WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving situation awareness

  1. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  2. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Quested, Andrew; Cooper, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events.

  3. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  4. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed.

  5. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  6. Perspective information in the cockpit to improve situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Three simulator experiments were carried out to quantify the potential benefits of perspective visual displays in the cockpit for situational awareness support of the pilot, in local guidance and global awareness tasks. In the first experiment, the application of an egocentric perspective display

  7. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  8. Empirical research on an ecological interface design for improving situation awareness of operators in an advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Suh, Sang Moon; Jang, Gwi Sook; Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An EID prototype for monitoring primary side of nuclear power plant is proposed. ► The effectiveness of the prototype is validated using a partial scoped dynamic mockup in terms of situation awareness. ► The validation is based on comparison of a mimic display with an EID plus mimics. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to validate whether an ecological interface design (EID) improves operators’ situation awareness in an advanced control room of a nuclear power plant (NPP). EID is defined as an approach to interface design that was introduced specifically for complex socio-technical, real-time, and dynamic systems. The EID technology has not yet been adapted to the nuclear power industry due to lack of empirical studies. Especially in a situational awareness aspect, many researchers have predicted that the EID will support operators to detect unanticipated events. Just a few studies, however, unveiled the positive effect of the EID display on human performance using a full scoped simulator. In this study, to investigate whether an EID improves operators’ situational awareness, we developed an EID prototype for nuclear power operations and a partial scoped dynamic mockup to validate the effectiveness of the EID prototype. Three experienced operators were involved as subjects in our study and they were fully well trained for using the EID prototype. We compared two types of situations in terms of situation awareness. One is mimic based information display and the other is a mimic plus EID based information display. The result of our study revealed that a mimic plus EID based information display is more effective than a mimic based information display in terms of situation awareness. This study is significant in that the EID as an emerging technology is adoptable to a digitalized control room in an aspect of improving operators’ situation awareness.

  9. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  10. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  11. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  12. Can teamwork and situational awareness (SA) in ED resuscitations be improved with a technological cognitive aid? Design and a pilot study of a team situation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parush, A; Mastoras, G; Bhandari, A; Momtahan, K; Day, K; Weitzman, B; Sohmer, B; Cwinn, A; Hamstra, S J; Calder, L

    2017-12-01

    Effective teamwork in ED resuscitations, including information sharing and situational awareness, could be degraded. Technological cognitive aids can facilitate effective teamwork. This study focused on the design of an ED situation display and pilot test its influence on teamwork and situational awareness during simulated resuscitation scenarios. The display design consisted of a central area showing the critical dynamic parameters of the interventions with an events time-line below it. Static information was placed at the sides of the display. We pilot tested whether the situation display could lead to higher scores on the Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS), improved scores on a context-specific Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) tool, and team communication patterns that reflect teamwork and situational awareness. Resuscitation teamwork, as measured by the CTS, was overall better with the presence of the situation display as compared with no situation display. Team members discussed interventions more with the situation display compared with not having the situation display. Situational awareness was better with the situation display only in the trauma scenario. The situation display could be more effective for certain ED team members and in certain cases. Overall, this pilot study implies that a situation display could facilitate better teamwork and team communication in the resuscitation event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brett; Cooper,Simon; Quested,Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Brett Williams,1 Andrew Quested,1 Simon Cooper21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Berwick, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing ...

  14. Multisensor Fusion for Intrusion Detection and Situational Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstensen, Christoffer V

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime damage costs the world several trillion dollars annually. And al-though technical solutions to protect organizations from hackers are being con-tinuously developed, criminals learn fast to circumvent them. The question is,therefore, how to create leverage to protect an organization by improving in-trusion detection and situational awareness? This thesis seeks to contribute tothe prior art in intrusion detection and situational awareness by using a multi-sensor data fusion...

  15. Application of Synchrophasor Measurements for Improving Situational Awareness of the Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Mutule, A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper focuses on the application of synchrophasor measurements that present unprecedented benefits compared to SCADA systems in order to facilitate the successful transformation of the Nordic-Baltic-and-European electric power system to operate with large amounts of renewable energy sources and improve situational awareness of the power system. The article describes new functionalities of visualisation tools to estimate a grid inertia level in real time with monitoring results between Nordic and Baltic power systems.

  16. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  17. Improving situation awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usbeck, Kyle; Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Gronosky, Andrew; Sterling, Joshua; Kohler, Ralph; Hanlon, Kelly; Scally, Andrew; Newkirk, Richard; Canestrare, David

    2015-05-01

    To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information. A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video. This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.

  18. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  19. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  20. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  1. A development of a quantitative situation awareness measurement tool: Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed quantitative situation awareness (SA) evaluation technique. • We developed a computer based SA evaluation tool for NPPs training environment. • We introduced three rules and components to express more human-like results. • We conducted three sets of training with real plant operators. • Results showed that the tool could reasonably represent operator’s SA. - Abstract: Operator performance measures are used for multiple purposes, such as control room design, human system interface (HSI) evaluation, training, and so on. Performance measures are often focused on results; however, especially for a training purpose – at least in a nuclear industry, more detailed descriptions about processes are required. Situation awareness (SA) measurements have directly/indirectly played as a complimentary measure and provided descriptive insights on how to improve performance of operators for the next training. Unfortunately, most of the well-developed SA measurement techniques, such as Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) need an expert opinion which sometimes troubles easy spread of measurement’s application or usage. A quantitative SA measurement tool named Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE) is introduced to resolve some of these concerns. CoRSAGE is based on production rules to represent a human operator’s cognitive process of problem solving, and Bayesian inference to quantify it. Petri Net concept is also used for graphical expressions of SA flow. Three components – inference transition, volatile/non-volatile memory tokens – were newly developed to achieve required functions. Training data of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario for an emergency condition and an earthquake scenario for an abnormal condition by real plant operators were used to validate the tool. The validation result showed that CoRSAGE performed a reasonable match to other performance

  2. Continuous measures of situation awareness and workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Skraaning, Gyrd jr.; Sverrbo, Mona; Dalen, Joergen; Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle

    1998-03-01

    This report presents methods for continuous measures for Situation Awareness and Workload. The objective has been to identify, develop and test the new measures, and compare them to instruments that require interruptions of scenarios. The new measures are: (1) the Visual Indicator of Situation Awareness (VISA); where Situation Awareness is scored from predefined areas of visual interest critical for solving scenarios. Visual monitoring of areas was recorded by eye-movement tracking. (2) Workload scores reflected by Extended Dwell Time (EDT) and the operator Activity Level. EDT was calculated from eye-movement data files, and the activity level was estimated from simulator logs. Using experimental data from the 1996 CASH NRC Alarm study and the 1997 Human Error Analysis Project/ Human-Centred Automation study, the new measurement techniques have been tested and evaluated on a preliminary basis. The results showed promising relationships between the new continuous measures of situation awareness and workload, and established instruments based upon scenario interruptions. (author)

  3. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  4. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  5. Simulation-based evaluation of an in-vehicle smart situation awareness enhancement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriades, Andreas; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2018-07-01

    Situation awareness (SA) constitutes a critical factor in road safety, strongly related to accidents. This paper describes the evaluation of a proposed SA enhancement system (SAES) that exploits augmented reality through a head-up display (HUD). Two SAES designs were evaluation (information rich vs. minimal information) using a custom-made simulator and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique with performance and EEG measures. The paper describes the process of assessing the SA of drivers using the SAES, through a series of experiments with participants in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment. The effectiveness of the SAES was tested in a within-group research design. The results showed that the information rich (radar-style display) was superior to the minimal (arrow hazard indicator) design and that both SAES improved drivers' SA and performance compared to the control (no HUD) design. Practitioner Summary: Even though driver situation awareness is considered as one of the leading causes of road accidents, little has been done to enhance it. The current study demonstrates the positive effect of a proposed situation awareness enhancement system on driver situation awareness, through an experiment using virtual prototyping in a simulator.

  6. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  7. Big data for space situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  8. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  9. Situation awareness system for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  10. Learning game for training child bicyclists' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Esko; Sahlberg, Heidi; Rovamo, Emilia; Summala, Heikki

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8-9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the

  11. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  12. Describing Older Adults' Awareness of Fall Risk Using Situation Awareness Research Techniques: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Jo; Hall, Beth

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate efficacy of techniques adapted from situation awareness research for describing how older adults perceive and understand fall risk factors in the context of daily routine. Eleven older adults watched a video of an older woman performing daily activities. Thirteen intrinsic, extrinsic, and behavioral fall risks were embedded throughout the scenario. The video was periodically frozen/blanked from view while participants answered questions about their understanding of the situation and associated story elements. Participants perceived a variety of fall risk factors but did not necessarily interpret them as indicating fall risk. Many fall risks held non-fall meaning for participants (e.g., newspapers on the floor meant the woman liked to read). Although four participants readily identified a fall risk situation, seven did not until they were explicitly asked to consider safety. Study techniques were effective for describing situation awareness of fall risk and several suggestions for improvement are described. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):161-166.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Development of the Huddle Observation Tool for structured case management discussions to improve situation awareness on inpatient clinical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Hayes, Jacqueline; Sharples, Evelyn; Gondek, Dawid; Stapley, Emily; Sevdalis, Nick; Lachman, Peter; Deighton, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    'Situation Awareness For Everyone' (SAFE) was a 3-year project which aimed to improve situation awareness in clinical teams in order to detect potential deterioration and other potential risks to children on hospital wards. The key intervention was the 'huddle', a structured case management discussion which is central to facilitating situation awareness. This study aimed to develop an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. A cross-sectional observational design was used to psychometrically develop the 'Huddle Observation Tool' (HOT) over three phases using standardised psychometric methodology. Huddles were observed across four NHS paediatric wards participating in SAFE by five researchers; two wards within specialist children hospitals and two within district general hospitals, with location, number of beds and length of stay considered to make the sample as heterogeneous as possible. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient. Inter - rater reliability was acceptable for the collaborative culture (weighted kappa=0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.42), environment items (weighted kappa=0.78, 95% CI 0.52 to 1) and total score (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95). It was lower for the structure and risk management items, suggesting that these were more variable in how observers rated them. However, agreement on the global score for huddles was acceptable. We developed an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle. Future research should examine whether observational evaluations of huddles are associated with other indicators of safety on clinical wards (eg, safety climate and incidents of patient harm), and whether scores on the HOT are associated with improved situation awareness and reductions in deterioration and adverse

  14. Increasing Situational Awareness by Combining Realistic and Non-Realistic Rendering Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Valerie A; Normoyle, Aline; Flo, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... Although this improved visual realism can lead to a better sense of immersion and a more faithful reproduction of the natural world, it does not necessarily promote increased awareness of an evolving situation...

  15. Modelling of Situation Awareness with Perception, Attention, and Prior and Retrospective Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Human awareness under different circumstances is complex and non-trivial to understand. Nevertheless, due to the importance of awareness for safety and efficiency in many domains (e.g.; the aviation domain), it is necessary to study the processes behind situation awareness, to eliminate possible

  16. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  17. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  18. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Working Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development

  19. A Quantitative Team Situation Awareness Measurement Method Considering Technical and Nontechnical Skills of Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Yim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human capabilities, such as technical/nontechnical skills, have begun to be recognized as crucial factors for nuclear safety. One of the most common ways to improve human capabilities in general is training. The nuclear industry has constantly developed and used training as a tool to increase plant efficiency and safety. An integrated training framework was suggested for one of those efforts, especially during simulation training sessions of nuclear power plant operation teams. The developed training evaluation methods are based on measuring the levels of situation awareness of teams in terms of the level of shared confidence and consensus as well as the accuracy of team situation awareness. Verification of the developed methods was conducted by analyzing the training data of real nuclear power plant operation teams. The teams that achieved higher level of shared confidence showed better performance in solving problem situations when coupled with high consensus index values. The accuracy of nuclear power plant operation teams' situation awareness was approximately the same or showed a similar trend as that of senior reactor operators' situation awareness calculated by a situation awareness accuracy index (SAAI. Teams that had higher SAAI values performed better and faster than those that had lower SAAI values.

  20. Modeling Learner Situation Awareness in Collaborative Mobile Web 2.0 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…

  1. Augmented Reality Tool for the Situational Awareness Improvement of UAV Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Susana; Cuevas, Carlos; Gallego, Guillermo; García, Narciso

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being extensively used nowadays. Therefore, pilots of traditional aerial platforms should adapt their skills to operate them from a Ground Control Station (GCS). Common GCSs provide information in separate screens: one presents the video stream while the other displays information about the mission plan and information coming from other sensors. To avoid the burden of fusing information displayed in the two screens, an Augmented Reality (AR) tool is proposed in this paper. The AR system has two functionalities for Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE) UAVs: route orientation and target identification. Route orientation allows the operator to identify the upcoming waypoints and the path that the UAV is going to follow. Target identification allows a fast target localization, even in the presence of occlusions. The AR tool is implemented following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standards so that it can be used in different GCSs. The experiments show how the AR tool improves significantly the situational awareness of the UAV operators. PMID:28178189

  2. Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Missen, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Bucknall, Tracey; Cant, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Nursing work often occurs in complex and potentially hazardous settings. Awareness of patient and practice environments is an imperative for nurses in practice. To explore nursing students' situation awareness while engaging in simulated patient deterioration scenarios. The educational process of FIRST(2)ACT was the model for the nurse intervention. Situation awareness was measured quantitatively using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment tool. Four domains were measured: physiological perception (patient parameters), global perception (surroundings), comprehension (interpretation of information), and projection (forecasting outcomes). Clinical laboratories at each of three participating universities. Ninety-seven nursing students from three Australian universities. Between March and July 2012, students participated in three video-recorded simulation events, in which a trained actor played patient roles and groups of three students worked as teams. To measure situation awareness, following the simulation each team leader was taken to a separate room and asked to report on a question set regarding the patient's vital signs, bedside setting and medical diagnosis. Overall, situation awareness was low (41%). Of the four domains, physiological perceptions scored the lowest (26%) and projection the highest (59%). Final year nursing students may not have well developed situation awareness skills, especially when dealing with these types of scenarios. Education providers need to consider ways to assist students to fully develop this attribute. Findings suggest that this is an aspect of undergraduate nursing education that requires significant consideration by curriculum developers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Situation awareness and documentation of changes that affect patient outcomes in progress notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    To report on registered nurses' situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making when recording changes in patients' conditions. Progress notes are important to communicate patients' progress and detail changes in patients' conditions. However, documentation is often poorly completed. There is little work that examines nurses' decision-making during documentation. This study focused on describing situation awareness as a precursor to decision-making during documentation. This study used Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) work on situation awareness to guide and conceptualise information. The study was situated in a naturalistic paradigm to provide an interpretation of nurses' decision-making. Think-aloud research methods and semi-structured interviews were employed to illuminate decision-making processes. Audio recordings and interview texts were individually examined for evidence of cues, informed by Endsley's (Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ) descriptions of situation awareness. As patients' conditions changed, nurses used complex mental models and pattern-matching of information, drawing on all 3 levels of situation awareness during documentation. Level 1 situation awareness provided context, level 2 situation awareness signified a change in condition and its significance for the patient, and level 3 situation awareness was evident when nurses thought aloud about what this information indicated. Three themes associated with changes in patients' conditions emerged: deterioration in condition, not responding to prescribed treatments as expected and issues related to professional practice that impacted on patients' conditions. Nurses used a complex mental model for decision-making, drawing on 3 levels of situation awareness. Hamm's cognitive continuum theory, when related to situation awareness, is a useful decision-making theory to provide a

  4. Towards ontology-driven situation-aware disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, numerous ICT applications with mechanisms to detect situations have been developed to support disaster management (DM), which is a field of a great societal and economic importance. Those applications are termed situation-aware (SA) because they try, in near real-time, to

  5. Building shared situational awareness in surgery through distributed dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie BM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brigid M Gillespie,1 Karleen Gwinner,2 Nicole Fairweather,3 Wendy Chaboyer41NHMRC Research Centre for Clinical Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalised Patients (NCREN and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, 2Griffith Centre for Cultural Research, Griffith University, Queensland, 3Department of Anaesthesiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Queensland, Australia, 4Excellence in Nursing Interventions for Hospitalized Patients (NCREN Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice INHMRC Centre of Research Innovation (RCCCPI, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Failure to convey time-critical information to team members during surgery diminishes members' perception of the dynamic information relevant to their task, and compromises shared situational awareness. This research reports the dialog around clinical decisions made by team members in the time-pressured and high-risk context of surgery, and the impact of these communications on shared situational awareness.Methods: Fieldwork methods were used to capture the dynamic integration of individual and situational elements in surgery that provided the backdrop for clinical decisions. Nineteen semistructured interviews were performed with 24 participants from anesthesia, surgery, and nursing in the operating rooms of a large metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis was used.Results: The domain "coordinating decisions in surgery" was generated from textual data. Within this domain, three themes illustrated the dialog of clinical decisions, ie, synchronizing and strategizing actions, sharing local knowledge, and planning contingency decisions based on priority.Conclusion: Strategies used to convey decisions that enhanced shared situational awareness included the use of "self-talk", closed-loop communications, and

  6. Integrity of a common operating picture in military situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of qualification of a common operating picture (COP) directly impacts the situational awareness of military Command and Control (C2). Since a commander is reliant on situational awareness information in order to make decisions regarding...

  7. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  8. A multi-sensor fusion framework for improving situational awareness in demanding maritime training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Real offshore operational scenarios can involve a considerable amount of risk. Sophisticated training programmes involving specially designed simulator environments constitute a promising approach for improving an individual's perception and assessment of dangerous situations in real applications. One of the world's most advanced providers of simulators for such demanding offshore operations is the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). However, even though the OSC provides powerful simulation tools, techniques for visualising operational procedures that can be used to further improve Situational awareness (SA), are still lacking. Providing the OSC with an integrated multi-sensor fusion framework is the goal of this work. The proposed framework is designed to improve planning, execution and assessment of demanding maritime operations by adopting newly-designed risk-evaluation tools. Different information from the simulator scene and from the real world can be collected, such as audio, video, bio-metric data from eye-trackers, other sensor data and annotations. This integration is the base for research on novel SA assessment methodologies. This will serve the industry for the purpose of improving operational effectiveness and safety through the use of simulators. In this work, a training methodology based on the concept of briefing/debriefing is adopted based on previous literature. By using this methodology borrowed from similarly demanding applications, the efficiency of the proposed framework is validated in a conceptual case study. In particular, the training procedure, which was previously performed by Statoil and partners, for the world's first sub-sea gas compression plant, in Aasgard, Norway, is considered and reviewed highlighting the potentials of the proposed framework. - Highlights: • A framework for improving SA in demanding maritime training is proposed. • The proposed framework is integrated with the Offshore Simulator Centre AS (OSC). • This

  9. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  10. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2017-07-27

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  11. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation. PMID:28749407

  12. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  13. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    . The foundation for this framework is previous research in situation awareness and virtual reality, combined with our analysis of interviews with and observations of collaborating scientists. The framework suggests that situation awareness is comprised of contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information. Research in virtual reality systems suggests control, sensory, distraction and realism attributes of technology contribute to a sense of presence [Presence 7 (1998) 225]. We suggest that consideration of these attributes with respect to contextual, task and process, and socio......-emotional information provides insights to guide design decisions. We used the framework when designing a scientific collaboratory system. Results from a controlled experimental evaluation of the collaboratory system help illustrate the framework's utility....

  14. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . The feedback loops and delays in the Command and Control system also contribute to the complex dynamic behavior. This paper will build on existing situation awareness models to develop a System Dynamics model to support a qualitative investigation through...

  15. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  16. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M. [AREVA NP Inc., 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  17. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  18. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, D O D; Shah, A; Sediono, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process

  19. Optimal SSN Tasking to Enhance Real-time Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J., III; Hussein, I.; Gerber, J.; Sivilli, R.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is currently constrained by an overwhelming number of resident space objects (RSOs) that need to be tracked and the amount of data these observations produce. The Joint Centralized Autonomous Tasking System (JCATS) is an autonomous, net-centric tool that approaches these SSA concerns from an agile, information-based stance. Finite set statistics and stochastic optimization are used to maintain an RSO catalog and develop sensor tasking schedules based on operator configured, state information-gain metrics to determine observation priorities. This improves the efficiency of sensors to target objects as awareness changes and new information is needed, not at predefined frequencies solely. A net-centric, service-oriented architecture (SOA) allows for JCATS integration into existing SSA systems. Testing has shown operationally-relevant performance improvements and scalability across multiple types of scenarios and against current sensor tasking tools.

  20. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  1. Comparison between Simulation-based Training and Lecture-based Education in Teaching Situation Awareness. A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dym, Andrew A; Venegas-Borsellino, Carla; Bangar, Maneesha; Kazzi, Massoud; Lisenenkov, Dmitry; Qadir, Nida; Keene, Adam; Eisen, Lewis Ari

    2017-04-01

    Situation awareness has been defined as the perception of the elements in the environment within volumes of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. Intensivists often make time-sensitive critical decisions, and loss of situation awareness can lead to errors. It has been shown that simulation-based training is superior to lecture-based training for some critical scenarios. Because the methods of training to improve situation awareness have not been well studied in the medical field, we compared the impact of simulation vs. lecture training using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) score. To identify an effective method for teaching situation awareness. We randomly assigned 17 critical care fellows to simulation vs. lecture training. Training consisted of eight cases on airway management, including topics such as elevated intracranial pressure, difficult airway, arrhythmia, and shock. During the testing scenario, at random times between 4 and 6 minutes into the simulation, the scenario was frozen, and the screens were blanked. Respondents then completed the 28 questions on the SAGAT scale. Sample items were categorized as Perception, Projection, and Comprehension of the situation. Results were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Eight fellows from the simulation group and nine from the lecture group underwent simulation testing. Sixty-four SAGAT scores were recorded for the simulation group and 48 scores were recorded for the lecture group. The mean simulation vs. lecture group SAGAT score was 64.3 ± 10.1 (SD) vs. 59.7 ± 10.8 (SD) (P = 0.02). There was also a difference in the median Perception ability between the simulation vs. lecture groups (61.1 vs. 55.5, P = 0.01). There was no difference in the median Projection and Comprehension scores between the two groups (50.0 vs. 50.0, P = 0.92, and 83.3 vs. 83.3, P = 0.27). We found a significant, albeit

  2. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  3. Use of Highways in the Sky and a virtual pad for landing Head Up Display symbology to enable improved helicopter pilots situation awareness and workload in degraded visual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Allison, Craig K

    2017-12-15

    Flight within degraded visual conditions is a great challenge to pilots of rotary-wing craft. Environmental cues typically used to guide interpretation of speed, location and approach can become obscured, forcing the pilots to rely on data available from in-cockpit instrumentation. To ease the task of flight during degraded visual conditions, pilots require easy access to flight critical information. The current study examined the effect of 'Highways in the Sky' symbology and a conformal virtual pad for landing presented using a Head Up Display (HUD) on pilots' workload and situation awareness for both clear and degraded conditions across a series of simulated rotary-wing approach and landings. Results suggest that access to the HUD lead to significant improvements to pilots' situation awareness, especially within degraded visual conditions. Importantly, access to the HUD facilitated pilot awareness in all conditions. Results are discussed in terms of future HUD development. Practitioner Summary: This paper explores the use of a novel Heads Up Display, to facilitate rotary-wing pilots' situation awareness and workload for simulated flights in both clear and degraded visual conditions. Results suggest that access to HUD facilitated pilots' situation awareness, especially when flying in degraded conditions.

  4. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  5. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  6. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  7. Uncertainty and Risk Management in Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason; Ou, Xinming; Rajagopalan, Raj

    Handling cyber threats unavoidably needs to deal with both uncertain and imprecise information. What we can observe as potential malicious activities can seldom give us 100% confidence on important questions we care about, e.g. what machines are compromised and what damage has been incurred. In security planning, we need information on how likely a vulnerability can lead to a successful compromise to better balance security and functionality, performance, and ease of use. These information are at best qualitative and are often vague and imprecise. In cyber situational awareness, we have to rely on such imperfect information to detect real attacks and to prevent an attack from happening through appropriate risk management. This chapter surveys existing technologies in handling uncertainty and risk management in cyber situational awareness.

  8. Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    1 DM-0001694 Fusing Open Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness Benghazi Case Study Jeff Boleng, PhD Marc Novakouski Gene...command and control element at the CIA compound that would have been monitoring OSINT and other sources of intelligence before the attack and... Source Intelligence and Handheld Situational Awareness - Benghazi Case Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. Data-Centric Situational Awareness and Management in Intelligent Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxiao

    The rapid development of technology and society has made the current power system a much more complicated system than ever. The request for big data based situation awareness and management becomes urgent today. In this dissertation, to respond to the grand challenge, two data-centric power system situation awareness and management approaches are proposed to address the security problems in the transmission/distribution grids and social benefits augmentation problem at the distribution-customer lever, respectively. To address the security problem in the transmission/distribution grids utilizing big data, the first approach provides a fault analysis solution based on characterization and analytics of the synchrophasor measurements. Specically, the optimal synchrophasor measurement devices selection algorithm (OSMDSA) and matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) based spatial-temporal synchrophasor data characterization method was developed to reduce data volume while preserving comprehensive information for the big data analyses. And the weighted Granger causality (WGC) method was investigated to conduct fault impact causal analysis during system disturbance for fault localization. Numerical results and comparison with other methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this analytic approach. As more social effects are becoming important considerations in power system management, the goal of situation awareness should be expanded to also include achievements in social benefits. The second approach investigates the concept and application of social energy upon the University of Denver campus grid to provide management improvement solutions for optimizing social cost. Social element--human working productivity cost, and economic element--electricity consumption cost, are both considered in the evaluation of overall social cost. Moreover, power system simulation, numerical experiments for smart building modeling, distribution level real-time pricing and social

  10. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  11. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems

  12. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  13. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Teles, Ariel; Rocha, Artur; José da Silva E Silva, Francisco; Correia Lopes, João; O'Sullivan, Donal; Van de Ven, Pepijn; Endler, Markus

    2017-01-10

    Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan , a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster , an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient's daily routine (e.g., "studying", "at work", "working out"). MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  15. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Soares Teles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan, a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster, an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient’s daily routine (e.g., “studying”, “at work”, “working out”. MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  16. The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2002-01-01

    the experimental runs. This paper focuses on the experimental set-up and final physiological results of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. The physiological measures of skin temperature, heart rate, and muscle response, show a decreased engagement (while using the synthetic vision displays as compared to the baseline conventional display) of the sympathetic and somatic nervous system responses which, in turn, indicates a reduced level of mental workload. This decreased level of workload is expected to enable improvement in the pilot's situation and terrain awareness.

  17. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  18. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  19. An Integrated Agent Model Addressing Situation Awareness and Functional State in Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; van Lambalgen, R.M.; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated agent model is introduced addressing mutually interacting Situation Awareness and Functional State dynamics in decision making. This shows how a human's functional state, more specific a human's exhaustion and power, can influence a human's situation awareness, and in

  20. High Performance Computing Software Applications for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, C.; Schumacher, P.; Matson, C.; Chun, F.; Duncan, B.; Borelli, K.; Desonia, R.; Gusciora, G.; Roe, K.

    The High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA) has completed its first full year of applications development. The emphasis of our work in this first year was in improving space surveillance sensor models and image enhancement software. These applications are the Space Surveillance Network Analysis Model (SSNAM), the Air Force Space Fence simulation (SimFence), and physically constrained iterative de-convolution (PCID) image enhancement software tool. Specifically, we have demonstrated order of magnitude speed-up in those codes running on the latest Cray XD-1 Linux supercomputer (Hoku) at the Maui High Performance Computing Center. The software applications improvements that HSAI-SSA has made, has had significant impact to the warfighter and has fundamentally changed the role of high performance computing in SSA.

  1. 1st workshop on situational awareness in semi-Automated vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, R.; Baumann, M.; Politis, I.; Borojeni, S.S.; Alvarez, I.; Mirnig, A.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; Tscheligi, M.; Chuang, L.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will focus on the problem of occupant and vehicle situational awareness with respect to automated vehicles when the driver must take over control. It will explore the future of fully automated and mixed traffic situations where vehicles are assumed to be operating at level 3 or above.

  2. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  3. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  4. Situation awareness and workload in complex tactical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides an example of a method to get insight into workload changes over time, executed tasks and situation awareness (SA) in complex task environments. The method is applied to measure the workload of a helicopter crew. The method has three components: 1) task analysis, 2) video

  5. Modelling situation awareness relations in a multiagent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus that situation awareness (SA) plays a key role in agent-based modelling of complex sociotechnical systems. However in the social sciences and human factors literature there are different views on what SA is and how it could be modelled. More specifically, one school of

  6. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  7. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  8. Situation awareness and complexity: the role of wearable technologies in sports science

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Situation Awareness is a key concept in activities in which cognitive and physical tasks are being performed in a complex system consisting of multiple humans and artifacts, under quickly changing conditions. The spread, in sports, of wearable technologies that can record and return in real time a wide variety of data related to the athlete and to the context provides a great opportunity to increase the level of Situation Awareness. Often, however, we are dealing with heterogeneous devices th...

  9. VIRTUAL REALITY FOR MANAGEMENT OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DURING GLOBAL MASS GATHERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karsakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a training technology for staff of mass events for development of action skills in large gatherings of people, including crowd dynamic management and actions in extreme situations caused by the panic. The technology is based on the multi-agent model of crowd dynamic with dynamically re-computable navigation fields. We implemented the software system that provides a collaborative and distributed process of training activities in the virtual reality environment. The following characteristics of the developed software system available from experimental studies were analyzed: computational intensity of simulations, scalability of rendering system and reactivity of the final system when rendering computationally intensive scenes. The proposed models and infrastructure for training through collaborative immersion in the virtual reality can improve situational awareness of events staff prior to the event. The developed technology is a unique tool for improving the quality and safety of disposable and unique events involving the broad masses of people, including unfunded by retrospective experience mass gatherings. Developed technology was tested within the Kumbh Mela festival in Ujjain, India.

  10. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  11. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  12. Distributed sensor management for space situational awareness via a negotiation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is critical to many space missions serving weather analysis, communications, and navigation. However, the number of sensors used in space situational awareness is limited which hinders collision avoidance prediction, debris assessment, and efficient routing. Hence, it is critical to use such sensor resources efficiently. In addition, it is desired to develop the SSA sensor management algorithm in a distributed manner. In this paper, a distributed sensor management approach using the negotiation game (NG-DSM) is proposed for the SSA. Specifically, the proposed negotiation game is played by each sensor and its neighboring sensors. The bargaining strategies are developed for each sensor based on negotiating for accurately tracking desired targets (e.g., satellite, debris, etc.) . The proposed NG-DSM method is tested in a scenario which includes eight space objects and three different sensor modalities which include a space based optical sensor, a ground radar, or a ground Electro-Optic sensor. The geometric relation between the sensor, the Sun, and the space object is also considered. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NG-DSM sensor management methods, which facilitates an application of multiple-sensor multiple-target tracking for space situational awareness.

  13. Designing for Situation Awareness : the World behind the Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Borst, C.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the design of human-machine interfaces and automation, an important question is how to obtain and validate a design that is capable of supporting the operator’s understanding and situation awareness of the process under control. Whereas many research efforts address the question of ‘what is the

  14. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  15. The influence of situation awareness training on nurses' confidence about patient safety skills: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Norman; Gluyas, Heather; Andrus, Prue; Williams, Anne; Hopkins, Martin; Walters, Jennifer; Sandy, Martinique; Morrison, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Several studies report that patient safety skills, especially non-technical skills, receive scant attention in nursing curricula. Hence, there is a compelling reason to incorporate material that enhances non-technical skills, such as situation awareness, in nursing curricula in order to assist in the reduction of healthcare related adverse events. The objectives of this study were to: 1) understand final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills; and 2) examine the impact of situation awareness training on final year nursing students' confidence in their patient safety skills. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample comprising final year nursing students at a Western Australia university. Self-reported confidence in patient safety skills was assessed with the Health Professional in Patient Safety Survey before and after the delivery of a situation awareness educational intervention. Pre/post educational intervention differences were examined by repeated measures ANOVA. No significant differences in confidence about patient safety skills were identified within settings (class/clinical). However, confidence in patient safety skills significantly decreased between settings i.e. nursing students lost confidence after clinical placements. The educational intervention delivered in this study did not seem to improve confidence in patient safety skills, but substantial ceiling effects may have confounded the identification of such improvement. Further studies are required to establish whether the findings of this study can be generalised to other university nursing cohorts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauben, L S G L; Dekker-van Doorn, C M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; Goossens, R H M; Huijsman, R; Klein, J; Lange, J F

    2011-04-01

    To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Questionnaire design. Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists. All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT. Ratings for 'communication' were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for 'teamwork' differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within 'situation awareness' significant differences were mainly observed for 'gathering information' between surgeons and other team members (P communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.

  17. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  19. Uncertainty Reasoning for Service-Based Situational Awareness Information on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate situational assessment is key to any decision maker and especially crucial in military command and control, air traffic control, and complex system decision making. Endsley described three dependent levels of situational awareness, (1) perception, (2) understanding, and (3) projection. This research was focused on Endsley's…

  20. Measuring situation awareness of operation teams in NPPs using a verbal protocol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ar ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for measuring team situation awareness is developed. ► Verbal protocol analysis is adopted in this method. ► This method resolves uncertainties from conventional methods. ► This method can be used in evaluating the human–system interfaces. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community given that need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Although complex and dynamic environments such as that of a main control room (MCR) in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are operated by operation teams, and while team situation awareness (TSA) is also cited as an important factor, research is limited to individual SA. However, understanding TSA can provide a window onto the characteristics of team acquisition as well as the performance of a complex skill. Therefore, such knowledge can be valuable in diagnosing team performance successes and failures. Moreover, training and design interventions can target the cognitive underpinnings of team performance, with implications for the design of technological aids to improve team performance. Despite these advantages and the importance of understanding TSA, measures and methods targeting TSA are sparse and fail to address it properly. In this study, an objective TSA measurement method is developed in an effort to understand TSA. First, key considerations for developing a method are derived. Based on these considerations, the proposed method is developed while mainly focusing on the creation of logical connections between team communications and TSA. A speech act coding scheme is also implemented to analyze team communications. The TSA measurement method developed in this study provides a measure for each level of TSA. It was revealed from a preliminary study that this TSA measurement method is feasible for measuring TSA to a fair extent. Useful insight into TSA is also derived.

  1. Multidisciplinary Cooperation in Crisis Management Teams: a Tool to Improve Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, L. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Theunissen, N.; Rijk, R. van; Huis in 't Veld, M.

    2011-01-01

    When a crisis occurs, people from different organizations, on different hierarchical levels have to deal with unexpected situations that require coordinated effort. The goal of this research is to improve multidisciplinary cooperation for crisis management teams. We developed a tool, the Multi-mono

  2. The perfect storm of information: combining traditional and non-traditional data sources for public health situational awareness during hurricane response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly J; Olsen, Jennifer M; Harris, Sara; Mekaru, Sumiko; Livinski, Alicia A; Brownstein, John S

    2013-12-16

    Hurricane Isaac made landfall in southeastern Louisiana in late August 2012, resulting in extensive storm surge and inland flooding. As the lead federal agency responsible for medical and public health response and recovery coordination, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) must have situational awareness to prepare for and address state and local requests for assistance following hurricanes. Both traditional and non-traditional data have been used to improve situational awareness in fields like disease surveillance and seismology. This study investigated whether non-traditional data (i.e., tweets and news reports) fill a void in traditional data reporting during hurricane response, as well as whether non-traditional data improve the timeliness for reporting identified HHS Essential Elements of Information (EEI). HHS EEIs provided the information collection guidance, and when the information indicated there was a potential public health threat, an event was identified and categorized within the larger scope of overall Hurricane Issac situational awareness. Tweets, news reports, press releases, and federal situation reports during Hurricane Isaac response were analyzed for information about EEIs. Data that pertained to the same EEI were linked together and given a unique event identification number to enable more detailed analysis of source content. Reports of sixteen unique events were examined for types of data sources reporting on the event and timeliness of the reports. Of these sixteen unique events identified, six were reported by only a single data source, four were reported by two data sources, four were reported by three data sources, and two were reported by four or more data sources. For five of the events where news tweets were one of multiple sources of information about an event, the tweet occurred prior to the news report, press release, local government\\emergency management tweet, and federal situation report. In all circumstances where

  3. Situation Awareness in Sea Kayaking: Towards a Practical Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart; Varley, Peter; Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2017-01-01

    Ever-changing weather and sea conditions constitute environmental hazards that sea kayakers must pay attention to and act upon to stay safe. The aim of this study was to propose a tool to aid sea kayakers' situation awareness (SA). We developed a checklist guided by theory on the concept of SA and expert problem detection, judgement and…

  4. Affordable multisensor digital video architecture for 360° situational awareness displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Steven P.; Khan, Dina A.; Marecki, Alexander L.; Berman, David A.; Carberry, Dana

    2011-06-01

    One of the major challenges facing today's military ground combat vehicle operations is the ability to achieve and maintain full-spectrum situational awareness while under armor (i.e. closed hatch). Thus, the ability to perform basic tasks such as driving, maintaining local situational awareness, surveillance, and targeting will require a high-density array of real time information be processed, distributed, and presented to the vehicle operators and crew in near real time (i.e. low latency). Advances in display and sensor technologies are providing never before seen opportunities to supply large amounts of high fidelity imagery and video to the vehicle operators and crew in real time. To fully realize the advantages of these emerging display and sensor technologies, an underlying digital architecture must be developed that is capable of processing these large amounts of video and data from separate sensor systems and distributing it simultaneously within the vehicle to multiple vehicle operators and crew. This paper will examine the systems and software engineering efforts required to overcome these challenges and will address development of an affordable, integrated digital video architecture. The approaches evaluated will enable both current and future ground combat vehicle systems the flexibility to readily adopt emerging display and sensor technologies, while optimizing the Warfighter Machine Interface (WMI), minimizing lifecycle costs, and improve the survivability of the vehicle crew working in closed-hatch systems during complex ground combat operations.

  5. External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    identify and coordinate with community resources. Hospital evacuation requires coordinated processes and resources, including situational awareness that reflects the condition of the community as a result of the incident. Successful hospital evacuation decision making is influenced by community-wide situational awareness and transportation deficits. Planning with the community to create realistic EOPs that accurately reflect available resources and protocols is critical to informing hospital decision making during a crisis. Knowledge of these factors could improve decision making and evacuation practices, potentially reducing evacuation times in future hurricanes.

  6. Developing situation-aware applications for disaster management with a distributed rule-based platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Moreira, Joao; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance interoperability and productivity in the develop-ment of situation-aware applications for disaster management, proper mecha-nisms and guidelines are required. They must address the lack of semantics in modelling emergency situations. In addition, the ever changing and

  7. Constructible Assessment for Situation Awareness in a Distributed C2 Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seet, Alfred W; Teh, Cheryl A; Soo, John K; Teo, Leonghwee

    2004-01-01

    .... This method is an adaptation of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) by M. R. Endsley (1995) that takes into account specific constraints for use in a field exercise, such as minimizing the level of intrusiveness...

  8. An ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction and process and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Masataka; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Toshiyuki; Monta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of an experiment to investigate the effect of an ecological interface for supporting situation awareness during malfunction of process. We developed an ecological interface and an conventional interface for the simulator SCARLETT of a virtual plant that have two process control modes (automatic process control mode and manual process control mode). The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how interface and process control mode have any effects on situation awareness of human operator during malfunction of process, whether there are any interaction between interface and process control mode. We have been conducted this experiment now. (author)

  9. An approach to electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control for situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author provides insight on the role of modern electronic warfare technology for the purposes of electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control, which plays a crucial role in situational awareness required for peacekeeping...

  10. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  11. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  12. Cognitive Task Analysis Based Training for Cyber Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Huang , Zequn; Shen , Chien-Chung; Doshi , Sheetal; Thomas , Nimmi; Duong , Ha

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Innovative Methods; International audience; Cyber attacks have been increasing significantly in both number and complexity, prompting the need for better training of cyber defense analysts. To conduct effective training for cyber situation awareness, it becomes essential to design realistic training scenarios. In this paper, we present a Cognitive Task Analysis based approach to address this training need. The technique of Cognitive Task Analysis is to capture and represent knowledge ...

  13. Introduction: Situation Awareness, Systems of Systems, and Maritime Safety and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    This book presents and discusses various challenges and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for attaining situation awareness, with applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. This chapter introduces the book, describes the Dutch research project Poseidon from which it

  14. Ego-location and situational awareness in semistructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Stevens, Mark R.; Stube, Brian; McBride, Jonah

    2003-09-01

    The success of any potential application for mobile robots depends largely on the specific environment where the application takes place. Practical applications are rarely found in highly structured environments, but unstructured environments (such as natural terrain) pose major challenges to any mobile robot. We believe that semi-structured environments-such as parking lots-provide a good opportunity for successful mobile robot applications. Parking lots tend to be flat and smooth, and cars can be uniquely identified by their license plates. Our scenario is a parking lot where only known vehicles are supposed to park. The robot looks for vehicles that do not belong in the parking lot. It checks both license plates and vehicle types, in case the plate is stolen from an approved vehicle. It operates autonomously, but reports back to a guard who verifies its performance. Our interest is in developing the robot's vision system, which we call Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME). In this paper, we present initial results from the development of two SESAME subsystems, the ego-location and license plate detection systems. While their ultimate goals are obviously quite different, our design demonstrates that by sharing intermediate results, both tasks can be significantly simplified. The inspiration for this design approach comes from the basic tenets of Situational Awareness (SA), where the benefits of holistic perception are clearly demonstrated over the more typical designs that attempt to solve each sensing/perception problem in isolation.

  15. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  16. Using Twitter and other social media platforms to provide situational awareness during an incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Ed

    2011-10-01

    The recent use of social media by protesters in Iran, Egypt, Yemen and elsewhere has focused new attention on this communications medium. Government agencies and businesses, as well, are using social media to push information to their stakeholders. Those who are on the front lines of this information revolution, however, realise that social media is most effective when the communication is two-way. Unlike other media, social media allows information sharing. This, in turn, provides emergency managers with new situational-awareness resources when trying to mitigate an incident. As Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Administrator Craig Fugate told Information Week on January 19th, 2011: 'We can adjust much quicker if we can figure out how to have (a) two-way conversation and if we can look at the public as a resource. The public is putting out better situational awareness than many of our own agencies can.' This paper provides examples of how social media can be used as a situational-awareness resource and specific 'tools' that can be used to assist with this task.

  17. From situation modelling to a distributed rule-based platform for situation awareness : an ontological framework for disaster management applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João

    2015-01-01

    Situation-aware (SA) applications are particularly useful for disaster management. The complex nature of emergency scenarios presents challenges to the development of collaborative and distributed SA solutions. These challenges concern the whole lifecycle, from specification to implementation

  18. Towards Incidence Management in 5G Based on Situational Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their components, which raises important challenges related to safety. In order to contribute to their resolution, this paper proposes a novel architecture for incident management on 5G. The approach combines the conventional risk management schemes with the Endsley Situational Awareness model, thus improving effectiveness in different aspects, among them the ability to adapt to complex and dynamical monitoring environments, and countermeasure tracking or the role of context when decision-making. The proposal takes into account all layers for information processing in 5G mobile networks, ranging from infrastructure to the actuators responsible for deploying corrective measures.

  19. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  20. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  1. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih-Wei, E-mail: yangcw@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigates procedure types' effects on operators' performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users' mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower 'field of view' provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the

  2. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study investigates procedure types’ effects on operators’ performance. ► The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. ► The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. ► And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. ► The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users’ mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower “field of view” provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the status and progress through the procedure. Based on a human factors experiment in which each participant monitored and controlled multiple simulated

  3. A structured approach to increase situational awareness in low voltage distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Broersma, T.; Morren, J.; Kruizinga, B.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.; Baldinger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Wear and tear, electrification and aging of (low voltage) distribution grids require maintenance in order to assure continuous provision of electricity. Situational awareness is required to find out when parts of the grid need maintenance and which parts should be prioritized. The paper proposes a

  4. Prediction of situational awareness in F-15 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, T R; Perry, D C; Ree, M J

    1996-01-01

    Situational awareness (SA) is a skill often deemed essential to pilot performance in both combat and noncombat flying. A study was conducted to determine if SA in U.S. Air Force F-15 pilots could be predicted. The participants were 171 active duty F-15 A/C pilots who completed a test battery representative of various psychological constructs proposed or demonstrated to be valid for the prediction of performance in a wide variety of military and civilian jobs. These predictors encompassed measures of cognitive ability, psychomotor ability, and personality. Supervisor and peer ratings of SA were collected. Supervisors and peers showed substantial agreement on the SA ratings of the pilots. The first unrotated principle component extracted from the supervisor and peer ratings accounted for 92.5% of the variability of ratings. The unrotated first principal component served as the SA criterion. Flying experience measured in number of F-15 hours was the best predictor of SA. After controlling for the effects of F-15 flying hours, the measures of general cognitive ability based on working memory, spatial reasoning, and divided attention were found to be predictive of SA. Psychomotor and personality measures were not predictive. With additional F-15 flying hours it is expected that pilots would improve their ratings of SA.

  5. Procedure automation: the effect of automated procedure execution on situation awareness and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Svengren, Haakan; Heimdal, Jan O.; Nilsen, Svein; Hulsund, John-Einar; Bisio, Rossella; Debroise, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    As advised by the procedure workshop convened in Halden in 2000, the Halden Project conducted an experiment on the effect of automation of Computerised Procedure Systems (CPS) on situation awareness and human performance. The expected outcome of the study was to provide input for guidance on CPS design, and to support the Halden Project's ongoing research on human reliability analysis. The experiment was performed in HAMMLAB using the HAMBO BWR simulator and the COPMA-III CPS. Eight crews of operators from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated. Three research questions were investigated: 1) Does procedure automation create Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) performance problems? 2) Does procedure automation affect situation awareness? 3) Does procedure automation affect crew performance? The independent variable, 'procedure configuration', had four levels: paper procedures, manual CPS, automation with breaks, and full automation. The results showed that the operators experienced OOTL problems in full automation, but that situation awareness and crew performance (response time) were not affected. One possible explanation for this is that the operators monitored the automated procedure execution conscientiously, something which may have prevented the OOTL problems from having negative effects on situation awareness and crew performance. In a debriefing session, the operators clearly expressed their dislike for the full automation condition, but that automation with breaks could be suitable for some tasks. The main reason why the operators did not like the full automation was that they did not feel being in control. A qualitative analysis addressing factors contributing to response time delays revealed that OOTL problems did not seem to cause delays, but that some delays could be explained by the operators having problems with the freeze function of the CPS. Also other factors such as teamwork and operator tendencies were of importance. Several design implications were drawn

  6. Situational awareness for unmanned ground vehicles in semi-structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.

    2002-07-01

    Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.

  7. Investigating the Effect of Situational Awareness on Persistence of Doctoral Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harleman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the effect of heightened situational awareness (SA) on persistence of doctoral distance learners. Factors in the distance learners' micro-environment, vis-à-vis Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecology theory of human development, were the focus. Study participants included new doctoral candidates continuing…

  8. Measuring situation awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, PM; Stanton, NA; Walker, GH; Jenkins, DP; Ladva, D; Rafferty, L; Young, MS

    2008-01-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is a distinct critical commodity for teams working in complex industrial systems and its measurement is a key provision in system, procedural and training design efforts. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare three different SA measures (a freeze probe recall approach, a post trial subjective rating approach and a critical incident interview technique) when used to assess participant SA during a military planning task. The results indi...

  9. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  10. Using corporate governance to enhance 'long-term situation awareness' and assist in the avoidance of organisation-induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of how corporate governance can and should deal with the long-term understanding of systems health-what we may call 'long-term situation awareness' (i.e. which evolves and is coherent over time) for organisational systems (and their component sub systems) in the engineering domain. Many characteristics affect long-term situation awareness-the rate of change to processes, pressures for greater efficiency from existing resources, changes in personnel, cultural changes and changes to the operational environment of the organisational systems. Many disasters (e.g. Chernobyl, Flixborough, Piper Alpha) have a causal path that indicates a loss of group situation awareness, over a long period of time. The problem of the gradual, slow drift over many years towards unsafe conduct of company operations is discussed and examples of possible consequences provided. A 'parable' from the world of manufacturing is used to exemplify the problem. The paper goes on to discuss some ways by which this problem could be addressed and longer-term system situational awareness increased; essentially by good corporate governance, knowledge management and ownership of processes. Links are made to the literature on these topics, and a route map to help organisations to gain the benefits is offered.

  11. Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking it to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Power Journal | 52 Baird The Importance of Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking It to the Next Level FeatureSpace Focus junction ...Communications (BMC3) infrastructure. We must build a new space superiority enterprise around SSA sensors that utilize com- mon data models to...vehicle, a modified version of China’s DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile, and launcher system en- gaged the satellite at a closing velocity of

  12. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  13. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  14. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  15. Tag-n-Track system for situation awareness for MOUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Manoj; Germano, Thomas E.; Zhao, Tao; Fontana, Robert; Bushika, Martin

    2006-05-01

    In order to train war fighters for urban warfare, live exercises are held at various Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities. Commanders need to have situation awareness (SA) of the entire mock battlefield, and also the individual actions of the various war fighters. The commanders must be able to provide instant feedback and play through different actions and 'what-if' scenarios with the war fighters. The war fighters in their turn should be able to review their actions and rehearse different maneuvers. In this paper, we describe the technologies behind a prototype training system, which tracks war fighters around an urban site using a combination of ultra-wideband (UWB) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and smart video based tracking. The system is able to: (1) Tag each individual with an unique ID using an RFID system, (2) Track and locate individuals within the domain of interest, (3) Associate IDs with visual appearance derived from live videos, (4) Visualize movement and actions of individuals within the context of a 3D model, and (5) Store and review activities with (x,y,ID) information associated with each individual. Dynamic acquisition and recording of the precise location of individual troops and units during training greatly aids the analysis of the training sessions allowing improved review, critique and instruction.

  16. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    David Myers1 Timothy Gowen2 Angus Rupert3 Ben Lawson3 Justin Dailey3,4 1Chesapeake Technology International 2Naval Aviation Center for... Angus Rupert of the USAARL. The algorithm is described in “Configuration Parameters for the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS)” dated July 2010

  17. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

    2013-01-01

    The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

  18. Load Situation Awareness Design for Integration in Multi-Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have been penetrating in power system at a staggering pace in recent years. Their intermittent nature is, however, posing great threat to system operation. Recently, active load management has been suggested as a tool to counteract these side effects. In multi......-energy system, thermal load management will benefit not only electric network but also district heating network. Electric heater will be the main focus of this paper as a common thermal load. A situation awareness framework for its integration into electric and district heating network will be proposed...

  19. Effects of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Navigation Cues on Navigation Performance, Situation Awareness, and Mental Workload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Bradley M

    2007-01-01

    .... Results from both experiments indicate that augmented visual displays reduced time to complete navigation, maintained situation awareness, and drastically reduced mental workload in comparison...

  20. A collaborative game to study presence and situational awareness in a physical and an augmented reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    While augmented reality research has grown into a mature field over the last years, the aspects of situational awareness and presence of augmented reality (AR) are still quite open research topics. This paper introduces a collaborative game to explore the different perception of situational

  1. A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.

  2. Development of a Vision-Based Situational Awareness Capability for Unmanned Surface Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    camera), which is similar to the movement of the ship in the electro-optics (EO) video imagery. An image of the model representing the ship with a...with both color video imagery and infrared video imagery, and the results obtained from processing the images demonstrated the viability of using this...situational awareness capability, which is required to achieve autonomous navigation. The algorithm was tested with both color video imagery and infrared

  3. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, H.E.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kerstholt, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  4. Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, H.E.; van Emmerik, M.L.; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2017-01-01

    Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand. In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services

  5. Modeling and analyses for an extended car-following model accounting for drivers' situation awareness from cyber physical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Sun, Dihua; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Senlin

    2018-07-01

    In fact, driving process is a typical cyber physical process which couples tightly the cyber factor of traffic information with the physical components of the vehicles. Meanwhile, the drivers have situation awareness in driving process, which is not only ascribed to the current traffic states, but also extrapolates the changing trend. In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to account for drivers' situation awareness. The stability criterion of the proposed model is derived via linear stability analysis. The results show that the stable region of proposed model will be enlarged on the phase diagram compared with previous models. By employing the reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equation is obtained. The kink-antikink soliton of mKdV equation reveals theoretically the evolution of traffic jams. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the analytical results. Two typical traffic Scenarios are investigated. The simulation results demonstrate that drivers' situation awareness plays a key role in traffic flow oscillations and the congestion transition.

  6. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  7. Empirical verification for application of Bayesian inference in situation awareness evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Situation awareness (SA) of human operators is significantly important for safe operation in nuclear power plants (NPPs). • SA of human operators was empirically estimated using Bayesian inference. • In this empirical study, the effect of attention and working memory to SA was considered. • Complexcity of the given task and design of human machine interface (HMI) considerably affect SA of human operators. - Abstract: Bayesian methodology has been widely used in various research fields. According to current research, malfunctions of nuclear power plants can be detected using this Bayesian inference, which consistently piles up newly incoming data and updates the estimation. However, these studies have been based on the assumption that people work like computers—perfectly—a supposition that may cause a problem in real world applications. Studies in cognitive psychology indicate that when the amount of information to be processed becomes larger, people cannot save the whole set of data in their heads due to limited attention and limited memory capacity, also known as working memory. The purpose of the current research is to consider how actual human aware the situation contrasts with our expectations, and how such disparity affects the results of conventional Bayesian inference, if at all. We compared situation awareness (SA) of ideal operators with SA of human operators, and for the human operator we used both text-based human machine interface (HMI) and infographic-based HMI to further compare two existing human operators. In addition, two different scenarios were selected how scenario complexity affects SA of human operators. As a results, when a malfunction occurred, the ideal operator found the malfunction nearly 100% probability of the time using Bayesian inference. In contrast, out of forty-six human operators, only 69.57% found the correct malfunction with simple scenario and 58.70% with complex scenario in the text-based HMI. In

  8. Measuring situational awareness and resolving inherent high-level fusion obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie

    2006-04-01

    Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.

  9. Satellite-Based Assessment of Rainfall-Triggered Landslide Hazard for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Determining the time, location, and severity of natural disaster impacts is fundamental to formulating mitigation strategies, appropriate and timely responses, and robust recovery plans. A Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness (LHASA) model was developed to indicate potential landslide activity in near real-time. LHASA combines satellite-based precipitation estimates with a landslide susceptibility map derived from information on slope, geology, road networks, fault zones, and forest loss. Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission are used to identify rainfall conditions from the past 7 days. When rainfall is considered to be extreme and susceptibility values are moderate to very high, a "nowcast" is issued to indicate the times and places where landslides are more probable. When LHASA nowcasts were evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog, the probability of detection (POD) ranged from 8% to 60%, depending on the evaluation period, precipitation product used, and the size of the spatial and temporal window considered around each landslide point. Applications of the LHASA system are also discussed, including how LHASA is used to estimate long-term trends in potential landslide activity at a nearly global scale and how it can be used as a tool to support disaster risk assessment. LHASA is intended to provide situational awareness of landslide hazards in near real-time, providing a flexible, open-source framework that can be adapted to other spatial and temporal scales based on data availability.

  10. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  11. The importance of shared mental models and shared situation awareness for transforming robots from tools to teammates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.

  12. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent

  13. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent.

  14. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  15. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  16. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  17. A computational approach to achieve situational awareness from limited observations of a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Jason

    At the start of the 21st century, the topic of complexity remains a formidable challenge in engineering, science and other aspects of our world. It seems that when disaster strikes it is because some complex and unforeseen interaction causes the unfortunate outcome. Why did the financial system of the world meltdown in 2008--2009? Why are global temperatures on the rise? These questions and other ones like them are difficult to answer because they pertain to contexts that require lengthy descriptions. In other words, these contexts are complex. But we as human beings are able to observe and recognize this thing we call 'complexity'. Furthermore, we recognize that there are certain elements of a context that form a system of complex interactions---i.e., a complex system. Many researchers have even noted similarities between seemingly disparate complex systems. Do sub-atomic systems bear resemblance to weather patterns? Or do human-based economic systems bear resemblance to macroscopic flows? Where do we draw the line in their resemblance? These are the kinds of questions that are asked in complex systems research. And the ability to recognize complexity is not only limited to analytic research. Rather, there are many known examples of humans who, not only observe and recognize but also, operate complex systems. How do they do it? Is there something superhuman about these people or is there something common to human anatomy that makes it possible to fly a plane? Or to drive a bus? Or to operate a nuclear power plant? Or to play Chopin's etudes on the piano? In each of these examples, a human being operates a complex system of machinery, whether it is a plane, a bus, a nuclear power plant or a piano. What is the common thread running through these abilities? The study of situational awareness (SA) examines how people do these types of remarkable feats. It is not a bottom-up science though because it relies on finding general principles running through a host of varied

  18. Assessment of situational awareness: team resources brought in action to enhance patient safety at the ICU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Situational Awareness (SA) relates to the team’s ability to perceive and anticipate threats in the care for patients. The present paper describes the development of a questionnaire that measures this SA gradient in the context of healthcare. The Resulting questionnaire (SafeTeam) consists

  19. An interorganizational IT infrastructure for self-organization in logistics : situation awareness and real-time chain composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.; Punter, L.M.; Bastiaansen, H.J.M.; Cornelisse, E.; Dalmolen, S.; Palaskas, Z.; Karakostas, B.; Gato, J.; Garcia, J.; Herrero, G.; Gonzalez-Rodrigues, M.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges for more sustainable, effective and efficient transport services in global logistics, a new IT-paradigm is needed to harvest the opportunities that capabilities for situation awareness and real-time chain composition provide. The iCargo project provides such an advanced,

  20. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  1. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  2. Lessons learned from creating a mobile version of an educational board game to increase situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Lukosch, Heide; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an iterative design process for a serious game, which aims to raise situational awareness among different stakeholders in a logistics value chain by introducing multi-user role-playing games. It does so in several phases: After introducing the field of logistics as a problem

  3. Automating Information Assurance for Cyber Situational Awareness within a Smart Cloud System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    monitoring and protection of data such as Transport Layer Security ( TLS ), Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ), and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) protocols...and usage of data loss prevention software. Protocols such as TLS , SSL , and IPsec encrypt data packets for secure transportation and decryption by...Representational State Transfer RSS rich site summary SA situational awareness SAF Singapore Armed Forces SoS system of systems SSL secure sockets layer S

  4. Situation awareness of active distribution network: roadmap, technologies, and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of local generation and demand response, the active distribution network (ADN), which aggregates and manages miscellaneous distributed resources, has moved from theory to practice. Secure and optimal operations now require an advanced situation awareness (SA) system so...... in the project of developing an SA system as the basic component of a practical active distribution management system (ADMS) deployed in Beijing, China, is presented. This paper reviews the ADN’s development roadmap by illustrating the changes that are made in elements, topology, structure, and control scheme....... Taking into consideration these hardware changes, a systematic framework is proposed for the main components and the functional hierarchy of an SA system for the ADN. The SA system’s implementation bottlenecks are also presented, including, but not limited to issues in big data platform, distribution...

  5. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  6. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  7. A Simulation and Modeling Framework for Space Situational Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and initial demonstration of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness enterprise, for quantitatively assessing the benefit of specific sensor systems, technologies and data analysis techniques. The framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient, physics-based simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The details of the modeling and simulation framework are described, including hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, radar cross section calculations, optical brightness calculations, generic radar system models, generic optical system models, specific Space Surveillance Network models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, and visualization tools. The use of this integrated simulation and modeling framework on a specific scenario involving space debris is demonstrated

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  9. Introducing RiskSOAP to communicate the distributed situation awareness of a system about safety issues: an application to a robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the RiskSOAP ('RiskSOAP' is the abbreviation for Risk SituatiOn Awareness Provision.) indicator to measure the capability of a complex socio-technical system to provide its agents with situation awareness (SA) about the presence of its threats and vulnerabilities and enables analysts to assess distributed SA. The RiskSOAP methodology adopts a comparative approach between two design versions of a system differing in the elements and characteristics that can enhance or cause the degradation of the awareness provision capability. The methodology uniquely combines three methods: (1) the STPA hazard analysis, (2) the EWaSAP early warning sign identification approach, and (3) a dissimilarity measure for calculating the distance between binary sets. In this paper, the RiskSOAP methodology was applied to a robotic system and the findings show that the indicator is an objective measure for the system's capability to provide its agents with SA about its threats and vulnerabilities. Practitioner Summary: This paper suggests a novel methodology for assessing distributed situation awareness (DSA) regarding safety issues. Given that systems consist of specifications and components possible to be mapped, the risk SA provision capability (RiskSOAP) methodology demonstrates the feasibility of measuring to what extent systems' elements contribute to the emergence of DSA.

  10. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  11. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. Presentation at the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning, Dublin, Ireland. Please see also

  12. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  14. Improving Employees' Safety Awareness in Healthcare Organizations Using the DMAIC Quality Improvement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momani, Amer; Hirzallah, Muʼath; Mumani, Ahmad

    Occupational injuries and illnesses in healthcare can cause great human suffering, incur high cost, and have an adverse impact on the quality of patient care. One of the most effective solutions for addressing health and safety issues and improving decisions at the point of care rests in raising employees' safety awareness to recognize, avoid, or respond to potential problems before they arise. In this article, the DMAIC Six Sigma model (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) is used as a systematic program to measure, improve, and sustain employees' safety awareness in healthcare organizations. We report on a case study using the model, which was implemented and validated at a local hospital. First, the occupational health and safety knowledge that each job requires was identified. Next, the degree of competence of jobholders to meet these requirements was assessed. Based on the assessment, different awareness-raising efforts were proposed and implemented. The results showed significant improvement in the overall safety awareness compliance assessed: from 74.2% to 84.4% (p < .001) after the intervention. The proposed model ensures that the organization's awareness-raising efforts serve its actual needs and produce optimized and sustained results that eventually lead to safer healthcare service.

  15. On detection and visualization techniques for cyber security situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Shixiao; Shen, Dan; Blowers, Misty; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe; Zhang, Hanlin; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Networking technologies are exponentially increasing to meet worldwide communication requirements. The rapid growth of network technologies and perversity of communications pose serious security issues. In this paper, we aim to developing an integrated network defense system with situation awareness capabilities to present the useful information for human analysts. In particular, we implement a prototypical system that includes both the distributed passive and active network sensors and traffic visualization features, such as 1D, 2D and 3D based network traffic displays. To effectively detect attacks, we also implement algorithms to transform real-world data of IP addresses into images and study the pattern of attacks and use both the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based scheme and the statistical based scheme to detect attacks. Through an extensive simulation study, our data validate the effectiveness of our implemented defense system.

  16. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  17. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... communicating over a network protocol (UDP) enabling distribution on several hardware devices. The modules are: Graphical user interface, head tracking server, truck tracking, and binaural synthesis module. The function of the individual modules as well as overall topology of the system will be presented...

  18. Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kurapati, Shalini; Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kurapati, S., & Kolfschoten, G. (2013, 6 June). Transferring an educational board game to a multi-user mobile learning game to increase shared situational awareness. In P. Rooney (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Irish Symposium on Game Based Learning (pp. 8-9). Dublin, Ireland. Please see

  19. Crew Situation Awareness, Diagnoses, and Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Process Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Kaarstad, Magnhild

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project to identify issues in crew performance in complex simulated nuclear power plant scenarios. Eight crews of operators participated in five scenarios, administered over a two or three-day period. Scenarios required either rule-based or knowledge-based problem solving. Several performance parameters were collected, including Situation Awareness (SA), objective performance, rated crew performance, and crew diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in performance measures in knowledge-based and rule-based scenarios. Preliminary data analysis revealed a significant difference in crew SA between the two scenario types: crews in the rule-based scenarios had significantly higher SA then crews in the knowledge-based scenarios. Further investigations were initiated to determine if crews performed differently, in terms of objective performance, rated crew performance, and diagnoses, between the scenario types. Correlations between the various crew performance measurements were calculated to reveal insights into the nature of SA, performance, and diagnoses. The insights into crew performance can be used to design more effective interfaces and operator performance aids, thus contributing to enhanced crew performance and improved plant safety. (authors)

  20. Anomaly-based online intrusion detection system as a sensor for cyber security situational awareness system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Almost all the organisations and even individuals rely on complex structures of data networks and networked computer systems. That complex data ensemble, the cyber domain, provides great opportunities, but at the same time it offers many possible attack vectors that can be abused for cyber vandalism, cyber crime, cyber espionage or cyber terrorism. Those threats produce requirements for cyber security situational awareness and intrusion detection capability. This dissertation conc...

  1. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  2. The emergent relevance of care staff decision-making and situation awareness to mobility care in nursing homes: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janice; Sims, Jane; Haines, Terry P

    2014-12-01

    To explore mobility care as provided by care staff in nursing homes. Care staff regularly assist residents with their mobility. Nurses are increasingly reliant on such staff to provide safe and quality mobility care. However, the nature of care staff decision-making when providing assistance has not been fully addressed in the literature. A focused ethnography. The study was conducted in four nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia. Non-participant observations of residents and staff in 2011. Focus groups with 18 nurses, care and lifestyle staff were conducted at three facilities in 2012. Thematic analysis was employed for focus groups and content analysis for observation data. Cognitive Continuum Theory and the notion of 'situation awareness' assisted data interpretation. Decision-making during mobility care emerged as a major theme. Using Cognitive Continuum Theory as a guide, nursing home staff's decision-making was described as ranging from system-aided, through resident- and peer-aided, to reflective and intuitive. Staff seemed aware of the need for resident-aided decision-making consistent with person-centred care. Habitual mobility care based on shared mental models occurred. It was noted that levels of situation awareness may vary among staff. Care staff may benefit from support via collaborative and reflective practice to develop decision-making skills, situation awareness and person-centred mobility care. Further research is required to explore the connection between staff's skills in mobility care and their decision-making competence as well as how these factors link to quality mobility care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Global Muon Detector Network -GMDN and the space situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Munakata, Kazuoki; Dal Lago, Alisson; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Echer, Ezequiel; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; Rigozo, Nivaor R.; Petry, Adriano; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Ramos Vieira, Lucas; Kemmerich, Níkolas; Kato, Chihiro; Fushishita, Akira; Fujii, Zenjirou; Bieber, John W.; Evenson, Paul; Kuwabara, Takao; Duldig, Marcus L.; Humble, John E.; Chilingarian, Ashot; Sabbah, Ismail; Jansen, Frank

    Space weather forecasting is a very important tool for the space situational awareness to the space objects, the space environment and related threats and risks for manned and non-manned spacecrafts. The global network of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN) can be considered as one example of an important emerging Space Situational Awareness program around the world, since its requirements needs global technical, scientific and logistic collab-oration between several countries in different continents. ICMEs accompanied by a strong shock often forms a high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) depleted region behind the shock known as a Forbush decrease. The ICME arrival also causes a systematic variation in the GCR streaming (i.e. the directional anisotropy of intensity). The magnitude of the streaming is small (about 1 % or less), but its variation is relevant. Some particles from this suppressed density region traveling with about the speed of light leak into the upstream region, much faster than the approaching shock, creating the possibility of being observed at the earth, by a global net-work of ground based multi-directional detectors (GMDN), as precursory loss-cone anisotropy. Loss-cones are typically visible 4-8 hours ahead of shock arrival for shocks associated with ma-jor geomagnetic storms. A multi-directional muon detector for detection of GCR was installed in 2001, through an international cooperation between Brazil, Japan and USA, and has been in operation since then at the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, (29.4° S, 53.8° W, 480m a.s.l), Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, in southern Brazil. The detector's capability and sensitivity were upgraded in 2005. The observations conducted by this detector are used for forecasting the arrival of the geomagnetic storm and their interplanetary coronal mass ejec-tion (ICME) drivers in the near-earth geospace. The detector measures high-energy GCRs by detecting secondary muons produced from the

  4. CubeSat Integration into the Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.

    2013-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of

  5. WENESSA, Wide Eye-Narrow Eye Space Simulation fo Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarait, O.; Payne, D. M.; LeVan, P. D.; Luu, K. K.; Spillar, E.; Freiwald, W.; Hamada, K.; Houchard, J.

    In an effort to achieve timelier indications of anomalous object behaviors in geosynchronous earth orbit, a Planning Capability Concept (PCC) for a “Wide Eye-Narrow Eye” (WE-NE) telescope network has been established. The PCC addresses the problem of providing continuous and operationally robust, layered and cost-effective, Space Situational Awareness (SSA) that is focused on monitoring deep space for anomalous behaviors. It does this by first detecting the anomalies with wide field of regard systems, and then providing reliable handovers for detailed observational follow-up by another optical asset. WENESSA will explore the added value of such a system to the existing Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The study will assess and quantify the degree to which the PCC completely fulfills, or improves or augments, these deep space knowledge deficiencies relative to current operational systems. In order to improve organic simulation capabilities, we will explore options for the federation of diverse community simulation approaches, while evaluating the efficiencies offered by a network of small and larger aperture, ground-based telescopes. Existing Space Modeling and Simulation (M&S) tools designed for evaluating WENESSA-like problems will be taken into consideration as we proceed in defining and developing the tools needed to perform this study, leading to the creation of a unified Space M&S environment for the rapid assessment of new capabilities. The primary goal of this effort is to perform a utility assessment of the WE-NE concept. The assessment will explore the mission utility of various WE-NE concepts in discovering deep space anomalies in concert with the SSN. The secondary goal is to generate an enduring modeling and simulation environment to explore the utility of future proposed concepts and supporting technologies. Ultimately, our validated simulation framework would support the inclusion of other ground- and space-based SSA assets through integrated

  6. Use of human patient simulation and the situation awareness global assessment technique in practical trauma skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael P; Pace, David E; Hapgood, Joanne; Boone, Darrell C

    2006-11-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is defined as the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. This construct is vital to decision making in intense, dynamic environments. It has been used in aviation as it relates to pilot performance, but has not been applied to medical education. The most widely used objective tool for measuring trainee SA is the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). The purpose of this study was to design and validate SAGAT for assessment of practical trauma skills, and to compare SAGAT results to traditional checklist style scoring. Using the Human Patient Simulator, we designed SAGAT for practical trauma skills assessment based on Advanced Trauma Life Support objectives. Sixteen subjects (four staff surgeons, four senior residents, four junior residents, and four medical students) participated in three scenarios each. They were assessed using SAGAT and traditional checklist assessment. A questionnaire was used to assess possible confounding factors in attaining SA and overall trainee satisfaction. SAGAT was found to show significant difference (analysis of variance; p level of training lending statistical support to construct validity. SAGAT was likewise found to display reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.767), and significant scoring correlation with traditional checklist performance measures (Pearson's coefficient 0.806). The questionnaire revealed no confounding factors and universal satisfaction with the human patient simulator and SAGAT. SAGAT is a valid, reliable assessment tool for trauma trainees in the dynamic clinical environment created by human patient simulation. Information provided by SAGAT could provide specific feedback, direct individualized teaching, and support curriculum change. Introduction of SAGAT could improve the current assessment model for practical trauma education.

  7. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  8. Benefits of Applying Predictive Intelligence to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B.; Mann, B.; Millard, C.

    Recent events have heightened the interest in providing improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to the warfighter using novel techniques that are affordable and effective. The current Space Surveillance Network (SSN) detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting earth and provides information on Resident Space Objects (RSO) as well as new foreign launch (NFL) satellites. The reactive nature of the SSN provides little to no warning on changes to the expected states of these RSOs or NFLs. This paper will detail the use of the historical data collected on RSOs to characterize what their steady state is, proactively help identify when changes or anomalies have occurred using a pattern-of-like activity based intelligence approach, and apply dynamic, adaptive mission planning to the observables that lead up to a NFL. Multiple hypotheses will be carried along with the intent or the changes to the steady state to assist the SSN in tasking the various sensors in the network to collect the relevant data needed to help prune the number of hypotheses by assigning likelihood to each of those activities. Depending on the hypothesis and thresholds set, these likelihoods will then be used in turn to alert the SSN operator with changes to the steady state, prioritize additional data collections, and provide a watch list of likely next activities.

  9. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...... for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many...... the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible...

  10. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  11. Perceived learning outcome: the relationship between experience, realism and situation awareness during simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Navigation errors are a frequent cause of serious accidents and work-related injuries among seafarers. The present study investigated the effects of experience, perceived realism, and situation awareness (SA) on the perceived learning outcome of simulator-based navigation training. Thirty-two Norwegian Navy officer cadets were assigned to a low and a high mental workload conditions based on previous educational and navigational experience. In the low mental workload condition, experience (negatively associated), perceived realism, and subjective SA explained almost half of the total variance in perceived learning outcome. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that only subjective SA made a unique contribution to the learning outcome. In the high mental workload condition, perceived realism and subjective SA together explained almost half of the variance in perceived learning outcome. Furthermore, both perceived realism and subjective SA were shown to make an independent contribution to perceived learning outcomes. The results of this study show that in order to enhance the learning outcomes from simulator training it is necessary to design training procedures and scenarios that enable students to achieve functional fidelity and to generate and maintain SA during training. This can further improve safety and reduce the risk of maritime disasters.

  12. Space Situational Awareness Data Processing Scalability Utilizing Google Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, D.; Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.; Flores, F.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a fundamental and critical component of current space operations. The term SSA encompasses the awareness, understanding and predictability of all objects in space. As the population of orbital space objects and debris increases, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows and prompts the need for accurate and timely process measures. The SSA mission continually evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis demanding the need for higher processing capabilities. By conventional methods, meeting these demands requires the integration of new hardware to keep pace with the growing complexity of maneuver planning algorithms. SpaceNav has implemented a highly scalable architecture that will track satellites and debris by utilizing powerful virtual machines on the Google Cloud Platform. SpaceNav algorithms for processing CDMs outpace conventional means. A robust processing environment for tracking data, collision avoidance maneuvers and various other aspects of SSA can be created and deleted on demand. Migrating SpaceNav tools and algorithms into the Google Cloud Platform will be discussed and the trials and tribulations involved. Information will be shared on how and why certain cloud products were used as well as integration techniques that were implemented. Key items to be presented are: 1.Scientific algorithms and SpaceNav tools integrated into a scalable architecture a) Maneuver Planning b) Parallel Processing c) Monte Carlo Simulations d) Optimization Algorithms e) SW Application Development/Integration into the Google Cloud Platform 2. Compute Engine Processing a) Application Engine Automated Processing b) Performance testing and Performance Scalability c) Cloud MySQL databases and Database Scalability d) Cloud Data Storage e) Redundancy and Availability

  13. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  14. Can We Measure Operating Team's Situation Awareness with Verbal Protocols?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Today's systems are complex, focused on not just physical tasks, but on elaborate perceptual and cognitive tasks as well. Hence, humans in many complex and dynamic systems are required to act as effective and timely decision makers. Situation Awareness (SA), which is used within human factor research to explain to what extent operators of safety critical and complex real systems know what is going on the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor for effective decision making and performance. Thus, the need for operators to maintain SA in complex and dynamic environments is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. In terms of understanding SA, much effort has been devoted to the development of a measurement method of SA. Thus far, however, various studies have been limited to addressing the SA of individual operators. However, many complex systems are operated by teams. It is typical of complex systems that they require more than one operator. The purpose of this study is to develop team SA measurement method using verbal protocol data

  15. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  16. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  17. Analysis of Pilot Feedback Regarding the Use of State Awareness Technologies During Complex Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emory; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi; Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Etherington, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A flight simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate flight deck systems that (1) predict aircraft energy state and/or autoflight configuration, (2) present the current state and expected future state of automated systems, and/or (3) show the state of flight-critical data systems in use by automated systems and primary flight instruments. Four new technology concepts were evaluated vis-à-vis current state-of-the-art flight deck systems and indicators. This human-in-the-loop study was conducted using commercial airline crews. Scenarios spanned a range of complex conditions and several emulated causal factors and complexity in recent accidents involving loss of state awareness by pilots (e.g. energy state, automation state, and/or system state). Data were collected via questionnaires administered after each flight, audio/video recordings, physiological data, head and eye tracking data, pilot control inputs, and researcher observations. This paper strictly focuses on findings derived from the questionnaire responses. It includes analysis of pilot subjective measures of complexity, decision making, workload, situation awareness, usability, and acceptability.

  18. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  19. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  20. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue...... that students’ context awareness can significantly be enhanced by the use of appropriate external representations which guide them to activate context inducing cognitive processes. By embedding such representations in a case based learning environment we expect to guide students’ processing of the rich...... in contextual information material, in a way that improves both their context awareness and metacontextual competence. After presenting a context model, we discuss the design of such representations based on this model and explain why we expect that their use in a learning situation would enhance context...

  1. Enhanced situation awareness and decision making for an intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.J.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Learning Automata based intelligent reconfigurable controller has been adapted for use as a reactor power controller to achieve improved reactor temperature performance. The intelligent reconfigurable controller is capable of enforcing either a classical or an optimal reactor power controller based on control performance feedback. Four control performance evaluation measures: dynamically estimated average quadratic temperature error, power, rod reactivity and rod reactivity rate were developed to provide feedback to the control decision component of the intelligent reconfigurable controller. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network controllers have been studied for inclusion in the bank of controllers that form the intermediate level of an enhanced intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller (IRRPC). The increased number of alternatives available to the supervisory level of the IRRPC requires enhanced situation awareness. Additional performance measures have been designed and a method for synthesizing them into a single indication of the overall performance of the currently enforced reactor power controller has been conceptualized. Modification of the reward/penalty scheme implemented in the existing IRRPC to increase the quality of the supervisory level decision process has been studied. The logogen model of human memory (Morton, 1969) and individual controller design information could be used to allocate reward to the most appropriate controller. Methods for allocating supervisory level attention were also studied with the goal of maximizing learning rate

  2. Regional integration, improving women's economic situation, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional integration, improving women's economic situation, and ... of the West African Economic and Monetary Union on their economic development, the ... production sectors, and commercialization networks affected by regional trade, the ...

  3. The Cultivation of Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the information age,the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has been extremely important. Thus foreign language teaching lays stress on the cultivation of language comprehensive application ability. Culture awareness is an important part of language comprehensive application ability. The cultivating of students’ cultural awareness is beneficial to improve their humanistic quality,broaden their international view,strengthen their patriotism spirit and sense of national mission,and achieve their all-round development. The paper will discuss the current situation of cultural awareness cultivation in English teaching. In view of the problems and its causes existing in the cultural awareness cultivation,three count measures have been proposed.

  4. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  5. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2013-09-01

    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  6. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  7. Unified Lambert Tool for Massively Parallel Applications in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn M.; Read, Julie; Hernandez, Kevin; Probe, Austin; Junkins, John L.

    2018-03-01

    Awareness computer cluster at the LASR Lab, Texas A&M University. We demonstrate the power of our tool by solving a highly parallel example problem, that is the generation of extremal field maps for optimal spacecraft rendezvous (and eventual orbit debris removal). In addition we demonstrate the need for including perturbative effects in simulations for satellite tracking or data association. The unified Lambert tool is ideal for but not limited to space situational awareness applications.

  8. SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.N.; Follesoe, K.; Volden, F.S.; Torralba, B.

    1994-01-01

    Control room operator support systems and their interface designs have as one goal the enhancement of the operators' situation awareness of the dynamically changing process state. This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness within the Human Factors evaluation of control room operator-system interfaces. The technique, referred to as SACRI, has been evaluated in four simulator studies and the main findings from these studies are summarized in this paper. It is concluded that SACRI can be a useful supplement to operator performance measures currently existing for use within control room interface evaluations. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Jorge, J

    2008-01-01

    Modern collaborative environments often provide an overwhelming amount of visual information on multiple displays. The multitude of personal and shared interaction devices leads to lack of awareness of team members on ongoing activities, and awareness of who is in control of shared artefacts. This

  10. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  11. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  12. Consciência situacional, tomada de decisão e modos de controle cognitivo em ambientes complexos Situation awareness, decision making, and cognitive control in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Henriqson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a consciência situacional, os processos de tomada de decisão naturalística e os modos de controle cognitivo utilizados por pilotos de aeronaves em um experimento em simulador de voo. Dessa forma, diferentes situações foram propostas durante a simulação objetivando o estudo da consciência situacional e tomada de decisão dos tripulantes. As ações dos participantes foram investigadas e classificadas de acordo com o modelo de controle cognitivo proposto. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de complexidade contextual afetam a gestão da dificuldade, influenciando a consciência situacional, a tomada de decisão e os modos de controle cognitivo dos pilotos.This work aims to analyze situation awareness, natural decision-making processes and cognitive control modes used by airplane pilots in a flight simulator experiment. In this way, different situations during flight simulation were considered in order to study the crew's situation awareness and natural decision-making. The participants' actions were investigated and classified according to the cognitive control model proposed. Results suggest that context complexity factors affect difficulty management, influencing situation awareness, decision-making and pilots' cognitive control modes.

  13. Designing Cognitive Intervention to Improve the Awareness Index of the Residents in the Landslide Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, N.; Putranto, T. T.; Ulfa, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    Considering Semarang as a city with a high potential of landslides occurrences in its almost area, human as the part of the system should be played as a centre of the disaster management system to reduce the natural disaster risk. The study area is located in Manyaran district (the west of Semarang) which is categorised as a vulnerable of landslide area. This study aims at establishing a cognitive intervention based on a cause analysis (Fault Tree Analysis/FTA) to find the cause of low value and improve the awareness index of residents as the implementation of human-based disaster management model. The FTA result was then combined with the demographical data to generate the design of the cognitive intervention. The FTA result conducted that the preparedness of emergency planning had the lowest value (18.2%) which was caused by the lack individual preparation including lack of residents knowledge, and the absence of observation facilities as well as the lack of evacuation planning. Analysis of demographical data resulted in a situation of lack socialisation and knowledge of the residents regarding the landslide occurrence. The model of cognitive intervention then utilised some tools such as video, module and discussion to improve the awareness index.

  14. Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-Based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary...terms of specialized Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) elements to estimate the state of resident space objects in the geostationary regime. Justification...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0114 TR-2016-0114 SPECIALIZED FINITE SET STATISTICS (FISST)- BASED ESTIMATION METHODS TO ENHANCE SPACE SITUATIONAL

  15. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  16. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  17. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information

  18. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  19. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  20. Quality of Care and Services of a Public Hospital: Awareness and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-ilah Aziane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give everyone access to quality care, this study attempts to make quality awareness, highlighting the importance of the implementation of the quality management system in health care facilities. The objective of our work is to make a quality awareness, to analyze the current situation and to provide recommendations. The analysis of the existing situation consists of identifying, describing, and analyzing the key processes implemented, listing the dysfunctions, classifying them, deciding on the corresponding actions and putting in place indicators and dashboards, which will help track improvements. The overall situation of the hospital regarding the requirements of ISO 9001 indicated a respect of about 28% of the requirements of the standard. The state of the premises of the establishment does not indicate a clear organization at the hospital. The hospital environment is a prerequisite to the establishment of a system of quality management that enables you to deploy a clear and shared policy to improve the quality of care and services.

  1. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  2. Real-time Social Media Data Analytics for Situational Awareness of the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Chinthavali, S.; Lee, S.; Shankar, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing frequency of extreme events due to climate change, wide area situational awareness (SA) of the electric grid has become a primary need for federal agencies like DOE,FEMA etc. for emergency preparedness and recovery purposes. While several sensor feeds from Genscape, GridEye, PMUs provide a comprehensive view of the transmission grid, national-scale situational awareness tools are still relying on utility websites for outage information at a distribution level. The inconsistency and the variety in outage website's data formats makes this approach unreliable and also incurs huge software maintenance costs. Social media has emerged as a great medium for the utilities to share outage information with their customers. Despite their potential usefulness, extracting relevant data from these social media data-streams is challenging due to the inherent noise and irrelevant information such as tips to customers during storms, marketing, etc. In this study, we implement a practical and novel machine learning based data-analytics pipeline (Fig 1) for SA, which extracts real-time tweets from around 300 utility companies, processes these tweets using keyword filtering and Naïve-Bayes text classifier trained using supervised learning techniques to detect only relevant tweets. We validated the results by comparing it with the results identified by a human analyst for a period of 48 hours, and it showed around 98.3% accuracy. In addition to the tweets posted by utility companies, millions of twitter users, who are considered as human "social sensors", report power outages online. Therefore, we use Twitter Streaming API to extract real-time tweets containing keywords such as "power outage", "blackout", and "power cuts". An advanced natural language processing technique is proposed to identify the geo-locations associated with this power outage data. The detected tweets are visualized as a color-coded state and a county US map based on the number of outage tweets

  3. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information.

  4. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  5. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  6. Staff acceptance of video monitoring for coordination: a video system to support perioperative situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Peter; Dutton, Richard

    2009-08-01

    To understand staff acceptance of a remote video monitoring system for operating room (OR) coordination. Improved real-time remote visual access to OR may enhance situational awareness but also raises privacy concerns for patients and staff. Survey. A system was implemented in a six-room surgical suite to display OR monitoring video at an access restricted control desk area. Image quality was manipulated to improve staff acceptance. Two months after installation, interviews and a survey were conducted on staff acceptance of video monitoring. About half of all OR personnel responded (n = 63). Overall levels of concerns were low, with 53% rated no concerns and 42% little concern. Top two reported uses of the video were to see if cases are finished and to see if a room is ready. Viewing the video monitoring system as useful did not reduce levels of concern. Staff in supervisory positions perceived less concern about the system's impact on privacy than did those supervised (p < 0.03). Concerns for patient privacy correlated with concerns for staff privacy and performance monitoring. Technical means such as manipulating image quality helped staff acceptance. Manipulation of image quality resulted overall acceptance of monitoring video, with residual levels of concerns. OR nurses may express staff privacy concern in the form of concerns over patient privacy. This study provided suggestions for technological and implementation strategies of video monitoring for coordination use in OR. Deployment of communication technology and integration of clinical information will likely raise concerns over staff privacy and performance monitoring. The potential gain of increased information access may be offset by negative impact of a sense of loss of autonomy.

  7. Nurse-surgeon object transfer: video analysis of communication and situation awareness in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakangas, Terhi; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Bezemer, Jeff; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-09-01

    One of the most central collaborative tasks during surgical operations is the passing of objects, including instruments. Little is known about how nurses and surgeons achieve this. The aim of the present study was to explore what factors affect this routine-like task, resulting in fast or slow transfer of objects. A qualitative video study, informed by an observational ethnographic approach, was conducted in a major teaching hospital in the UK. A total of 20 general surgical operations were observed. In total, approximately 68 h of video data have been reviewed. A subsample of 225 min has been analysed in detail using interactional video-analysis developed within the social sciences. Two factors affecting object transfer were observed: (1) relative instrument trolley position and (2) alignment. The scrub nurse's instrument trolley position (close to vs. further back from the surgeon) and alignment (gaze direction) impacts on the communication with the surgeon, and consequently, on the speed of object transfer. When the scrub nurse was standing close to the surgeon, and "converged" to follow the surgeon's movements, the transfer occurred more seamlessly and faster (1.0 s). The smoothness of object transfer can be improved by adjusting the scrub nurse's instrument trolley position, enabling a better monitoring of surgeon's bodily conduct and affording early orientation (awareness) to an upcoming request (changing situation). Object transfer is facilitated by the surgeon's embodied practices, which can elicit the nurse's attention to the request and, as a response, maximise a faster object transfer. A simple intervention to highlight the significance of these factors could improve communication in the operating theatre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Information Availability on Command-and-Control Decision Making: Performance, Trust, and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Laura R; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Onal, Emrah; Yu, Michael S; Schaffer, James; O'Donovan, John; Höllerer, Tobias; Buchler, Norbou; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how increases in task-relevant information affect human decision-making performance, situation awareness (SA), and trust in a simulated command-and-control (C2) environment. Increased information is often associated with an improvement of SA and decision-making performance in networked organizations. However, previous research suggests that increasing information without considering the task relevance and the presentation can impair performance. We used a simulated C2 task across two experiments. Experiment 1 varied the information volume provided to individual participants and measured the speed and accuracy of decision making for task performance. Experiment 2 varied information volume and information reliability provided to two participants acting in different roles and assessed decision-making performance, SA, and trust between the paired participants. In both experiments, increased task-relevant information volume did not improve task performance. In Experiment 2, increased task-relevant information volume reduced self-reported SA and trust, and incorrect source reliability information led to poorer task performance and SA. These results indicate that increasing the volume of information, even when it is accurate and task relevant, is not necessarily beneficial to decision-making performance. Moreover, it may even be detrimental to SA and trust among team members. Given the high volume of available and shared information and the safety-critical and time-sensitive nature of many decisions, these results have implications for training and system design in C2 domains. To avoid decrements to SA, interpersonal trust, and decision-making performance, information presentation within C2 systems must reflect human cognitive processing limits and capabilities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Ecological interface design for turbine secondary systems in a nuclear power plant : effects on operator situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into past accidents at nuclear power generating facilities such as that of Three Mile Island have identified human factors as one of the foremost critical aspects in plant safety. Errors resulting from limitations in human information processing are of particular concern for human-machine interfaces (HMI) in plant control rooms. This project examines the application of Ecological Interface Design (EID) in HMI information displays and the effects on operator situation awareness (SA) for turbine secondary systems based on the Swedish Forsmark 3 boiling-water reactor nuclear power plant. A work domain analysis was performed on the turbine secondary systems yielding part-whole decomposition and abstraction hierarchy models. Information display requirements were subsequently extracted from the models. The resulting EID information displays were implemented in a full-scope simulator and evaluated with six licensed operating crews from the Forsmark 3 plant. Three measures were used to examine SA: self-rated bias, Halden Open Probe Elicitation (HOPE), and Situation Awareness Control Room Inventory (SACRI). The data analysis revealed that operators achieved moderate to good SA; operators unfamiliar with EID information displays were able to develop and maintain comparable levels of SA to operators using traditional forms of single sensor-single indicator (SS-SI) information displays. With sufficient training and experience, operator SA is expected to benefit from the knowledge-based visual elements in the EID information displays. This project was researched in conjunction with the Cognitive Engineering Laboratory at the University of Toronto and the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. (author)

  10. Improving the Awareness of Personal and Oral Hygiene in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleskie-Lippert, Kathleen

    The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…

  11. An experience of improvement on parenting skills and socio-personal development in minors in serious social vulnerability situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bartau Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational intervention design and assessment aimed to improve the socio-personal development of minors in a situation of serious social vulnerability, and the parenting skills of their mothers and fathers. The sample includes families in situations of serious social vulnerability, with complex problems making parenting difficult (psychiatric problems, unemployment, social exclusion, etc.. The sample group comprised fathers, mothers and children. 18 persons (10 families took part in the first phase of intervention and 15 persons in the second. The intervention was carried out in 3 groups (fathers, mothers and minors, and consisted of 5 fortnightly sessions lasting two hours each. Assessments were carried out before, during and after the intervention, comparing the information obtained from all groups involved (fathers, mothers, minors, family workers and group leaders. The educational intervention helped both fathers and mothers to understand better their children’s needs. Improvements were found in the emotional and cooperation skills of the minors. The professionals observed improvements in the relations between parents and children, and related them to the families’ involvement in the educational program. The work carried out has contributed to increase the children awareness of their parent’s inability to look after them and the effort made by them to learn and improve, as well. It was concluded that the strictly educational intervention promotes the initiation of small improvements positively evaluated by all groups involved. The educational intervention helps to develop values such as ‘to learn caring’ in social vulnerability contexts.

  12. A Simulation-based Approach to Measuring Team Situational Awareness in Emergency Medicine: A Multicenter, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Dixon, Aurora J; Webb, Jessica M; Brolliar, Sarah; Golden, Simon J; Jones, Kerin A; Shah, Sachita; Grand, James A; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2018-02-01

    Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA, but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine (EM) teams. We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement. Interprofessional emergency medical teams, consisting of EM resident physicians, nurses, and medical students, were recruited from the University of Washington (Seattle, WA) and Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). Each team completed a simulated emergency resuscitation scenario. Immediately following the simulation, team members completed a TSA measure, a team perception of shared understanding measure, and a team leader effectiveness measure. Subject matter expert reviews and pilot testing of the TSA measure provided evidence of content and response process validity. Simulations were recorded and independently coded for team performance using a previously validated measure. The relationships between the TSA measure and other variables (team clinical performance, team perception of shared understanding, team leader effectiveness, and team experience) were explored. The TSA agreement metric was indexed by averaging the pairwise agreement for each dyad on a team and then averaging across dyads to yield agreement at the team level. For the team perception of shared understanding and team leadership effectiveness measures, individual team member scores were aggregated within a team to create a single team score. We computed descriptive statistics for all outcomes. We calculated Pearson's product-moment correlations to determine bivariate correlations between outcome variables with two-tailed significance testing (p teams (n = 41

  13. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  14. The Importance of Situational Awareness: A Qualitative Study of Family Members' and Nurses' Perspectives on Teaching During Family-Centered Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy; Meyer, Rebecca; Kind, Terry; Bhansali, Priti

    2015-10-01

    Family-centered rounds (FCR) has become a leading model for pediatric inpatient rounding. During FCR, faculty must balance trainees' educational needs with patient care priorities. Investigators have examined trainees' views on effective teaching during FCR, but none have evaluated what family members and nurses consider to be effective teaching behaviors of attending physicians. The authors sought to explore family members' and nurses' perspectives on effective teaching behaviors during FCR. The authors conducted (2012-2013) a qualitative study of families and nurses at an academic children's hospital where FCR is the standard model for inpatient rounds. Nurses and families familiar with FCR participated in separate focus groups. The authors reviewed focus group transcripts using techniques of qualitative content analysis; they generated codes and developed categories, supported by illustrative quotations. Fifteen nurses and 13 family members participated in the focus groups. The unifying theme was that situational awareness on behalf of the attending physician is essential for FCR to be educational for all participants. The authors identified four categories of awareness-(1) cognitive factors, (2) logistics and time management, (3) physical environment, (4) emotional state-and developed a set of effective teaching strategies based on participants' comments. The findings of this study support previous work identifying effective FCR teaching strategies, but this study is the first to include the perspectives of families and nurses. The inclusion of these participants provides a framework for faculty development and training to improve the educational value of FCR.

  15. SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: AWARENESS, USE, AND BENEFITS IN CANADIAN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    CHEVERS, DELROY

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1982, the software development community has been concerned with the delivery of quality systems. Software process improvement (SPI) is an initiative to avoid the delivery of low quality systems. However, the awareness and adoption of SPI is low. Thus, this study examines the rate of awareness, use, and benefits of SPI initiatives in Canadian software development firms. Using SPSS as the analytical tool, this study found that 59% of Canadian software development firms are aware...

  16. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  17. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  18. Performance Analysis of Sensor Systems for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jang-Hyun; Chung, Taejin; Park, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hocheol; Yun, Ami; Lee, Yonghui

    2017-12-01

    With increased human activity in space, the risk of re-entry and collision between space objects is constantly increasing. Hence, the need for space situational awareness (SSA) programs has been acknowledged by many experienced space agencies. Optical and radar sensors, which enable the surveillance and tracking of space objects, are the most important technical components of SSA systems. In particular, combinations of radar systems and optical sensor networks play an outstanding role in SSA programs. At present, Korea operates the optical wide field patrol network (OWL-Net), the only optical system for tracking space objects. However, due to their dependence on weather conditions and observation time, it is not reasonable to use optical systems alone for SSA initiatives, as they have limited operational availability. Therefore, the strategies for developing radar systems should be considered for an efficient SSA system using currently available technology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a radar system in detecting and tracking space objects. With the radar system investigated, the minimum sensitivity is defined as detection of a 1-m2 radar cross section (RCS) at an altitude of 2,000 km, with operating frequencies in the L, S, C, X or Ku-band. The results of power budget analysis showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000 km, which includes the low earth orbit (LEO) environment, can be achieved with a transmission power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, a pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3 dB, at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. We defined the key parameters of the radar following a performance analysis of the system. This research can thus provide guidelines for the conceptual design of radar systems for national SSA initiatives.

  19. Message maps for Safety Barrier Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the risks in a given situation, time or place, and by enabling them to observe and judge whether the relevant safety barriers are in place and in good order. This can be considered as “Situational Awareness (SA)”, which is an essential competence for at en employee can perform his/her job safely....... This Situational Awareness puts a number of requirements on people, work conditions, management, learning, knowledge, experience, motivation, etc. The Dutch WORM and RAM projects led to the identification of 64 types of risks and the safety barriers and performance factors that are linked to these risks...

  20. Toma de conciencia de las situaciones y competencia deportiva. Situational awareness and sport competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De La Vega Marcos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el contexto de los deportes colectivos, los deportistas tienen que tener la capacidad de juego definida como un don muy complejo que consiste en saber utilizar las capacidades condicionales de coordinación, intelectuales y la habilidad técnica de manera que pueda resolver bien el objetivo de juego (Lorenzo, 2002. Este objetivo se debe plantear teniendo en cuenta el aspecto funcional bajo un enfoque constructivista. La conceptualización de una situación de juego colectivo 3x3 en baloncesto nos otorga la posibilidad de constatar con mayor claridad hasta qué punto los participantes son capaces de tomar conciencia de la acción por medio de la explicación verbal, el control necesario en la acción y la estrategia de actuación. Para ello hemos utilizado la entrevista clinica y el dibujo para describir cómo los jugadores elaboran y memorizan el conocimiento implicado en las acciones motrices (Gréhaigne y Godbout, 1995; Del Valle, 1999; Rychecki, 2001; De la Vega, 2002, ya que los jugadores en todo momento están llevando a cabo procesos cognitivos a la hora de analizar, planificar y evaluar el problema que se les plantea durante el desarrollo del partido o en el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la toma de conciencia explícita sobre la acción está en función del nivel de práctica que poseen los participantes y por otro, que las diferencias existentes entre los grupos no experto y expertos, se han constatado por las disimilitudes halladas entre el número de relaciones que los participantes han sido capaces de establecer entre los distintos elementos que conforman la tarea.AbstractIn the context of sports, player´s competence is defined as a very complex issue. The player needs conditional capacities of coordination, intellectual and the technical skill to solve well the game (Lorenzo, 2002. The functional constructivist rationale can solve this problem. The awareness of a situation of collective

  1. Improving Situation Awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    sources, and various notification and communications mechanisms. This section will discuss each type of real-time SA data in depth. Blue force tracker (BFT...formats. The icons attached to these points can include much of the MIL- STD-2525B iconography, colored spot reports, or separately-loaded custom... laser range finders, notification devices (e.g., smart watches), external GPS, and more. Additional peripherals can be supported through ATAK’s plugin

  2. A System to Provide Real-Time Collaborative Situational Awareness by Web Enabling a Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangadan, Anand; Monacos, Steve; Burleigh, Scott; Joswig, Joseph; James, Mark; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture of both the PATS and SAP systems and how these two systems interoperate with each other forming a unified capability for deploying intelligence in hostile environments with the objective of providing actionable situational awareness of individuals. The SAP system works in concert with the UICDS information sharing middleware to provide data fusion from multiple sources. UICDS can then publish the sensor data using the OGC's Web Mapping Service, Web Feature Service, and Sensor Observation Service standards. The system described in the paper is able to integrate a spatially distributed sensor system, operating without the benefit of the Web infrastructure, with a remote monitoring and control system that is equipped to take advantage of SWE.

  3. Improving mental health awareness among rural Aboriginal men: perspectives from Gippsland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton; Maybery, Darryl

    2012-04-01

    To identify views of Aboriginal people in rural areas about improving mental health awareness among Aboriginal men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 Aboriginal people, including men, carers and health workers. Participants highlighted the need for mental health awareness programs in the community. They described the type of programs to be conducted as well as their method, content and frequency. This study demonstrates that mental health awareness programs designed specifically for rural Aboriginal men need to involve local Elders and other significant individuals from the community, be de-stigmatised by including mental health under Men's Health and by embedding the messages within a cultural framework.

  4. Predictive analytics as an essential mechanism for situational awareness at the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The workflow management process should be under the control of the certain service that is able to forecast the processing time dynamically according to the status of the processing environment and workflow itself, and to react immediately on any abnormal behaviour of the execution process. Such situational awareness analytic service would provide the possibility to monitor the execution process, to detect the source of any malfunction, and to optimize the management process. The stated service for the second generation of the ATLAS Production System (ProdSys2, an automated scheduling system) is based on predictive analytics approach to estimate the duration of the data processings (in terms of ProdSys2, it is task and chain of tasks) with later usage in decision making processes. Machine learning ensemble methods are chosen to estimate completion time (i.e., “Time To Complete”, TTC) for every (production) task and chain of tasks, thus “abnormal” task processing times would warn about possible failure...

  5. USING AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSING TO INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IN CIVIL PROTECTION AND HUMANITARIAN RELIEF – THE IMPORTANCE OF USER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Römer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR’s 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management and product dissemination (editable web services. Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user’s requirements.

  6. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  7. The Role of Awareness for Complex Planning Task Performance: A Microgaming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosch, Heide; Groen, Daan; Kurapati, Shalini; Klemke, Roland; Verbraeck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of microgames to support situated learning in order to foster situational awareness (SA) of planners in seaport container terminals. In today's complex working environments, it is often difficult to develop the required level of understanding of a given situation, described as situational awareness. A container…

  8. Evaluating Options for Civil Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B.; Carioscia, S. A.

    In recent years, the number of active satellites and human-made orbital space debris has increased dramatically. An expansion of activities in space, as is currently being proposed by many commercial and international entities, is expected to further exacerbate this challenge. The 18th Space Control Squadron under the Department of Defense (DOD) United States Strategic Command provides space situational awareness (SSA) services to users outside the national security community at no cost. International and commercial users demand better SSA service than is currently feasible, and the demand comes at a time when DOD is under pressure to better prepare for and respond to growing space-based threats to national security. Concerned about the possibility of overextending across conflicting missions in a fiscally constrained environment, some DOD officials have publicly noted a desire to move SSA services not related to national security out of DOD purview. Responding to a request from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), researchers at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) identified and evaluated potential approaches for providing SSA services for civil and commercial operations in space. In this paper, we summarize the report [1] and present the pros and cons of four approaches to the provision of civil SSA services in the United States: (1) maintaining status quo through continued provision by DOD; (2) provision by a civil government entity; (3) industry self-provision; and (4) provision by an international organization. Within the second approach, assuming the provision of SSA by a civil agency, STPI further identified and discussed four options: (1) civil agency service capability embedded within DOD; (2) independent civil service capability, using DOD software and systems; (3) independent civil service capability, using commercial software and systems; and (4) the government certifies non

  9. Academic ethical awareness among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea. It was investigated with structured questionnaires including general characteristics and academic ethical awareness related. Ethical considerations: This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at National University. Academic ethical awareness was the highest regarding behaviors violating the respect or confidentiality of patients and cheating on exams, while it was the lowest for inappropriate behaviors in class. From the result of general characteristics difference, male students showed higher score than female students in relative; first-year students showed higher score than other year students; the higher score was rated from students who were highly satisfied with their major than the other not satisfied with their major; and students with low academic stress showed higher ethical awareness score than persons with higher stress. Personal behaviors were rated with low ethical awareness in relative, but items related to public rules and actual effects on patients or others were rated with higher score. Nursing satisfaction and academic stress are main factors on ethical awareness. To improve overall ethical awareness level of nursing students, it is required to provide more education about the importance of personal behaviors in class and need to improve the understanding of how it will be connected with future situation and effect.

  10. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  11. Trust-aware recommendation for improving aggregate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haifeng; Bai, Xiaomei; Yang, Zhuo; Tolba, Amr; Xia, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Recommender systems are becoming increasingly important and prevalent because of the ability of solving information overload. In recent years, researchers are paying increasing attention to aggregate diversity as a key metric beyond accuracy, because improving aggregate recommendation diversity may increase long tails and sales diversity. Trust is often used to improve recommendation accuracy. However, how to utilize trust to improve aggregate recommendation diversity is unexplored. In this paper, we focus on solving this problem and propose a novel trust-aware recommendation method by incorporating time factor into similarity computation. The rationale underlying the proposed method is that, trustees with later creation time of trust relation can bring more diverse items to recommend to their trustors than other trustees with earlier creation time of trust relation. Through relevant experiments on publicly available dataset, we demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the baseline method in terms of aggregate diversity while maintaining almost the same recall.

  12. The RF Probe: providing space situational awareness through broad-spectrum detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenick, Raymond; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Partch, Russell

    2004-09-01

    AeroAstro's patented RF Probe is a system designed to address the needs of spacecraft developers and operators interested in measuring and analyzing near-field RF emissions emanating from a nearby spacecraft of interest. The RF Probe consists of an intelligent spectrum analyzer with digital signal processing capabilities combined with a calibrated, wide-bandwidth antenna and RF front end that covers the 50 kHz to 18 GHz spectrum. It is capable of acquiring signal level and signal vector information, classifying signals, assessing the quality of a satellite"s transponders, and characterizing near-field electromagnetic emissions. The RF Probe is intended for either incorporation as part of a suite of spacecraft sensors, or as a stand-alone sensor on spacecraft or other platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The RF Probe was initially conceived as a tool to detect and aid in diagnosis of malfunctions in a spacecraft of interest. However, the utility of the RF Probe goes far beyond this initial concept, spanning a wide range of military applications. Most importantly, the RF Probe can provide space situational awareness for critical on-orbit assets by detecting externally induced RF fields, aiding in protection against potentially devastating attacks.

  13. Study on operator’s SA reliability in digital NPPs. Part 1: The analysis method of operator’s errors of situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Li; Dai, Li-cao; Li, Xiao-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of ESA is established from an organization perspective, and it is new perspective. • The detailed classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model. It is useful to identify the cause chain and root causes of organization causing ESA. • The analysis method of ESA is also constructed to guide the investigation of ESA event. A case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) is a key element that impacts operator’s decision-making and performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The subsequent complex cognitive activities cannot be correctly completed due to errors of situation awareness (ESA), which will lead to disastrous consequences. In order to investigate and analyze operator’s ESA in the digitized main control room (DMCR) of a nuclear power plant, the model of ESA is established, the classification system of ESA is developed based on the built ESA model, and the analysis method of ESA is also constructed on the basis of the observation of simulator and operator surveys. Finally, a case study is provided to illustrate the concrete application of the method. It provides a theoretical and practical support for the operator’s SAE analysis in a digitized main control room of a nuclear power plant.

  14. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology - Toward an International Information System for Space Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R.

    2016-09-01

    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding our knowledge of near-Earth space. To facilitate data-sharing interoperability among distinct orbital debris and space object catalogs, and SSA information systems, I proposed ontology in (Rovetto, 2015) and (Rovetto and Kelso, 2016). I continue this effort toward formal representations and models of the overall domain that may serve to improve peaceful SSA and increase our scientific knowledge. This paper explains the project concept introduced in those publications, summarizing efforts to date as well as the research field of ontology development and engineering. I describe concepts for an ontological framework for the orbital space environment, near-Earth space environment and SSA domain. An ontological framework is conceived as a part of a potential international information system. The purpose of such a system is to consolidate, analyze and reason over various sources and types of orbital and SSA data toward the mutually beneficial goals of safer space navigation and scientific research. Recent internationals findings on the limitations of orbital data, in addition to existing publications on collaborative SSA, demonstrate both the overlap with this project and the need for datasharing and integration.

  15. Optimization of automation: II. Estimation method of ostracism rate based on the loss of situation awareness of human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Man Cheol; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the relationship between Out-of-the-Loop and the loss of human operators’ situation awareness. • We propose an ostracism rate estimation method by only considering the negative effects of automation. • The ostracism rate reflects how much automation interrupts human operators to receive information. • The higher the ostracism rate is, the lower the accuracy of human operators’ SA will be. - Abstract: With the introduction of automation in various industries including the nuclear field, its side effect, referred to as the Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL) problem, has emerged as a critical issue that needs to be addressed. Many studies have been attempted to analyze and solve the OOTL problem, but this issue still needs a clear solution to provide criteria for introducing automation. Therefore, a quantitative estimation method for identifying negative effects of automation is proposed in this paper. The representative aspect of the OOTL problem in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that human operators in automated operations are given less information than human operators in manual operations. In other words, human operators have less opportunity to obtain needed information as automation is introduced. From this point of view, the degree of difficulty in obtaining information from automated systems is defined as the Level of Ostracism (LOO). Using the LOO and information theory, we propose the ostracism rate, which is a new estimation method that expresses how much automation interrupts human operators’ situation awareness. We applied production rules to describe the human operators’ thinking processes, Bayesian inference to describe the production rules mathematically, and information theory to calculate the amount of information that human operators receive through observations. The validity of the suggested method was proven by conducting an experiment. The results show that the ostracism rate was significantly related to the accuracy

  16. Supporting Information Access in a Hospital Ward by a Context-Aware Mobile Electronic Patient Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mikael B.; Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2006-01-01

    Context-awareness holds promise for improving the utility of software products. Context-aware mobile systems encompass the ability to automatically discover and react to changes in an environment. Most contemporary context-aware mobile systems aim to support users in private situations, for example......Ward is to support nurses in conducting morning procedures in a hospital ward. MobileWard is context-aware as it is able to discover and react autonomously according to changes in the environment and since it integrates the ability to provide information and services to the user where the relevancy depends....... Implications and limitations of the proposed solution are further discussed....

  17. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  18. A neuroergonomic quasi-experiment: Predictors of situation awareness and display usability while performing complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is the ability and capacity to perceive information and act on it acceptably. Head Up Display (HUD) versus Head Down Display (HDD) manipulation induced variation in task difficulty. HUD and HDD cockpit displays or display designs promoted or impaired SA. The quantitative research presented in this paper examines basic neurocognitive factors in order to identify their specific contributions to the formation of SA, while studying display usability and the effects on SA. Visual attentiveness (Va), perceptiveness (Vp), and spatial working memory (Vswm) were assessed as predictors of SA under varying task difficulty. The study participants were 19 tactical airlift pilots, selected from the Ohio Air National Guard. Neurocognitive tests were administered to the participants prior to flight. In-flight SA was objectively and subjectively assessed for 24 flights. At the completion of this field experiment, the data were analyzed and the tests were statistically significant for the three predictor visual abilities Vp, Va, and Vswm as task difficulty was varied, F(3,11) = 8.125, p = .008. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual abilities together predicted a majority of the variance in SA, R2 = 0.753, p = .008. As validated and verified by ECG and EEG data, the HUD yielded a full ability and capacity to anticipate and accommodate trends were as the HDD yielded a saturated ability to anticipate and accommodate trends. Post-hoc tests revealed a Cohen's f2 = 3.05 yielding statistical power to be 0.98. This work results in a significant contribution to the field by providing an improved understanding of SA and path to safer travel for society worldwide. PA 88ABW-2015-1282.

  19. Modeling of Communication in a Computational Situation Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, or situation awareness, because failures of situation assessment may result in wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. Quantitative or prescriptive models to predict operator's situation assessment in a situation, the results of situation assessment, provide many benefits such as HSI design solutions, human performance data, and human reliability. Unfortunately, a few computational situation assessment models for NPP operators have been proposed and those insufficiently embed human cognitive characteristics. Thus we proposed a new computational situation assessment model of nuclear power plant operators. The proposed model incorporating significant cognitive factors uses a Bayesian belief network (BBN) as model architecture. It is believed that communication between nuclear power plant operators affects operators' situation assessment and its result, situation awareness. We tried to verify that the proposed model represent the effects of communication on situation assessment. As the result, the proposed model succeeded in representing the operators' behavior and this paper shows the details

  20. Zone-Aware Service Platform: A New Concept of Context-Aware Networking and Communications for Smart-Home Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Byun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in networking and communications removed the restrictions of time and space in information services. Context-aware service systems can support the predefined services in accordance with user requests regardless of time and space. However, due to their architectural limitations, the recent systems are not so flexible to provide device-independent services by multiple service providers. Recently, researchers have focused on a new service paradigm characterized by high mobility, service continuity, and green characteristics. In line with these efforts, improved context-aware service platforms have been suggested to make the platform possible to manage the contexts to provide the adaptive services for multi-user and locations. However, this platform can only support limited continuity and mobility. In other words, the existing system cannot support seamless service provision among different service providers with respect to the changes of mobility, situation, device, and network. Furthermore, the existing context-aware service platform is significant reliance on always-on infrastructure, which leads to great amounts of energy consumption inevitably. Therefore, we subsequently propose a new concept of context-aware networking and communications, namely a zone-aware service platform. The proposed platform autonomously reconfigures the infrastructure and maintains a service session interacting with the middleware to support cost- and energy-efficient pervasive services for smart-home sustainability.

  1. Approaches at KAIST NICIE Lab to quantifying situation awareness in nuclear power plant MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong-Hyun; Yim, Ho-Bin; Kim, Man-Cheol; Ha, Jun-Su; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community. But, techniques to measure SA have normally used expert judgment or a self-rating method so far. One of the problems of these techniques is inconsistency of results. So, empirical and analytical studies on an objective and quantitative SA measurement methods have been carried out at Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Lab (NICIE Lab) in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Empirical studies are based on physical and cognitive human behaviors, whereas analytical studies are mainly based on Bayesian inference. Eye movement signals and verbal protocol analysis were used for empirical approaches to obtain objective measures. FIR and SAE measures showed feasibility of an eye-tracking method for robust application. TSA score based on a verbal protocol analysis also showed its possibility of team SA (TSA) quantification. Bayesian inference was used for analytical approaches of SA quantification. The analytical quantification method was further expanded to consider some of the important human properties, and a SA modelling tool called ‘CoRSAGE, ver01” was developed. (author)

  2. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  3. Simulation Development for Dynamic Situation Awareness and Prediction II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Kevin C

    2006-01-01

    ... within the simulation environment. These simulations provide feedback to prototype C4ISR systems in the form of mission status reports, sensor tracks, and other ISR mission results reports, which can be used to maintain situation...

  4. Rapid SAR and GPS Measurements and Models for Hazard Science and Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Liu, Z.; Moore, A. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Linick, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Polet, J.; Manipon, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), SAR-based change detection, and image pixel tracking have recently become critical additions to our toolset for understanding and mapping the damage caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods. Analyses of these data sets are still largely handcrafted following each event and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for response to natural disasters or for timely analysis of large data sets. The ARIA project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has been capturing the knowledge applied to these responses and building it into an automated infrastructure to generate imaging products in near real-time that can improve situational awareness for disaster response. In addition, the ARIA project is developing the capabilities to provide automated imaging and analysis capabilities necessary to keep up with the imminent increase in raw data from geodetic imaging missions planned for launch by NASA, as well as international space agencies. We will present the progress we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from Sentinel 1a/b as well as continuous GPS stations. Since the beginning of our project, our team has imaged events and generated response products for events around the world. These response products have enabled many conversations with those in the disaster response community

  5. A Methodology and a Web Platform for the Collaborative Development of Context-Aware Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, David; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; Lamsfus, Carlos; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Information and services personalization is essential for an optimal user experience. Systems have to be able to acquire data about the user's context, process them in order to identify the user's situation and finally, adapt the functionality of the system to that situation, but the development of context-aware systems is complex. Data coming from distributed and heterogeneous sources have to be acquired, processed and managed. Several programming frameworks have been proposed in order to simplify the development of context-aware systems. These frameworks offer high-level application programming interfaces for programmers that complicate the involvement of domain experts in the development life-cycle. The participation of users that do not have programming skills but are experts in the application domain can speed up and improve the development process of these kinds of systems. Apart from that, there is a lack of methodologies to guide the development process. This article presents as main contributions, the implementation and evaluation of a web platform and a methodology to collaboratively develop context-aware systems by programmers and domain experts. PMID:23666131

  6. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Mark E.; Leitão, Suze; Claessen, Mary; Dzidic, Peta; Boyle, Gemma; Perry, Alison; Nayton, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Background Phonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonologica...

  7. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Boyes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonological awareness skills of parents in low socioeconomic status communities, and also provide these parents with strategies to support their child’s literacy development.MethodsAfter completing the program, participants were asked if it had helped them learn about how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, whether they planned on using the resources provided, and if they would be likely to attend a future workshop building on the Boost program. Phonological awareness measures (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme level, and measures of overall confidence in performance on the phonological awareness tasks, were administered both before and after attending the program.ResultsAlmost all parents indicated that the program helped with learning how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, that they would use the resources provided, and would likely attend a future workshop. Significant increases in pre- to post-program phonological awareness scores were obtained at the rhyme and phoneme level.ConclusionThe program and associated resources appear acceptable to parents in communities with high rates of literacy problems and improved parents’ phonological awareness skills. However, findings are preliminary and further evaluation using more rigorous methodologies and testing whether improvements in parents’ phonological awareness translate into better literacy outcomes for children is needed.

  8. The 1957 Valencia flood: hydrological and sedimentological reconstruction and comparison to the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the knowledge of the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. In other words, the aim is to test if it is possible to explain the flood waves with the incorporation of sediment cycle to a distributed hydrological model. Furthermore, this work aims to be aware of the current consequences of a similar event, taking into account land use changes, particularly, the urban rise in the lower basin, and the current flood defenses of the city. To do this, the hydrological model was implemented in the current basin situation. Once implemented, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made and the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated. Then, the hydrographs in the chosen points were obtained. Finally, a simulation using the 1957 precipitation in the current basin situation was made, in order to be aware of the current consequences.

  9. Unmanned Tactical Autonomous Control and Collaboration Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    They can assume, but ultimately they have to hope that the agent is later able to recall their thoughts in order to complete the picture of SA...environmental data with long term memory “schemata,” and the application of those schemata to the situation until the agent achieves a level of SA. Here, 8...schemata” is the term used for knowledge that is stored in long-term memory . He saw the usefulness and application of those schemata as inversely

  10. Metacognitive monitoring and control in visual change detection: Implications for situation awareness and cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Ken I.; Morris, Adam P.; Best, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP). In Experiment 1, observers failed to detect some changes to the display, indicating imperfect SA, but JOPs were reasonably well calibrated to objective performance. Experiment 2 examined JOLs and JOPs in two task contexts: with study-time limits imposed by the task or with self-pacing to meet specified performance targets. JOPs were well calibrated in both conditions as were JOLs for high performance targets. In summary, observers had limited SA, but good insight about their performance and learning for high performance targets and allocated study time appropriately. PMID:28915244

  11. On the Relevance of Using Bayesian Belief Networks in Wireless Sensor Networks Situation Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zennaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving situation recognition in ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs is an important issue that has been poorly addressed by both the research and practitioner communities. This paper describes some steps taken to address this issue by effecting USN middleware intelligence using an emerging situation awareness (ESA technology. We propose a situation recognition framework where temporal probabilistic reasoning is used to derive and emerge situation awareness in ubiquitous sensor networks. Using data collected from an outdoor environment monitoring in the city of Cape Town, we illustrate the use of the ESA technology in terms of sensor system operating conditions and environmental situation recognition.

  12. Videogame-based group therapy to improve self-awareness and social skills after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Ferri, Joan; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-04-11

    This study determines the feasibility of different approaches to integrative videogame-based group therapy for improving self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims and retrieves participant feedback. Forty-two adult TBI survivors were included in a longitudinal study with a pre- and post-assessments. The experimental intervention involved weekly one-hour sessions conducted over six months. Participants were assessed using the Self-Awareness Deficits Interview (SADI), Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS), the Social Skills Scale (SSS), the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the System Usability Scale (SUS). Pearson's chi-squared test (χ (2)) was applied to determine the percentage of participants who had changed their clinical classification in these tests. Feedback of the intervention was collected through the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). SADI results showed an improvement in participant perceptions of deficits (χ (2) = 5.25, p videogame-based group therapy can improve self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among individuals with chronic TBI, and the approach is considered effective and motivating.

  13. Agent Services for Situation Aware Control of Power Systems With Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Electric Power system of Denmark exhibits some unique characteristics. An increasing part of the electricity is produced by distributed generators (DGs). Most of these DGs are connected to the network at the distribution level. At the same time the concept of vehicle to grid (V2G) is already...... in the process of realization. This situation has created an incentive in electric power industry to utilize modern information and communication technologies (ICT) for improving the distribution system automation. This paper describes our work on how significantly increased amount of distributed generation...... services. We present results from several experiments where agents offer and utilize services in order to achieve distributed and autonomous control for subgrid operation of a distribution system. Finally it is discussed how the service oriented architecture can be combined with knowledge based reasoning...

  14. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. IMPRESS: medical location-aware decision making during emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, I.; Eftychidis, G.; Leventakis, G.; Mountzouris, M.; Diagourtas, D.; Kostaridis, A.; Hedel, R.; Olunczek, A.; Hahmann, S.

    2017-09-01

    Emergency situations and mass casualties involve several agencies and public authorities, which need to gather data from the incident scene and exchange geo-referenced information to provide fast and accurate first aid to the people in need. Tracking patients on their way to the hospitals can prove critical in taking lifesaving decisions. Increased and continuous flow of information combined by vital signs and geographic location of emergency victims can greatly reduce the response time of the medical emergency chain and improve the efficiency of disaster medicine activity. Recent advances in mobile positioning systems and telecommunications are providing the technology needed for the development of location-aware medical applications. IMPRESS is an advanced ICT platform based on adequate technologies for developing location-aware medical response during emergencies. The system incorporates mobile and fixed components that collect field data from diverse sources, support medical location and situation-based services and share information on the patient's transport from the field to the hospitals. In IMPRESS platform tracking of victims, ambulances and emergency services vehicles is integrated with medical, traffic and crisis management information into a common operational picture. The Incident Management component of the system manages operational resources together with patient tracking data that contain vital sign values and patient's status evolution. Thus, it can prioritize emergency transport decisions, based on medical and location-aware information. The solution combines positioning and information gathered and owned by various public services involved in MCIs or large-scale disasters. IMPRESS solution, were validated in field and table top exercises in cooperation with emergency services and hospitals.

  16. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  17. Air Force Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    time sensitivity and CyberWorx capacity. One method, which maximizes solution agility and the educational benefit to warfighters and industry...how the Air Force might best exploit commercial, academic, and foreign SSA data to improve space outcomes. Question Background & Participants Modern ...in industry and even in their personal lives. CyberWorx was asked to address the challenges of incorporating non- traditional (open source, academic

  18. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  19. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  20. An educational initiative to improve medical student awareness about brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ariane; Howard, Jonathan; Watsula-Morley, Amanda; Gillespie, Colleen

    2018-04-01

    Medical student knowledge about brain death determination is limited. We describe an educational initiative to improve medical student awareness about brain death and assess the impact of this initiative. Beginning in July 2016, students at our medical school were required to attend a 90-min brain death didactic and simulation session during their neurology clerkship. Students completed a test immediately before and after participating in the initiative. Of the 145 students who participated in this educational initiative between July 2016 and June 2017, 124 (86%) consented to have their data used for research purposes as part of a medical education registry. Students correctly answered a median of 53% of questions (IQR 47-58%) on the pretest and 86% of questions (IQR 78-89%) on the posttest (p initiative (18% of students were comfortable performing a brain death evaluation before the initiative and 86% were comfortable doing so after the initiative, p initiative and 76% were comfortable doing so after the initiative, p initiative, but awareness and comfort dealing with brain death improved significantly after this initiative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Training Inference Making Skills Using a Situation Model Approach Improves Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne eBos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders’ text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based inference making and addressed the source (text-based versus knowledge-based, type (necessary versus unnecessary for (re-establishing coherence, and depth of an inference (making single lexical inferences versus combining multiple lexical inferences, as well as the type of searching strategy (forward versus backward. Results indicated that, compared to a control group (n = 51, children who followed the experimental training (n = 67 improved their inference making skills supportive to situation model construction. Importantly, our training also resulted in increased levels of general reading comprehension and motivation. In sum, this study showed that a ‘level of text representation’-approach can provide a useful framework to teach inference making skills to third and fourth graders.

  2. Enhancing situational awareness by means of visualization and information integration of sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for information integration and sharing architecture, which is able to receive data simultaneously from multiple different sensor networks. Creating a Common Operational Picture (COP) object along with the base map of the building plays a key role in the research. The object is combined with desired map sources and then shared to the mobile devices worn by soldiers in the field. The sensor networks we used focus on location techniques indoors, and a simple set of symbols is created to present the information, as an addition to NATO APP6B symbols. A core element in this research is the MUSAS (Mobile Urban Situational Awareness System), a demonstration environment that implements central functionalities. Information integration of the system is handled by the Internet Connection Engine (Ice) middleware, as well as the server, which hosts COP information and maps. The entire system is closed, such that it does not need any external service, and the information transfer with the mobile devices is organized by a tactical 5 GHz WLAN solution. The demonstration environment is implemented using only commercial off-theshelf (COTS) products. We have presented a field experiment event in which the system was able to integrate and share real time information of a blue force tracking system, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) based intrusion detection system, and a robot using simultaneous location and mapping technology (SLAM), where all the inputs were based on real activities. The event was held in a training area on urban area warfare.

  3. Investigation of Fire Safety Awareness and Management in Mall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of having sufficient fire safety system installed in buildings, the incidence of fire hazard becomes the furthermost and supreme threat to health and safety, as well as property to any community. In order to make sure that the safety of the building and its users, the fundamental features depends on the fire precaution system and equipment which should be according to the standard requirements. Nevertheless, the awareness on fire safety could necessarily alleviate the damages or rate of fatality during the event of fire. This paper presents the results on the investigation of fire safety awareness and management, concentrating on shopping mall. The endeavour of this study is to explore the level of fire safety knowledge of the users in the mall, and to study the effectiveness level of fire safety management in a mall. From the study, public awareness is highly related to understanding human behaviour and their personal background. The respondents’ levels of awareness are rather low, which reflects on their poor action when facing emergency situation during fire. The most effective methods identified to improve the awareness and effectiveness of fire safety level is through involvement in related fire safety programmes, distribution of pamphlets or brochures on fire safety and appointing specific personnel for Emergency Response Team in the mall.

  4. A Korean Space Situational Awareness Program : OWL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Im, H.; Park, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are going to present a brief introduction to the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network, one of Korean space situational awareness facilities. Primary objectives of the OWL network are 1) to obtain orbital information of Korean domestic LEOs using optical method, 2) to monitor GEO-belt over territory of Korea, and 3) to alleviate collisional risks posed to Korean satellites from space debris. For these purposes, we are planning to build a global network of telescopes which consists of five small wide-field telescopes and one 2m class telescope. The network of small telescopes will be dedicated mainly to the observation of domestic LEOs, but many slots will be open to other scientific programs such as GRB follow-up observations. Main targets of 2m telescope not only include artificial objects such as GEO debris and LEO debris with low inclination and high eccentricity, but also natural objects such as near Earth asteroids. We expect to monitor space objects down to 10cm in size in GEO using the 2m telescope system. Main research topics include size distribution and evolution of space debris. We also expect to utilize this facility for physical characterization and population study of near Earth asteroids. The aperture size of the small telescope system is 0.5m with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.75 deg x 1.75 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its plate scale is 1.3 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel is employed to maximize astrometric solutions in a single CCD frame, and a de-rotator is used to compensate field rotation of the alt-az type mount. We have designed a compact end unit in which three rotating parts (chopper wheel, filter wheel, de-rotator) and a CCD camera are integrated, and dedicated telescope/site control boards for the OWL network. The design of 2m class telescope is still under discussion yet is expected to be fixed in the first half of 2013 at the latest. The OWL network will be operated in a fully

  5. Towards a Context-Aware Framework for Improving Collaboration of Users in Groupware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Montané-Jiménez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Context-Aware Groupware System (CAGS enables the members of a team to communicate, cooperate and coordinate their activities to achieve a common goal, by providing them tools that are aware of their current execution context and adapt accordingly. CAGS can be found in several domains such as entertainment, particularly Collaborative First-Person-Shooter (FPS video games. In CAGS, the means of collaboration traditionally provided to users (e.g. text and audio messaging are not necessarily adequate: for instance, in a FPS, messages can distract the gamer due to the speed of the game. This paper reports a study that, for Collaborative FPS, identifies advantages/disadvantages of current means of collaboration and social behaviors that arise when players interact face-to-face or remotely. Based on this study, a context-aware conceptual model and architecture is proposed for CAGS aimed to improve user collaboration.

  6. Measuring Situation Awareness of Operating Team in Different Main Control Room Environments of Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woo Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.

  7. The Relationship Between Maternal Awareness, Socioeconomic Situation of Families and Metabolic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Miletus in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, with potentially life-threatening sequels. However, good metabolic control can protect the patients against sequels. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between awareness of the mothers about this disease on improving diabetic children metabolic control and also, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic situations of families and control of diabetes in this group of patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study on 80 diabetic children and their mothers, who were registered in the diabetes association of Iran, for outpatient control of disease. Diabetes knowledge was measured by Michigan diabetes knowledge test and glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. To assess the socio-economic status of a diabetic child’s family, educational level, occupational and marital status of parents were asked and the socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated with Hollingshed four-factor index of SES. Results Mothers’ mean knowledge score was 17.72, children’s mean HbA1c was 7.77 and mean of SES was 27.89. There was no significant correlation between children’s HbA1c and mother’s SES. Also, there was an inverse linear relationship between mothers’ knowledge score and children’s HbA1c and there was a direct linear relationship between the mothers’ knowledge score and SES. Conclusions Finally, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the awareness of mothers of T1DM children has a good impact on blood sugar control, whereas the SES of families has no direct effect on blood sugar control. Additionally, SES can indirectly impact on the consciousness of mothers and lead to the reduction of HbA1c.

  8. Creating student awareness to improve cultural competence: creating the critical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Venita W; Sharp, Penny C; Crandall, Sonia J

    2002-09-01

    Teaching medical students to recognize the need for cultural competence and accept their shortcomings in this area is a challenge. A simulated patient scenario was developed to address this challenge. The objective of the simulation is to enhance students' readiness to learn by moving them from 'unconscious incompetence' to 'conscious incompetence'. The patient scenario presents a Cherokee Indian woman with a complaint of abnormal menstrual bleeding who is resistant to gynaecologic care from male providers. A faculty member facilitates a small-group videotape review of student interviews. As students discuss their encounters, they realize they 'misdiagnose' and mishandle the interview. They are confronted by their inability to recognize cultural cues and the impact they may have on health outcomes and begin to question whether cultural beliefs are affecting the care of other patients. This simulation creates an eye-opening situation that must be handled carefully. This activity is an effective method to create awareness in students who feel they 'know all this stuff.'

  9. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%

  10. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm if Bayesian inference can properly reflect the situation awareness of real human operators, and find the difference between the situation of ideal and practical operators, and investigate the factors which contributes to those difference. As a results, human can not think like computer. If human can memorize all the information, and their thinking process is same to the CPU of computer, the results of these two experiments come out more than 99%. However the probability of finding right malfunction by humans are only 64.52% in simple experiment, and 51.61% in complex experiment. Cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. There are many reasons why human thinking process is different with computer, but in this experiment, we suggest that the working memory is the most important factor. Humans have limited working memory which has only seven chunks capacity. These seven chunks are called magic number. If there are more than seven sequential information, people start to forget the previous information because their working memory capacity is running over. We can check how much working memory affects to the result through the simple experiment. Then what if we neglect the effect of working memory? The total number of subjects who have incorrect memory is 7 (subject 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 25). They could find the right malfunction if the memory hadn't changed because of lack of working memory. Then the probability of find correct malfunction will be increased to 87.10% from 64.52%. Complex experiment has similar result. In this case, eight subjects(1, 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 30) had changed the memory, and it affects to find the right malfunction. Considering it, then the probability would be (16+8)/31 = 77.42%.

  11. Context-Aware user interfaces in automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Holm

    2007-01-01

    Automation is deployed in a great range of different domains such as the chemical industry, the production of consumer goods, the production of energy (both in terms of power plants and in the petrochemical industry), transportation and several others. Through several decades the complexity...... of automation systems and the level of automation have been rising. This has caused problems regarding the operator's ability to comprehend the overall situation and state of the automation system, in particular in abnormal situations. The amount of data available to the operator results in information overload....... Since context-aware applications have been developed in other research areas it seems natural to analyze the findings of this research and examine how this can be applied to the domain of automation systems. By evaluating existing architectures for the development of context-aware applications we find...

  12. Meditation and Relaxation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper-Owen, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Children come to schools each day feeling many of the stressors that would normally be attributed to adult experiences. At an early age, children are confronted with situations that may make them anxious or begin to doubt their self-worth. Teachers can help children learn to manage their stress by helping them become more aware of negative…

  13. What Is the Key to Improving Renal Transplant Recipients' Awareness of Skin Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Battaglia, Yuri; Maietti, Elisa; Minghetti, Sara; Virgili, Annarosa

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown poor compliance rates regarding sun protection among organ transplant recipients. The main objective of the present study was to assess the awareness among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) of their risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development and their sunscreen use. The influence of several potentially relevant variables was also assessed in order to identify possible weak points on which to concentrate efforts in this respect. A total of 132 RTRs (92 males and 40 females) were included. The following information was collected and elaborated: (a) demographics; (b) skin phototype; (c) educational level; (d) time elapsed since transplantation; (e) immunosuppressive treatments; (f) previous dermatological visits; (g) patients' awareness of their NMSC risk; (h) use of sunscreen; and (i) previous documented NMSCs or NMSCs found during the study visit. Overall, 65 patients (49.2%) expressed awareness of their susceptibility to skin cancers. A high educational level was the main factor associated with patients' awareness. Thirty-six RTRs (27.3%) reported using sunscreen regularly. High educational level and awareness of personal susceptibility to NMSC development were the most relevant factors associated with sun protection habits. The present study showed the low level of sunscreen use among RTRs and their scanty awareness of personal skin cancer risk. Since educational level has been found to be highly related to both awareness of cancer risk and adequate use of sunscreen among RTRs, it is necessary to improve the way education is delivered by dermatologists and nephrologists, especially to subjects with a low educational level. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Consumer value of context aware and location based mobile services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Henny; Haaker, Timber; Teerling, Marije; Kleijnen, M.H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Context aware services have the ability to utilize information about the user's context to adapt services to the user's current situation and needs. In this paper we consider users' perceptions of the added value of location awareness and presence information in mobile services. We use an

  15. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  16. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Hafzan; Wan Daud, Wan Nudri; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 - 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 - 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents.

  17. Stressful gaming, interoceptive awareness, and emotion regulation tendencies: A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy emotion regulation is crucial for navigating stressful situations. Interoceptive awareness-the awareness of one's internal states-is important for such healthy regulation. Given the propensity for video games to induce stress, the associations between in-game and real world emotion

  18. An approach to the socio-labour situation of disabled women in rural communities in a Spanish region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Bayot-Mestre, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer socio-labour discrimination because of both their gender and their disability. The situation is gradually improving, thanks to the national and supranational organisations, which in the past few decades have made considerable progress in improving the legislation, providing financial resources and encouraging social awareness. Despite this, few studies quantify this double discrimination in order to permit the evaluation of the socio-labour situation of this group of people. This scarcity is even more pronounced for rural areas, where many other factors hinder the integration of disabled women into the labour market and generate some specific problems that the specialist literature seldom addresses. The current work presents the results of a survey on the socio-economic situation of disabled women in a strongly rural area: the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha. It stresses the fundamental difficulties of these women in integrating into the labour market and the most urgent political measures needed to help this group.

  19. Preventing errors in clinical practice: a call for self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, Francesc; Epstein, Ronald M

    2004-01-01

    While ascribing medical errors primarily to systems factors can free clinicians from individual blame, there are elements of medical errors that can and should be attributed to individual factors. These factors are related less commonly to lack of knowledge and skill than to the inability to apply the clinician's abilities to situations under certain circumstances. In concert with efforts to improve health care systems, refining physicians' emotional and cognitive capacities might also prevent many errors. In general, physicians have the sensation of making a mistake because of the interference of emotional elements. We propose a so-called rational-emotive model that emphasizes 2 factors in error causation: (1) difficulty in reframing the first hypothesis that goes to the physician's mind in an automatic way, and (2) premature closure of the clinical act to avoid confronting inconsistencies, low-level decision rules, and emotions. We propose a teaching strategy based on developing the physician's insight and self-awareness to detect the inappropriate use of low-level decision rules, as well as detecting the factors that limit a physician's capacity to tolerate the tension of uncertainty and ambiguity. Emotional self-awareness and self-regulation of attention can be consciously cultivated as habits to help physicians function better in clinical situations.

  20. Using an ontology to automatically generate questions for the determination of situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teitsma, Marten; Sandberg, Jacobijn; Maris, Martinus; Wielinga, Bob; Hameurlain, Abdelkader; Liddle, Stephen W.; Schewe, Klaus-Dieter; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether the automatic generation of questions from an ontology leads to a trustworthy determination of a situation. With our Situation Awareness Question Generator (SAQG) we automatically generate questions from an ontology. The experiment shows that people with no previous experience

  1. Hybrid-Aware Model for Senior Wellness Service in Smart Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchae

    2017-05-22

    Smart home technology with situation-awareness is important for seniors to improve safety and security. With the development of context-aware computing, wearable sensor technology, and ubiquitous computing, it is easier for seniors to manage their health problem in smart home environment. For monitoring senior activity in smart home, wearable, and motion sensors-such as respiration rate (RR), electrocardiography (ECG), body temperature, and blood pressure (BP)-were used for monitoring movements of seniors. For context-awareness, environmental sensors-such as gas, fire, smoke, dust, temperature, and light sensors-were used for senior location data collection. Based on senior activity, senior health status can be classified into positive and negative. Based on senior location and time, senior safety is classified into safe and emergency. In this paper, we propose a hybrid inspection service middleware for monitoring elderly health risk based on senior activity and location. This hybrid-aware model for the detection of abnormal status of seniors has four steps as follows: (1) data collection from biosensors and environmental sensors; (2) monitoring senior location and time of stay in each location using environmental sensors; (3) monitoring senior activity using biometric data; finally, (4) expectation-maximization based decision-making step recommending proper treatment based on a senior health risk ratio.

  2. Awareness of financial skills in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wielingen, L E; Tuokko, H A; Cramer, K; Mateer, C A; Hultsch, D F

    2004-07-01

    The present study examined the relations among levels of cognitive functioning, executive dysfunction, and awareness of financial management capabilities among a sample of 42 community-dwelling persons with dementia. Financial tasks on the Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS) were dichotomized as simple or complex based on Piaget's operational levels of childhood cognitive development. Severity of global cognitive impairment and executive dysfunction were significantly related to awareness of financial abilities as measured by informant-participant discrepancy scores on the MAFS. For persons with mild and moderate/severe dementia, and persons with and without executive dysfunction, proportions of awareness within simple and complex financial task categories were tabulated. Significantly less awareness of financial abilities occurred on complex compared with simple tasks. Individuals with mild dementia were significantly less aware of abilities on complex items, whereas persons with moderate/severe dementia were less aware of abilities, regardless of task complexity. Similar patterns of awareness were observed for individuals with and without executive dysfunction. These findings support literature suggesting that deficits associated with dementia first occur for complex cognitive tasks involving inductive reasoning or decision-making in novel situations, and identify where loss of function in the financial domain may first be expected. Copyright Taylor & Francis Ltd

  3. Improving awareness, accountability, and access through health coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Irving, Hannah; Nash, Kate; Ward, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess patients’ experiences with and perceptions of health coaching as part of their ongoing care. Design A qualitative research design using semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Setting Ottawa, Ont. Participants Eleven patients (> 18 years of age) enrolled in a health coaching pilot program who were at risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients’ perspectives were assessed with semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 11 patients at the end of the pilot program, using a stratified sampling approach to ensure maximum variation. Main findings All patients found the overall experience with the health coaching program to be positive. Patients believed the health coaching program was effective in increasing awareness of how diabetes affected their bodies and health, in building accountability for their health-related actions, and in improving access to care and other health resources. Conclusion Patients perceive one-on-one health coaching as an acceptable intervention in their ongoing care. Patients enrolled in the health coaching pilot program believed that there was an improvement in access to care, health literacy, and accountability, all factors considered to be precursors to behavioural change. PMID:25932483

  4. Predicting individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: the role of body awareness, alexithymia, and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Croon, Marcel A; van Balkom, Esther G A; Vermee, Jennifer B G

    2008-06-01

    Autonomy-connectedness is the capacity for being on one's own as well as for satisfactorily engaging in interpersonal relationships. Associations have been shown between autonomy-connectedness components (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and the capacity for managing new situations) and various indices of psychopathology. Both in a theoretical sense as well as for enhancing treatment and prevention, it is relevant to identify which factors most powerfully predict individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: body awareness, alexithymia, or assertiveness. The present study examined this question in a clinical sample of women who were diagnosed as having autonomy problems (N=52) and in a female nonclinical community sample (N=59). In line with expectations, assertiveness was a strong predictor of (all three components of) autonomy-connectedness, as was emotionalizing, one of the alexithymia-components, but the latter in an opposite direction than we had expected: the higher an individual's ability to emotionalize was, the less self-aware and capable to manage new situations that person was, and the more sensitive to others. Cognitive alexithymia contributed to self-awareness as well as to the capacity for managing new situations, and one of the components of body awareness appeared to predict capacity for managing new situations. Our results indicate that assertiveness training and the enhancement of emotion regulation are important elements of autonomy-connectedness targeted interventions. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  6. Improved interoceptive awareness in chronic low back pain: a comparison of Back school versus Feldenkrais method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Zangrando, Federico; Iosa, Marco; De Angelis, Simona; Marzoli, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Feldenkrais method for relieving pain in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the improvement of interoceptive awareness. This study was designed as a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of CLBP for at least 3 months were randomly allocated to the Feldenkrais (mean age 61.21 ± 11.53 years) or Back School group (mean age 60.70 ± 11.72 years). Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), disability was evaluated with the Waddel Disability Index, quality of life was measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and mind-body interactions were studied using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Questionnaire (MAIA). Data were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. The two groups were matched at baseline for all the computed parameters. At the end of treatment (Tend), there were no significant differences between groups regarding chronic pain reduction (p = 0.290); VAS and MAIA-N sub scores correlated at Tend (R = 0.296, p = 0.037). By the Friedman analysis, both groups experienced significant changes in pain (p Back School in CLBP. Implications for rehabilitation The Feldenkrais method is a mind-body therapy that is based on awareness through movement lessons, which are verbally guided explorations of movement that are conducted by a physiotherapist who is experienced and trained in this method. It aims to increase self-awareness, expand a person's repertoire of movements, and to promote increased functioning in contexts in which the entire body cooperates in the execution of movements. Interoceptive awareness, which improves with rehabilitation, has a complex function in the perception of chronic pain and should be investigated further in future research. The efficacy of the Feldenkrais method is comparable with that of BS for nonspecific chronic

  7. Tactile display landing safety and precision improvements for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M.

    A tactile display belt using 24 electro-mechanical tactile transducers (tactors) was used to determine if a modified tactile display system, known as the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) improved the safety and precision of a complex spacecraft (i.e. the Space Shuttle Orbiter) in guided precision approaches and landings. The goal was to determine if tactile cues enhance safety and mission performance through reduced workload, increased situational awareness (SA), and an improved operational capability by increasing secondary cognitive workload capacity and human-machine interface efficiency and effectiveness. Using both qualitative and quantitative measures such as NASA's Justiz Numerical Measure and Synwork1 scores, an Overall Workload (OW) measure, the Cooper-Harper rating scale, and the China Lake Situational Awareness scale, plus Pre- and Post-Flight Surveys, the data show that tactile displays decrease OW, improve SA, counteract fatigue, and provide superior warning and monitoring capacity for dynamic, off-nominal, high concurrent workload scenarios involving complex, cognitive, and multi-sensory critical scenarios. Use of TSAS for maintaining guided precision approaches and landings was generally intuitive, reduced training times, and improved task learning effects. Ultimately, the use of a homogeneous, experienced, and statistically robust population of test pilots demonstrated that the use of tactile displays for Space Shuttle approaches and landings with degraded vehicle systems, weather, and environmental conditions produced substantial improvements in safety, consistency, reliability, and ease of operations under demanding conditions. Recommendations for further analysis and study are provided in order to leverage the results from this research and further explore the potential to reduce the risk of spaceflight and aerospace operations in general.

  8. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP

  9. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  10. New technologies for information retrieval to achieve situational awareness and higher patient safety in the surgical operating room: the MRI institutional approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Feussner, Hubertus

    2011-03-01

    Technical progress in the operating room (OR) increases constantly, but advanced techniques for error prevention are lacking. It has been the vision to create intelligent OR systems ("autopilot") that not only collect intraoperative data but also interpret whether the course of the operation is normal or deviating from the schedule ("situation awareness"), to recommend the adequate next steps of the intervention, and to identify imminent risky situations. Recently introduced technologies in health care for real-time data acquisition (bar code, radiofrequency identification [RFID], voice and emotion recognition) may have the potential to meet these demands. This report aims to identify, based on the authors' institutional experience and a review of the literature (MEDLINE search 2000-2010), which technologies are currently most promising for providing the required data and to describe their fields of application and potential limitations. Retrieval of information on the functional state of the peripheral devices in the OR is technically feasible by continuous sensor-based data acquisition and online analysis. Using bar code technologies, automatic instrument identification seems conceivable, with information given about the actual part of the procedure and indication of any change in the routine workflow. The dynamics of human activities also comprise key information. A promising technology for continuous personnel tracking is data acquisition with RFID. Emotional data capture and analysis in the OR are difficult. Although technically feasible, nonverbal emotion recognition is difficult to assess. In contrast, emotion recognition by speech seems to be a promising technology for further workflow prediction. The presented technologies are a first step to achieving an increased situational awareness in the OR. However, workflow definition in surgery is feasible only if the procedure is standardized, the peculiarities of the individual patient are taken into account

  11. An abnormal situation modeling method to assist operators in safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2015-01-01

    One of the main causes of accidents in safety-critical systems is human error. In order to reduce human errors in the process of handling abnormal situations that are highly complex and mentally taxing activities, operators need to be supported, from a cognitive perspective, in order to reduce their workload, stress, and the consequent error rate. Of the various cognitive activities, a correct understanding of the situation, i.e. situation awareness (SA), is a crucial factor in improving performance and reducing errors. Despite the importance of SA in decision-making in time- and safety-critical situations, the difficulty of SA modeling and assessment means that very few methods have as yet been developed. This study confronts this challenge, and develops an innovative abnormal situation modeling (ASM) method that exploits the capabilities of risk indicators, Bayesian networks and fuzzy logic systems. The risk indicators are used to identify abnormal situations, Bayesian networks are utilized to model them and a fuzzy logic system is developed to assess them. The ASM method can be used in the development of situation assessment decision support systems that underlie the achievement of SA. The performance of the ASM method is tested through a real case study at a chemical plant. - Highlights: • Bayesian networks are applied to represent operators’ mental models when confront with abnormal situations. • A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble operators’ generating assessment results for every abnormal situation. • A virtual plant user interface and a prototype based on proposed method are developed to simulate a real case

  12. Emotional Awareness and Couples' Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croyle, Kristin L.; Waltz, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotional awareness in couples' relationships and the effects of a tendency to respond to difficult couples' situations with "soft" emotions (including sadness and fear) versus "hard" emotions (including anger and resentment). Participants were 56 heterosexual couples who completed a measure of relationship…

  13. Improving decision making in crisis response through critical thinking support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we describe how to use innovative techniques to improve the decision-making process in crisis response organizations. The focus was on building situation awareness of a crisis and overcoming pitfalls such as tunnel vision and information bias through using critical thinking. We

  14. Consideration on information work under new situation consider the situation, integrate the resources, develop the innovate, improve the information work level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Erni

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear document information work under the new socioeconomic development situation in China shall focus on the nuclear fuel cycle industry, accelerate the information network informatization process, establish the information network platform so as to improve the management efficiency and benefit and reduce the resource consumption and management cost through publicity and information acquisition; we shall narrow the difference in understanding and application between the specialized technical personnel and informatization personnel during informatization management process, and speed up the structural readjustment through information resources sharing and network information system; during the transformation of the nuclear information work and nuclear resources into effective productive power, we shall conduct management and technology innovation and resource integration according to the development strategy of the enterprise so as to promote the enthusiasm for informatization as well as invention, creation and technological innovation in the enterprise and the whole country, in general, the nuclear information work shall be in the service of the nuclear manufacturing enterprises and we shall change our ideology and work style under the new situation so as to improve the overall capability and level of our scientific and technological information system by advanced science and technology. (author)

  15. Architectural support for mobile context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dockhorn Costa, P.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Khalil Ibrahim, I.

    2006-01-01

    Context-awareness has emerged as an important and desirable feature in distributed mobile systems, since it benefits from the changes in the user's context to dynamically tailor services to the user's current situation and needs. This chapter presents our efforts on designing a flexible

  16. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergent situation awareness of drivable routes for autonomous robots using temporal probalistic reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available of hidden paths embedded in the complex environments. Experimental evaluations of the ESA on real life and publicly available road frames outperform the classical statistical baseline methods in handling uncertainties over time. Our awareness results reveal...

  18. [Present situation of awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Pdating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.

  19. Situational awareness and information flow in prehospital emergency medical care from the perspective of paramedic field supervisors: a scenario-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norri-Sederholm, Teija; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kurola, Jouni; Saranto, Kaija

    2015-01-16

    , police, and rescue services during the multi-authority incidents. This study provides knowledge about the critical information categories when receiving and sharing the information to obtain and maintain situational awareness. However, further research is needed to examine more the information flow in prehospital emergency care to enable a better understanding of required communication in situational awareness formation.

  20. A High Fidelity Approach to Data Simulation for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, S.; Ellis, H., Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is vital to maintaining our Space Superiority. A high fidelity, time-based simulation tool, PROXOR™ (Proximity Operations and Rendering), supports SSA by generating realistic mission scenarios including sensor frame data with corresponding truth. This is a unique and critical tool for supporting mission architecture studies, new capability (algorithm) development, current/future capability performance analysis, and mission performance prediction. PROXOR™ provides a flexible architecture for sensor and resident space object (RSO) orbital motion and attitude control that simulates SSA, rendezvous and proximity operations scenarios. The major elements of interest are based on the ability to accurately simulate all aspects of the RSO model, viewing geometry, imaging optics, sensor detector, and environmental conditions. These capabilities enhance the realism of mission scenario models and generated mission image data. As an input, PROXOR™ uses a library of 3-D satellite models containing 10+ satellites, including low-earth orbit (e.g., DMSP) and geostationary (e.g., Intelsat) spacecraft, where the spacecraft surface properties are those of actual materials and include Phong and Maxwell-Beard bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) coefficients for accurate radiometric modeling. We calculate the inertial attitude, the changing solar and Earth illumination angles of the satellite, and the viewing angles from the sensor as we propagate the RSO in its orbit. The synthetic satellite image is rendered at high resolution and aggregated to the focal plane resolution resulting in accurate radiometry even when the RSO is a point source. The sensor model includes optical effects from the imaging system [point spread function (PSF) includes aberrations, obscurations, support structures, defocus], detector effects (CCD blooming, left/right bias, fixed pattern noise, image persistence, shot noise, read noise, and quantization

  1. Students multicultural awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.I Soekarman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural awareness is the foundation of communication and it involves the ability of standing back from ourselves and becoming aware of our cultural values, beliefs and perceptions. Multicultural awareness becomes central when we have to interact with people from other cultures. People see, interpret and evaluate things in a different ways. What is considered an appropriate behaviour in one culture is frequently inappropriate in another one. this research use descriptive- quantitative methodology to indentify level of students multicultural awareness specifically will be identified by gender and academic years. This research will identify multicultural awareness based on differences of gender, academic years. This research use random and purposive random sampling of 650 students from university. These studies identify of multicultural awareness 34, 11, 4% in high condition, 84, 1% medium and 4, 5% in low. Further, there is a significant difference in the level of multicultural awareness based on gender and academic year. These findings could not be generalized because of the limited sample and ethnicity; it should need a wider research so that can be generalized and recommended the efforts to development and improvement of multicultural awareness conditions for optimization the services.

  2. Improving awareness of preconception health among adolescents: experience of a school-based intervention in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; El Rafei, Rym; Azizi, Sophie; Sinno, Durriyah; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Howson, Christopher P; Walani, Salimah R; Ammar, Walid; Nassar, Anwar; Yunis, Khalid

    2014-07-31

    Maternal behavior before and after conception affects maternal and child health. Limited awareness of adolescents in preconception health may be addressed through school education. The aim of this intervention is to assess preconception health awareness among adolescents in Lebanese high schools and to test the effectiveness of a one-time educational session in improving preconception knowledge. The intervention consisted of a 30-minute educational session about good practices in preconception health, developed by the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network's (NCPNN) research team. A convenience sample of high school Lebanese students in grades 10 to 12, aged 14 to 26 years old, from 70 private and public schools in all six Lebanese provinces, participated in the intervention in 2011 and 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire administered prior to and 2 months after the session was used to assess knowledge improvement among the students. A total of 7,290 students were enrolled. After the session, mean scores of correct answers increased from 4.36 to 6.42 out of 10, representing a 47.2% improvement (p improvement was observed for questions about Trisomy 21, folic acid intake and toxoplasmosis with percentages improvement of 96%, 172% and 83% respectively. Being female or in private school was a significant predictor of higher scores in both pre-test and post-test (p students. We recommend expanding the scope of this intervention into universities in Lebanon.

  3. Improving Vision Awareness in Autism Services: Evaluation of a Dedicated Education Programme for Support Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph J.; Butchart, Maggie; Brown, Michael; Bain, Janice; McMillan, Anne; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-01-01

    Background: The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired.…

  4. Strategies for improving disability awareness and social inclusion of children and young people with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, S; McPherson, A C

    2012-11-01

    Children and youth with disabilities are at a higher risk of being socially excluded or bullied while at school compared with their typically developing peers. This study explored disabled children's suggestions for improving social inclusion. Fifteen children with cerebral palsy were interviewed or took part in a group discussion about social inclusion and bullying. All interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The children and youth described several strategies to help improve social inclusion at school including: (1) disclosure of condition and creating awareness of disability; (2) awareness of bullying; (3) developing a peer support network and building self-confidence; and (4) suggestions on what teachers can do. It is recommended that children's suggestions be considered within the classroom context to enhance the social inclusion and participation of children with disabilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP.

  6. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  7. Improving working equine welfare in 'hard-win' situations, where gains are difficult, expensive or marginal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Joy; Upjohn, Melissa; Hirson, Tamsin

    2018-01-01

    Brooke is a non-government organisation with working equine welfare programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2014, staff from ten country programmes were asked to identify 'no-win' situations (subsequently reframed as 'hard-wins')-where improving equine welfare is proving difficult, expensive and/or marginal-in order to inform strategic decisions on how to approach, manage and mitigate for such situations. The Delphi-type consultation process had three phases. Round 1 posed five questions in the form of a workshop, survey and semi-structured interviews. Round 2 re-presented key themes and sense-checked initial conclusions. Round 3 reviewed the nature and prevalence of hard-win situations at an international meeting of all participants. Reasons given for hard-win situations included: no economic or social benefit from caring for working animals; poor resource availability; lack of empathy for working equids or their owners among wider stakeholders; deep-seated social issues, such as addiction or illegal working; areas with a high animal turnover or migratory human population; lack of community cooperation or cohesion; unsafe areas where welfare interventions cannot be adequately supported. Participants estimated the prevalence of hard-win situations as 40-70% of their work. They suggested some current ways of working that may be contributing to the problem, and opportunities to tackle hard-wins more effectively. Respondents agreed that if equine welfare improvements are to span generations of animals, interventions cannot rely on relatively simple, technical knowledge-transfer strategies and quick-wins alone. Programmes need to be more flexible and iterative and less risk-averse in their approaches to embedding good equine welfare practices in all relevant actors. Consultation recommendations informed development of Brooke's new global strategy, a revised organisational structure and redefinition of roles and responsibilities to streamline ways to

  8. EgoSENSE: A Framework for Context-Aware Mobile Applications Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Milic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a context-aware mobile framework (or middleware, intended to support the implementation of context-aware mobile services. The overview of basic concepts, architecture and components of context-aware mobile framework is given. The mobile framework provide acquisition and management of context, where raw data sensed from physical (hardware sensors and virtual (software sensors are combined, processed and analyzed to provide high-level context and situation of the user to the mobile context-aware applications in near real-time. Using demo mobile health application, its most important components and functions, such as these supposed to detect urgent or alarming health conditions of a mobile user and to initiate appropriate actions demonstrated.

  9. Improved maritime situation awareness by fusing sensor information with intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Deves, T.K.G.; Neef, R.M.; Smith, A.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than inconventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. For example, during maritime missions in littoral environments, acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other threatening events

  10. Improving maritime situational awareness by fusing sensor information and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Neef, R.M.; Hanckmann, P.; Gosliga, S.P. van; Halsema, D. van

    2011-01-01

    In present-day military security operations threats are more difficult to reveal than in conventional warfare theatres, since they take place during the course of normal life. These maritime missions often take place in littoral environments, where acts of piracy, drug trafficking and other

  11. Public awareness of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsehemi, Matar A; Abousaadah, Mahmoud M; Sairafi, Razan A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2017-07-01

    Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being 30 years of age). Females were more likely to think that autistic children can be employed in the future (p=0.008), whereas males were more likely to think that autism is similar to mental retardation (p=0.005). The public awareness of ASD needs improvement. Areas for targeted education were identified to help improve the quality of life of autistic children and their families.

  12. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  13. Design guidelines for rapid and simple context-aware mobile application development – an android case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a context-aware service and information is a key aspect of ubiquitous computing, but development of such applications is quite complicated. Context-aware applications should be able to obtain raw data fromsensors, create highlevel context information, detect the user’s situation, and adapt the behavior of the application to the recognized situation . These complexities caused to reduce the impact of context -awareness in mobile computing while sensors of smartphones have made huge potential for developing context aware mobile applications. In this paper, we explain some guidelines to overcome the existing obstacles by separating the context -aware application layers and make a loosely coupled connection between them. These guidelines will bring easy and rapid development, reusability of the code and flexibility for developers. Finally, we provide a case study example in the Android platform to demonstrate how the guidelines can be used in a real application.

  14. The Impact of Public Health Awareness Campaigns on the Awareness and Quality of Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jane

    2018-01-01

    The right to health includes a right of access to good quality palliative care, but inequalities persist. Raising awareness is a key plank of the public health approach to palliative care, but involves consideration of subjects most of us prefer not to address. This review addresses the question: "do public health awareness campaigns effectively improve the awareness and quality of palliative care"? The evidence shows that public awareness campaigns can improve awareness of palliative care and probably improve quality of care, but there is a lack of evidence about the latter. Rapid review and synthesis. A comprehensive public awareness campaign about palliative care (including advance care planning and end-of-life decision making) should be based on clear and shared terminology, use well piloted materials, and the full range of mass media to suit different ages, cultures, and religious/spiritual perspectives. Arts and humanities have a role to play in allowing individuals and communities to express experiences of illness, death, and grief and encourage conversation and thoughtful reflection. There is evidence about key factors for success: targeting, networking, and use of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic time-bound objectives; continuous evaluation; and complementarity to national and international policy. Campaigns should be located within the framework of public health promotion and the synergy between short national mass media campaigns and longer term local community action initiatives carefully considered. National and local projects to raise awareness should identify and address any barriers at the level of individuals, communities, and systems of care, for example, literacy skills and unequal access to resources.

  15. Inexperience and risky decisions of young adolescents, as pedestrians and cyclists, in interactions with lorries, and the effects of competency versus awareness education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Divera; Vlakveld, Willem; Mesken, Jolieke; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-06-01

    Road injuries are a prime cause of death in early adolescence. Often road safety education (RSE) is used to target risky road behaviour in this age group. These RSE programmes are frequently based on the assumption that deliberate risk taking rather than lack of competency underlies risk behaviour. This study tested the competency of 10-13 year olds, by examining their decisions - as pedestrians and cyclists - in dealing with blind spot areas around lorries. Also, the effects of an awareness programme and a competency programme on these decisions were evaluated. Table-top models were used, representing seven scenarios that differed in complexity: one basic scenario to test the identification of blind spot areas, and 6 traffic scenarios to test behaviour in traffic situations of low or high task complexity. Using a quasi-experimental design (pre-test and post-test reference group design without randomization), the programme effects were assessed by requiring participants (n=62) to show, for each table-top traffic scenario, how they would act if they were in that traffic situation. On the basic scenario, at pre-test 42% of the youngsters identified all blind spots correctly, but only 27% showed safe behaviour in simple scenarios and 5% in complex scenarios. The competency programme yielded improved performance on the basic scenario but not on the traffic scenarios, whereas the awareness programme did not result in any improvements. The correlation between improvements on the basic scenarios and the traffic scenarios was not significant. Young adolescents have not yet mastered the necessary skills for safe performance in simple and complex traffic situations, thus underlining the need for effective prevention programmes. RSE may improve the understanding of blind spot areas but this does not 'automatically' transfer to performance in traffic situations. Implications for the design of RSE are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Financial Education and Awareness on Insurance and Private Pensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    With public pensions under pressure and private pensions exposed to risk, individuals face an increasing variety of financial risks, particularly those linked to their retirement. This book analyzes the level of risk awareness of consumers and highlights good practices governments might initiate to enhance consumers' awareness and education on…

  17. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  18. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  19. Neighboring and Connectivity-Aware Routing in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ghafoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel position-based routing protocol anchor-based connectivity-aware routing (ACAR for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs is proposed in this paper to ensure connectivity of routes with more successfully delivered packets. Both buses and cars are considered as vehicular nodes running in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in a city scenario. Both directions are taken into account for faster communication. ACAR is a hybrid protocol, using both the greedy forwarding approach and the store-carry-and-forward approach to minimize the packet drop rate on the basis of certain assumptions. Our solution to situations that occur when the network is sparse and when any (source or intermediate node has left its initial position makes this protocol different from those existing in the literature. We consider only vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication in which both the source and destination nodes are moving vehicles. Also, no road-side units are considered. Finally, we compare our protocol with A-STAR (a plausible connectivity-aware routing protocol for city environments, and simulation results in NS-2 show improvement in the number of packets delivered to the destination using fewer hops. Also, we show that ACAR has more successfully-delivered long-distance packets with reasonable packet delay than A-STAR.

  20. Analyzing How Emotion Awareness Influences Students' Motivation, Engagement, Self-Regulation and Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas, Marta; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-01-01

    Considering social and emotional competence in learning, "emotion awareness" aims to detect the emotions that students show during their learning interactions and make these emotions explicit to them. Being aware of their emotions, students become more conscious of their situation, what may prompt them to behavioral change. The main goal…

  1. Integrated Context-Aware Driver Assistance System Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, significant improvements have been made in the area of vehicular communication systems. Furthermore, vehicle-to-vehicle communication is considered a key concept for keeping roads safe. An efficient implementation of these systems is necessary to ensure the safety of driving situations and to reduce the collision rates. This paper proposes a Context-Aware Driver Assistance System that links drivers with the physical environment surrounding them using multiple types of sensors and traffic systems as well as considering the senior driver's difficulties and the system processing time. This is achieved by developing a warning system that assists drivers to avoid collisions and improve their response times. The proposed system architecture consists of a set of components to process the user's request such as parking assistance, and to provide responses and advices when needed. These components include communication, knowledge exchange, knowledge update, and context-history. Also, it includes other processes such as context-history manipulation, hazard detection, and hazard detection control. The main goal of the proposed system is to reduce the number of car accidents and improve driver's decisions. The NXT Robotic environment is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  2. Situation-aware GeoVisualization considering applied logic and extensibility: a new architecture and mechanism for intelligent GeoWeb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelin; Gold, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging Virtual Globe technology which has been increasingly exhibiting powerful features and capabilities. However, the current technical architecture for geovisualization is still the traditional data- viewer mode, i.e. KML-Geobrowser. Current KML is basically an encoding format for wrapping static snapshots of information frozen at discrete time points, and a geobrowser is virtually a data renderer for geovisualization. In the real world spatial-temporal objects and elements possess specific semantics, applied logic and operational rules, naturally or socially, which need to be considered and to be executed when corresponding data is integrated or visualized in a visual geocontext. However, currently there is no a way to express and execute this kind of applied logic and control rules within the current geobrowsing architecture. This paper proposes a novel architecture by originating a new mechanism, DKML, and implementing a DKML-supporting prototype geobrowser. Embedded programming script within KML files can express applied logic, control conditions, situation-aware analysis utilities and special functionality, to achieve intelligent, controllable and applied logic-conformant geovisualization, and to flexibly extend and customize the DKMLsupporting geobrowser. Benefiting from the mechanism developed in this research, geobrowsers can truly evolve into powerful multi-purpose GeoWeb platforms with promising potential and prospects.

  3. A Framework for Developing Context-aware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangalur Alagar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware computing refers to a general class of mobile real-time reactive systems that continuously sense their physical environment, and adapt their behavior accordingly. Context-awareness is an essential inherent property of ubiquitous computing or pervasive computing systems. Such systems are much richer and more complex than many software systems. The richness mainly comes from context-awareness, the heterogeneity of mobile devices and their service types, while complexity arises in the multitude of adaptations enforced by system policies. In order to provide the true intended effect on the application of services without compromising on the richness, the complexity must be tamed. Towards this goal, this paper proposes a component-based architecture for a Context-aware Framework in which context, awareness capabilities, reactions, and adaptations are formally dealt with. Two formal languages are designed to express context situations and express workflow policies, which respectively lead to a context reasoner and to enforce adaptations.With these formalisms and a component design that can be formalized, this work fulfills a formal approach to construct context-aware applications. Two case studies are explained, of which one is a proof-of-concept case study from service-oriented domain. It is fully implemented to illustrate the expressiveness of the framework design and robustness of its implementation.

  4. Concepts and architectures for mobile context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dockhorn Costa, P.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ibrahim, I.K.

    2008-01-01

    Context-awareness has been investigated for almost a decade and is considered as a convenient and desirable feature in distributed mobile systems since it allows these systems to benefit from the changes in their users’ context to dynamically tailor services to their users’ current situation and

  5. 3 CFR 8429 - Proclamation 8429 of October 1, 2009. National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009 8429 Proclamation 8429 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8429 of October 1, 2009 Proc. 8429 National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009By the... evaluate information for any situation. This new type of literacy also requires competency with...

  6. A Framework for Exploiting Internet of Things for Context-Aware Trust-Based Personalized Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Otebolaku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, we have witnessed the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT as an integral part of the Internet with billions of interconnected and addressable everyday objects. On one hand, these objects generate a massive volume of data that can be exploited to gain useful insights into our day-to-day needs. On the other hand, context-aware recommender systems (CARSs are intelligent systems that assist users to make service consumption choices that satisfy their preferences based on their contextual situations. However, one of the key challenges facing the development and deployment of CARSs is the lack of functionality for providing dynamic and reliable context information required by the recommendation decision process. Thus, data obtained from IoT objects and other sources can be exploited to build CARSs that satisfy users’ preferences, improve quality of experience, and boost recommendation accuracy. This article describes various components of a conceptual IoT-based framework for context-aware personalized recommendations. The framework addresses the weakness whereby CARSs rely on static and limited contexts from user’s mobile phone by providing additional components for reliable and dynamic context information, using IoT context sources. The core of the framework consists of a context classification and reasoning management and a dynamic user profile model, incorporating trust to improve the accuracy of context-aware personalized recommendations. Experimental evaluations show that incorporating context and trust into personalized recommendation process can improve accuracy.

  7. Test and Evaluation Metrics of Crew Decision-Making And Aircraft Attitude and Energy State Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Stephens, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has established a technical challenge, under the Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project, to improve crew decision-making and response in complex situations. The specific objective of this challenge is to develop data and technologies which may increase a pilot's (crew's) ability to avoid, detect, and recover from adverse events that could otherwise result in accidents/incidents. Within this technical challenge, a cooperative industry-government research program has been established to develop innovative flight deck-based counter-measures that can improve the crew's ability to avoid, detect, mitigate, and recover from unsafe loss-of-aircraft state awareness - specifically, the loss of attitude awareness (i.e., Spatial Disorientation, SD) or the loss-of-energy state awareness (LESA). A critical component of this research is to develop specific and quantifiable metrics which identify decision-making and the decision-making influences during simulation and flight testing. This paper reviews existing metrics and methods for SD testing and criteria for establishing visual dominance. The development of Crew State Monitoring technologies - eye tracking and other psychophysiological - are also discussed as well as emerging new metrics for identifying channelized attention and excessive pilot workload, both of which have been shown to contribute to SD/LESA accidents or incidents.

  8. Supporting context-aware mobile applications : an infrastructure approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Halteren, Aart; Wegdam, M.; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Eertink, E.H.; Eertink, E.H.

    Mobile phones and PDAs are converging into mobile lifestyle devices that offer a wide range of applications to end users. Many of these applications will have the ability to adapt themselves to the user’s situation, commonly referred to as context awareness. We argue that an infrastructure is needed

  9. Use of Mobile Video to Enhance Situational Awareness in HA/DR Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    challenges . Although many definitions have been proposed so far, Mica R. Endsley describes “situational awareness” as: [T]he perception of the...Player, QuickTime, Flash Player, VLC Media Player, HTML 5 Video and DivX Web Player. This feature helps overcome a usual handicap that developers

  10. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  11. Type 1 diabetes: Awareness, management and challenges: Current scenario in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Prasanna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM has a wide presence in children and has a high mortality rates. The disease, if left unmanaged, poses various challenges to the patient and healthcare providers, including development of diabetic complications and thus decreasing the life expectancy of the affected child. The challenges of T1DM include awareness of the disease that is very poor among the general public and also in parents of T1DM children along with the health care professionals. The challenge of lack of awareness of T1DM can be met by increasing public awareness programs, conducting workshops for diabetes educators regarding T1DM in children, newsletters, CMEs, online courses, and by structured teaching modules for diabetes educators. Diagnosis of T1DM was a challenge a few decades ago but the situation has improved today with diagnostic tests and facilities, made available even in villages. Investigation facilities and infrastructure, however, are very poor at the primary care level, especially in rural areas. Insulin availability, acceptability, and affordability are also major problems, compounded by the various types of insulin that are available in the market with a varied price range. But effective use of insulin remains a matter of utmost importance.

  12. Type 1 diabetes: Awareness, management and challenges: Current scenario in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.M. Prasanna; Saboo, Banshi; Rao, P.V.; Sarda, Archana; Viswanathan, Vijay; Kalra, Sanjay; Sethi, Bipin; Shah, Nalini; Srikanta, S.S.; Jain, Sunil M; Raghupathy, P.; Shukla, Rishi; Jhingan, Ashok; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jabbar, P.K.; Kanungo, Alok; Joshi, Rajesh; Kumar, Surendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chadha, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has a wide presence in children and has a high mortality rates. The disease, if left unmanaged, poses various challenges to the patient and healthcare providers, including development of diabetic complications and thus decreasing the life expectancy of the affected child. The challenges of T1DM include awareness of the disease that is very poor among the general public and also in parents of T1DM children along with the health care professionals. The challenge of lack of awareness of T1DM can be met by increasing public awareness programs, conducting workshops for diabetes educators regarding T1DM in children, newsletters, CMEs, online courses, and by structured teaching modules for diabetes educators. Diagnosis of T1DM was a challenge a few decades ago but the situation has improved today with diagnostic tests and facilities, made available even in villages. Investigation facilities and infrastructure, however, are very poor at the primary care level, especially in rural areas. Insulin availability, acceptability, and affordability are also major problems, compounded by the various types of insulin that are available in the market with a varied price range. But effective use of insulin remains a matter of utmost importance. PMID:25941655

  13. Foundations for self-awareness: An exploration through autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Peter R; Chidambi, Gayathri; Lee, Anthony; Meyer, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology holds promise for elucidating the structure of self-awareness. Here we studied social emotions in matched groups of children and adolescents with and without autism. Our aims were to determine whether there are potentially dissociable aspects of self-awareness, and to reconsider how the qualities of young children's engagement with other persons influences the development of their sense of self. Parent interviews yielded evidence that children with autism are limited in social-relational and emotional domains of self-awareness; for example, few were reported to show guilt, embarrassment, or shame. Yet according to parent report, most were affected by the moods of others, showed some degree of pity and concern, and manifested jealousy. When presented with videotaped scenes, participants with autism were similar to those without autism in identifying pride, guilt, and shame, and they were able to describe their own experiences of pride and, more rarely, guilt. In situations designed to elicit emotions, participants with autism were rated as showing pride, but they manifested lesser degrees and atypical qualities of guilt and coyness. Relatively few showed personal forms of self-consciousness when asked to pose for a photograph. We argue that in order for children to achieve depth in self-awareness, and to relate to themselves as occupying a distinctive stance within a framework of mutual self-other relatedness, they need to identify with the attitudes of other people. We interpret the present studies in terms of dissociations among three forms of social emotion: "person-centered" qualities of relational self-awareness that require identification and are specifically limited among children with autism, more diffuse modes of relational self-consciousness, and a third group of social emotions, epitomized by jealousy, situated in a separate developmental line. We propose a rebalancing of emotion theory that gives greater prominence to

  14. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  15. Evaluation of a campaign to improve awareness and attitudes of young people towards mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Tugwell, Andrew; Korf-Uzan, Kimberly; Cianfrone, Michelle; Coniglio, Connie

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the In One Voice campaign for raising mental health awareness and improving attitudes of youth and young adults towards mental health issues. The campaign featured a prominent male sports figure talking about mental health issues and used online social media. A successive independent samples design assessed market penetration and attitudinal changes among the young people. Two samples completed an online questionnaire either immediately before (T1: n = 403) or 2 months after (T2: n = 403) the campaign launch. Website analytics determined changes in activity levels of a youth-focused mental health website (mindcheck.ca). One-quarter (24.8 %, n = 100) of the respondents remembered the campaign. The proportion of respondents who were aware of the website increased significantly from 6.0 % at T1 to 15.6 % at T2. Average overall scores on standardized measures of personal stigma and social distance were not significantly different between T1 and T2 respondents. Attitudes towards mental health issues were statistically similar between respondents who were or were not exposed to the campaign. Those who were exposed to the campaign were significantly more likely to talk about and seek information relating to mental health issues. The proximal outcomes of the campaign to increase awareness and use of the website were achieved. The distal outcome of the campaign to improve attitudes towards mental health issues was not successfully achieved. The brief social media campaign improved mental health literacy outcomes, but had limited effect on personal stigma and social distance.

  16. Role-Based Access Control for Coalition Partners in Maritime Domain Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDaniel, Christopher R; Tardy, Matthew L

    2005-01-01

    The need for Shared Situational Awareness (SSA) in accomplishing joint missions by coalition militaries, law enforcement, the intelligence community, and the private sector creates a unique challenge to providing access control...

  17. Improving working equine welfare in 'hard-win' situations, where gains are difficult, expensive or marginal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Pritchard

    Full Text Available Brooke is a non-government organisation with working equine welfare programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2014, staff from ten country programmes were asked to identify 'no-win' situations (subsequently reframed as 'hard-wins'-where improving equine welfare is proving difficult, expensive and/or marginal-in order to inform strategic decisions on how to approach, manage and mitigate for such situations.The Delphi-type consultation process had three phases. Round 1 posed five questions in the form of a workshop, survey and semi-structured interviews. Round 2 re-presented key themes and sense-checked initial conclusions. Round 3 reviewed the nature and prevalence of hard-win situations at an international meeting of all participants.Reasons given for hard-win situations included: no economic or social benefit from caring for working animals; poor resource availability; lack of empathy for working equids or their owners among wider stakeholders; deep-seated social issues, such as addiction or illegal working; areas with a high animal turnover or migratory human population; lack of community cooperation or cohesion; unsafe areas where welfare interventions cannot be adequately supported. Participants estimated the prevalence of hard-win situations as 40-70% of their work. They suggested some current ways of working that may be contributing to the problem, and opportunities to tackle hard-wins more effectively.Respondents agreed that if equine welfare improvements are to span generations of animals, interventions cannot rely on relatively simple, technical knowledge-transfer strategies and quick-wins alone. Programmes need to be more flexible and iterative and less risk-averse in their approaches to embedding good equine welfare practices in all relevant actors. Consultation recommendations informed development of Brooke's new global strategy, a revised organisational structure and redefinition of roles and responsibilities to

  18. Metrics for smart security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, William A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available informing the response teams for reparations. These capabilities are possible by collecting data from the environment and ensuring intelligence is developed to react automatically without human intervention. The concept of smart cities has also been.... The data would be transported to a centralized situational awareness capability for analyses and create the appropriate response in the form of remedial action. The use of threat intelligence feeds could automatically sense the existence of a new threat...

  19. Adolescents' sense-making of alcohol-related risks: The role of drinking situations and social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti

    2015-09-01

    The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  1. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  2. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  3. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of augmented reality in command and control situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identifies possible uses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specific attention to situation awareness in the South African context. Applications across the different command and control functions, as well as at the different levels of military operations are considered. The article concludes ...

  5. Quantity Surveying Undergraduates’ Awareness on Cost Significant of High-Rise Condominium Projects in Malaysia: The Case of a Private University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lee Wah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in quantity surveying (QS emphasised the importance of identifying cost significant elements (CSE. The knowledge on CSE of high-rise condominium projects (HRCP is essential as high-rise residential multi-unit projects are the next option in building construction due to limited land areas in urban areas. This study aims to determine the levels of awareness among QS undergraduates of a private university in Malaysia on CSE of HRCP in Malaysia. The respondents’ knowledge on CSE has not achieved a satisfactory level. Both male and female respondents have the same levels of awareness on CSE. Remedial strategies to improve this situation are recommended.

  6. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  7. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  8. Supporting Family Awareness with the Whereabouts Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, Abigail; Taylor, Alex S.; Kaye, Joseph ‘Jofish'; Brown, Barry; Izadi, Shahram

    We report the results of a field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displays the location of family members using cellphone data as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories ( HOME, WORK, SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE). The results show that awareness of others through the Clock supports not only family communication and coordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. We discuss how the term “awareness” means many things in practice and highlight the importance of designing not just for family activities, but in order to support the emotional, social and even moral aspects of family life.

  9. Situation Awareness Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    IntroductIon Pilots , automobile drivers, power plant workers, and supervisory control operators are required to allocate attention to multiple objects...restoring SA after SA has been reduced. A reduc- tion in SA can be caused by a loss of attention, interruptions, multitasking , operator overload, and so...the UAV to a different target, or the operator could add waypoints to the UAV’s trajectory, which effectively allowed the opera- tor to pilot the

  10. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  11. Use of visualization technology to improve decision-making performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, Lewis F.; Naser, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a description of modern 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology that may be applied to improve human situation awareness and decision-making in nuclear power plants. Visualization technology is being applied widely and successfully in several industries. Examples are presented of successful applications in the military, aviation, medical, entertainment, and nuclear industries. Additional opportunities are identified in the nuclear industry that may benefit from improved visualization

  12. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  13. Improving working equine welfare in ‘hard-win’ situations, where gains are difficult, expensive or marginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Joy; Hirson, Tamsin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Brooke is a non-government organisation with working equine welfare programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2014, staff from ten country programmes were asked to identify ‘no-win’ situations (subsequently reframed as ‘hard-wins’)—where improving equine welfare is proving difficult, expensive and/or marginal—in order to inform strategic decisions on how to approach, manage and mitigate for such situations. Methods The Delphi-type consultation process had three phases. Round 1 posed five questions in the form of a workshop, survey and semi-structured interviews. Round 2 re-presented key themes and sense-checked initial conclusions. Round 3 reviewed the nature and prevalence of hard-win situations at an international meeting of all participants. Results Reasons given for hard-win situations included: no economic or social benefit from caring for working animals; poor resource availability; lack of empathy for working equids or their owners among wider stakeholders; deep-seated social issues, such as addiction or illegal working; areas with a high animal turnover or migratory human population; lack of community cooperation or cohesion; unsafe areas where welfare interventions cannot be adequately supported. Participants estimated the prevalence of hard-win situations as 40–70% of their work. They suggested some current ways of working that may be contributing to the problem, and opportunities to tackle hard-wins more effectively. Conclusion and animal welfare implications Respondents agreed that if equine welfare improvements are to span generations of animals, interventions cannot rely on relatively simple, technical knowledge-transfer strategies and quick-wins alone. Programmes need to be more flexible and iterative and less risk-averse in their approaches to embedding good equine welfare practices in all relevant actors. Consultation recommendations informed development of Brooke’s new global strategy, a revised organisational

  14. Situational Awareness: Deadly Bioconvergence at the Boundaries of Bodies and Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Suchman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay sets out an initial analytic framing for research in progress on the problem of ‘situational awareness’ within contemporary forms of (particularly U.S. warfare. My focus more specifically is on the logics, rhetorics and material practices of remotely-controlled weapon systems (particularly armed drones and weaponized robots. Drawing from reports in investigative journalism, military documents, and critical scholarship, I examine connections between the emphasis in military and security discourses on keeping ‘our’ bodies safe through so called network-centric warfare, and the project of cutting the networks that might bring our wars too close to home.

  15. Context aware sensing for health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landete, F.; Chen, W.; Bouwstra, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Monitoring systems with textile sensors offer more comfort compared to gel electrodes, however they tend to suffer from poor skin contact and motion artifacts. In order to improve the monitoring reliability, we propose to apply multiple sensors and context aware sensing. A context aware

  16. "You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…": Self-awareness of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals' awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities.

  17. Interoceptive Awareness Skills for Emotion Regulation: Theory and Approach of Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy (MABT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Price

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation involves a coherent relationship with the self, specifically effective communication between body, mind, and feelings. Effective emotion regulation involves the ability to accurately detect and evaluate cues related to physiological reactions to stressful events, accompanied by appropriate regulation strategies that temper and influence the emotional response. There is compelling evidence demonstrating links between poor or disrupted awareness of sensory information, or interoceptive awareness, and difficulties with emotion regulation. This paper presents a framework, based on psychological and neurobiological research, for understanding how interoceptive awareness facilitates regulation and an integrated sense of self, and thus contributes to health and well-being. A mind-body therapeutic approach called mindful awareness in body-oriented therapy (MABT, uniquely designed to teach fundamental skills of interoceptive awareness, is described. MABT develops the distinct interoceptive awareness capacities of identifying, accessing, and appraising internal bodily signals that are identified in physiological models as the critical components of interoception for emotion regulation. The explanatory model is that the development of these key interoceptive capacities improves sensory (physical and emotional awareness, reduces distress, and improves regulation. Strategies for teaching and learning interoceptive awareness are not well-developed in mindfulness or psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly important for people who may have difficulty attending to interoceptive awareness due to stress, chronic pain or trauma. To address this issue, MABT provides an individualized protocol for scaffolding interoceptive awareness through a combination of psychoeducation and somatic approaches explicitly addressing difficulties with interoceptive processing. Clinical vignettes are included to provide exemplars of this approach and to highlight

  18. Correcting Blindness In the Nerve Center: How To Improve Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    students to not only challenge themselves, but to challenge just about everything. Thank you. 1 I. INTRODUCTION In the National Football League...quarterback Tom Brady of the New England Patriots is considered one of the all-time great quarterbacks. Football experts claim that Brady’s ability to...formalizing this relationship. If funding, politics , geography and/or structures do not afford such a collaborative opportunity, adopting the

  19. Context aware adaptive security service model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  20. A course for nurses to handle difficult communication situations. A randomized controlled trial of impact on self-efficacy and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Daniel; Copeland, H Liesel; Bush, Donna; Stein, Linda; Thompson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the impact of a communication skills course for nurses on how to handle difficult communication situations in their daily work. a 7-h course was developed using a construct of "Awareness, Feelings, Listen, Solve" (AFLS). A pedagogy of experiential, learner-centered learning was adopted. The course evaluation used a randomized controlled design with pre- and post-measures of self-efficacy and performance. forty-one nurses volunteered and thirty-three nurses completed all assigned parts of the study. On self-assessment, there was significant improvement for self-efficacy (F=24.43, pperformance, there was no significant improvement between intervention and control groups (F=3.46, p=0.073). a short course for nurses on handling difficult communication situations achieved significant improvements in self-efficacy but not in performance. teaching communication skills in community-based settings is important for the safety and effectiveness of patient care. Sponsoring organizations should weigh trade-offs between feasibility and achievement of measurable improvements in performance. One possible approach is to focus on specific communication skills rather than a full suite of skills. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thinking like an expert: surgical decision making as a cyclical process of being aware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Apramian, Tavis; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei; Ott, Michael; Forbes, Thomas; Novick, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers are studying the practices of high-stake professionals as they learn how to better train for flexibility under uncertainty. This study explores the "Reconciliation Cycle" as the core element of an intraoperative decision-making model of how experienced surgeons assess and respond to challenges. We analyzed 32 semistructured interviews using constructivist grounded theory to develop a model of intraoperative decision making. Using constant comparison analysis, we built on this model with 9 follow-up interviews about the most challenging cases described in our dataset. The Reconciliation Cycle constituted an iterative process of "gaining" and "transforming information." The cyclical nature of surgeons' decision making suggested that transforming information requires a higher degree of awareness, not yet accounted by current conceptualizations of situation awareness. This study advances the notion of situation awareness in surgery. This characterization will support further investigations on how expert and nonexpert surgeons implement strategies to cope with unexpected events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Awareness of Turkish High School Students about Carbon Footprint and the Effects of the High School Biology Curriculum on This Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz-Aydin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions which are one of the most important human sourced causes of global climate change continue to rise rapidly despite all efforts to minimize these emissions. Carbon footprint (CF) education is significant in terms of changing the present situation. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness of high school students about the…

  3. Foresight and awareness of incipient changes in a patient' clinical conditions--Perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the phenomenon of becoming aware of incipient changes in patient condition from the perspectives and experiences of intensive care nurses. This study involved close observations of and in-depth interviews with 11 experienced intensive care nurses. The text was analysed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method that was inspired by van Manen. This study was undertaken at two different high-technology intensive care units (ICUs) in Norwegian university hospitals. Nurses formed images of individual patients composed of signs (of changes in a patient's condition) that were sensory, measurable, and manifested as the mood of the nurse. The signs may be viewed as separate from and opposed to one another, but they are tightly interwoven and interact with one another. Care situations are powerful stimuli for the patient, and it is of great importance for nurses to become aware of signs in these situations. Nurses also ascribe that following the patient over time is important for becoming aware of signs. An awareness of incipient changes in patient clinical condition requires understanding the ever-changing dynamics of patient condition and dialogic images composed of signs. Care situations and the following of patients through shifts are essential in enabling nurses to detect these signs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  5. WaterOnto: Ontology of Context-Aware Grid-Based Riverine Water Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of riverine water always remains a big challenge, because the volatility of water flow creates hurdles to determine the exact time and quantity of water flowing in rivers and available for daily use. The volatile water caused by various water sources and irregular flow pattern generates different kinds of challenges for management. Distribution of flow of water in irrigation network affects the relevant community in either way. In the monsoon seasons, river belt community high risk of flood, while far living community suffering drought. Contemplating this situation, we have developed an ontology for context-aware information representation of riverine water management system abetting the visualization and proactive planning for the complex real-time situation. The purpose of this WaterOnto is to improve river water management and enable for efficient use of this precious natural resource. This would also be helpful to save the extra water being discharged in sea & non-irrigational areas, and magnitude and location of water leakage. We conceptualized stakeholder and relevant entities. We developed a taxonomy of irrigation system concepts in machine process able structure. Being woven these hierarchies together we developed a detailed conceptualization of river flow that helps us to manage the flow of water and enable to extract danger situation.

  6. Current situation of Islamabad solid waste dumpsite and options for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.; Elahi, R.E.; Malik, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the existing situation of H-12 dumpsite, where solid waste from Islamabad City is being dumped since 1988, and to propose options for its improvement. The study methodology involved collection of baseline information, topographical survey, analysis of leachate samples, characterization of incoming waste and evaluation of options for rehabilitation and improvement of the site. The results of the study revealed that solid waste dumped at the H-12 dumpsite, which currently receives about 320 tons of solid waste daily, covers an area of 22.4 hectares. The corresponding volume and weight of the waste were found to be 0.45 million m3 and 0.143 million tons, respectively. Specific weight and moisture content of the old dumped waste were found to be 22 percent and 320 kg/m3, respectively. Analysis of leachate samples collected from the dumpsite were found to be highly contaminated. Characterization of solid waste delivered at the site showed that it mainly comprises a mix of construction and demolition waste, food waste and hospital waste thus indicating that material recovery operations would not be feasible. In order to improve and rehabilitate the dumpsite with a view to mitigate its adverse environmental impacts, three options were considered. These include (a) improvement and rehabilitation of the site without making provision for further inflow of waste; (b) improvement and rehabilitation of the dumpsite with provision to receive the waste for a period of another 10 years; and (c) shifting the dumped waste to the proposed Kurri Landfill site. Technical and financial aspects of all the three options are described and recommendations regarding the most environment friendly option are presented. (author)

  7. Experience based on practice to improve the radon-situation in Saxony. A personal retrospect and outlook for young radiation protection engineers; Erfahrungen aus praktischer Taetigkeit zur Verbesserung der Radon-Situation in Sachsen. Ein persoenlicher Rueckblick und Perspektiven fuer junge Strahlenschuetzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebner, Walfried

    2015-07-01

    Based on the state of knowledge and international developments concerning the radon situation in dwellings the experiences regarding the improvement of the radon situation in Saxony were described as a personal retrospect of more than 20 years practice. The taken path to control the radon situation in German dwellings has been reflected as a personally point of view. Open questions and controversial issues were named. The practical experiences in handling of radon in dwellings in connection with the remediation activities at uranium mining legacies were described. As conclusions drawn on own activities and insights the future challenges to improve the radon situation in Saxony were outlined. An outlook was directed to the young radiation protection engineers and civil engineers.

  8. Advantages of efficiency-aware smart charging strategies for PEVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, Francesco A.; Cappuccino, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze smart variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles. ► We consider the impact of the charging rate on the charging efficiency. ► Accounting for charging efficiency variations allows improving system performance. ► The study defines useful guidelines to develop smart battery chargers. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) diffusion is expected to grow considerably over the next few years. Aiming to overcome severe grid overload problems caused by a large PEV penetration, utilities and vehicle manufactures are involved in the effort of developing ad hoc charging systems interacting in real-time with smart grids in order to implement smart energy dispatching strategies for PEVs. Strategies which take advantage of varying the charging rate during the charging process appear the most effective solution to guarantee both a full exploitation of the grid capacity and suitable degrees of user satisfaction. This work demonstrates that the actual effectiveness of variable-rate-based dispatching strategies significantly depends on the energy efficiency of the battery charging process, which is in turn strongly related to the charging rate used. Simulation results for a realistic situation show that smart efficiency-aware dispatching strategies, which take into account the actual dependence between the charging efficiency and the charging rate, allow significant improvements in both the user satisfaction and the utility profit compared with non-efficiency-aware strategies. The results of the analysis performed give useful guidelines for the development of smart-grid management policies and for the design of next-generation PEVs battery chargers and charging stations.

  9. Chinese Students' Awareness of Relationship between Green Finance, Environmental Protection Education and Real Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…

  10. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  11. The effects of shared situational awareness on functional and hospital outcomes of hospitalized older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joo H Lee,1 Sun J Kim,2,3 Julia Lam,4 Sulgi Kim,5 Shunichi Nakagawa,6 Ji W Yoo7,8 1Department of Media and Communication, Hanyang University College of Social Sciences, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Public Health, 3Institute of Health Services Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 4University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; 7Center for Senior Health and Longevity, Aurora Health Care, 8Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Milwaukee, WI, USA Background: Functional decline of hospitalized older adults is common and triggers health care expenditures. Physical therapy can retard the functional decline that occurs during hospitalization. This study aims to examine whether shared situational awareness (SSA intervention may enhance the benefits of physical therapy for hospitalized older persons with a common diagnosis, heart failure. Method: An SSA intervention that involved daily multidisciplinary meetings was applied to the care of functionally declining older adults admitted to the medicine floor for heart failure. Covariates were matched between the intervention group (n=473 and control group (n=475. Both intervention and control groups received physical therapy for ≥0.5 hours per day. The following three outcomes were compared between groups: 1 disability, 2 transition to skilled nursing facility (SNF, post-acute care setting, and 3 30-day readmission rate. Results: Disability was lower in the intervention group (28% than in the control group (37% (relative risk [RR] =0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35–0.97; P=0.026, and transition to SNF was lower in the intervention group (22% than in the control group (30% (RR =0.77; 95% CI, 0.39

  12. Evaluation of staff cultural awareness before and after attending cultural awareness training in an Australian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rose; Martin, Catherine; Smith, Tammy

    2014-10-01

    Cultural awareness of emergency department staff is important to ensure delivery of appropriate health care to people from all ethnic groups. Cultural awareness training has been found to increase knowledge about other cultures and is widely used as a means of educating staff, however, debate continues as to the effectiveness of these programs. To determine if an accredited cultural awareness training program affected emergency department staff knowledge, familiarity, attitude of and perception towards Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. One group pre-test and post-test intervention study compared the cultural awareness of 44 emergency department staff towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people before and after training. The cultural awareness training was delivered in six hours over three sessions and was taught by an accredited cultural awareness trainer. The cultural awareness training changed perception but did not affect attitude towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this group. Future strategies to improve staff cultural awareness need to be investigated, developed, implemented and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community Coalitions' Gender-Aware Policy and Systems Changes to Improve the Health of Women and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne M; Oravecz, Linda

    2017-10-17

    Addressing environmental barriers and community conditions through policy and systems change provides the foundation for creating sustainable public health change at the population level. In an effort to influence population-level change that is gender aware, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health funded the Coalition for a Healthier Community initiative supporting 10 grantees in the implementation of gender-based, public health systems approaches to improve women and girls' health. A national evaluation assessed the extent to which these gender-aware public health systems approaches result in programs and policies that are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. For this paper, a review of policies reported on in grantees' quarterly progress reports was conducted, and policies were categorized based on each policy's status, level, sector affected, and whether it was gender aware. The review revealed 77 policies at varying stages of development or implementation intended to facilitate systems-level change at the coalition, school, organizational, local, or state level. Fifty-one percent of these policies were identified as being gender aware, because they were intended to reduce barriers to or increase facilitators of gender equity. Community coalitions, like the Coalition for a Healthier Community coalitions, can be valuable channels for promoting policy change, as demonstrated by the many policies developed and/or supported by the Coalition for a Healthier Community grantees in their attempt to meet the needs of women and girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Battlefield awareness computers: the engine of battlefield digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jackson; Chamseddine, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    To modernize the army for the 21st century, the U.S. Army Digitization Office (ADO) initiated in 1995 the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade-and-Below (FBCB2) Applique program which became a centerpiece in the U.S. Army's master plan to win future information wars. The Applique team led by TRW fielded a 'tactical Internet' for Brigade and below command to demonstrate the advantages of 'shared situation awareness' and battlefield digitization in advanced war-fighting experiments (AWE) to be conducted in March 1997 at the Army's National Training Center in California. Computing Devices is designated the primary hardware developer for the militarized version of the battlefield awareness computers. The first generation of militarized battlefield awareness computer, designated as the V3 computer, was an integration of off-the-shelf components developed to meet the agressive delivery requirements of the Task Force XXI AWE. The design efficiency and cost effectiveness of the computer hardware were secondary in importance to delivery deadlines imposed by the March 1997 AWE. However, declining defense budgets will impose cost constraints on the Force XXI production hardware that can only be met by rigorous value engineering to further improve design optimization for battlefield awareness without compromising the level of reliability the military has come to expect in modern military hardened vetronics. To answer the Army's needs for a more cost effective computing solution, Computing Devices developed a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer, designated the V3+, which is designed specifically to meet the upcoming demands of Force XXI (FBCB2) and beyond. The primary design objective is to achieve a technologically superior design, value engineered to strike an optimal balance between reliability, life cycle cost, and procurement cost. Recognizing that the diverse digitization demands of Force XXI cannot be adequately met by any one computer hardware

  15. Investigation and survey of occasions when humans saved and improved a situation where the automation was insufficient or failed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackman, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    In many systems an increased level of automation implies an altered role for the human. Behind the introduction of new automation lies different automation philosophies which stretches from trying to use as much automation as possible to adding automation only as a support to human tasks in specific situations. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has assigned AaF-engineering to describe the current automation philosophies within the nuclear industry. The assignment also includes a survey of events in which human involvement was necessary in order to save a situation in which the automation has not been sufficient. The survey also include an analysis of these events focusing on which automation philosophy/level of automation is most appropriate for obtaining a high level of safety. In the report three events are described in which human involvement has been crucial for the successful outcome of the situation; Spain 1989, Switzerland 1996, Forsmark/Sweden 2006. These events shows that the human is one of the most vital parts of the defense in depth, hence a strong focus should be given to looking after and maintaining human abilities in order for her to be able to act safely in such situations. The events also show potential enhancement of the defense in depth through making the most of the unique human abilities of intuitive and creative thinking and acting without access to external sources of power or prearranged procedures. These abilities are affected by the levels of automation, e.g. a too high level of automation can lead to a lack in situation awareness whilst a too low level can lead to too high levels of mental workload for the operators. To avoid degradation in human abilities to safely intervene, changes in automation levels at nuclear power plants should always be preceded by an analysis of its effect on the human in the situation at hand. In order better determine the efficiency of existing methods for assessing the effects of automation on human

  16. Application of a computational situation assessment model to human system interface design and experimental validation of its effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Koh, Kwang-Yong; Seong, Poong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We validate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure thru an experiment. ► The proposed procedure addresses the salient coding of the key information. ► It was found that salience coding affects operators’ attention significantly. ► The first observation to the key information quickly guided to the correct situation awareness. ► It was validated the proposed procedure is effective for better situation awareness. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of human cognitive characteristics on situation awareness, a computational situation assessment model of nuclear power plant operators has been developed, as well as a procedure to apply the developed model to the design of human system interfaces (HSIs). The concept of the proposed procedure is to identify the key information source, which is expected to guarantee fast and accurate diagnosis when operators attend to it. The developed computational model is used to search the diagnostic paths and the key information source. In this study, an experiment with twelve trained participants was executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Eighteen scenarios covering various accidents were administered twice for each subject, and experimental data were collected and analyzed. As a result of the data analysis, it was validated that the salience level of information sources significantly influences the attention of operators, and the first observation of the key information sources leads operators to a quick and correct situation assessment. Therefore, we conclude that the proposed procedure for applying the developed model to HSI design is effective

  17. A computational model for evaluating the effects of attention, memory, and mental models on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Seong, Poong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this paper, we propose a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. As this proposed model provides quantitative results of situation assessment and diagnostic performance, we expect that this model can be used in the design and evaluation of human system interfaces as well as the prediction of situation awareness errors in the human reliability analysis.

  18. A computational model for evaluating the effects of attention, memory, and mental models on situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul [Instrumentation and Control/Human Factors Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr; Seong, Poong-Hyun [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Operators in nuclear power plants have to acquire information from human system interfaces (HSIs) and the environment in order to create, update, and confirm their understanding of a plant state, as failures of situation assessment may cause wrong decisions for process control and finally errors of commission in nuclear power plants. A few computational models that can be used to predict and quantify the situation awareness of operators have been suggested. However, these models do not sufficiently consider human characteristics for nuclear power plant operators. In this paper, we propose a computational model for situation assessment of nuclear power plant operators using a Bayesian network. This model incorporates human factors significantly affecting operators' situation assessment, such as attention, working memory decay, and mental model. As this proposed model provides quantitative results of situation assessment and diagnostic performance, we expect that this model can be used in the design and evaluation of human system interfaces as well as the prediction of situation awareness errors in the human reliability analysis.

  19. Context-Aware Local Optimization of Sensor Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Argany

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are increasingly used for tracking and monitoring dynamic phenomena in urban and natural areas. Spatial coverage is an important issue in sensor networks in order to fulfill the needs of sensing applications. Optimization methods are widely used to efficiently distribute sensor nodes in the network to achieve a desired level of coverage. Most of the existing algorithms do not consider the characteristics of the real environment in the optimization process. In this paper, we propose the integration of contextual information in optimization algorithms to improve sensor network coverage. First, we investigate the implication of contextual information in sensor networks. Then, a conceptual framework for local context-aware sensor network deployment optimization method is introduced and related algorithms are presented in detail. Finally, several experiments are carried out to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The results obtained from these experiments show the effectiveness of our approach in different contextual situations.

  20. Contraceptive awareness among men in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2006-04-01

    A considerable gap exists between contraceptive awareness and use. Traditional approaches to measuring awareness are inadequate to properly understand the linkages between awareness and use. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of men's modern contraceptive awareness in Bangladesh and the associated determinants and further testing of a hypothesis that current contraceptive use confers a high degree of method awareness. This study used the couple data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1999-2000). A two-level, multinomial logistic regression was used with the degree of contraceptive awareness as the dependent variable. The degree of awareness was measured by the reported number of modern contraceptive methods known among men aged 15-59 years. Men's responses on method awareness were classified according to those reported spontaneously and probed. Nearly 100% of the study participants reported having heard of at least one method and about half reported awareness of at least eight different methods of contraception. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that older and educated men were more likely to have reported a high degree of awareness. The findings confirmed our hypothesis that current contraceptive use is likely to confer a high degree of modern method awareness among men (pknowledge of contraceptive methods to improve the uptake of especially male-based modern methods.

  1. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  2. A Context-Aware S-Health Service System for Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkun Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a stressful and sensitive task, driving can be disturbed by various factors from the health condition of the driver to the environmental variables of the vehicle. Continuous monitoring of driving hazards and providing the most appropriate business services to meet actual needs can guarantee safe driving and make great use of the existing information resources and business services. However, there is no in-depth research on the perception of a driver’s health status or the provision of customized business services in case of various hazardous situations. In order to constantly monitor the health status of the drivers and react to abnormal situations, this paper proposes a context-aware service system providing a configurable architecture for the design and implementation of the smart health service system for safe driving, which can perceive a driver’s health status and provide helpful services to the driver. With the context-aware technology to construct a smart health services system for safe driving, this is the first time that such a service system has been implemented in practice. Additionally, an assessment model is proposed to mitigate the impact of the acceptable abnormal status and, thus, reduce the unnecessary invocation of the services. With regard to different assessed situations, the business services can be invoked for the driver to adapt to hazardous situations according to the services configuration model, which can take full advantage of the existing information resources and business services. The evaluation results indicate that the alteration of the observed status in a valid time range T can be tolerated and the frequency of the service invocation can be reduced.

  3. Awareness, attitudes, need and demand on replacement of missing teeth among a group of partially dentate patients attending a University Dental Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Rasika Manori; Perera, Janana; Jayasinghe, Vajira; Thilakumara, Indika P; Rasnayaka, Sumudu; Shiraz, Muhammad Hanafi Muhammad; Ranabahu, Indra; Kularatna, Sanjeewa

    2017-07-27

    Our objective was to assess awareness, attitudes, need and demand on replacement of missing teeth according to edentulous space, age, gender, ethnicity, educational level and socio-economical status of the patient. 76.2% of the study group was opined that the missing teeth should be replaced by prosthetic means. Majority were keen in getting them replaced mainly for the comfort in mastication. Although 77.9 and 32.9% were aware of the removable prostheses and implants respectively, only 25.2% knew about tooth supported bridges as an option of replacement of missing teeth. Participants' awareness on tooth and implant supported prostheses is at a higher level. Participants' opinion on need of regular dental visit was statistically significant when gender, ethnicity and education level were considered. The highest demand for replacement of missing teeth was observed in Kennedy class I and II situations in both upper and lower arches. Demand for fixed prostheses was significantly highest in Kennedy class II in upper and lower arches. In conclusion, although removable prosthodontic options are known to most of the patients, their awareness on tooth and implant supported prostheses is also at a higher level. The highest demand for replacement of missing teeth is by patients with Kennedy class I and II situations whereas Kennedy class II being the category with highest demand for fixed prostheses. We recommend that the location of missing teeth to be considered as a priority when educating patients on the most appropriate prosthetic treatment options. Dentists' involvement in educating patients on prosthetic options needs to be improved.

  4. Psychodrama: an innovative way of improving self-awareness of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, F; Meriç, M; Yuksel, Ç; Ozcan, C T

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this educational session was to form a group interaction model for improving the self-awareness of nurses via psychodrama. The structured group interaction session was conducted three times, with three separate groups, during the 'Intensive Care Nursing' training programme at a teaching hospital in Ankara. An assessment was made using the written records and observations of the group director and co-directors and feedback from nurses regarding the session. The nurses were highly motivated, adapting readily to the learning environment and following the instructions without difficulty. They were able to describe their personal experience with a specific patient and also to identify the fundamental emotion engendered by that interaction. Their feedback regarding the session was favourable. The psychodrama technique helped the nurses to understand themselves, to explore the perspective of others and to make the connection between their own thoughts/feelings and those of their patients. Psychodrama can be an effective teaching tool in addressing the communication issues that arise in nursing. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. Evaluating the impact of a community-based cancer awareness roadshow on awareness, attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Osborne, Kirstie; Tring, Sophie; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Improving public awareness of cancer and encouraging health behavior change are important aspects of cancer control. We investigated whether a community-based roadshow was an effective way of communicating with the public about cancer and encouraging behavior change. Data were from 1196 people who completed questionnaires at a Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow in 2013. Of these, 511 (43%) completed questionnaires immediately before their visit (pre-visit group) and 685 (57%) completed questionnaires immediately after their visit (post-visit group). Among the post-visit sample, 217 (32%) were retained after two months. Self-reported data were available on risk factor and symptom awareness, help-seeking barriers, use of healthcare services and health behaviors. Compared with the pre-visit sample, the post-visit group had greater awareness of cancer risk factors and was more positive about aspects of help-seeking but awareness of potential symptoms was similar. Most effects were maintained over two months. Intentions to eat more fruit and vegetables and to exercise more were comparable between the groups but more people in the post-visit sample intended to quit smoking. At 2-month follow-up, smoking prevalence had significantly reduced but fruit and vegetable consumption decreased and there was no change to physical activity. User of weight loss services and general practitioner visits were high at follow-up and largely attributed to the Roadshow. The Cancer Research UK Roadshow appears to improve risk factor awareness, promote positive attitudes towards help-seeking and increase smoking cessation. This approach could be a useful building block for additional cancer prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of breast cancer awareness among women in India: Cancer literate or awareness deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Shridhar, K; Dhillon, P K

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide including India, where advanced stages at diagnosis, and rising incidence and mortality rates, make it essential to understand cancer literacy in women. We conducted a literature review to evaluate the awareness levels of risk factors for breast cancer among Indian women and health professionals. A structured literature search using combined keywords was undertaken on bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) and SCOPUS. Searches were restricted to research published in English language peer-reviewed journals through December, 2014 in India. A total of 7066 women aged 15-70 years showed varied levels of awareness on risk factors such as family history (13-58%), reproductive history (1-88%) and obesity (11-51%). Literacy levels on risk factors did not improve over the 8-year period (2005-2013). On average, nurses reported higher, though still varied, awareness levels for risk factors such as family history (40.8-98%), reproductive history (21-90%) and obesity (34-6%). Awareness levels were not consistently higher for the stronger determinants of risk. Our review revealed low cancer literacy of breast cancer risk factors among Indian women, irrespective of their socio-economic and educational background. There is an urgent need for nation- and state-wide awareness programmes, engaging multiple stakeholders of society and the health system, to help improve cancer literacy in India. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A report on developing a checklist to assess company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture: final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, N.; Starren, H.; Keus, M.; Gort, J.; Vervoort, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the process of developing a checklist to asses company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture. These plans are part of a programme initiated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment aiming at improving the safety performance of

  8. A qualitative study examining the influences on situation awareness and the identification, mitigation and escalation of recognised patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick W; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    Situation awareness (SA)-the perception of data elements, comprehension of their meaning and projection of their status in the near future-has been associated with human performance in high-risk environments, including aviation and the operating room. The influences on SA in inpatient medicine are unknown. We conducted seven focus groups with nurses, respiratory therapists and resident physicians using a standardised semistructured focus group guide to promote discussion. Recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were qualitatively analysed by two independent reviewers to identify convergent and divergent themes. Three themes emerged: (1) team-based care, (2) availability of standardised data and (3) standardised processes and procedures. We categorised these into social, technological and organisational influences on SA. Subthemes that emerged from each focus group were shared language to describe at-risk patients, provider experience in critical care/deterioration and interdisciplinary huddles to identify and plan for at-risk patients. An objective early warning score, proactive assessment and planning, adequate clinician staffing and tools for entering, displaying and monitoring data trends were identified by six of seven groups. Our data better reflected the concepts of team SA and shared SA than individual SA. Team-based care and standardisation support SA and the identification and treatment of patient risk in the complex environment of inpatient care. These findings can be used to guide the development and implementation of targeted interventions such as huddles to proactively scan for risk and electronic health record displays of data trends.

  9. Determinants of Awareness, Consideration, and Choice Set Size in University Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Developed and tested a model of students' university "brand" choice using five individual-level variables (ethnic group, age, gender, number of parents going to university, and academic ability) and one situational variable (duration of search) to explain variation in the sizes of awareness, consideration, and choice decision sets. (EV)

  10. “You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…”: Self-awareness of Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals’ awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities. PMID:28611703

  11. Dispositional and situational variables related to evacuation at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore some of the factors influential in local residents' evacuating or remaining in the Three Mile Island area during the nuclear power plant accident of March, 1979. Investigated variables included individuals' behavioral dispositions to attend or to avoid threatening stimuli as well as situational concerns related to demographic characteristics and subjective experience. Investigation of situational variables also probed respondents' concerns about accident-related fears. Two main relationships were investigated. The first hypothesized that positive relationships existed both between dispositional attention to threat and evacuation and between dispositional avoidance of threat and remaining. The second investigation task of the research explored evacuation-related situational variables in regard to individuals' awareness of potential danger at TMI. No support was found for the hypothesized relationships between evacuation and dispositions relative to threat. Situational variables significantly related to evacuation included: specific directives to evacuate the area; disruption of telephone service during the week of the accident; and household proximity to TMI

  12. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  13. Progress with situation assessment and risk prediction in advanced driver assistance systems : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendon-Velez, E.; Horváth, I.; Opiyo, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of automotive safety, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are receiving growing attention. Effective ADAS requires awareness of the actual driving situation, a reliable assessment of the risks, and making rapid decisions on assisting actions. This paper reviews the current

  14. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  15. Acting without seeing: Eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness Miriam Spering & Marisa Carrasco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. PMID:25765322

  16. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Case, Laura K; Burrus, Caley J; Ramachandran, V S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for visual feedback. We also show that both the fascination and the happiness that CL derives from looking at a computer-generated reflection diminish when a delay is introduced between the camera input and screen output. We believe that immediate, real-time visual feedback allows CL to integrate motor sensations with external visual ones into a coherent body schema that he cannot internally generate, perhaps due to a dysfunctional MNS.

  17. Body awareness and responses to experimentally Induced pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE. The aim of this study is to discuss personal and demographic factors that influence the relationship between physical activity and awareness of one's own body, as well as the pain response (threshold and tolerance of pain, situational anxiety and personality. In the study 38 healthy individual- volunteers, students in Trakia University - Stara Zagora were selected. All participants were divided into two groups: actively involved in individual or team sport (n = 19 and healthy normaly active subjects (non-athletes, n = 19. The age of the study participants ranged between 18 and 39 years, while the gender breakdown was as follows: men - 22 women – 16. Methods: Psychological Questionnaires: Body Awareness Questionnaire that asks subjects to rate, on a 4 point scale, the degree to which they were currently experiencing symptoms of sympathetic arousal, State Trait Anger Scale, and State Trait Anxiety Scale. Objective methods (cold pressure test are used only to determine the pain sensation and pain tolerance thresholds. The results of investigation support significant differences between athletes and non-athletes in pain thershold, body awareness and anxiety. The study conclusions discuss body awareness as an increasing factor for pain resistance in athletes and as an integral part of the learning process among them.

  18. Situated teaching improves empathy learning of the students in a BSN program: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwo-Chen; Yu, Chin-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Li, Chin-Ching; Chao, Yann-Fen C

    2018-05-01

    Empathy is an important clinical skill for nursing students, but it is a characteristic difficult to teach and assess. To evaluate the effect of situated teaching on empathy learning among undergraduate nursing students. A cohort study with pre-post-test quasi-experimental design. The 2nd-year students were enrolled from two BSN programs. The teaching program was completed over 4 months on the basis of experiential learning theory which integrated the following four elements: classroom-based role play, self-reflection, situated learning and acting. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession-Student version was administered before and after the program. Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) was administered at the end of program and a rubrics scale was used to measure empathy. A generalized estimation equation was used to identify the effect of subjective empathy, and an independent t-test was used for the objective assessment between two groups. A total of 103 students were enrolled. The results showed that subjective empathy increased significantly in experimental group. In the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, examiners and standard patients gave significantly higher empathy scores to the situated teaching group than the control group. The present study indicated that situated teaching can improve empathy learning of the nursing students. However different methods of assessment of empathy produce different results. We therefore recommend that multiple measurements from difference perspectives are preferable in the assessment of empathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Survey of current situation of schistosomiasis health education in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-jun; Gao, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Bing

    2015-04-01

    To understand the current situation of schistosomiasis health education in in Wuxi City where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the health education strategies. Face to face interviews and a professional designed questionnaire were used to collect the information of the current schistosomiasis health education and investigate the awareness of schistosomiasis knowledge in primary and middle schools and in communities. The total awareness rate of schistosomiasis knowledge was 87.7% among 873 students and the figure was 83.0% among 693 community residents. The students who studied in the schools with more than 1 class hour of schistosomiasis health education, completed schistosomiasis health education material or teaching plan, and implementing health education through multiple ways had higher knowledge awareness rates compared with the schools without (χ2 = 291.408, 709.622, 13.751, all P <0.001). The residents living in the communities with schistosomiasis health education through broadcast/TV or square propaganda had a higher knowledge awareness rate compared with the communities without (χ2= 90.772, 47.436, all P < 0.001). The awareness rates of schistosomiasis knowledge among both students and community residents in Wuxi City are low. Therefore, the schistosomiasis control health education should be strengthened.

  20. Social Security Measures for Elderly Population in Delhi, India: Awareness, Utilization and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2017-05-01

    World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.

  1. A Two-Stage Composition Method for Danger-Aware Services Based on Context Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junbo; Cheng, Zixue; Jing, Lei; Ota, Kaoru; Kansen, Mizuo

    Context-aware systems detect user's physical and social contexts based on sensor networks, and provide services that adapt to the user accordingly. Representing, detecting, and managing the contexts are important issues in context-aware systems. Composition of contexts is a useful method for these works, since it can detect a context by automatically composing small pieces of information to discover service. Danger-aware services are a kind of context-aware services which need description of relations between a user and his/her surrounding objects and between users. However when applying the existing composition methods to danger-aware services, they show the following shortcomings that (1) they have not provided an explicit method for representing composition of multi-user' contexts, (2) there is no flexible reasoning mechanism based on similarity of contexts, so that they can just provide services exactly following the predefined context reasoning rules. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a two-stage composition method based on context similarity to solve the above problems. The first stage is composition of the useful information to represent the context for a single user. The second stage is composition of multi-users' contexts to provide services by considering the relation of users. Finally the danger degree of the detected context is computed by using context similarity between the detected context and the predefined context. Context is dynamically represented based on two-stage composition rules and a Situation theory based Ontology, which combines the advantages of Ontology and Situation theory. We implement the system in an indoor ubiquitous environment, and evaluate the system through two experiments with the support of subjects. The experiment results show the method is effective, and the accuracy of danger detection is acceptable to a danger-aware system.

  2. Experimental evaluation of a Critical Thinking Tool to support decision making in crisis situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Eikelboom, A.R.; Dongen, C.J.G. van; Brake, G.M. te

    2005-01-01

    Building up proper situation awareness is one of the most difficult tasks in the beginning stages of large-scale accidents. As ambiguous information about the events becomes available, decision makers are often tempted to quickly choose a particular story to explain the events. Subsequent

  3. Critical Cultural Awareness: Contributions to a Globalizing Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, John Chambers; Wendt, Dennis C.; Marecek, Jeanne; Goodman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The number of psychologists whose work crosses cultural boundaries is increasing. Without a critical awareness of their own cultural grounding, they risk imposing the assumptions, concepts, practices, and values of U.S.-centered psychology on societies where they do not fit, as a brief example from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami shows. Hermeneutic thinkers offer theoretical resources for gaining cultural awareness. Culture, in the hermeneutic view, is the constellation of meanings that constitutes a way of life. Such cultural meanings – especially in the form of folk psychologies and moral visions – inevitably shape every psychology, including U.S. psychology. The insights of hermeneutics, as well as its conceptual resources and research approaches, open the way for psychological knowledge and practice that are more culturally situated. PMID:24841336

  4. Cyberbullying Awareness for Mitigating Consequences in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Alev; Seçkin, Zeliha

    2016-04-28

    Technology has many positive effects on education, but negative effects also exist. One of the negative effects is cyberbullying spreading out of school boundaries to the social networks. The increasing popularity of social media among youngsters engenders cyberbullies who exploit the virtual environment besides the usual emails. This distresses the students and adversely affects their families, teachers, and others around them. Although research studies mainly concentrate on prior education, there seems to be a need to investigate the situation in higher education. This study focuses on students studying technology and related disciplines, who are hence likely to be well connected with cyberspace, and explores their awareness about cyberbullying. The findings reveal that female students have significantly less awareness than males. This study will help address some gender issues in cyberbullying. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. A Method to Design a Multi-Player Educational Scenario to Make Interdisciplinary Teams Experiment Risk Management Situation in a Digital Collaborative Learning Game: A Case of Study in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pons Lelardeux

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest for collaborative training in risk management. One of the critical point is to create educational and entirely controlled training environments that support industrial companies (in aviation, healthcare, nuclear… or hospitals to train (future or not professionals. The aim is to improve their teamwork performance making them understand the importance applying or adjusting safety recommendations. In this article, we present a method to design multi-player educational scenario for risk management in a socio-technical and dynamic context. The socio-technical situations focused in this article involve non-technical skills such as teamwork, communication, leadership, decision-making and situation awareness. The method presented here has been used to design as well regular situations as well as critical situations in which deficiencies already exist or mistakes can be freely made and fixed by the team in a controlled digital environment.

  6. Working situation of cancer survivors versus the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.

  7. Knowledge of thromboprophylaxis guidelines pre- and post-didactic lectures during a venous thromboembolism awareness day at a tertiary-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Cherfan, Antoine; Al-Harbi, Shmylan; Al-Askar, Ahmad; Al-Azzam, Saleh; Hroub, Ahmad; Olivier, Joan; Al-Hameed, Fahad; Al-Moamary, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Mohamed; Poff, Gregory A; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2013-07-01

    Didactic lectures are frequently used to improve compliance with practice guidelines. This study assessed the knowledge of health-care providers (HCPs) at a tertiary-care hospital of its evidence-based thromboprophylaxis guidelines and the impact of didactic lectures on their knowledge. The hospital launched a multifaceted approach to improve thromboprophylaxis practices, which included posters, a pocket-size guidelines summary and didactic lectures during the annual thromboprophylaxis awareness days. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to HCPs before and after lectures on thromboprophylaxis guidelines (June 2010). The questionnaire, formulated and validated by two physicians, two nurses and a clinical pharmacist, covered various subjects such as risk stratification, anticoagulant dosing and the choice of anticoagulants in specific clinical situations. Seventy-two and 63 HCPs submitted the pre- and post-test, respectively (62% physicians, 28% nurses, from different clinical disciplines). The mean scores were 7.8 ± 2.1 (median = 8.0, range = 2-12, maximum possible score = 15) for the pre-test and 8.4 ± 1.8 for the post-test, P = 0.053. There was no significant difference in the pre-test scores of nurses and physicians (7.9 ± 1.7 and 8.2 ± 2.4, respectively, P = 0.67). For the 35 HCPs who completed the pre- and post-tests, their scores were 7.7 ± 1.7 and 8.8 ± 1.6, respectively, P = 0.003. Knowledge of appropriate anticoagulant administration in specific clinical situations was frequently inadequate, with approximately two-thirds of participants failing to adjust low-molecular-weight heparin doses in patients with renal failure. Education via didactic lectures resulted in a modest improvement of HCPs' knowledge of thromboprophylaxis guidelines. This supports the need for a multifaceted approach to improve the awareness and implementation of thromboprophylaxis guidelines.

  8. Leveraging Big Data to Improve Health Awareness Campaigns: A Novel Evaluation of the Great American Smokeout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Westmaas, J Lee; Leas, Eric C; Benton, Adrian; Chen, Yunqi; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Awareness campaigns are ubiquitous, but little is known about their potential effectiveness because traditional evaluations are often unfeasible. For 40 years, the "Great American Smokeout" (GASO) has encouraged media coverage and popular engagement with smoking cessation on the third Thursday of November as the nation's longest running awareness campaign. We proposed a novel evaluation framework for assessing awareness campaigns using the GASO as a case study by observing cessation-related news reports and Twitter postings, and cessation-related help seeking via Google, Wikipedia, and government-sponsored quitlines. Time trends (2009-2014) were analyzed using a quasi-experimental design to isolate spikes during the GASO by comparing observed outcomes on the GASO day with the simulated counterfactual had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related news typically increased by 61% (95% CI 35-87) and tweets by 13% (95% CI -21 to 48) during the GASO compared with what was expected had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related Google searches increased by 25% (95% CI 10-40), Wikipedia page visits by 22% (95% CI -26 to 67), and quitline calls by 42% (95% CI 19-64). Cessation-related news media positively coincided with cessation tweets, Internet searches, and Wikipedia visits; for example, a 50% increase in news for any year predicted a 28% (95% CI -2 to 59) increase in tweets for the same year. Increases on the day of the GASO rivaled about two-thirds of a typical New Year's Day-the day that is assumed to see the greatest increases in cessation-related activity. In practical terms, there were about 61,000 more instances of help seeking on Google, Wikipedia, or quitlines on GASO each year than would normally be expected. These findings provide actionable intelligence to improve the GASO and model how to rapidly, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate hundreds of awareness campaigns, nearly all for the first time.

  9. Young College Students in a Big City: Their Behavior in an Emergency Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegnii, V. N.; Kurbatova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data show that Russian students are becoming more aware of the need to avoid situations that may lead to criminal behavior, and to rely on both themselves and others for help if the need arises. But more students need to learn how to protect themselves against victimization. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. Fight the Power: Situated Learning and Conscientisation in a Gendered Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Joe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I employ situated learning theory to explore gendered processes of marginalisation and conscientisation in a social movement organisation. Using a student activist organisation as a case study, I explain women's awareness of and resistance to masculine performances of leadership and decision-making through the concept of…

  11. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.

    2012-09-01

    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  12. THE FEATURES OF THE RUSSIAN LEGAL AWARENESS AND POLITICAL MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuryukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an article on the broad theoretical material, the author attempts, on the one hand, to understand the modern domestic legal awareness as a phenomenon, identify its characteristics and features, view the contents, and, on the other hand, to draw a conclusion concerning the nature and forms of infl uence of national legal awareness to the political modernization. As a result of an analysis, it is concluded that the national legal awareness is in a state of transition, where inconsistent and sometimes paradoxical mix of traditional national elements, the elements left over from psychology and philosophy "Soviet Man", as well as actively being introduced from the beginning of the 90s XX century elements of the "market mentality", leading to a fair amount of heterogeneity proper sense of justice and situational diff erentiation behavior of citizens, that impossibly difficult to develop a single project of modernization.

  13. Self-Directed Learning: To Be Aware or Not To Be Aware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    Critical incident interviews and questionnaire were used to measure behavior change in 25 business students who engaged in repeated reflections on self-directed change and 20 controls. Both groups improved managerial skills. Those in the reflection group were more aware of their own change but overestimated the extent of it. (Contains 45…

  14. Improving Large-scale Storage System Performance via Topology-aware and Balanced Data Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of big data, the I/O subsystems of large-scale compute clusters are becoming a center of focus, with more applications putting greater demands on end-to-end I/O performance. These subsystems are often complex in design. They comprise of multiple hardware and software layers to cope with the increasing capacity, capability and scalability requirements of data intensive applications. The sharing nature of storage resources and the intrinsic interactions across these layers make it to realize user-level, end-to-end performance gains a great challenge. We propose a topology-aware resource load balancing strategy to improve per-application I/O performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on an extreme-scale compute cluster, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Our experiments with both synthetic benchmarks and a real-world application show that, even under congestion, our proposed algorithm can improve large-scale application I/O performance significantly, resulting in both the reduction of application run times and higher resolution simulation runs.

  15. Improving awareness, accountability, and access through health coaching: qualitative study of patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Irving, Hannah; Nash, Kate; Ward, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    To assess patients' experiences with and perceptions of health coaching as part of their ongoing care. A qualitative research design using semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed verbatim.Setting Ottawa, Ont. Eleven patients (> 18 years of age) enrolled in a health coaching pilot program who were at risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Patients' perspectives were assessed with semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 11 patients at the end of the pilot program, using a stratified sampling approach to ensure maximum variation. All patients found the overall experience with the health coaching program to be positive. Patients believed the health coaching program was effective in increasing awareness of how diabetes affected their bodies and health, in building accountability for their health-related actions, and in improving access to care and other health resources. Patients perceive one-on-one health coaching as an acceptable intervention in their ongoing care. Patients enrolled in the health coaching pilot program believed that there was an improvement in access to care, health literacy, and accountability,all factors considered to be precursors to behavioural change.

  16. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance

    2010-04-01

    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  17. Investigation of Relationship between Level of Awareness around Health, Safety and Environment Management System and Its Effects on Safety Climate and Risk Perception by Employees in an Iran Oil Refinery, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Special attention of and oil, gas and petrochemical large corporation in the world to the HSE management system is due to its importance in the designing and development of products, services and processes by considering its health, safety and environment requirements. Staff's perception of the existing job risks has a significant impact on their safe behavior at work. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between safety climate and staff's perception of risk with an awareness level among employees of the HSE management system in an oil refinery in Kermanshah. The study population was employees in one of the oil refineries in Iran. After designing and questionnaire psychometric assessment of staff knowledge of HSE management system (Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 and its validity was assessed by certified professionals, Loughborough safety climate questionnaire and Flin risk perception questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS V22 software. Results showed that the relationship between safety climate and awareness level of the HSE management system; also the relationship between safety climate and perception of risk was also getting significant. However, the relationship between perception of risk and awareness level of the HSE management system was not significant. The results of this study showed a moderate awareness of HSE Management System in refinery workers. In this regard, appropriate and proper management policy should be committed to improving the situation. The results of this study is a profile the situation of safety climate in the refinery, which can be used as an indicator for the development of preventive policies and evaluate the performance of the organization's safety and the results of the safety improvement organization.

  18. Audience awareness and use of Mobile Authentication Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audience awareness and use of Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) in identifying fake and substandard drugs in Nigeria. ... Based on the research findings, this study therefore recommends an increased level of awareness through a multi-media approach, improved network services, as well as getting all drug ...

  19. A Hilbert Space Geometric Representation of Shared Awareness and Joint Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Two people in the same situation may ascribe very different meanings to their experiences. They will form different awareness, reacting differently to shared information. Various factors can give rise to this behavior. These factors include, but are not limited to, prior knowledge, training, biases, cultural factors, social factors, team vs.…

  20. Communication, Coordination and Awareness around Continuous Location Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schildt, Emily; Leinfors, Martin; Barkhuus, Louise

    2016-01-01

    A core aspect of collaboration tools is the sharing of awareness cues, such as availability and location information, often with the purpose of more efficient collaboration and communication between individuals. In this paper, we present a user study of a continuous location-sharing application...... lives. We studied a location sharing service among people in less hierarchical types of relationships than previous studies and found that sharing concerns were based in the participants ‘thinking’ and imagination of potential situations rather than in actual situations. Our findings highlight how...... people’s understanding of location-tracking technologies is transitional and how it includes a constant re-negotiation of appropriate services and applications for everyday social management. We conclude that map-based continuous location sharing has significant utility among tight-knit dyads....

  1. Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

  2. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  3. Students Awareness towards Traditional Cultural Dances in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R. Albattat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has many ethnic groups, and each ethnic group has own custom and tradition that most Malaysians are not aware, especially traditional dances. Among the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, situated in the Borneo Island have the most diverse ethnic groups in Sarawak. It has more than 30 ethnic groups. Each of the ethnic groups has its own language, cultures and lifestyle. In this regards, this research focuses on the main ethnic groups of Sarawak which are Orang Ulu, Malays, Melanau, Bidayuh, Chinese and Ibans. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of awareness among the Management and Science University (MSU students regarding their level of awareness and knowledge about traditional dances of Sarawak. The data were gathered by distributing questionnaires among MSU students. The data were then analysed using SPSS system version 18.0. Results concluded that, most of MSU students have limited knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. Interests, internet, performing arts clubs and family background are the independent variable factors to learn and gain knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. The level of awareness among MSU students towards Sarawak traditional dances can be enhanced through events and special occasions to increase level of awareness towards Sarawak cultures. The government plays a major role in introducing Sarawak cultures to the whole of Malaysia. Future studies could focus on factors that influence the level of awareness towards Sarawak traditional dances, and the contribution of Sarawak’s traditional dances to Malaysia’s cultural and heritage tourism.

  4. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  5. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The expert mind has its value: for example, Pasteur argued that “in the fields of observation chance favours only the prepared mind” 1. Garrett...and listen intently. Avoid lumping details together or attempting to normalize an unexpected event in order to preserve a preconceived expectation

  6. Functional brain imaging study on brain processes involved in visual awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Futakawa, Hiroyuki; Tokita, Shohko; Jung, Jiuk

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in visual awareness because it is thought that it may provide valuable information in understanding aspects of consciousness. An important but still controversial issue is what region in the brain is involved in visual awareness. When viewing ambiguous figures, observers can be aware of only one of multiple competing percepts at any given moment, but experience spontaneous alternations among the percepts over time. This phenomenon is known as multistable perceptions and thought to be essential in understanding the brain processes involved in visual awareness. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain activities associated with multistable perceptions. Two separate experiments were performed based on two different multistable phenomena known as binocular rivalry and perceptions of ambiguous figures. Significant differential activations in the parietal and prefrontal areas were commonly observed under multistable conditions compared to monostable control conditions in the two separate experiments. These findings suggest that neural processes in the parietal and prefrontal areas may be involved in perceptual alternations in situations involving multistable phenomena. (author)

  7. [Analysis of the current situation the oral medical interns' awareness on occupation safety behavior in college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Song; Yu, Wang; Rongrong, He; Ying, Xu

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine the awareness oral medical interns about occupation safety protection of knowledge and to present a scientific basis for perfecting the occupation safety education system and standard protection behavior. A self-designed questionnaire that used a retrospective questionnaire survey on 425 stomatological interns, scoring, and statistical analysis of the survey were performed. The questionnaire included occupation safety prevention knowledge, behavior cognitive, and protective behavior, among others. The questionnaire recovery rate was 100%, and the average scores of the prevention knowledge and behavior cognitive were 4.55 ± 0.91 and 4.40 ± 1.05, respectively. More than 90% interns can conduct the conventional protection, and less than 40% can perform special protection. For the item "occupation safety protection knowledge", the scores of three grade III hospitals were higher than that of stomatological hospitals and second level of first-class hospitals; the difference was statistically significant (P safety protection knowledge, behavioral cognitive, and protection behavior. The average score was higher for than for boys in the three contents, and the average score of interns accepting pre-job training was higher than those rejected; the difference was statistically significant (P safety knowledge of oral medical interns is not sufficient, and the protective behavior is poor. Schools and hospitals should strengthen the intern occupation safety and protection education and improve the status of occupation safety behavior.

  8. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  9. STRESSFUL SITUATIONS IN TEACHING PROFESSION – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Romanowska-Tołłoczko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Determination which areas of teacher’s work are primary sources of stress, denomination of the extent to which disciplinary problems with students were stress inducing, and what was the frequency and intensity of these situations. Material and methods. The study involved 180 teachers from junior high schools, among which two groups were selected: physical education teachers (74 persons and teachers of other subjects (106 persons. The reason for this division was the necessity of identifying the groups of teachers differing in specifics of school subjects, studies which they graduated from, and determine the typical areas of difficulty experienced. The research was based on a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire. Results . Teaching profession is considered as psychologically challenging occupation due to numerous occurrences of stressful situations. Yet it is not equally aggravating for everyone – there are well-functioning teachers who cope easily, but on the other hand, there are cases of serious psychosomatic consequences caused by frequent and prolonged pressures. Abilities of dealing with difficult situations largely depend upon one’s individual predispositions, resistance to stress, way of assessing a situation and resulting type of action. Conclusions . The ability (or lack of it of coping with range of educational activities may determine the intensity of experienced difficulties, and therefore the frequency of occurring stressful situations. Lack of skills in the area of interpersonal relations translates to inability to coping with problematic situations with pupils. This leads the teacher to awareness of own inefficiency and helplessness, which increases the intensity of experienced stress.

  10. Awareness of Cancer Susceptibility Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Phuong L.; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S.; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. Purpose To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Methods The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000–2005 and 2005–2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Results Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (pAwareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (p-interaction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (p-interaction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25–39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Conclusions Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. PMID:24745633

  11. Reflecting Equity and Diversity. Part I: Guidelines and Procedure for Evaluating Bias in Instructional Materials. Part II: Bias Awareness Training Worksheets. Part III: Bias Awareness and Procedure Training Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebermeyer, Jim; Edmond, Mary, Ed.

    Reflecting a need to prepare students for working in diverse organizations, this document was developed to increase school officials' awareness of bias in instructional materials and help them select bias-free materials. A number of the examples illustrate situations dealing with diversity in the workplace. The guide is divided into three parts:…

  12. Comparison of the effects of storytelling and creative drama methods on children's awareness about personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Hemmati, Soheila; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hassan; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining and improving the health situation of children requires them to become more aware about personal hygiene through proper education. Based on several studies, teachings provided through informal methods are fully understandable for children. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the effects of creative drama and storytelling education methods on increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene. This is an applied study conducted using semiempirical method in two groups. The study population consisted of 85 children participating in 4 th center for Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in Isfahan, 40 of which were randomly selected and placed in storytelling and creative drama groups with 20 members each. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire created by the researchers whose content validity was confirmed by health education experts. The gathered information were analyzed using both descriptive (average and standard deviation) and analytical (independent t -test and paired t -test) statistical methods. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the awareness score of both groups before and after intervention. The average awareness score of storytelling group was increased from 50.69 to 86.83 while the average score of creative drama group was increased from 57.37 to 85.09. Furthermore, according to paired t -test results, there was no significant difference between average scores of storytelling and creative drama groups. The results of the current study showed that although both storytelling and creative drama methods are effective in increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene, there is no significant difference between the two methods.

  13. Improving Knowledge, Awareness, and Use of Flexible Career Policies through an Accelerator Intervention at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Amparo C.; Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia P.

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of balancing a career and family life disproportionately affect women in academic health sciences and medicine, contributing to their slower career advancement and/or their attrition from academia. In this article, the authors first describe their experiences at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine developing and implementing an innovative accelerator intervention designed to promote faculty work-life balance by improving knowledge, awareness, and access to comprehensive flexible career policies. They then summarize the results of two faculty surveys--one conducted before the implementation of their intervention and the second conducted one year into their three-year intervention--designed to assess faculty’s use and intention to use the flexible career policies, their awareness of available options, barriers to their use of the policies, and their career satisfaction. The authors found that the intervention significantly increased awareness of the policies and attendance at related educational activities, improved attitudes toward the policies, and decreased perceived barriers to use. These results however were most pronounced for female faculty and faculty under the age of 50. The authors next discuss areas for future research on faculty use of flexible career policies and offer recommendations for other institutions of higher education, not just those in academic medicine, interested in implementing a similar intervention. They conclude that having flexible career policies alone is not enough to stem the attrition of female faculty. Such policies must be fully integrated into an institution’s culture such that faculty are both aware of them and willing to use them. PMID:23619063

  14. Improving knowledge, awareness, and use of flexible career policies through an accelerator intervention at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Amparo C; Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia P

    2013-06-01

    The challenges of balancing a career and family life disproportionately affect women in academic health sciences and medicine, contributing to their slower career advancement and/or their attrition from academia. In this article, the authors first describe their experiences at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine developing and implementing an innovative accelerator intervention designed to promote faculty work-life balance by improving knowledge, awareness, and access to comprehensive flexible career policies. They then summarize the results of two faculty surveys--one conducted before the implementation of their intervention and the second conducted one year into their three-year intervention--designed to assess faculty's use and intention to use the flexible career policies, their awareness of available options, barriers to their use of the policies, and their career satisfaction. The authors found that the intervention significantly increased awareness of the policies and attendance at related educational activities, improved attitudes toward the policies, and decreased perceived barriers to use. These results, however, were most pronounced for female faculty and faculty under the age of 50. The authors next discuss areas for future research on faculty use of flexible career policies and offer recommendations for other institutions of higher education--not just those in academic medicine--interested in implementing a similar intervention. They conclude that having flexible career policies alone is not enough to stem the attrition of female faculty. Such policies must be fully integrated into an institution's culture such that faculty are both aware of them and willing to use them.

  15. Level of awareness and knowledge of breast cancer in Nigeria. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite reports of improved awareness of breast cancer entity and seemingly upbeat levels of other awareness subthemes in Nigeria, patients continue to present late when treatment is least rewarding. This paradoxical trend of both rising awareness and late presentation coupled with reports suggesting other ...

  16. Interpersonal Privacy Management in Distributed Collaboration: Situational Characteristics and Interpretive Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sameer; Kobsa, Alfred; John, Ajita; Brotman, Lynne S.; Seligmann, Doree

    To understand how collaborators reconcile the often conflicting needs of awareness and privacy, we studied a large software development project in a multinational corporation involving individuals at sites in the U.S. and India. We present a theoretical framework describing privacy management practices and their determinants that emerged from field visits, interviews, and questionnaire responses. The framework identifies five relevant situational characteristics: issue(s) under consideration, physical place(s) involved in interaction(s), temporal aspects, affordances and limitations presented by technology, and nature of relationships among parties. Each actor, in turn, interprets the situation based on several simultaneous influences: self, team, work site, organization, and cultural environment. This interpretation guides privacy management action(s). Past actions form a feedback loop refining and/or reinforcing the interpretive influences. The framework suggests that effective support for privacy management will require that designers follow a socio-technical approach incorporating a wider scope of situational and interpretive differences.

  17. Update on the nutrition situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J; Garcia, M

    1995-01-01

    The Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1994 was published in early 1995 by the United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition. Thus, data available at the country level about estimates of the nutritional situation now provide trends of prevalences of underweight children in 35 countries for the 1990s. In Sub-Saharan Africa recent deterioration has occurred as a result of the general worsening of nutrition in Africa. However, in the Near East, North Africa, and South America the generally improving trends of the 1980s seem to be continuing with the likelihood of reaching the prevalences of the developed countries by the year 2000. A surveillance system in Bangladesh indicates improvement from 1990 to 1993; however, India data for 1991/92 indicate deterioration in 3 states and no significant change in 4, possibly connected the economic slowdown in the early 1990s. In many countries of southeast Asia, China, Middle America and the Caribbean, South America, the Near East and North Africa the improvement of rates could result in halving the prevalences of underweight children. The gross domestic product (GDP) is an important indicator of nutritional performance. During 1985-92 in Sub-Saharan Africa GDP declined by 0.8% and consequently the nutritional situation also deteriorated. In other areas of the world the GDP growth rates improved after 1990 and the underweight trends in the early 1990s were generally similar to those of the late 1980s. The nutritional improvement outside Sub-Saharan Africa and possibly India continued in the early 1990s. Rapid economic growth was associated with improving nutrition in Thailand and Vietnam in the 1980s and also to a smaller extent for Indonesia and China. Faster than average improvement is plausible for Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe. Deteriorating cases are Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Rwanda. Economic growth, health, education, and community-based nutrition programs all contribute to improving nutrition.

  18. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Snisar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take

  19. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  20. Multi-perspective workflow modeling for online surgical situation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Stefan; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Surgical workflow management is expected to enable situation-aware adaptation and intelligent systems behavior in an integrated operating room (OR). The overall aim is to unburden the surgeon and OR staff from both manual maintenance and information seeking tasks. A major step toward intelligent systems behavior is a stable classification of the surgical situation from multiple perspectives based on performed low-level tasks. The present work proposes a method for the classification of surgical situations based on multi-perspective workflow modeling. A model network that interconnects different types of surgical process models is described. Various aspects of a surgical situation description were considered: low-level tasks, high-level tasks, patient status, and the use of medical devices. A study with sixty neurosurgical interventions was conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach and its robustness against incomplete workflow recognition input. A correct classification rate of over 90% was measured for high-level tasks and patient status. The device usage models for navigation and neurophysiology classified over 95% of the situations correctly, whereas the ultrasound usage was more difficult to predict. Overall, the classification rate decreased with an increasing level of input distortion. Autonomous adaptation of medical devices and intelligent systems behavior do not currently depend solely on low-level tasks. Instead, they require a more general type of understanding of the surgical condition. The integration of various surgical process models in a network provided a comprehensive representation of the interventions and allowed for the generation of extensive situation descriptions. Multi-perspective surgical workflow modeling and online situation models will be a significant pre-requisite for reliable and intelligent systems behavior. Hence, they will contribute to a cooperative OR environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient Awareness and Expectations of Pharmacist Services During Hospital Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philip K; Martin, Steven J; Betka, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    There are insufficient data in the United States regarding patient awareness and expectations of hospital pharmacist availability and services. The objective of this research is to assess patient awareness and expectations of hospital pharmacist services and to determine whether a marketing campaign for pharmacist services increases patient awareness and expectations. Eligible inpatients were surveyed before and after implementation of a hospital-wide pharmacist services marketing campaign (12 items; Likert scale of 1 [strongly disagree] to 4 [strongly agree]; maximum total score of 48) regarding awareness of pharmacist services. The primary outcome was the change in median total survey scores from baseline. Other outcomes included the frequency of patient requests for pharmacists. Similar numbers of patients completed the survey before and after the campaign (intervention, n = 140, vs control, n = 147). Awareness of pharmacist availability and services was increased (41 [interquartile ranges, IQRs: 36-46] vs 37 [IQR 31-43]; P marketing campaign implementation. Awareness among inpatients of pharmacist services is low. Marketing pharmacist availability and services to patients in the hospital improves awareness and expectations for pharmacist-provided care and increases the frequency of patient-initiated interaction between pharmacists and patients. This could improve patient outcomes as pharmacists become more integrally involved in direct patient care.

  2. On the Development of Cultural Awareness in Business English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楹

    2008-01-01

    Business English teaching is inseparable from culture teaching. Cultural awareness is of great importance in English teaching and learning. In order to improve students' communicative ability in business, we should attach importance to develop students' cultural awareness.

  3. Context-Aware Integrability and Maintainability of Cyber-Physical Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomlein, Matus

    2018-01-01

    -users. This work proposes tactics that utilize context-awareness of industrial systems, domain knowledge codified by domain experts or collected from previous experience and reasoning using rules and machine learning. The tactics provide novel approaches in order to achieve and optimize the two quality attributes...... physical processes. This development provides completely new opportunities for developing industrial ecosystems. A paradigm shift can be made from a situation where development of customized systems requires deep ties between organizations or dedicated hardware components to a situation where customized...... focuses on common maintenance operations and enables reuse of trained models for activity recognition using “transfer learning” to retain the ability to recognize usage and maintenance activities when the sensed context changes due to the maintenance operations. The tools were developed with feedback from...

  4. Strengthening rehabilitation services in Indonesia: A brief situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Setyono, Garry Rahardian; Defi, Irma Ruslina; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2018-04-18

    People with disability (PWD) in Indonesia are often neglected by society. Improving their life situation towards full participation in society is crucial. As a health strategy, rehabilitation can improve func-tioning, quality of life and participation in society. However, rehabilitation services in Indonesia need improvement. Making a situation analysis of rehabilitation services and their provision in the country is a pre-requisite to taking any action towards improvement. This paper compiles available data related to disability and rehabilitation services in Indonesia, using the Rehabilitation Services Assessment Tool (RSAT) as a framework. Gaps in provision were analysed, resulting in the compilation of a list of generic recommendations to improve rehabilitation services in the country. Indonesia faces many challenges in rehabilitation services, including the health workforce and the provision of services. This situation analysis and list of generic recommendations may be used in further discussions with relevant stakeholders in the country to develop a national strategy to strengthen rehabilitation services.

  5. Future needs for improvement of noise-induced hearing loss awareness training and hearing protection device practices in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ) in order to identify the future needs of the industry with regards to improvement of NIHL awareness training to target audiences in the mining industry. This paper outlines the results of the study that interviewed 143 employees from a wide range...

  6. 'What the hell is water?' How to use deliberate clinical inertia in common emergency department situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Cullen, Louise; Keijzers, Gerben; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2018-06-01

    Appropriate deliberate clinical inertia refers to the art of doing nothing as a positive clinical response. It includes shared decision-making to improve patient care with the use of clinical judgement. We discuss common clinical scenarios where the use of deliberate clinical inertia can occur. The insertion of peripheral intravenous cannulae, investigating patients with suspected renal colic and the investigation of low risk chest pain are all opportunities for the thoughtful clinician to 'stand there' and use effective patient communication to avoid low value tests and procedures. Awareness is key to identifying these opportunities to practice deliberate clinical inertia, as many of the situations may be so much a part of our environment that they are hidden in plain view. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. ETHNIC SELF-AWARENESS OF RUSSIANS IN THE DISCOURSE OF REGIONAL ELITES (THE CASE STUDY OF KRASNODAR TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Vladimirovna Kruglik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines theoretical and methodological approaches to the problem of ethnic self-awareness. The purpose of the study is to analyze the concept and main methods of research into ethnic self-awareness of Russian people in the discourse of regional elites. In the paper the author outlines the views of psychologists and sociologists on the problem in question. Besides, it is particularly stressed that while studying ethnic awareness, it is necessary to analyze all the factors that influence its formation. The problem of national awareness determination has acquired great importance due to the current ethno-cultural processes. Ethnic self-awareness of Russian people in the regional elite discourse requires a discourse analysis of media texts and media talks of elite representatives in Krasnodar Territory. The official discourse of regional elites includes ideologemes that are strongly influenced by the situation in Ukraine. The conclusions of the study may be useful in further research into formation of Russian ethnic self-awareness in the modern world.

  8. Shift in power during an interview situation: methodological reflections inspired by Foucault and Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents methodological reflections on power sharing and shifts of power in various interview situations. Narratives are said to be shaped by our attempts to position ourselves within social and cultural circumstances. In an interview situation, power can be seen as something that is created and that shifts between the interviewer and the interviewed. Reflexivity is involved when we as interviewers attempt to look at a situation or a concept from various perspectives. A modified form of discourse analysis inspired by subject positioning was used to reflect on power relations in four different interview situations. The analyses indicate that reflection on the power relations can lead to other forms of understanding of the interviewee. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that power relations are created within an interview situation and therefore it is important to be aware of dominant perspectives. Researchers and nurses face the challenge of constantly raising their level of consciousness about power relationships, and discursive reflexivity is one way of doing this. Thus, reflexivity is an important part of the qualitative research process.

  9. On the Modelling of Context-Aware Security for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zurek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security management in wireless networks has to deal with the changing character of the environment, which can further lead to decision making problem for unexpected events. Among a huge list of devices, the mobile ones are especially vulnerable to this situation. The solution for adapting systems and applications to dynamic environments can be context-aware description of the user actions, which gives a possibility to take into account the factors that influence these actions. In the article, we propose a context-aware security adjusting model, which is based on proposition logic and incorporates mechanisms that assist in the reasoning process. The main benefits that differentiate our approach from similar ones are a formal representation of the model, the usage of the whole spectrum of context attributes, the detection and analysis of contextual data integrity, and conflicting rules’ eradication capability. All these traits transcribe into a more effective way of adjusting security measures in accordance with existing circumstances. To illustrate the proposed approach, we present the case study of context-aware security management for mobile devices.

  10. Emergent future situation awareness: a temporal probabilistic reasoning in the absence of domain experts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ). The treatment records from the behavior of a diabetes patient were captured electronically as MTS. It contains several treatment measurement codes such as 33 (regular insulin dose), 48 (unspecified blood glucose), etc. It is expected here to predict treatment... measurements required in future for the patient based on the historical behavioral patterns. For instance, equation (6) below is a situation which predicts how much of the minimum (about 7 units) measurement of regular insulin dose will be required...

  11. Content-aware automatic cropping for consumer photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Tretter, Daniel; Lin, Qian

    2013-03-01

    Consumer photos are typically authored once, but need to be retargeted for reuse in various situations. These include printing a photo on different size paper, changing the size and aspect ratio of an embedded photo to accommodate the dynamic content layout of web pages or documents, adapting a large photo for browsing on small displays such as mobile phone screens, and improving the aesthetic quality of a photo that was badly composed at the capture time. In this paper, we propose a novel, effective, and comprehensive content-aware automatic cropping (hereafter referred to as "autocrop") method for consumer photos to achieve the above purposes. Our autocrop method combines the state-of-the-art context-aware saliency detection algorithm, which aims to infer the likely intent of the photographer, and the "branch-and-bound" efficient subwindow search optimization technique, which seeks to locate the globally optimal cropping rectangle in a fast manner. Unlike most current autocrop methods, which can only crop a photo into an arbitrary rectangle, our autocrop method can automatically crop a photo into either a rectangle of arbitrary dimensions or a rectangle of the desired aspect ratio specified by the user. The aggressiveness of the cropping operation may be either automatically determined by the method or manually indicated by the user with ease. In addition, our autocrop method is extended to support the cropping of a photo into non-rectangular shapes such as polygons of any number of sides. It may also be potentially extended to return multiple cropping suggestions, which will enable the creation of new photos to enrich the original photo collections. Our experimental results show that the proposed autocrop method in this paper can generate high-quality crops for consumer photos of various types.

  12. Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotou, Nikolaos; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been much research in the area of students’ misconceptions. Whilst this research has been useful in helping to inform the design of instructional approaches and curriculum development it has not provided much insight into how students reason when presented with a novel situation and, in particular, the knowledge they draw upon in an attempt to make predictions about that novel situation. This article reports on a study of Greek students, aged from 10 to 17 years old, who were asked to make predictions in novel situations and to then provide, without being told whether their predictions were correct or incorrect, explanations about their predictions. Indeed, their explanations in such novel situations have the potential to reveal how their ideas, as articulated as predictions, are formed as well as the sources they draw upon to make those predictions. We also consider in this article the extent to which student ideas can be seen either as theory-like misconceptions or, alternatively, as situated acts of construction involving the activation of fragmented pieces of knowledge referred to as phenomenological primitives (p-prims). Our findings suggest that in most cases students’ reasoning in novel situations can be better understood in terms of their use of p-prims and that teaching might be made more effective if teachers were more aware of the p-prims that students were likely to be using when presented with new situations in physics.

  13. The effect of storytelling on self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Phil. (Personal and Professional Leadership) People are storytelling beings and storytelling has been associated with improved self-awareness. It has also been indicated as a way to uncover patterns of culture, behaviour, communication, the sharing of knowledge, and understanding in different ways. If storytelling has such value, why is there so relatively little research on the effect of storytelling on self-awareness that could, in turn, lead to the development of personal mastery on l...

  14. Assessing V and V Processes for Automation with Respect to Vulnerabilities to Loss of Airplane State Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Stephen; Wilkinson, Chris; Hamblin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Automation has contributed substantially to the sustained improvement of aviation safety by minimizing the physical workload of the pilot and increasing operational efficiency. Nevertheless, in complex and highly automated aircraft, automation also has unintended consequences. As systems become more complex and the authority and autonomy (A&A) of the automation increases, human operators become relegated to the role of a system supervisor or administrator, a passive role not conducive to maintaining engagement and airplane state awareness (ASA). The consequence is that flight crews can often come to over rely on the automation, become less engaged in the human-machine interaction, and lose awareness of the automation mode under which the aircraft is operating. Likewise, the complexity of the system and automation modes may lead to poor understanding of the interaction between a mode of automation and a particular system configuration or phase of flight. These and other examples of mode confusion often lead to mismanaging the aircraftâ€"TM"s energy state or the aircraft deviating from the intended flight path. This report examines methods for assessing whether, and how, operational constructs properly assign authority and autonomy in a safe and coordinated manner, with particular emphasis on assuring adequate airplane state awareness by the flight crew and air traffic controllers in off-nominal and/or complex situations.

  15. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, R.; Indrasari, S.R.; Herdini, C.; Martini, S.; Isfandiari, A.; Romdhoni, A.C.; Adham, M.; Mayangsari, I.D.; van Werkhoven, E.; Wildeman, M.A.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Hermani, B.; Kentjono, W.A.; Haryana, S.M.; Schmidt, M.K.; Tan, I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. Design: The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12

  16. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Martini, Santi; Isfandiari, Atoillah; Romdhoni, Achmad C.; Adham, Marlinda; Mayangsari, Ika D.; van Werkhoven, Erik; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Hermani, Bambang; Kentjono, Widodo A.; Haryana, Sofia M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tan, I. Bing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12 symposia including a

  17. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  18. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  19. Improving social awareness through thought bubbles and flashbacks of virtual characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Johannes Maria; Theune, Mariet; de Groot, Thomas; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Broekens, Joost; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We present two prototypes of a serious game which is a aimed at raising police officers’ awareness of social stance during street interventions by letting them interact with virtual characters. We discuss the design, implementation and evaluation of a method of feedback on the police officers’ game

  20. Self-recognition, theory-of-mind, and self-awareness: what side are you on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alain

    2011-05-01

    A fashionable view in comparative psychology states that primates possess self-awareness because they exhibit mirror self-recognition (MSR), which in turn makes it possible to infer mental states in others ("theory-of-mind"; ToM). In cognitive neuroscience, an increasingly popular position holds that the right hemisphere represents the centre of self-awareness because MSR and ToM tasks presumably increase activity in that hemisphere. These two claims are critically assessed here as follows: (1) MSR should not be equated with full-blown self-awareness, as it most probably only requires kinaesthetic self-knowledge and does not involve access to one's mental events; (2) ToM and self-awareness are fairly independent and should also not be taken as equivalent notions; (3) MSR and ToM tasks engage medial and left brain areas; (4) other self-awareness tasks besides MSR and ToM tasks (e.g., self-description, autobiography) mostly recruit medial and left brain areas; (5) and recent neuropsychological evidence implies that inner speech (produced by the left hemisphere) plays a significant role in self-referential activity. The main conclusions reached based on this analysis are that (a) organisms that display MSR most probably do not possess introspective self-awareness, and (b) self-related processes most likely engage a distributed network of brain regions situated in both hemispheres.

  1. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness of diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Steven T; Tan, Andrew K G; Mustapha, Feisul I

    2017-09-01

    Policy interventions for cardiovascular diseases require individual awareness of ailments. Such awareness is also key to individuals making changes to their lifestyle and dietary habits. The present study investigated the association of sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors with the awareness and prevalence of three ailments: diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. Logistic regressions were estimated and odds ratios of exposure variables calculated. Diabetes awareness was associated with work hours, age, family history of illnesses, and ethnicity. Individuals with diminished hypertension awareness included those who were younger, without family history of illnesses, not obese, working more hours, and not adhering to a healthy diet. Low awareness of hypercholesterolemia was associated with younger age, lower education level, living in rural areas, female gender, no family history of illnesses, non-obesity, and minority ethnic background. Prevalence generally had the same pattern of association with the exposure variables. Various sociodemographic and health and lifestyle characteristics were associated with diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia awareness in Malaysia, albeit with varying outcomes. Therefore, programs focusing on lifestyle improvements should be targeted at high-risk subgroups, such as individuals working longer hours and young adults, who are less likely to be aware of their health risk factors. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Quick start users guide for the PATH/AWARE decision support system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Melton, Brad J; Einfeld, Wayne; Tucker, Mark D; Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.

    2013-06-01

    The Prioritization Analysis Tool for All-Hazards/Analyzer for Wide Area Restoration Effectiveness (PATH/AWARE) software system, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a comprehensive decision support tool designed to analyze situational awareness, as well as response and recovery actions, following a wide-area release of chemical, biological or radiological materials. The system provides capability to prioritize critical infrastructure assets and services for restoration. It also provides a capability to assess resource needs (e.g., number of sampling teams, laboratory capacity, decontamination units, etc.), timelines for consequence management activities, and costs. PATH/AWARE is a very comprehensive tool set with a considerable amount of database information managed through a Microsoft SQL (Structured Query Language) database engine, a Geographical Information System (GIS) engine that provides comprehensive mapping capabilities, as well as comprehensive decision logic to carry out the functional aspects of the tool set. This document covers the basic installation and operation of the PATH/AWARE tool in order to give the user enough information to start using the tool. A companion users manual is under development with greater specificity of the PATH/AWARE functionality.

  4. Self-monitoring without awareness: using mimicry as a nonconscious affiliation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Clara Michelle; Chartrand, Tanya L

    2003-12-01

    This research sought to extend the current conceptualization of self-monitoring by examining whether self-monitoring motives and behaviors can operate outside of conscious awareness. Two studies examined nonconscious mimicry among high and low self-monitors in situations varying in affiliative cues. Participants interacted with a confederate who shook her foot (Study 1) or touched her face (Study 2). In both studies, high self-monitors were more likely to mimic the confederate's subtle gestures when they believed the confederate to be a peer (Study 1) or someone superior to them (Study 2). Low self-monitors mimicked to the same degree across conditions. Thus, when the situation contains affiliative cues, high self-monitors use mimicry as a nonconscious strategy to get along with their interaction partner.

  5. Using 3D and information visualisation to improve perception and facilitate situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available environment simulations. The library makes use of open source building blocks and is itself moving towards a Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL). Online or offline simulation traces are used to populate a virtual environment similar to Google Earth with 3D...

  6. Older Drivers' Reasons for Reducing the Overall Amount of Their Driving and for Avoiding Selected Driving Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    that the reduction in driving and avoidance of driving situations are separate types of self-regulatory behavior; that self-regulation of driving is an automatic process, in which older drivers are not aware that they are compensating for functional loss; and that it is important to acknowledge gender differences......Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 840 older drivers to explore their reasons for self-regulating their driving. The main reason for reduced driving was having fewer activities to drive to, and for avoidance of driving situations, reasons also included not liking or feeling...

  7. [Current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Jia; Cui, Rui; Zhan, Bi-Yu; Liao, Cai-Yan; Cao, Qi-Hua; Li, Gui-Lan; Guo, Yi

    2012-09-01

    The current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in the Taiwan region is introduced in this paper from the three aspects, named the development state of standard of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan, the implementation of Taiwan district standard and the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan. At present, the relevant standards of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan just include the standard operation procedure of acupuncture and moxibustion, the reference guideline of the safe operation in the medical service centers of traditional Chinese medicine, and the faculty standard of Chinese medicine hospital, etc. It is concluded that the current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibusiton presented the weak awareness of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in the industry, insufficient enterprise standard, less-quantity of the implemented standards and narrow coverage.

  8. HUNGARIAN AND ROMANIAN COMPANIES FINANCIAL AND LIQUIDITY SITUATION IN THE LIGHT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Emese Zsido

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the companies has changed in the last 5-6 years: they became cautious and suspicious about partners and other economic actors. This is a direct consequence of the large number of insolvent and liquidated companies, and other effects of the economic and financial crisis. The impaired financing options, the sharp fall of sales caused difficulties for companies. In general, the financial and liquidity situation of the companies is getting worse, so new financial policies are needed. To make the financial activities efficient, it is indispensable that the policy makers are aware of the real financial and liquidity situation of their own companies. But, in order to conduct successful business relationships, enterprises need to be aware of the financial situation of their partners as well. Intensified trade relations between the EU member states will require these companies to learn more about financial and liquidity situations. This present paper examines two countries, namely, a Hungarian and a Romanian region’s commercial companies financial and liquidity situations of the 2010-2012 periods. The article presents the subject both from theoretical and practical data aspects too. Based on the available e-data reports, the investigation starts with the net working capital’s examination. The working capital management has a crucial role in their financing policies. The size of the net working capital affects the degree of financial policy’s flexibility. The negative net working capital calls the attention for financial problems. The study continues with the calculation of traditional liquidity ratios, which may also reflect the liquidity situation of the companies. It is recommended not to accept the results of these indicators without calculating any other liquidity ratios. These indicators show an actual situation, so they can distort reality (positive or negative. Other indicators and methods are needed to assess the real

  9. Public awareness hypertension: findings of a kidney day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.M.A.; Saeed, T.; Awan, S.R.; Ahmad, M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of hypertension, its associated life style factors and to explore the level of awareness about hypertension among adult populace attending the kidney day and to formulate the strategies to improve the awareness. A total of one hundred participants were interviewed. The structured questionnaire was filled at the spot to obtain socio demographic information after taking verbal informed consent. Height, weight, pulse, blood pressure were recorded. A total of one hundred participants were interviewed. Overall frequency of hypertension in the study population was twenty five percent (25%). The prevalence of hypertension increased with increasing age and body mass index. Only thirty five percent (35%) could define hypertension and this awareness was significantly associated with educational level. Lack of physical activity, card playing and televisionization was observed in sixty percent of participants while thirty three percent were overweight. Fifty nine percent were using additional salt while seventy percent were having meals and snacks outside. High frequency of hypertension, obesity, lack of physical activity, unhealthy nutrition, and faulty dietary habits was observed in the study population. Emphasis on health education and use of electronic and print media is recommended to improve the public awareness about the risk factors and consequences of hypertension like stroke, heart attack, kidney failure etc. (author)

  10. Neurochemical enhancement of conscious error awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Nandam, L Sanjay; O'Connell, Redmond G; Wagner, Joe; Strudwick, Mark; Nathan, Pradeep J; Mattingley, Jason B; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2012-02-22

    How the brain monitors ongoing behavior for performance errors is a central question of cognitive neuroscience. Diminished awareness of performance errors limits the extent to which humans engage in corrective behavior and has been linked to loss of insight in a number of psychiatric syndromes (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction). These conditions share alterations in monoamine signaling that may influence the neural mechanisms underlying error processing, but our understanding of the neurochemical drivers of these processes is limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design of the influence of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and citalopram on error awareness in 27 healthy participants. The error awareness task, a go/no-go response inhibition paradigm, was administered to assess the influence of monoaminergic agents on performance errors during fMRI data acquisition. A single dose of methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine or citalopram, significantly improved the ability of healthy volunteers to consciously detect performance errors. Furthermore, this behavioral effect was associated with a strengthening of activation differences in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobe during the methylphenidate condition for errors made with versus without awareness. Our results have implications for the understanding of the neurochemical underpinnings of performance monitoring and for the pharmacological treatment of a range of disparate clinical conditions that are marked by poor awareness of errors.

  11. Mounting dengue awareness: A cost effective Strategy for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is a serious illness which takes toll on human health every year. The best way to prevent it is by increasing awareness among common people. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in people urban heath training centre in Pune, Maharashtra. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending OPD of Urban heath training centre of department of community medicine, Pune situated in Ajmera, Pimpri, Pune. Through convenience sampling, a questionnaire was administered to patients after taking their informed consent. Results: A total of 100 patients were interviewed. Among knowledge 83% had heard about dengue and the most common source of information was TV & radio (72.3% Most of them were aware regarding mosquito bite being the mode of dengue transmission (80.7%. 22% were unaware regarding biting time of mosquito while 22% said night is the biting time of dengue mosquito. 62.7% were using coils for mosquito bite prevention followed by mosquito net (43.4% and spray (31.3%.. Conclusion: This study revealed that most of the study population is aware of dengue illness and increasing education level is having positive attitude on dengue illness.

  12. Mounting dengue awareness: A cost effective Strategy for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is a serious illness which takes toll on human health every year. The best way to prevent it is by increasing awareness among common people. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in people urban heath training centre in Pune, Maharashtra. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending OPD of Urban heath training centre of department of community medicine, Pune situated in Ajmera, Pimpri, Pune. Through convenience sampling, a questionnaire was administered to patients after taking their informed consent. Results: A total of 100 patients were interviewed. Among knowledge 83% had heard about dengue and the most common source of information was TV & radio (72.3% Most of them were aware regarding mosquito bite being the mode of dengue transmission (80.7%. 22% were unaware regarding biting time of mosquito while 22% said night is the biting time of dengue mosquito. 62.7% were using coils for mosquito bite prevention followed by mosquito net (43.4% and spray (31.3%.. Conclusion: This study revealed that most of the study population is aware of dengue illness and increasing education level is having positive attitude on dengue illness.

  13. Epidemic spread in bipartite network by considering risk awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, She; Sun, Mei; Ampimah, Benjamin Chris; Han, Dun

    2018-02-01

    Human awareness plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the control of propagation patterns. Exploring the interplay between human awareness and epidemic spreading is a topic that has been receiving increasing attention. Considering the fact, some well-known diseases only spread between different species we propose a theoretical analysis of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic spread from the perspective of bipartite network and risk aversion. Using mean field theory, the epidemic threshold is calculated theoretically. Simulation results are consistent with the proposed analytic model. The results show that, the final infection density is negative linear with the value of individuals' risk awareness. Therefore, the epidemic spread could be effectively suppressed by improving individuals' risk awareness.

  14. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuzo; Chiew, May; Matsui, Tamano

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356,838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244,855 cases reported in 2011) of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100,000 population, respectively), and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100,000 population, respectively). All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  15. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Arima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356 838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244 855 cases reported in 2011 of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100 000 population, respectively, and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100 000 population, respectively. All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  16. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  17. Influence of Coupled Sidesticks on the Pilot Monitoring's Awareness During Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Uehara, Alan F.; Niedermeier, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Passive sidesticks have been used in modern fly-by-wire commercial airplanes since the late 1980s. These passive sidesticks typically do not feature a mechanical coupling between them, so the pilot’s and copilot’s sidesticks move independently. This characteristic disabled the pilot monitoring (PM) to perceive the control inputs of the pilot flying (PF). This can lead to problems of awareness in abnormal situations. The development of active inceptor technology made it possible to electronicall...

  18. Extending knowledge of the public awareness of aphasia in the Balkans: Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Mile; Matić, Dušanka; Kovač, Ana; Vuković, Irena; Code, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Public awareness of aphasia has been surveyed in a number of countries revealing that it is universally low. We report results of surveys in the Balkan countries Serbia and Montenegro and compare results with data from Croatia and Slovenia. Convenience surveys of the general public were conducted in public places like shopping centers/malls and parks in Serbia (N = 400) and Montenegro (N = 500) using an adapted version of the public awareness of aphasia survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked whether they have heard of aphasia and tested with questions about aphasia. Information on gender, age, occupation and education was recorded. Twelve percent (Serbia) and 11% (Montenegro) had heard of aphasia, but just 4% (Serbia) and 3.2% (Montenegro) had a basic knowledge of aphasia. Age, gender and occupation interacted variably with awareness. Between 16% (Slovenia) and 60% (Croatia) said they had heard of aphasia (10.5% overall mean for the four countries) and basic knowledge of aphasia across the four countries ranged between 3.2 and 7%. Levels of awareness of aphasia in the Balkans are low and variably associated with age, gender, socio-economic and educational levels. Respondents with some knowledge of aphasia gained it through personal or professional interaction with aphasia or the media. The data provide a basis for awareness raising in Balkan countries to reduce stigmatization, improve community access and understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of aphasia is low universally, even among healthcare workers. Low public awareness of a condition, like aphasia, results in under-funded research and service provision. In order to raise public awareness of aphasia we need to know how many members of the general public know about it. Improvements in public awareness could positively affect funding, the quality of services, and the public understanding and acceptance of individuals with aphasia in the community. Improving awareness of aphasia in

  19. Study on Nuclear Facility Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Lee, Cheol-Kwon<