and related risk factors of impulse control disorders in Chinese Parkinson's disease patients. We screened all non-demented Parkinson's disease patients attending our Parkinson's disease clinic from August 2009 to March 2010. The clinical characteristics of patients with impulse control disorders and those without were compared. Of the 213 PD subjects screened, 15 (7.0%) with impulse control disorders were identified. Fourteen of these subjects were on both a dopamine agonist and Levodopa, and one was on Levodopa alone. Of the fourteen subjects on both a dopamine agonist and Levodopa, eleven were on bromocriptine and Levodopa; 10.5% of the subjects exposed to bromocriptine had impulse control disorder. Upon multivariate analysis, dose of dopamine agonist used, young age at onset of Parkinson's disease and a history of anxiety or depression were independent predictors for developing impulse control disorders. 7% of our Chinese PD subjects had impulse control disorders. When young Parkinson's disease patients with a history of anxiety or depression are treated with high dose of DA, they are at risk of developing impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: A comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (Mage = 12.48; 41.0% male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents’ susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23673971

  9. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  10. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL DAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Limandoko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The word design is a word with different meanings. In the visual communication context it has became part of the team in the communication industry - the world of advertising%2C magazine and newspaper publishing%2C marketing and public relations%2C and%2C indeed%2C it has became one of the influential aspects to shape the behavior of a society and its economic development. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain merupakan sebuah kata dengan banyak makna. Dalam konteks komunikasi visual%2C desain sudah menjadi bagian dari tim dalam industri komunikasi. Dunia advertising%2C publikasi majalah dan suratkabar%2C pemasaran dan public relations%2C dan yang pasti desain juga sudah menjadi salah satu aspek yang berpengaruh dalam membentuk perilaku suatu masyarakat dan perkembangan ekonominya. design%2C designer%2C visual communication design%2C behavior%2C consumer

  11. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1.5 MW Wave Dragon WEC Demonstrator at DanWEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1.5 MW Wave Dragon to extreme conditions typical of the DanWEC test center. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible...

  12. Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

    2011-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P = 0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive

  13. Relationships between trait impulsivity and cognitive control: the effect of attention switching on response inhibition and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait impulsivity and cognitive control, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and a focused attention dichotic listening to words task, respectively. In the task, attention was manipulated in two attention conditions differing in their cognitive control demands: one in which attention was directed to one ear at a time for a whole block of trials (blocked condition) and another in which attention was switched pseudo-randomly between the two ears from trial to trial (mixed condition). Results showed that high impulsivity participants exhibited more false alarm and intrusion errors as well as a lesser ability to distinguish between stimuli in the mixed condition, as compared to low impulsivity participants. In the blocked condition, the performance levels of the two groups were comparable with respect to these measures. In addition, total BIS scores were correlated with intrusions and laterality index in the mixed but not the blocked condition. The findings suggest that high impulsivity individuals may be less prone to attentional difficulties when cognitive load is relatively low. In contrast, when attention switching is involved, high impulsivity is associated with greater difficulty in inhibiting responses and resolving cognitive conflict than is low impulsivity, as reflected in error-prone information processing. The conclusion is that trait impulsivity in a non-clinical population is manifested more strongly when attention switching is required than during maintained attention. This may have important implications for the conceptualization and treatment of impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical populations.

  14. Pathological gambling: an impulse control disorder? Measurement of impulsivity using neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Shoenfeld, Netta; Rosenberg, Oded; Kertzman, Semion; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-04-01

    Pathological gambling is classified in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) as an impulse control disorder. The association between impulsivity and pathological gambling remains a matter of debate: some researchers find high levels of impulsivity within pathological gamblers, others report no difference compared to controls, and yet others even suggest that it is lower. In this review we examine the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity assessed by various neurocognitive tests. These tests--the Stroop task, the Stop Signal Task, the Matching Familiar Figures Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London test, and the Continuous Performance Test--demonstrated less impulsivity in gambling behavior. The differences in performance between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on the neurocognitive tasks could be due to addictive behavior features rather than impulsive behavior.

  15. Gender Differences in University EFL Students' Language Proficiency Corresponding to Self-Rated Attention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines university students' self-reported inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and their relation to performance on a high-stakes English proficiency test while taking gender into consideration. Method: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity attributes were assessed using the Adult Attention…

  16. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  17. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep-Wake State Tradeoffs, Impulsivity and Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary ecological theory predicts that sleep-wake state tradeoffs may be related to local environmental conditions and should therefore correlate to alterations in behavioral life history strategies. It was predicted that firefighters who slept more and reported better quality sleep on average would exhibit lower impulsivity inclinations related to slower life history trajectories. UPPS impulsivity scores and self-reported sleep averages were analyzed and indicated a negative association between sleep variables and urgency and a positive association with premeditation. Perseverance, and in some cases premeditation, however, disclosed an unpredicted marginally significant positive association between increased and emergency nighttime waking-related sleep deprivation. Sensation seeking was not associated with sleep variables, but was strongly associated with number of biological children. This research contributes to understanding the implications of human sleep across ecological and behavioral contexts and implies further research is necessary for constructing evolutionarily oriented measures of impulsivity inclination and its meaning in the context of life history strategies.

  19. Impulsivity and eating behaviour: an examination of subtypes of impulsive behaviour and overeating in healthy females

    OpenAIRE

    Leitch, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of support has shown higher levels of state and trait impulsivity can be found among those individuals prone to developing problematic eating behaviors and obesity. Thus, upon commencing the investigations in this thesis, it was hypothesized that impulsivity is an individual difference implicated in overeating behaviour.\\ud \\ud Increasing information indicates that there are divisions within impulsivity subtypes. Prior to this thesis, studies in the field of eating behaviour had not ...

  20. FUNGSI BAK AIR CIGAROKROK DAN PASIRGOMBONG KAITANNYA DENGAN TAMBANG EMAS COKOTOK ABAD XX The Function of Cigarokrok and Pasirgombong Water Tubs and Its Relation with the History of Cikotok Gold Mining in 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Latifundia

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Tujuan tulisan ini berupaya mengungkap dan mendokumentasikan bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong yang dibangun pada masa kolonial dikaitkan dengan sejarah tambang emas Cikotok. Data diperoleh berdasarkan hasil penelitian  arkeologis tentang  pola persebaran situs-situs di kawasan Kecamatan Cibeber, Kabupaten Lebak, Provinsi Banten pada tahun 2007 dengan metode survei yang dilengkapi studi kepustakaan dan wawancara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dua bak penampung dan pembagi air ini dibangun zaman Belanda bersamaan dengan pembangunan pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Kedua bak air memiliki nilai sejarah dan arkeologi yang masih terus berfungsi dan dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat sampai saat ini. Fungsi bangunan bak air Cigarokrok adalah tempat atau wadah penampung dan pembagi air untuk kebutuhan air bersih sehari-hari bagi warga yang ada di kompleks perumahan dinas perusahaan tambang emas Cikotok, perkantoran tambang emas Cikotok, dan masyarakat sekitar. Sedang fungsi bak air Pasirgombong merupakan bak atau kolam penampung air untuk dialirkan ke mesin (turbin pembangkit listrik tenaga air (PLTA, dan kemudian aliran listrik tersebut disalurkan untuk penggerak mesin-mesin yang terdapat di pabrik tambang emas Cikotok. Selain itu, listrik tersebut dimanfaatkan untuk penerang rumah-rumah penduduk masyarakat Cikotok dan sekitarnya. Bak air Cigarokrok dan bak air Pasirgombong menjadi bukti fisik bangunan masa kejayaan tambang emas Cikotok yang dibangun masa kolonial dengan bentuk dan fungsi masih bertahan dan berlanjut hingga sekarang ini sebagai warisan budaya yang perlu dilestarikan untuk dipelihara dan dilindungi.   Kata Kunci: air, bak air, tambang emas, kawasan Cikotok

  1. Screening for impulse control symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Papay, Kimberly; Siderowf, Andrew

    2013-01-08

    To determine the frequency and correlates of impulse control and related behavior symptoms in patients with de novo, untreated Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs). The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is an international, multisite, case-control clinical study conducted at 21 academic movement disorders centers. Participants were recently diagnosed, untreated PD patients (n = 168) and HCs (n = 143). The outcome measures were presence of current impulse control and related behavior symptoms based on recommended cutoff points for the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP)-Short Form. There were 311 participants with complete QUIP data. Frequencies of impulse control and related behavior symptoms for patients with PD vs HCs were as follows: gambling (1.2% vs. 0.7%), buying (3.0% vs. 2.1%), sexual behavior (4.2% vs. 3.5%), eating (7.1% vs. 10.5%), punding (4.8% vs. 2.1%), hobbyism (5.4% vs. 11.9%), walkabout (0.6% vs. 0.7%), and any impulse control or related behavior (18.5% vs. 20.3%). In multivariable models, a diagnosis of PD was not associated with symptoms of any impulse control or related behavior (p ≥ 0.10 in all cases). PD itself does not seem to confer an increased risk for development of impulse control or related behavior symptoms, which further reinforces the reported association between PD medications and impulse control disorders in PD. Given that approximately 20% of patients with newly diagnosed PD report some impulse control or related behavior symptoms, long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether such patients are at increased risk for impulse control disorder development once PD medications are initiated.

  2. Stability analysis of impulsive parabolic complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinliang, E-mail: wangjinliang1984@yahoo.com.cn [Science and Technology on Aircraft Control Laboratory, School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, XueYuan Road, No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu Huaining [Science and Technology on Aircraft Control Laboratory, School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, XueYuan Road, No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Two impulsive parabolic complex network models are proposed. > The global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. > The robust global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. - Abstract: In the present paper, two kinds of impulsive parabolic complex networks (IPCNs) are considered. In the first one, all nodes have the same time-varying delay. In the second one, different nodes have different time-varying delays. Using the Lyapunov functional method combined with the inequality techniques, some global exponential stability criteria are derived for the IPCNs. Furthermore, several robust global exponential stability conditions are proposed to take uncertainties in the parameters of the IPCNs into account. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  3. Position Localization with Impulse Ultra Wide Band

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Guoping; Rao, S. V

    2005-01-01

    ...) bias and clock jittering error of TDOA measurement. In our prototype design, we exploit impulse UWB techniques to implement a very low cost localization system that can achieve centimeters localization for indoor applications...

  4. Stability analysis of impulsive parabolic complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinliang; Wu Huaining

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Two impulsive parabolic complex network models are proposed. → The global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. → The robust global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. - Abstract: In the present paper, two kinds of impulsive parabolic complex networks (IPCNs) are considered. In the first one, all nodes have the same time-varying delay. In the second one, different nodes have different time-varying delays. Using the Lyapunov functional method combined with the inequality techniques, some global exponential stability criteria are derived for the IPCNs. Furthermore, several robust global exponential stability conditions are proposed to take uncertainties in the parameters of the IPCNs into account. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  5. Quantum Fluctuations for Gravitational Impulsive Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Ozdemir, N.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations for a massless scalar field in the background metric of spherical impulsive gravitational waves through Minkowski and de Sitter spaces are investigated. It is shown that there exist finite fluctuations for de Sitter space.

  6. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ranjan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.

  7. POINT-OF-PURCHASE SIGNS, IMPULSE PURCHASES, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE "DESIRE TO TOUCH"

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry

    2000-01-01

    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  8. Impulsive social influence increases impulsive choices on a temporal discounting task in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18-25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence.

  9. Impulsive Social Influence Increases Impulsive Choices on a Temporal Discounting Task in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Stoeckel, Luke E.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented) peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits) when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment) and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment) choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18–25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence. PMID:24988440

  10. Project NEO Specific Impulse Testing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffa, Bill

    2018-01-01

    The Neo test stand is currently configured to fire a horizontally mounted rocket motor with up to 6500 lbf thrust. Currently, the Neo test stand can measure flow of liquid propellant and oxidizer, pressures residing in the closed system up to the combustion chamber. The current configuration does not have the ability to provide all data needed to compute specific impulse. This presents three methods to outfit the NEO test fixture with instrumentation allowing for calculation of specific impulse.

  11. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  12. Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1997-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)

  13. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  14. Impulsive nature in collisional driven reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1995-11-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. In the impulsive phase, the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up to more than ten times of the driving rate on the boundary. (author)

  15. TANGKI SEPTIK DAN MASALAHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manusia yang sehat tiap hari membuang tinja yang harus ditampung dan/atau diolah secara saniter. Meskipun Indonesia telah 55 tahun merdeka dan telah memiliki banyak ahli sanitasi/teknik penyehatan baik lulusan dalam maupun luar negeri, namun cara pengelolaan tinja yang ada kebanyakan masih belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Tangki septik dianggap sebagai cara penampungan tinja yang terbaik, padahal sebenarnya masih terjadi pencemaran tanah dan air melalui saluran perembesan.Tangki septik (septic tank merupakan salah satu macam sarana pengolahan tinja manusia yang pada garis besarnya terdiri dari sebuah tangki pembusukan lumpur (sludge digester dan saluran perembesan efluen. Tangki pembusukan harus memenuhi syarat mengenai perbandingan panjang dan lebar serta syarat kedalaman maksimum dan minimum, agar pembusukan lumpur dari tinja manusia dapat berjalan sempurna malahan tidak berbau busuk lagi.

  16. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics: differences in self-report measures and a discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, G; D'haene, P; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison group. The European Addiction Severity Index was used to assess substance-related problems and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Dutch version of the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were used to assess impulsive and aggressive traits. Impulsive decision making was assessed using a delay discounting task (DDT) with hypothetical monetary rewards. Participants were EOAs (n = 42) and LOAs (n = 46) recruited from an addiction treatment centre and an unmatched, non-substance-abusing comparison group (n = 54). Findings The EOAs had higher levels of impulsive decision making than both the LOAs and the comparison group. The EOAs had higher scores than the LOAs on measures of impulsiveness, aggressiveness and the severity of substance-related problems. This study provides evidence that EOAs are more impulsive and aggressive than LOAs. Further identification of alcoholism subtypes based on dimensions of impulsivity should be considered in the light of their relationship with pharmacological and behavioural treatment interventions.

  17. Impulse control disorders in advanced Parkinson's disease with dyskinesia: The ALTHEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biundo, Roberta; Weis, Luca; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Cortelli, Pietro; Jori, Maria Cristina; Lopiano, Leonardo; Marconi, Roberto; Matinella, Angela; Morgante, Francesca; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Tamburini, Tiziano; Tinazzi, Michele; Zappia, Mario; Vorovenci, Ruxandra Julia; Antonini, Angelo

    2017-11-01

    Impulse control disorders and dyskinesia are common and disabling complications of dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease. They may coexist and are possibly related. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and severity of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients with dyskinesia. The ALTHEA study enrolled 251 Parkinson's disease patients with various degrees of dyskinesia severity from 11 movement disorders centers in Italy. Each patient underwent a comprehensive assessment including Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale and the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson Disease-Rating Scale. There was an overall 55% frequency of impulse control disorder and related behaviors (36% were clinically significant). The positive patients were younger at disease diagnosis and onset and had higher Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale historical and total score (P = 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively, vs negative). There was an increased frequency of clinically significant impulse control disorders in patients with severe dyskinesia (P = 0.013), a positive correlation between the questionnaire total score and dopamine agonist dose (P = 0.018), and a trend with levodopa dose. More than half of Parkinson's disease patients with dyskinesia have impulse control disorders and related behaviors, which are frequently clinically significant. Dopaminergic therapy total dose is associated with their severity. Clinicians should carefully assess patients with maladaptive behaviors and dyskinesia because they do not properly evaluate their motor and nonmotor status. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Differences in Inhibitory Control between Impulsive and Premeditated Aggression in Juvenile Inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control dysfunction was considered a universal characteristic of violent offenders. The aim of this study was to examine differences in inhibitory control between two subtypes of violent youth; those displaying predominantly impulsive and those presenting predominantly premeditated aggression (PM. Forty-four juvenile offenders, defined on the basis of the Procedures for the Classification of Aggressive/Violent Acts (Stanford and Barratt, 2001 participated (N = 23: impulsive; N = 21 premeditated. A visual Go/NoGo task was used to compare behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs between groups. The task contained two letters (W and M, W was the Go stimulus and M the NoGo stimulus. The impulsive youth showed a significantly greater decrease in N2 latency for Go relative to NoGo trials than the premeditated aggressive youth. The differentiation in N2 amplitude between Go and NoGo (N2d was negatively correlated with impulsivity of aggression. Both groups showed no significant central NoGo P3. Our findings suggest that impulsive violent youth show stronger prepotent responses and impaired conflict monitoring during early inhibitory control processing relative to premeditated aggressive youth. Both impulsive and premeditated violent youth may show impaired response inhibition at the late processing stage of inhibitory control.

  19. Dampak Sosial Ekonomi dan Peran Pemerintah Daerah dalam Perkembangan Teknologi Pitalebar di Indonesia [Social Economy Impact and Local Government Initiative relating to Broadband Technology Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirianto Pradono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia memiliki aset yang berperan penting bagi pembangunan nasional termasuk sosial dan ekonomi antara lain sumber daya manusia dan industri dalam negeri. TIK khususnya internet pitalebar merupakan salah satu kunci dalam pembangunan sosial ekonomi di suatu negara. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana dampak pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia terhadap aspek sosial ekonomi masyarakat serta mengidentifikasi apakah langkah yang telah dilakukan pemerintah daerah dalam mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar telah dilakukan secara optimal. Data yang diperoleh melalui penelitian dianalisis menggunakan metode Matthew B Miles dan A Michael Huberman, (2007. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan internet pitalebar di Indonesia meningkat dengan signifikan dan memberikan dampak positif terhadap pertumbuhan sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan internet pitalebar tersebut belum dilakukan secara optimal terutama untuk tujuan yang bersifat produktif. Pemerintah daerah telah melakukan sejumlah langkah strategis untuk mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia seperti penggelaran ducting untuk kabel serat optik, pelatihan bidang TIK, penyediaan akses internet WiFi di fasilitas publik. Namun, langkah yang dilakukan pemerintah daerah perlu lebih diintensifkan guna memperluas penetrasi internet pitalebar untuk peningkatan dan pemerataan pertumbuhan sosial dan ekonomi masyarakat Indonesia.*****Indonesia has invaluable assets which are important to the national development. Those assets need to be managed properly in order to deliver significant contribution to the national development, especially in social and economy aspects. Nowadays, Information and Communication Technology (ICT, especially broadband internet, is one of some key points in social economy development in a country. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in this study to capture broadband internet utilization in Indonesia and identify

  20. [Repetitive impulse-associated behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists.

  1. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impulsivity makes more susceptible to overeating after contextual appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Karolien; Jansen, Anita; Frentz, Florentine; Havermans, Remco C

    2013-11-01

    Animals can learn that specific contexts are associated with important biological events such as food intake through classical conditioning. Very few studies suggest this is also possible in humans and contextual appetitive conditioning might even be a main determinant of habitual overeating in vulnerable humans. A Virtual Reality laboratory was used to test whether humans show conditioned responding (increased food desires and expectations, increased salivation and increased food intake) to a specific context after repeated pairings of this context with intake. It was also examined whether the personality trait impulsivity strengthens this contextual appetitive conditioning. Conditioned context-induced reactivity was indeed demonstrated and impulsivity predicted increased intake in only the intake-associated context. It is concluded that humans easily learn desires to eat in intake-related environments. The data also suggest that in particular more impulsive people are vulnerable for conditioned context-induced overeating. This relatively easy learning of associations between specific contexts and intake might stimulate habitual overeating and contribute to increased obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In study 1, we surveyed narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency among an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated wi...

  4. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  5. The Effect of an Impulsive Personality on Overeating and Obesity: Current State of Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Guerrieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide obesity epidemic brings with it health-related, psychological and social problems and consequently a dramatic increase in health costs. Something needs to be done to stop or even reverse this trend and psychological and environmental factors seem to be our best bet. One psychological factor with potential is impulsivity. Research in populations that typically overeat (the obese and Bulimia Nervosa patients, in populations that are typically impulsive (e.g. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients and in healthy participants has indeed begun to indicate that impulsivity plays a role in the problem of overeating. However, more research including actual food intake and true experimental research is needed to conclude that impulsivity actually causes overeating in the short term and possibly overweight or even obesity in the long run.

  6. Amplitude-measuring devices for electric pulses in the nanosecond region; Dispositifs de mesure d'amplitude d'impulsions electriques dans le domaine de la nanoseconde; Pribory dlya izmereniya amplitudy ehlektricheskikh impul'sov v sfere nanosekundy; Dispositivos para medir la amplitud de los impulsos electricos en la region del nanosegundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samueli, J J; Sarazin, A [Institut d' Etudes Nucleaires d' Alger (France)

    1962-04-15

    Two electronic circuits are described which permit measurement of the maximum amplitude of fast pulses. These circuits are usually required, if possible, to give independent indication of the duration and shape of the signal being studied. The first circuit is a pulse expander, i.e. an apparatus for converting fast signals into pulses of constant width and of amplitude proportional to the amplitude sought, thus permitting the study of fast signals with a conventional amplitude selector. The circuit can accept signals of width greater than two nanoseconds and of amplitude between 1 and 15 V. It delivers two signals of constant width 100 ns and 1 {mu}s. The second circuit is a fast amplitude-discriminator with an adjustable threshold from 1 to 30 V and a reading space of approximately 18% for pulses of 100 and 2 ns. The output signal has an amplitude of 1.5 V and a standard width of 0.2 {mu}s. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent deux circuits electroniques permettant d'effectuer des mesures d'amplitude maximum d'impulsions rapides. On demande en general a ces circuits de donner une indication independante, si possible, de la duree et de la forme du signal etudie. Le premier circuit est un allongeur d'impulsions, c'est-a-dire un appareil qui convertit des signaux rapides en impulsions de largeur constante et d'amplitude proportionnelle a l'amplitude cherchee et qui permet donc l'etude des signaux rapides par un selecteur d'amplitude conventionnel. Le circuit accepte des signaux de largeur superieure a 2 ns et d'amplitude comprise entre 1 et 15 V. Il delivre deux signaux de largeur constante, 100 ns et 1 {mu}s. Le second circuit est un discriminateur d'amplitude rapide, de seuil ajustable de 1 a 30 V et dont l'ecart de lecture pour des impulsions de largeur de 100 et 2 ns est de l'ordre de 18%. Le signal de sortie a une amplitude de 1,5 V et une largeur standard de 0,2 {mu}s. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen dos circuitos electronicos que permiten medir la

  7. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  8. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [(123)I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. The [(123)I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications.

  9. PERMASALAHAN DAN POTENSI PESISIR DI KABUPATEN SAMPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available SAMPANG’S COASTAL PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS One area that has progressive economic value and environmental degradation possibility is a dynamic areas of coastal areas. These characteristics is interesting in the perspective of management and utilization of marine resources and fisheries. The rapid development of the Sampang regency required the government to focus and provide greater attention to minimize the ecological pressures that affect the carrying capacity of the environment, particularly in coastal areas. This study aims to gather information about the problem and the potential that exists in coastal areas of Sampang. Data taken by interviewing respondents lived in coastal communities during April 2015 and the results of the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. The problems identified include land requirement, the overlapping use, the threat of pollution and environmental degradation, and zoning; whereas the potential that exists include salt, marine tourism, mariculture, and the development of industrial areas and ports. The potential problems identified in coastal areas and beaches in Sampang relatively identical to the Bangkalan. It needs a comprehensive solution to minimize the existing impact as well as efforts to optimize utilization to achieve integrated coastal zone management.Keywords: coastal, CZM, problem, potential, Sampang ABSTRAKSalah satu wilayah yang memiliki nilai ekonomi progresif sekaligus peluang degradasi lingkungan sehingga disebut daerah dinamis adalah wilayah pantai dan pesisir. Karakteristik ini menjadi sesuatu yang menarik dalam perspektif pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumberdaya kelautan dan perikanan. Pesatnya perkembangan tersebut menuntut pemerintah kabupaten Sampang untuk focus dan memberikan perhatian lebih besar sebagai upaya untuk meminimalkan tekanan ekologis yang berpengaruh terhadap daya dukung lingkungan, khususnya di wilayah pesisir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan informasi

  10. Proficient motor impulse control in Parkinson disease patients with impulsive and compulsive behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, D.O.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.; Harrison, M.B.; van Wouwe, N.C.; Kanoff, K.; Neimat, J.S.; Wylie, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopamine agonist therapy can develop maladaptive reward-driven behaviors, known as impulse control disorder (ICD). In this study, we assessed if ICD patients have evidence of motor-impulsivity. METHODS: We used the stop-signal task in a cohort

  11. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Novia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross sectional. Research used Cluster Analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis. Data processing was performed using SPSS software for Windows version 20. Research found that customers of Gaudi were divided into three groups: the way of the world, sufficient money, and promotions. Then, research found that visual merchandising affected impulsive buying. In addition, there visual merchandising had also an effect on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable. As a conclusion, moderating variable strengthens the effect of visual merchandising on impulse buying.

  12. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  13. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13–18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale -11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal

  14. Keragaman dan Peran Biologi Arthrophoda pada Sawah Irigasi dan Tegalan

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman arthropoda dan peran biologinya pada tanah sawah irigasi dan tegalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di daerah persawahan di daerah Sragen pada bulan Maret – Mei 2016. Metode Penelitian dengan menggunakan pitfall trap atau perangkap jebakan yang diletakkan area persawahan dan tegalan. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Sampel arthropoda yang diperoleh diidentifikasi dan dianalisis di Laboratorium pendidikan Biologi. ...

  15. The Subthalamic Nucleus, Limbic Function, and Impulse Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P Justin; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN.

  16. Quantum calculus new concepts, impulsive IVPs and BVPs, inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Bashir; Tariboon, Jessada

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to extend the scope of the q-calculus based on the definition of q-derivative [Jackson (1910)] to make it applicable to dense domains. As a matter of fact, Jackson's definition of q-derivative fails to work for impulse points while this situation does not arise for impulsive equations on q-time scales as the domains consist of isolated points covering the case of consecutive points. In precise terms, we study quantum calculus on finite intervals.In the first part, we discuss the concepts of qk-derivative and qk-integral, and establish their basic properties. As applications, we study initial and boundary value problems of impulsive qk-difference equations and inclusions equipped with different kinds of boundary conditions. We also transform some classical integral inequalities and develop some new integral inequalities for convex functions in the context of qk-calculus. In the second part, we develop fractional quantum calculus in relation to a new qk-shifting operator and e...

  17. Clinical aspects of impulsive compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamshidian, Atbin; Averbeck, Bruno B; Lees, Andrew J; O'Sullivan, Sean S

    2011-11-15

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviours (ICBs) are an increasingly well-recognised adverse-effect of dopaminergic medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. ICBs include pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive buying, and binge eating, together with punding and the addiction-like compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The prevalence of ICBs was approximately 14% in a large study undertaken in specialist movement disorder clinics. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome is more associated with compulsive l-dopa use, whereas other ICBs are more linked with oral dopamine agonist use. Other mechanisms implicated in the development and perpetuation of ICBs in PD include aberrant learning from reward-related situations, including decreased learning from negative feedback, increased measures of impulsivity or sensation seeking, and strong preference for immediate over future rewards. Treatment options for impulsive-compulsive behaviours include pharmacological, surgical and psychological interventions. The early recognition and prevention of ICBs, coupled with awareness of clinical risk factors for the development of these behaviours is of paramount importance, given the lack of specific treatments for these sometimes debilitating behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex modulates approach systems and impulsivity in substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert I; Krmpotich, Theodore; Thompson, Laetitia L; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody

    2013-11-01

    Personality traits such as pathological engagement in approach behaviors, high levels of impulsivity and heightened negative affect are consistently observed in substance dependent individuals (SDI). The clinical course of addiction has been shown to differ between sexes. For example, women increase their rates of consumption of some drugs of abuse more quickly than men. Despite the potential influence of personality and sex on features of addiction, few studies have investigated the interaction of these factors in substance dependence. Fifty-one SDI (26 males, 25 females) and 66 controls (41 males, 25 females) completed the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X). Data were analyzed with 2×2 ANCOVAs testing for main effects of group, sex and group by sex interactions, adjusting for education level. Significant group by sex interactions were observed for BAS scores [F(1,116)=7.03, pImpulsiveness [F(1,116)=6.11, pimpulsivity followed by male SDI, male controls, and finally female controls. SDI scored higher on negative affect [F(1,116)=25.23, pwomen than men [F(1,116)=14.03, pimpulsivity in SDI women relative to SDI men and control women suggest that personality traits that have been previously associated with drug use may be modulated by sex. These factors may contribute to differences in the disease course observed in male compared to female drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A TVSCAD approach for image deblurring with impulsive noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guoyong; Jiang, Suhong; Yang, Junfeng

    2017-12-01

    We consider image deblurring problem in the presence of impulsive noise. It is known that total variation (TV) regularization with L1-norm penalized data fitting (TVL1 for short) works reasonably well only when the level of impulsive noise is relatively low. For high level impulsive noise, TVL1 works poorly. The reason is that all data, both corrupted and noise free, are equally penalized in data fitting, leading to insurmountable difficulty in balancing regularization and data fitting. In this paper, we propose to combine TV regularization with nonconvex smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalty for data fitting (TVSCAD for short). Our motivation is simply that data fitting should be enforced only when an observed data is not severely corrupted, while for those data more likely to be severely corrupted, less or even null penalization should be enforced. A difference of convex functions algorithm is adopted to solve the nonconvex TVSCAD model, resulting in solving a sequence of TVL1-equivalent problems, each of which can then be solved efficiently by the alternating direction method of multipliers. Theoretically, we establish global convergence to a critical point of the nonconvex objective function. The R-linear and at-least-sublinear convergence rate results are derived for the cases of anisotropic and isotropic TV, respectively. Numerically, experimental results are given to show that the TVSCAD approach improves those of the TVL1 significantly, especially for cases with high level impulsive noise, and is comparable with the recently proposed iteratively corrected TVL1 method (Bai et al 2016 Inverse Problems 32 085004).

  20. Be quick about it. Endogenous estradiol level, menstrual cycle phase and trait impulsiveness predict impulsive choice in the context of reward acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Variations in the steroid hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2) may promote intra-individual differences in reward seeking behavior and temporal decision-making (Reimers et al., 2014; Front. Neurosci. 8: 401). Yet, in humans the exact role of E2 in impulsive choice still needs to be determined. The present study assessed the effect of a cycle-dependent rise in endogenous E2 on temporal response adaptation across the follicular phase (FP). For this purpose a reward acquisition paradigm was employed that is sensitive to hormone-induced changes in central dopamine (DA) level. The present data show that women acted more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late FP. Early follicular E2 further correlated with an increased capacity to speed up for reward maximization, while simultaneously the ability to wait for higher reward was compromised. This correlation was most pronounced in women with low trait impulsiveness. In contrast, E2 and optimized response speed failed to correlate in women with high trait impulsiveness and in the late FP, despite a generally higher E2 level. Collectively, these findings support the theory that E2 may act as an endogenous DA agonist. The fact that the hormone-behavior relationship was restricted to women with low trait impulsiveness and thus supposedly lower central DA level provides indirect support for this idea. Yet, choices became relatively less impulsive in the state of heightened E2 (i.e., in the late FP), suggesting that the relationship between E2 and impulsive choice may not be linear, but might resemble an inverted U-function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventral striatal D2/3 receptor availability is associated with impulsive choice behavior as well aslimbic corticostriatal connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Rebecca L; Gorges, Martin; Wearn, Alfie; Niessen, Heiko G; Kassubek, Jan; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Pekcec, Anton

    2018-03-15

    Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards. Corticostriatal D2/3 receptor availability was measured in rats stratified for high-, and low-impulsivity using in-vivo [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET) and ex-vivo [3H]raclopride autoradiography. Resting-state functional connectivity in limbic corticostriatal networks was also assessed using fMRI. DDT impulsivity was inversely related to D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb core but not the dorsal striatum with higher D2/3 binding in the NAcb shell of high-impulsive rats compared with low-impulsive rats. D2/3 receptor availability was associated with stronger connectivity between the cingulate cortex and hippocampus of high versus low impulsive rats. We conclude that DDT impulsivity is associated with low D2/3 receptor binding in the NAcb core. Thus two related forms of waiting impulsivity - premature responding and delay intolerance in a delay-of-reward task - implicate an involvement of D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb shell and core, respectively. This dissociation may be causal or consequential to enhanced functional connectivity of limbic brain circuitry and hold relevance for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  2. Relation de service, rapport social de service. Quelle grille d’analyse ? Analysing service relationships and service-based social relationships Relación de servicio, vínculo social de servicio. ¿Qué modelo analítico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tiffon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le débat Employé par E. Hughes et W. F. Whyte, puis théorisé par E. Goffman dans Asiles, le concept de « relation de service » est progressivement devenu incontournable dans les recherches sur les services, que ce soit en sociologie, sous l’impulsion d’I. Joseph, ou dans les sciences sociales en général – économie, ergonomie, gestion, etc. Son usage n’est pourtant pas neutre : renvoyant aux échanges qui se nouent entre personnels de contact et destinataires du service, il donne lieu à des ana...

  3. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  4. Impulse control disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Napier, T Celeste; Frank, Michael J; Sgambato-Faure, Veronique; Grace, Anthony A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria; Obeso, Jose; Bezard, Erwan; Fernagut, Pierre-Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Dopaminergic medications used in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease are associated with motor and non-motor behavioural side-effects, such as dyskinesias and impulse control disorders also known as behavioural addictions. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias occur in up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's after a few years of chronic treatment. Impulse control disorders, including gambling disorder, binge eating disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour, and compulsive shopping occur in about 17% of patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine agonists. These behaviours reflect the interactions of the dopaminergic medications with the individual's susceptibility, and the underlying neurobiology of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonian rodent models show enhanced reinforcing effects of chronic dopaminergic medication, and a potential role for individual susceptibility. In patients with Parkinson's disease and impulse control disorders, impairments are observed across subtypes of decisional impulsivity, possibly reflecting uncertainty and the relative balance of rewards and losses. Impairments appear to be more specific to decisional than motor impulsivity, which might reflect differences in ventral and dorsal striatal engagement. Emerging evidence suggests impulse control disorder subtypes have dissociable correlates, which indicate that individual susceptibility predisposes towards the expression of different behavioural subtypes and neurobiological substrates. Therapeutic interventions to treat patients with Parkinson's disease and impulse control disorders have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Large-scale studies are warranted to identify individual risk factors and novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mechanisms underlying impulse control disorders and dyskinesias could provide crucial insights into other behavioural symptoms in Parkinson's disease and addictions in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Impulse control disorders and depression in Finnish patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Martikainen, Kirsti; Vahlberg, Tero; Voon, Valerie; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2012-02-01

    Impulse control disorders occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the frequencies have been investigated mainly in patients from secondary or tertiary care centers, and thus, the prevalence rates in general community are not known. Our objective was to study the prevalence rates of impulse control disorders and related factors in a large, non-selected sample of Parkinson's disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among Parkinson's disease patients from Finnish Parkinson Association [n = 575; 365 men, 240 women, median age 64 (range 43-90) years]. Problem and pathological gambling were estimated with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, risk for impulse control disorders with the validated Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease, and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of pathological gambling was 7.0%. The overall frequency of a positive screen for an impulse control disorder was 34.8%, and 12.5% of the patients screened positive for multiple disorders. Depressive symptoms were statistically the most important factor in explaining variance in impulse control disorder risk, even more than sex, age, age of disease onset, alcohol use, or medication. The high proportion of patients screened positive for impulse control disorders in a non-selected sample emphasize the importance of routine screening of these disorders in Parkinson's disease. Pathological gambling prevalence in Parkinson's disease is seven times higher than in the general population in Finland. The results underline the importance of depression in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual Differences in Cognitive Control Circuit Anatomy Link Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinshead, Marisa O.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals vary widely in their tendency to seek stimulation and act impulsively, early developing traits with genetic origins. Failures to regulate these behaviors increase risk for maladaptive outcomes including substance abuse. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus (n = 1015). These associations generalized to self-reported motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group (n = 219), and correlated with heightened alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine use. Critically, the relations between sensation seeking and brain structure were evident in participants without a history of alcohol or tobacco use, suggesting that observed associations with anatomy are not solely a consequence of substance use. These results demonstrate that individual differences in the tendency to seek stimulation, act on impulse, and engage in substance use are correlated with the anatomical structure of cognitive control circuitry. Our findings suggest that, in healthy populations, covariation across these complex multidimensional behaviors may in part originate from a common underlying biology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impaired cognitive control may result in a tendency to seek stimulation impulsively and an increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, including substance abuse. Here, we examined the structural correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in a large cohort of healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus. The observed associations generalized to motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group

  7. Specific cognitive-neurophysiological processes predict impulsivity in the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, A; Roessner, V; Beste, C

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. This is all the more the case when patients with the ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C) are considered who are characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with source localization analyses, we examined what information processing stages are dysfunctional in ADHD-C (n = 20) compared with controls (n = 18). Patients with ADHD-C made more impulsive errors in a Go/No-go task than healthy controls. Neurophysiologically, different subprocesses from perceptual gating to attentional selection, resource allocation and response selection processes are altered in this patient group. Perceptual gating, stimulus-driven attention selection and resource allocation processes were more pronounced in ADHD-C, are related to activation differences in parieto-occipital networks and suggest attentional filtering deficits. However, only response selection processes, associated with medial prefrontal networks, predicted impulsive errors in ADHD-C. Although the clinical picture of ADHD-C is complex and a multitude of processing steps are altered, only a subset of processes seems to directly modulate impulsive behaviour. The present findings improve the understanding of mechanisms underlying impulsivity in patients with ADHD-C and might help to refine treatment algorithms focusing on impulsivity.

  8. Treatment, alcoholics anonymous, and 16-year changes in impulsivity and legal problems among men and women with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2009-09-01

    The link between impulsive personality traits and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is well established. No studies, however, have investigated whether receipt of help for AUDs predicts change in impulsivity or whether such change is associated with relevant outcomes such as legal problems. The present study examined predictive associations between the duration of help for AUDs (Alcoholics Anonymous [AA], professional treatment) and impulsivity and legal problems over 16 years in men and women with AUDs. Participants who were initially untreated for their AUDs (n(men) = 332, n(women) = 296) completed follow-up telephone interviews at 1 and 16 years after their baseline assessment. Impulsivity and legal problems declined between baseline and the 1-year and 16-year follow-ups among both women and men. A longer duration of participation in AA predicted a decline in impulsivity at both follow-up assessments, and, in turn, a decline in impulsivity predicted a decline in legal problems at Years 1 and 16. In addition, a longer duration of participation in AA predicted fewer legal problems at Year 1, and this association was moderated by gender (significant in men) and impulsivity (significant for individuals with higher baseline scores). The results highlight the potential for AA and professional treatment to reduce the expression of impulsivity and related disinhibitory traits and legal problems in individuals with AUDs.

  9. The development of shock wave overpressure driven by channel expansion of high current impulse discharge arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jia-ming; Li, Lee; Dai, Hong-yu; Wu, Hai-bo; Peng, Ming-yang; Lin, Fu-chang

    2018-03-01

    During the formation of a high current impulse discharge arc, objects near the discharge arc will be strongly impacted. In this paper, a high power, high current gas switch is used as the site of the impulse discharge arc. The explosion wave theory and the arc channel energy balance equation are introduced to analyze the development of the shock wave overpressure driven by the high current impulse discharge arc, and the demarcation point of the arc channel is given, from which the energy of the arc channel is no longer converted into shock waves. Through the analysis and calculation, it is found that the magnitude of the shock wave overpressure caused by impulse discharge arc expansion is closely related to the arc current rising rate. The arc shock wave overpressure will undergo a slow decay process and then decay rapidly. The study of this paper will perform the function of deepening the understanding of the physical nature of the impulse arc discharge, which can be used to explain the damage effect of the high current impulse discharge arc.

  10. Suicidality in Bipolar Disorder: The Role of Emotion-Triggered Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S; Tharp, Jordan A

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of research suggests that impulsive responses to emotion more robustly predict suicidality than do other forms of impulsivity. This issue has not yet been examined within bipolar disorder, however. Participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (n = 133) and control participants (n = 110) diagnosed with no mood or psychotic disorder completed self-report measures of emotion-triggered impulsivity (Negative and Positive Urgency Scales) and interviews concerning lifetime suicidality. Analyses examined the effects of emotion-triggered impulsivity alone and in combination with gender, age of onset, depression severity, comorbid anxiety, comorbid substance use, and medication. A history of suicide ideation and attempts, as well as self-harm, were significantly more common in the bipolar disorder group compared with the control group. Impulsive responses to positive emotions related to suicide ideation, attempts, and self-harm within the bipolar group. Findings extend research on the importance of emotion-triggered impulsivity to a broad range of key outcomes within bipolar disorder. The discussion focuses on limitations and potential clinical implications. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. The role of impulsivity in the association between childhood trauma and dissociative psychopathology: mediation versus moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Ginzburg, Karni; Kramer, Lilach

    2012-03-30

    Previous studies on survivors of childhood trauma documented associations between psychological dysregulation, impulsivity, and both behavioral and emotional manifestations of distress. Yet, the mechanism that links these variables remains unclear. The current study aims to examine the pattern of relations between a history of child abuse, impulsivity and dissociation. More specifically, it examines whether impulsivity serves as a moderator or mediator in the association between childhood trauma and dissociation. Eighty-one inpatients from the acute wards of two psychiatric hospitals participated in this study. Data were collected by clinician-administered questionnaires. A highly significant linear hierarchical regression analysis revealed that both psychiatric comorbidity and childhood trauma made unique contributions to the variance of dissociation. Yet, the significant association between childhood trauma and dissociation decreased when impulsivity was entered into the regression model. Our findings suggest that impulsivity mediates the association between childhood trauma and dissociative psychopathology and imply that the identification and treatment of impulsivity could be a potentially valuable clinical target in individuals with dissociative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examination of the heterogeneity in PTSD and impulsivity facets: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Caldas, Stephanie; Weiss, Nicole H; Armour, Cherie

    2018-04-15

    The experience of traumatizing events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology relates to a range of impulsive behaviors. While both PTSD and impulsivity are heterogeneous and multidimensional constructs, no research has used person-centered approaches to examine subgroups of individuals based on these response endorsements. Hence, our study examined PTSD-impulsivity typologies and their construct validity in two samples: university students ( n = 412) and community participants recruited through Amazon's MTurk ( n = 346). Measures included the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (PTEs), PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PTSD severity), UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). Dimensions of Anger Reaction Scale (anger), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression). For both samples, results of latent profile analyses indicated a best-fitting 3-class solution: High, Moderate, and Low PTSD-Negative Urgency. Negative urgency was the most distinguishing impulsivity facet. Anger and depression severity significantly predicted membership in the more severe symptomatology classes. Thus, individuals can be meaningfully categorized into three subgroups based on PTSD and impulsivity item endorsements. We provide some preliminary evidence for a negative urgency subtype of PTSD characterized by greater depression and anger regulation difficulties; and underscore addressing emotional regulation skills for these subgroup members.

  14. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  15. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  16. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  17. Impulsivity and Concussion in Juvenile Rats: Examining Molecular and Structural Aspects of the Frontostriatal Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Hehar

    Full Text Available Impulsivity and poor executive control have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Similarly, concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and the development of impulsivity and inattention. Researchers and epidemiologists have therefore considered whether or not concussions induce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, or merely unmask impulsive tendencies that were already present. The purpose of this study was to determine if a single concussion in adolescence could induce ADHD-like impulsivity and impaired response inhibition, and subsequently determine if inherent impulsivity prior to a pediatric mTBI would exacerbate post-concussion symptomology with a specific emphasis on impulsive and inattentive behaviours. As these behaviours are believed to be associated with the frontostriatal circuit involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, the expression patterns of 8 genes (Comt, Drd2, Drd3, Drd4, Maoa, Sert, Tph1, and Tph2 from these two regions were examined. In addition, Golgi-Cox staining of medium spiny neurons in the NAc provided a neuroanatomical examination of mTBI-induced structural changes. The study found that a single early brain injury could induce impulsivity and impairments in response inhibition that were more pronounced in males. Interestingly, when animals with inherent impulsivity experienced mTBI, injury-related deficits were exacerbated in female animals. The single concussion increased dendritic branching, but reduced synaptic density in the NAc, and these changes were likely associated with the increase in impulsivity. Finally, mTBI-induced impulsivity was associated with modifications to gene expression that differed dramatically from the gene expression pattern associated with inherent impulsivity, despite very similar behavioural phenotypes. Our

  18. INTERVENSI KOGNITIF DAN PENDEKATAN RANTAI NILAI DALAM PENINGKATAN PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI DI USAHA KECIL DAN MENENGAH DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK di usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM di Indonesia masih pada tingkat yang belum sesuai harapan. Mempertimbangkan bahwa UKM di Indonesia banyak menyerap tenaga kerja dan menyumbang pendapatan nasional yang cukup besar, serta melihat bahwa pemanfaatan TIK di banyak industri besar telah membawa peningkatan performansi yang cukup signifikan,  peningkatan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM merupakan hal yang penting untuk dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk memetakan tingkat pemanfaatan TIK di UKM dan mengaplikasikan intervensi kognitif dan pendekatan rantai nilai dalam meningkatkan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM. Pemetaan pemanfaatan TIK dilakukan melalui survey dengan menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur dan wawancara yang melibatkan 61 UKM di berbagai bidang di Bandung. Hasil pemetaan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan TIK di UKM sebatas pada tujuan pemasaran produk dan sebatas pada penggunaan website. Kendala utama pemanfaatan TIK di UKM adalah faktor SDM terutama berkaitan dengan keterbatasan pengetahuan dan informasi. Berdasarkan hasil pemetaan, selanjutnya, intervensi dilakukan melalui edukasi/kampanye dengan materi mengenai rantai nilai pada 30 UKM yang bergerak di bidang fashion. Hasil intervensi menunjukkan bahwa level pengetahuan dan intensi/kemauan untuk menerapkan TIK di UKM selain untuk kepentingan pemasaran (misalnya untuk perancangan produk dan hubungan dengan pemasok semakin meningkat. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini dibahas lebih lanjut.       Abstract The use of information and communication technology (ICT in small and medium enterprise (SME in Indonesia is at low level. Considering that SME in Indonesia employ a lot of people and contribute to Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as improve performance of industries,  coupled with low level of ICT use in Indonesian SME, ICT’ used in SME must be increased. Therefore, this study aims to map the use of ICT in

  19. Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder: clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Allen, Andrea; Altamura, A Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder (ICBD) is an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviours (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. Despite being described in the 19th century, serious attention to ICBD began only in the last decade with the first epidemiological and pharmacological investigation. Biological, social and psychological factors contribute to the aetiology of ICBD. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are currently considered the more effective interventions in the treatment of ICBD. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of the epidemiology, aetiology, phenomenology and treatment options of ICBD.

  20. Impulsivity and Suicidality in Adolescent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Stewart, Jeremy G; Johnson, Sheri L

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and impulsivity has emerged as a promising marker of risk. The present study tested whether distinct domains of impulsivity are differentially associated with suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Adolescents (n = 381; boys = 106, girls = 275) aged 13-19 years (M = 15.62, SD = 1.41) were recruited from an acute, residential treatment program. Within 48 h of admission to the hospital, participants were administered structured clinical interviews assessing mental health disorders and suicidality. Following these interviews, participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impulsivity. Consistent with past research, an exploratory factor analysis of our 90-item impulsivity instrument resulted in a three-factor solution: Pervasive Influence of Feelings, Feelings Trigger Action, and Lack of Follow-Through. Concurrent analysis of these factors confirmed hypotheses of unique associations with suicide ideation and attempts in the past month. Specifically, whereas Pervasive Influence of Feelings (i.e., tendency for emotions to shape thoughts about the self and the future) is uniquely associated with greater suicidal ideation, Feelings Trigger Action (i.e., impulsive behavioral reactivity to emotions) is uniquely associated with the occurrence of suicide attempts, even after controlling for current psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. Exploratory gender analyses revealed that these effects were significant in female but not male adolescents. These findings provide new insight about how specific domains of impulsivity differentially increase risk for suicide ideation and attempts. Implications for early identification and prevention of youth suicide are discussed.

  1. L’enjeu du régionalisme dans les relations entre les pays émergents. Le cas du Brésil et de l’Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Lauriello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La présente contribution se penche sur la place accordée au régionalisme dans les relations entre les pays dits «émergents» que sont le Brésil et l’Afrique du Sud. La dernière décennie a vu apparaître de nouvelles puissances qui entendent participer à l’édiction des règles régissant le comportement des États sur la scène internationale au même titre que les grandes puissances industrielles traditionnelles. À cette fin, le Brésil et l’Afrique du Sud notamment ont développé une diplomatie active et multi-niveaux et s’accordent mutuellement davantage de place dans leur agenda extérieur. Parmi les différents instruments – bilatéraux, régionaux, et multilatéraux – qu’ils mobilisent, la relation interrégionale apparaît comme un outil parmi d’autres qui vise avant tout à concrétiser leurs aspirations plus globales.

  2. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Xun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders (ICDs in Parkinson's disease (PD are common with a frequency of 13.61% , which are associated with impaired functioning and with depressive, anxiety and obsessive symptoms, novelty seeking and impulsivity. These behaviors have a bad influence on PD patients in the quality of life. Different behavioral subtypes suggest pathophysiological differences. Recent large scale studies and converging findings are beginning to provide an understanding of mechanisms underlying ICDs in PD which can guide the prevention of these behaviors and optimize therapeutic approaches. This paper will take a review on the recent advances in the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy of ICDs in PD.

  3. Minimal Time Problem with Impulsive Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisch, Karl, E-mail: karl.kunisch@uni-graz.at [University of Graz, Institute for Mathematics and Scientific Computing (Austria); Rao, Zhiping, E-mail: zhiping.rao@ricam.oeaw.ac.at [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Radon Institute of Computational and Applied Mathematics (Austria)

    2017-02-15

    Time optimal control problems for systems with impulsive controls are investigated. Sufficient conditions for the existence of time optimal controls are given. A dynamical programming principle is derived and Lipschitz continuity of an appropriately defined value functional is established. The value functional satisfies a Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the viscosity sense. A numerical example for a rider-swing system is presented and it is shown that the reachable set is enlargered by allowing for impulsive controls, when compared to nonimpulsive controls.

  4. Impulse holograms in amorphous semiconductor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A.; Ivanovs, G.; Lazarevs, S.

    2002-01-01

    Impulse hologram recording in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor films with pulse duration from minutes to picoseconds is considered. Nanosecond pulses are shown to be optimal due to the nonlinearity to films. Millisecond impulse hologram recording is experimentally studied. It is found that about 500 times lower exposure is needed to reach the same diffraction efficiency when compared to CW case. The millisecond recording is non-permanent. A nonlinear photoinduced recharging of localized states in the band gap is found to be responsible for the millisecond recording. It can be applied for non-permanent optical storage and optical information processing. (authors)

  5. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  6. The Role of Different Aspects of Impulsivity as Independent Risk Factors for Substance Use Disorders in Patients with ADHD: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortal, Slobodin; van de Glind, Geurt; Johan, Franck; Itai, Berger; Nir, Yachin; Iliyan, Ivanov; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    High impulsivity in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a key role in their vulnerability to substance abuse disorders (SUDs). Although impulsivity is increasingly recognized as a multidimensional construct, efforts to describe the contribution of different impulsivity aspects to the development of SUD have been hindered by conceptual and experimental inconsistencies. This review seeks to map potential trajectories from childhood ADHD to SUD by examining the hypothesized mediating role of three different impulsivity-related constructs: disinhibition, impulsive choice, and sensation seeking. Integration of data from developmental, cognitive, and neurophysiological research suggests that childhood ADHD and SUD are both associated with behavioural and neurophysiological deficits in all three impulsivity-related constructs. Examination of brain mechanisms related to the three impulsivity-related constructs indicates that ADHD share neurophysiological deficits with SUD, such as abnormal brain activity in areas involved in inhibition and complex cognitive-emotional processes. We conclude that different impulsivity constructs operate independently and interact with each other to affect adult risk taking behaviour and SUD in patients with childhood ADHD. This review highlights the current theoretical and methodological challenges in the study of impulsivity and discusses clinical implications and directions for future research.

  7. Binge drinking, reflection impulsivity, and unplanned sexual behavior: impaired decision-making in young social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Julia M; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Griffin, Alison; Hunt, Frances J; Milani, Raffaella M

    2014-04-01

    The repeated pattern of heavy intoxication followed by withdrawal from alcohol (i.e., "binge drinking") has been found to have substantial adverse effects on prefrontal neural systems associated with decision-making and impulse control. Repeated binge drinking has been linked to risky and unplanned sexual behavior; however few studies have examined the role of impulsivity and related cognitive processes in understanding this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking, "reflection impulsivity" (deficits in gathering and evaluating information during decision-making), alcohol-related expectancies, and unplanned sexual behavior in a sample of young social drinkers. Ninety-two university students completed the alcohol use questionnaire (AUQ) to measure alcohol intake and binge drinking. Two groups (low-binge and high-binge) were generated from the AUQ data. The Information Sampling Task (IST) was used to measure reflection impulsivity; the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) for alcohol outcome expectancies; and an unplanned sexual behavior questionnaire, which asked about the number of unplanned sexual events. When compared to the low-binge drinking group, the high-binge drinkers had significantly more unplanned sexual encounters and were impaired on the IST, reflection-impulsivity task. They scored higher on the alcohol expectancy factors of sociability, risk and aggression, negative self-perception, and in particular liquid courage. In a regression analysis, number of unplanned sexual encounters, binge drinking score, and liquid courage were all significantly related. These results support the role of binge drinking in reduced impulse control and decision-making deficits. The findings indicate that high-binge drinkers demonstrate impairments on an impulse control task similar to that observed in dependent samples and this may be a factor in understanding the negative behavioral consequences associated with excessive

  8. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian eCai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In study 1, we surveyed narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency among an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency in 304 twin pairs, study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship.

  10. Narratifs Médiatiques sur la relation entre le corps et les jeux olympiques dans les années 1890 et 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Amaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Les jeux olympiques se présentées devenus l’habitant de Rio de Janeiro des années 1890 et 1900 comme quelque chose au-delà du sport. Cirque, théâtre et cinéma étaient espaces culturels où ces événements pourraient être assistés, comme les journaux annonçaient. Les Jeux Olympiques du Comité International Olympique ont également été publiés, mais rivalisaient à l’attention du lecteur de Rio avec des jeux non officiels, tels que ceux qui sont détenus à Montevideo en l’année 1907. Compris ce contexte, je présente dans cet article quelques questions concernant le corps idéal dans cette période et son dialogue avec la nouveauté représenté par les jeux olympiques.

  11. Examining impulse-variability in overarm throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David; Boros, Rhonda; Shannon, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variability in overarm throwing velocity and spatial output error at various percentages of maximum to test the prediction of an inverted-U function as predicted by impulse-variability theory and a speed-accuracy trade-off as predicted by Fitts' Law Thirty subjects (16 skilled, 14 unskilled) were instructed to throw a tennis ball at seven percentages of their maximum velocity (40-100%) in random order (9 trials per condition) at a target 30 feet away. Throwing velocity was measured with a radar gun and interpreted as an index of overall systemic power output. Within-subject throwing velocity variability was examined using within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVAs (7 repeated conditions) with built-in polynomial contrasts. Spatial error was analyzed using mixed model regression. Results indicated a quadratic fit with variability in throwing velocity increasing from 40% up to 60%, where it peaked, and then decreasing at each subsequent interval to maximum (p < .001, η2 = .555). There was no linear relationship between speed and accuracy. Overall, these data support the notion of an inverted-U function in overarm throwing velocity variability as both skilled and unskilled subjects approach maximum effort. However, these data do not support the notion of a speed-accuracy trade-off. The consistent demonstration of an inverted-U function associated with systemic power output variability indicates an enhanced capability to regulate aspects of force production and relative timing between segments as individuals approach maximum effort, even in a complex ballistic skill.

  12. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. Scholten (Eline W. M.); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); C. Nederkoorn (Chantal); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); G. Rodenburg (Gerda)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. Objective: This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits

  13. STRICT STABILITY OF IMPULSIVE SET VALUED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop strict stability concepts of ODE to impulsive hybrid set valued differential equations. By Lyapunov’s original method, we get some basic strict stability criteria of impulsive hybrid set valued equations.

  14. Konflik dan Kontestasi Penataan Ruang Kota Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Artikel ini merangkum dua hal. Pertama, permasalahan praktik penataan ruang di perkotaan, khususnya di Surabaya, yang telah menimbulkan kontestasi dan konflik dengan melibatkan aktor pemerintah, masyarakat, dan kekuatan kapitalis/investor. Kedua, kerangka penataan ruang yang menggunakan Perda RTRW No. 3 Tahun 2007 telah menimbulkan dampak yang berujung pada penguatan dan keberpihakan pemerintah kota kepada pihak kapitalis/investor. Kedua hal tersebut dianalisis dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosio-spasial. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan analisis deskriptif. Problematika praktik tata ruang yang ada di Surabaya merupakan indikasi dari transformasi dalam proses penataan ruang di mana ruang bukan hanya diproduksi dan direproduksi untuk kepentingan klas kapitalis, melainkan juga ruang direstrukturisasi dengan cara mengubah fungsi ruang dan diperuntukkan untuk publik. Hal ini relevan dengan perkembangan kajian penataan ruang mutakhir yang menunjukkan bahwa praktik penataan ruang di perkotaan merupakan refleksi dari kondisi sosial, ekonomi, dan politik. Selain itu, ruang diproduksi dalam modus produksi kapitalis dan ekspresi ruang kota merupakan dialektika antara produksi, konsumsi, dan administrasi (perencanaan dan implementasi kebijakan.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This article summarizes two hypotheses. Firstly, the practices problem of spatial planning in urban areas, especially in Surabaya City, has led to the contestation and conflict among governmental actors, the public, and the power of capitalist/investor. Secondly, the use of spatial planning framework, in this case is the use of Local Regulation on Urban Planning and Land Use Number 3 year of 2007, has shown the partiality and strengthening investor by the government. These hypotheses are analyzed by using socio spatial approach. The

  15. A functional NPSR1 gene variant and environment shape personality and impulsive action: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Kariina; Reif, Andreas; Kiive, Evelyn; Domschke, Katharina; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptide S and its receptor NPSR1 are involved in the regulation of arousal, attention and anxiety. We examined whether the NPSR1 gene functional polymorphism Asn¹⁰⁷Ile (rs324981, A>T) influences personality, impulsivity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in a population-representative sample, and whether any eventual associations depend on age, sex, family relations and stressful life events (SLE). We used self-reports or teachers' ratings for both the younger (n=593) and older (n=583) cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study. Males with the TT genotype displayed more ADHD-related symptoms. Adaptive impulsivity and Extraversion increased the most from age 18 to 25. While highest increases were observed in AA men, TT women exhibited the largest decreases. For participants with the AA genotype, Warmth in family was inversely associated with Neuroticism, and positively associated with Extraversion and Adaptive impulsivity. High exposure to SLE increased impulsivity and ADHD scores in TT genotype subjects. We conclude that the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism is associated with impulsivity, ADHD symptoms and personality, mirroring the activity- and anxiety-mediating role of NPSR1. Heterozygous individuals were the least sensitive to environmental factors, whereas subjects with the AA genotype and TT genotype reacted to different types of environmental adversities.

  16. Executive cognitive functions and impulsivity as correlates of risk taking and problem behavior in preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-11-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of these factors in a structural equation model with a community sample of 387 preadolescents ages 10-12 years. Participants were tested with a computerized battery of tasks to assess three facets of ECF (working memory, cognitive control, and reward processing) as well as with an audio assisted computerized self-interview to obtain reports of impulsivity and risk behaviors (use of cigarettes and alcohol as well as engaging in fighting and gambling for money) and a self-administered questionnaire to assess externalizing and internalizing problems. The best fitting model explained both early risk taking and externalizing symptoms as the result of individual differences in impulsivity. Although no ECF was directly related to risk taking, working memory and one measure of reward processing performance (reversal learning) were inversely related to impulsivity. The results are discussed in regard to theories of early risk taking with particular focus on the potential relation between ECF and impulsive behavior tendencies and the implications for early intervention to prevent the dysfunctional trajectory associated with early risk behavior.

  17. MANUSIA DAN PENDIDIKAN MENURUT PEMIKIRAN IBN KHALDUN DAN JOHN DEWEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Saiful Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the concept of human and Ibn Khaldun's ideas of education; to understand the concept of human and educational thought of John Dewey; to know the similarities and differences between the ideas of Ibn Khaldun and John Dewey on the concept of human and education. Various problems have been addressed through the library research method. The study produced several findings: First, human beings according to Ibn Khaldun as a creation of God with all the potential fitted to the five senses and intellect become intellect. The purpose of education opens the mind and maturity of the individual to the advancement of religious, industrial and social system. Material teaching is as educational planning. The method is to advocate phasing method, repetition, widya-tours and training (practice. Secondly, according to John Dewey man is a subject that has the ability, strength, personality, and existence who are capable of changing realities. The goal of education is only to gain happiness in the world life. The method of education is including problem solving, learning by doing and discipline. Third, the thought of Ibn Khaldun is much more religious because it is influenced by its control logic in religious knowledge, so that emphazises more on human spirituality in building civilization. While John Dewey is more radical and extreme, He proposed progressive education which strives against traditional teaching authority. Both Ibn Khaldūn dan Dewey are arise from inhuman socio-cultural environment and recognize the existence of human existence with nature and humanity impulse.

  18. Tourette's disease with impulse control disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Rajnish; Sidhu, Balwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Tourette's disease (TD) with impulse control disorder which is rare;these type of patients are prone to rage attack and explosive outbursts in the childhood and adolescence which can be detrimental. Hence, a case is reported to understand the phenomenology of its co-morbidity in TD.

  19. Impulsive Behaviors in Patients With Pathological Buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Heike; Claes, Laurence; Voth, Eva M; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    Aim To investigate impulsive behaviors in pathological buying (PB). Methods The study included three groups matched for age and gender: treatment seeking outpatients with PB (PB+), treatment seeking psychiatric inpatients without PB (PB-), and a healthy control group (HC). PB was assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale and by the impulse control disorder (ICD) module of the research version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-ICD). All participants answered questionnaires concerning symptoms of borderline personality disorder, self-harming behaviors, binge eating and symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, comorbid ICDs were assessed using the SCID-ICD. Results The PB+ and PB- groups did not differ with regard to borderline personality disorder or ADHD symptoms, but both groups reported significantly more symptoms than the HC group. Frequencies of self-harming behaviors did not differ between the three groups. Patients with PB were more often diagnosed with any current ICD (excluding PB) compared to those without PB and the HC group (38.7% vs. 12.9% vs. 12.9%, respectively, p=.017). Discussion Our findings confirm prior research suggesting more impulsive behaviors in patients with and without PB compared to healthy controls. The results of the questionnaire-based assessment indicate that outpatients with PB perceive themselves equally impulsive and self-harm as frequently as inpatients without PB; but they seem to suffer more often from an ICD as assessed by means of an interview.

  20. Cooperation and stability through periodic impulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yu Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic games, where each individual chooses between two strategies, illustrate several issues that immediately emerge from the standard approach that applies strategic reasoning, based on rational decisions, to predict population behavior where no rationality is assumed. These include how mutual cooperation (which corresponds to the best outcome from the population perspective can evolve when the only individually rational choice is to defect, illustrated by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game, and how individuals can randomize between two strategies when neither is individually rational, illustrated by the Battle of the Sexes (BS game that models male-female conflict over parental investment in offspring. We examine these questions from an evolutionary perspective where the evolutionary dynamics includes an impulsive effect that models sudden changes in collective population behavior. For the PD game, we show analytically that cooperation can either coexist with defection or completely take over the population, depending on the strength of the impulse. By extending these results for the PD game, we also show that males and females each evolve to a single strategy in the BS game when the impulsive effect is strong and that weak impulses stabilize the randomized strategies of this game.

  1. Impulse Plasma In Surface Engineering - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, K.; Nowakowska-Langier, K.; Chodun, R.; Okrasa, S.; Rabinski, M.; Dora, J.; Domanowski, P.; Halarowicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    The article describes the view of the plasma surface engineering, assuming the role of non-thermal energy effects in the synthesis of materials and coatings deposition. In the following study it was underlined that the vapor excitation through the application of an electric field during coatings deposition gives new possibilities for coatings formation. As an example the IPD method was chosen. During the IPD (Impulse Plasma Deposition) the impulse plasma is generated in the coaxial accelerator by strong periodic electrical pulses. The impulse plasma is distributed in the form of energetic plasma pockets. Due to the almost completely ionization of gas, the nucleation of new phases takes place on ions directly in the plasma itself. As a result the coatings of metastable materials with nano-amorphous structure and excellent adhesion to the non-heated intentionally substrates could be deposited. Recently the novel way of impulse plasma generation during the coatings deposition was proposed and developed by our group. An efficient tool for plasma process control, the plasma forming gas injection to the interelectrode space was used. Periodic changing the gas pressure results in increasing both the degree of dispersion and the dynamics of the plasma pulses. The advantage of the new technique in deposition of coatings with exceptionally good properties has been demonstrated in the industrial scale not only in the case of the IPD method but also in the case of very well known magnetron sputtering method.

  2. Prediction Model for Impulsive Noise on Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    integral,11,51 which is simply a convolution of the waveform with the impulse response:        t dFthtx 0  (4.11) Reference 39...All the windows considered herein are single pane windows. The higher surface weight and probable higher damping of double pane or laminated

  3. Time isolation high-voltage impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodorow, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lewis' high-voltage impulse generator is analyzed in greater detail, demonstrating that voltage between adjacent nodes can be equalized by proper selection of parasitic impedances. This permits improved TEM mode propagation to a matched load, with more faithful source waveform preservation

  4. A cross-sectional examination of non-suicidal self-injury, disordered eating, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.

  5. Albedo's determination by the method of neutron impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Calderon, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments with non-stationary neutron transport in large cavity moderators (l>>Σsub(tr) -1 ) (where l is the characteristic cavity length and Σsub(tr) -1 the macroscopic transport section of the moderator) led to the method reported in this study which, based on neutron impulses for determining albedo of thermal neutrons, gave a precision greater by an order of magnitude over previous methods. A sufficient time interval after introduction of the neutron flux into the moderator chamber decreased exponentially the decay constant L, which was itself related to albedo by a function called f. Numerical calculations of albedo were assisted. (author)

  6. A single-center, cross-sectional prevalence study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: association with dopaminergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Ulivi, Martina; Del Sarto, Simone; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-10-01

    The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory). Impulse control disorders were identified in 65 patients (prevalence, 8.1%), with pathological gambling and hypersexuality the most frequent. Impulse control disorders were present in 57 of 593 cognitively preserved patients (prevalence, 9.6%) and in 8 of 212 demented patients (prevalence, 3.8%). Impulse control disorders were significantly associated with dopamine agonists (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-12.46; P Impulse control disorders frequency was similar for pramipexole and ropinirole (16.6% vs 12.5%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.79-2.74; P = 0.227). Additional variables associated with ICDs were male sex and younger age. These findings suggested that dopaminergic treatments in PD are associated with increased odds of having an ICD, but also other demographic and clinical variables are associated with ICDs, suggesting the multifactorial nature of the ICD phenomenon in PD.

  7. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-03-06

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young's Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults' IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships).

  8. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships). PMID:29509708

  9. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyera Ryu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT, impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11, interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS, and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI. We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships.

  10. [Relationship among inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression in Japanese elementary and junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Wataru; Okada, Ryo; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Naoto, Mochizuki; Nakajima, Syunji; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines the relationship among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression in elementary school and junior high school students. The participants were 3,885 children and their teachers and caregivers. Children's inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior was rated by their teachers and caregivers (ADHD-RS). Children rated aggression (HAQ-C) and depression (DSRS-C) themselves. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior rated by teachers and caregivers were positively related to aggression and depression. Inattention predicted higher levels of aggression and depression. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior as rated by teachers was more highly related to depression than those behaviors as rated by caregivers. The relationships among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression were almost the same for both elementary school and junior high school students. This study suggests the importance of assessing inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior from multiple views to examine the relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior and mental health problems.

  11. Perancangan, Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Tranduser Ultrasonik 3,5 MHz Untuk Pengujian Bahan Padat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Halim Fathoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dibuat sepasang transduser ultrasonik untuk pengujian bahan padat. Konstruksi transduser ultrasonik yang dibuat terdiri dari holder berbahan akrilik dan kuningan, backing material berbahan styrofoam, epoxy dan busa karet, elemen aktif berbahan piezoelektrik dan matching layers menggunakan akrilik. Bahan penyusun konstruksi tersebut dilakukan pengujian terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik transduser ultrasonik. Dan untuk menunjang pengujian, maka dibuat sebuah alat sederhana dengan metode transmisi pulsa untuk melakukan pengukuran Time of Flight(TOF gelombang ultrasonik. Karakterisasi bahan transduser dilakukan dengan melakukan beberapa tahap pengujian. Tahap pertama dilakukan  pengujian respon frekuensi pada piezoelektrik untuk mendapatkan frekuensi resonansi yang sesuai. Kemudian dilakukan pengujian bahan backing material untuk mengetahui respon impulse dari sinyal ultrasonik dan menguji bahan matching layers untuk mendapatkan faktor delay pada pengukuran. Setelah karakterisasi bahan didapatkan, maka dilanjutkan dengan implementasi transduser ultrasonik untuk pengujian cacat pada bahan. Pengujian ini menggunakan aluminium berdimensi (15x5x1cm dengan bentuk cacat yang telah ditentukan. Proses pengujian cacat ini dilakukan dengan cara scanning secara manual dengan perubahan jarak setiap 0.5 cm. Dari hasil pengujian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh  karakteristik transduser ultrasonik dengan holder berbahan akrilik, backing material berbahan styrofoam, frekuensi resonansi sebesar 3.5 MHz, bandwith sebesar 2.04 MHz, respon impulse >10 siklus, delay sebesar 1,6 us ,Q (faktor kualitas mekanis getaran harmonis sebesar 1,667 dan impedansi sebesar 78,6 ohm. Untuk pengujian cacat bahan didapatkan hasil bahwa transduser ultrasonik bisa mendeteksi adanya cacat dan mengestimasi panjang ukuran cacat dengan error pengukuran sebesar 0.5 cm. Namun, kedalaman cacat tidak bisa ditentukan sehingga

  12. PENINGKATAN MINAT DAN KEPUTUSAN BERPARTISIPASI AKSEPTOR KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sudarti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk menemukan dampak dari kualitas layanan dan konseling yang disediakan oleh PLKB dan persepsi pengguna kontrasepsi pada budaya lingkungan yang berkontribusi terhadap ketertarikan dan keputusan para pengguna alat kotrasepsi. Populasi penelitian ini adalah 98 wanita yang melakukan program keluarga berencana dalam jangka waktu lama dengan menggunakan sample convenience. Penelitian ini menunjukkan mayoritas pengguna kontrasepsi adalah usia rawan untuk melahirkan, memiliki lebih dari dua anak, dan relatif memiliki latar belakang pendidikan rendah. Kualitas layanan program konseling dan budaya lingkungan dalam program keluarga berencana mempunyai dampak positif terhadap ketertarikan dan keputusan untuk berpartisipasi terhadap program keluarga berencana. Kualitas layanan ditemukan sebagai kontribusi terbesar terhadap peningkatan ketertarikan dan partisipasi dalam program keluarga berencana.The aim of this study was to find out the effect of the service quality and counceling provided by the family planning field workers (PLKB and the perception of the contraception users on the environmental culture that contribute to the interest and decision of the contraception users.The population of this study was the contraception users in Demak District. The traditional statistical model of yamae was applied to recruit the 98 women who were long-term users of birth control within the government-sponsored family planning program using the convenience sampling method.The study showed that the majority of the contraception users were in the age at risk of giving birth , with more than two children and relatively had low education background. The service quality, councelling program and environmental culture had a possitive effect on the interest and the decision of participating in the family planning program . Service quality was found to give the biggest contribution for the improved interest and partisipation in the family

  13. Training impulsive choices for healthy and sustainable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Tombrock, M.C.; Verpaalen, I.A.M.; Schmitz, L.I.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Many people find it hard to change their dietary choices. Food choice often occurs impulsively, without deliberation, and it has been unclear whether impulsive food choice can be experimentally created. Across 3 exploratory and 2 confirmatory preregistered experiments we examined whether impulsive

  14. An Exploration of Taiwanese Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine via a questionnaire the personal characteristics and impulsive buying tendencies of 15- to 19-year-old Taiwanese adolescents. Results indicated that the impulsive buying was significantly associated with gender, age, and amount of pocket money available. Females indicated more impulsive buying than did…

  15. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  16. Parental monitoring may protect impulsive children from overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C; Blissett, J

    2017-10-01

    Research has highlighted links between impulsivity and weight in children and adults. Nevertheless, little is known about the nature of this link in very young children or about the underlying mechanism by which impulsivity leads to greater adiposity. The present study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, weight and eating behaviour in a sample of 95 2 to 4-year-olds. Parent-child dyads visited the laboratory and consumed a meal after which parents completed measures of child impulsivity, eating behaviour and parental feeding, whilst children completed impulsivity tasks measuring the impulsivity facet delay of gratification (Snack Delay task), motor impulsivity (Line Walking task) and inhibitory control (Tower task). Pearson's correlations showed that girls with greater motor impulsivity were heavier. Additionally, monitoring moderated the relationship between impulsivity and food approach behaviour, indicating that monitoring may protect more impulsive children from displaying problematic eating behaviours. The motor impulsivity facet appears particularly relevant to child weight; parents can modulate the impact of impulsivity on child eating behaviour through their feeding style. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Analysis of Caputo Impulsive Fractional Order Differential Equations with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Mahto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We use Sadovskii's fixed point method to investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations of order with one example of impulsive logistic model and few other examples as well. We also discuss Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations with finite delay. The results proven are new and compliment the existing one.

  18. On some impulsive fractional differential equations in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinRong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some impulsive fractional differential equations in Banach spaces. Utilizing the Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem and the impulsive nonlinear singular version of the Gronwall inequality, the existence of \\(PC\\-mild solutions for some fractional differential equations with impulses are obtained under some easily checked conditions. At last, an example is given for demonstration.

  19. Liever kraanwater dan bronwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Een test in het Restaurant van de Toekomst van de invloed van CO2-labels op het aankoopgedrag van consumenten, heeft nog geen duidelijk beeld opgeleverd. Wel pakten mensen vaker kraanwater dan bronwater.

  20. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  1. Mobile technology habits: patterns of association among device usage, intertemporal preference, impulse control, and reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H; Chein, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Mobile electronic devices are playing an increasingly pervasive role in our daily activities. Yet, there has been very little empirical research investigating how mobile technology habits might relate to individual differences in cognition and affect. The research presented in this paper provides evidence that heavier investment in mobile devices is correlated with a relatively weaker tendency to delay gratification (as measured by a delay discounting task) and a greater inclination toward impulsive behavior (i.e., weaker impulse control, assessed behaviorally and through self-report) but is not related to individual differences in sensitivity to reward. Analyses further demonstrated that individual variation in impulse control mediates the relationship between mobile technology usage and delay of gratification. Although based on correlational results, these findings lend some backing to concerns that increased use of portable electronic devices could have negative impacts on impulse control and the ability to appropriately valuate delayed rewards.

  2. Dynamique de nanobulles et nanoplasmas generes autour de nanoparticules plasmoniques irradiees par des impulsions ultracourtes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagallier, Adrien

    L'emergence des lasers a impulsion ultrabreves et des nanotechnologies a revolutionne notre perception et notre maniere d'interagir avec l'infiniment petit. Les gigantesques intensites generees par ces impulsions plus courtes que les temps de relaxation ou de diffusion du milieu irradie induisent de nombreux phenomenes non-lineaires, du doublement de frequence a l'ablation, dans des volumes de dimension caracteristique de l'ordre de la longueur d'onde du laser. En biologie et en medecine, ces phenomenes sont utilises a des fins d'imagerie multiphotonique ou pour detruire des tissus vivants. L'introduction de nanoparticules plasmoniques, qui concentrent le champ electromagnetique incident dans des regions de dimensions nanometriques, jusqu'a une fraction de la longueur d'onde, amplifie les phenomenes non-lineaires tout en offrant un controle beaucoup plus precis de la deposition d'energie, ouvrant la voie a la detection de molecules individuelles en solution et a la nanochirurgie. La nanochirurgie repose principalement sur la formation d'une bulle de vapeur a proximite d'une membrane cellulaire. Cette bulle de vapeur perce la membrane de maniere irreversible,entrainant la cellule a sa mort, ou la perturbe temporairement, ce qui permet d'envisager de faire penetrer dans la cellule des medicaments ou des brins d'ADN pour de la therapie genique. C'est principalement la taille de la bulle qui va decider de l'issue de l'irradiation laser. Il est donc necessaire de controler finement les parametres du laser et la geometrie de la nanoparticule afin d'atteindre l'objectif fixe. Le moyen le plus direct a l'heure actuelle de valider un ensemble de conditions experimentales est de realiser l'experience en laboratoire,ce qui est long et couteux. Les modeles de dynamique de bulle existants ne prennent pas en compte les parametres de l'irradiation et ajustent souvent leurs conditions initiales a partir de leurs mesures experimentales, ce qui limite la portee du modele au cas pour

  3. Parkinson's disease treatment may cause impulse-control disorder via dopamine D3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In treating Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agonists, such as pramipexole, ropinirole, pergolide, rotigotine, apomorphine, or bromocriptine, it has been observed that a significant number of patients develop impulse-control disorders, such as compulsive shopping, pathological gambling, or hypersexuality. Because the dopamine agonists have high affinities for the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, the drug dissociation constants of these drugs at the functional high-affinity states of these receptors, namely D2High and D3High, were compared. The data show that, compared to the other dopamine agonist drugs, pramipexole has a relatively high selectivity for the dopamine D3 receptor, as compared to D2, suggesting that the D3 receptor may be a primary target for pramipexole. There is a trend showing that the proportion of impulse-control disorders is related to the selectivity for D3 receptors over D2 receptors, with pramipexole having the highest association with, or frequency of, impulse-control disorders. While the number of studies are limited, the proportion of patients with impulse-control disorder in Parkinson patients treated with an add-on agonist were 32% for pramipexole, 25% for ropinirole, 16% for pergolide, 22% for rotigotine, 10% for apomorphine, and 6.8% for bromocriptine. Clinically, temporary replacement of pramipexole by bromocriptine may provide relief or reversal of the impulsive behavior associated with selective D3 stimulation by either pramipexole or ropinirole, while maintaining D2 stimulation needed for the anti-Parkinson action. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impulsivity, self-regulation,and pathological video gaming among youth: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K; Neo, Eng Chuan; Gentile, Douglas A; Choo, Hyekyung; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline

    2015-03-01

    Given the potential negative mental health consequences of pathological video gaming, understanding its etiology may lead to useful treatment developments. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of impulsive and regulatory processes on pathological video gaming. Study 1 involved 2154 students from 6 primary and 4 secondary schools in Singapore. Study 2 involved 191 students from 2 secondary schools. The results of study 1 and study 2 supported the hypothesis that self-regulation is a mediator between impulsivity and pathological video gaming. Specifically, higher levels of impulsivity was related to lower levels of self-regulation, which in turn was related to higher levels of pathological video gaming. The use of impulsivity and self-regulation in predicting pathological video gaming supports the dual-system model of incorporating both impulsive and reflective systems in the prediction of self-control outcomes. The study highlights the development of self-regulatory resources as a possible avenue for future prevention and treatment research. © 2011 APJPH.

  6. The impact of Environmental Factors on Impulse Buying Behavior Using the Mehrabian and Russell’s Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel GRAA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at highlighting the impact of environmental factors on the impulse buying behavior of Algerian shopper using a Stimulus and response model. In this paper, it is identified and explored how factors related to the environment of purchase and emotional states may influence various dimensions of such kind of behavior at food stores in Algeria’ west. According to the results; consumer's emotions cannot be a mediating factor in the impulse purchase process. The results indicate that seller guidance has a significant impact on the impulse buying. We have concluded also that perceived human crowding influence positively the behavior of Algerian shoppers, whereas the time pressure was not approved.

  7. Relation entre la structure des peuplements et la pollution métallique dans les fonds sableux de la zone littorale. Aspects méthodologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Dessaint, Fabrice

    1985-01-01

    La pollution marine, et particulièrement l'accumulation de polluants métalliques dans les sédiments, influe non seulement sur la biologie des espèces considérées individuellement, mais aussi (en conséquence) sur la composition qualitative et quantitative des peuplements : les rapports d'équilibre entre les différentes espèces sont en effet modifiées. Ces modifications de peuplement sont plus faciles à décrire, sur la base de la présence ou de l'absence des différentes espèces et de leurs p...

  8. A Model-based Analysis of Impulsivity Using a Slot-Machine Gambling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saee ePaliwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity plays a key role in decision-making under uncertainty. It is a significant contributor to problem and pathological gambling. Standard assessments of impulsivity by questionnaires, however, have various limitations, partly because impulsivity is a broad, multi-faceted concept. What remains unclear is which of these facets contribute to shaping gambling behavior. In the present study, we investigated impulsivity as expressed in a gambling setting by applying computational modeling to data from 47 healthy male volunteers who played a realistic, virtual slot-machine gambling task. Behaviorally, we found that impulsivity, as measured independently by the 11th revision of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, correlated significantly with an aggregate read-out of the following gambling responses: bet increases, machines switches, casino switches and double-ups. Using model comparison, we compared a set of hierarchical Bayesian belief-updating models, i.e. the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter (HGF and Rescorla-Wagner reinforcement learning models, with regard to how well they explained different aspects of the behavioral data. We then examined the construct validity of our winning models with multiple regression, relating subject-specific model parameter estimates to the individual BIS-11 total scores. In the most predictive model (a three-level HGF, the two free parameters encoded uncertainty-dependent mechanisms of belief updates and significantly explained BIS-11 variance across subjects. Furthermore, in this model, decision noise was a function of trial-wise uncertainty about winning probability. Collectively, our results provide a proof of concept that hierarchical Bayesian models can characterize the decision-making mechanisms linked to impulsivity. These novel indices of gambling mechanisms unmasked during actual play may be useful for online prevention measures for at-risk players and future assessments of pathological gambling.

  9. Impulsive traits and unplanned suicide attempts predict exaggerated prefrontal response to angry faces in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Polina M; Szanto, Katalin; Siegle, Greg J; Hallquist, Michael N; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard J; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal responses to social stimuli are seen in people vulnerable to suicidal behavior, indicating possible disruptions in the neural circuitry mediating the interpretation of socioemotional cues. These disruptions have not been empirically related to psychological and cognitive pathways to suicide. In the present study of older suicide attempters, we examined neural responses to emotional faces and their relationship to impulsivity, one of the components of the suicidal diathesis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded neurohemodynamic responses to angry faces in a carefully characterized sample of 18 depressed elderly with history of suicide attempts, 13 depressed nonsuicidal patients, and 18 healthy individuals, all aged 60+. Impulsivity was assessed with the Social Problem Solving Inventory Impulsivity/Carelessness Style subscale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The Suicide Intent Scale planning subscale was used to describe the degree of planning associated with the most lethal attempt. Depression and history of attempted suicide were not associated with neural responses to angry faces, failing to replicate earlier studies. Higher impulsivity, however, predicted exaggerated responses to angry faces in fronto-opercular and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pcorr suicide attempts also predicted increased fronto-opercular responses. Results were robust to effects of medication exposure, comorbid anxiety and addiction, severity of depression, burden of physical illness, and possible brain injury from suicide attempts. Impulsive traits and history of unplanned suicide attempts partly explain the heterogeneity in neural responses to angry faces in depressed elderly. Displays of social emotion command excessive cortical processing in impulsive suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Insight into the relationship between impulsivity and substance abuse from studies using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R; Jentsch, J David

    2010-08-01

    Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.

  11. Basic concept on the responses of structural members and structures under impact or impulsive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are generated by the interaction between acting bodies and structures, and the interaction is affected by many factors, e.g. the relations of masses, sizes, rigidities, etc. between acting bodies and structures and especially by relative velocity. The development of the responses of structural members and structures are controlled by the constitutive equations and failure criteria of constituent materials, the relationships of cowork system between the constituent materials and existing stress waves. Furthermore, the first two are influenced by rate effects and they all widely change by the speeds of impact and impulsive loadings. This paper deals with the physical meaning of the responses of structures under impact and impulsive loadings. (orig.) [de

  12. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. High impulsivity predicting vulnerability to cocaine addiction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna C; Mar, Adam; Norbury, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impulsivity is a vulnerability marker for drug addiction in which other behavioural traits such as anxiety and novelty seeking ('sensation seeking') are also widely present. However, inter-relationships between impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety traits are poorly understood...... increasing or decreasing impulsivity in SHI and SLI rats, did reduce the contrast in impulsivity between these two groups of animals. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation indicates that behavioural impulsivity in rats on the 5-CSRTT, which predicts vulnerability for cocaine addiction, is distinct from anxiety...

  14. Trait-aggressiveness and impulsivity: role of psychological resilience and childhood trauma in a sample of male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Mandelli, Laura; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Alberti, Siegfried; Roy, Alec; Serretti, Alessandro; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges for research in the field of human aggression is the need to define the role of personality and trait-like dimensions, such as impulsivity and aggressiveness, in predisposing to violent behavior. 1) To determine whether trait- aggressiveness and impulsivity may be associated with socio-demographic, clinical and crime history variables in a sample of male prisoners; 2) to detect any association of those traits with measures of early traumatic experiences and current resilience traits. A sample of male prisoners (n = 1356) underwent the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Axis I psychiatric disorders were also assessed. Early traumatic experiences and psychological resilience were detected respectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Two non-linear logistic regression models were performed to test for the best predictors of trait-aggressiveness and impulsivity. Subjects with a history of substance use disorders and self-mutilation reported both higher BGLHA and BIS scores. Axis I disorders and suicide attempts were associated with aggressiveness, but not to impulsivity. A consistent correlation was found between BGLHA scores and early traumatic experiences. Resilience was positively correlated to impulsivity but not to aggressiveness scores. Our results support the view that aggressiveness and impulsivity are two different, albeit related trait-like dimensions of personality, having a different relationship with resilience, and, inferentially, a different impact over the development of psychiatric disorders.

  15. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes relative to built (buildings, cities environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as

  16. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  17. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  18. Orientational relationships between phases in the {gamma}{yields}{alpha} transformations for uranium-molybdenum alloys; Relations d'orientation entre phases dans les transformations {gamma}{yields}{alpha} des alliages uranium-molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    A crystallographic study has been made of the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation in the alloy containing 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum using electronic micro-diffraction; it has been possible to establish the orientational relationships governing the germination of the {alpha} phase in the {gamma} phase. One finds: (111){gamma} // (100) {alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010) {alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. By choosing a monoclinic lattice containing the same number of atoms as the orthorhombic lattice for defining the {gamma} mother phase, the change in structure has been explained by adding a homogeneous (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} shearing deformation to a heterogeneous deformation brought about by slipping of the atoms which are not situated at the nodes of this lattice. The identity of the orientation relationships {gamma}/{alpha} and {gamma}/{alpha}''b and the loss of coherence {gamma} /{alpha} as a function of temperature or of time lead to the conclusion that, in the range studied, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins with a martensitic process and continues by germination and growth. (author) [French] Une etude cristallographique de la transformation {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} dans l'alliage {alpha} 3 pour cent en poids de Mo, effectuee par microdiffraction electronique a permis d'etablir les relations d'orientation regissant la germination de {alpha} dans {gamma}. On a: (111){gamma} // (100){alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010){alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. En choisissant pour decrire la phase mere {gamma} une maille monoclinique contenant le meme nombre d'atomes que la maille orthorhombique {alpha}, le changement de structure a ete explique en superposant a une deformation homogene par cisaillement (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} une deformation heterogene par glissement des atomes non situes aux noeuds de cette maille. L identite des relations d'orientation {gamma}/{alpha} et {gamma} /{alpha

  19. Relationship between impulsivity, hyperactivity and working memory: a differential analysis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellu-Hagedorn Françoise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is a behavioural trait that comprises several distinct processes. It is a key feature of many psychopathologies such as mania, addictive disorders or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. To date, the aspects of impulsiveness involved in these pathologies have not yet been explicitly defined. In these disorders, sensation or drug seeking and cognitive deficits are closely related, but the nature of these relationships remains largely unknown. A new animal model of impulsiveness based on spontaneous inter-individual differences is proposed here to help clarify the relationship between characteristic aspects of impulsive-related pathologies. Methods Rats were divided into sub-groups according to their scores in three operant tasks with varying degrees of behavioural inhibition, timing and motor vs. cognitive impulsivity demands. These tasks included a fixed consecutive number schedule (ability to complete an action to receive a reinforcer, a multiple fixed-interval/extinction schedule of reinforcement (high level of responding, and a delayed reward task (delay discounting. In addition, measurements of locomotor responses to novelty and to amphetamine in a circular corridor, and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze were obtained. Results Substantial behavioural inter-individual differences were observed in each task, whereas few inter-task relationships were found. Impulsive rats, as defined in a task requiring inhibition of premature responses, presented a higher increase in amphetamine-induced locomotion. Reduced working memory performance was only observed in hyperactive rats in an extinction schedule. Conclusion This novel approach shows that distinct aspects of impulsiveness and hyperactivity can be expressed based on large inter-individual differences that vary from poorly to highly adapted behaviours ones in a normal population of rats. Inhibitory deficit was related to a higher response to

  20. Generalization of the dispersion relations demonstration; Generalisation de la demonstration des relations de dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omnes, Roland [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1960-07-01

    A modification of the dispersion relations demonstration for two-particle collisions in field theory is indicated. The direct study of the holomorphy domain of the reaction amplitude, without any reference to a particular coordinate system, allows to demonstrate the dispersion relations with fixed pulse transfer for any input and output particle mass. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1203-1205, sitting of 15 February 1960 [French] On indique une modification de la demonstration des relations de dispersion pour les collisions a deux particules en theorie des champs. En etudiant directement le domaine d'holomorphie de l'amplitude de reaction sans se referer a un systeme de coordonnees particulier, on demontre les relations de dispersion a transfert d'impulsion fixe dans le cas ou les masses des particules entrantes et sortantes sont quelconques. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1203-120