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Sample records for improving nato force

  1. Improving the Agility of the NATO Response Force (NRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the MCCE and the MIH helicopter task force. As 168 Hauser and Kernic eds., 140-141. 169 NATO...agility through unified efforts. Initiatives such as the MIH helicopter task force and the Movement Coordination Centre Europe (MCCE) are positive

  2. NATO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    After Ukraine, conventional deterrence will be the main purpose of NATO’s armed forces. NATO contingency planning, operational training and defense planning will all revolve around conventional deterrence. Russia’s ready use of force in Ukraine, Georgia and beyond shows that its non-NATO neighbors....... Could Moscow apply the same measures in a NATO country with a significant Russian minority population, such as Latvia? This question should keep NATO leaders up at night and by the morning they should realize that the solution is conventional deterrence....

  3. Can NATO's new very high readiness joint task force deter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rynning, Sten; Ringsmose, Jens

    2017-01-01

    When NATO-allies met at their Wales summit in September 2014, the D-word was back in vogue. Not in a muttering, shy or implicit way, but unambiguously and straightforward. For the first time in more than two decades NATO’s heads of states and governments openly discussed how best to “deter......” a distinct strategic rival – Russia. Chief among the Welsh summit initiatives was the decision to set up a new multinational spearhead force – the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) – as part of an enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) and within the framework of a so-called Readiness Action Plan (RAP...

  4. An Assessment of Soviet Forces Facing NATO - The Central Region - and Suggested Nato Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    the TOW under armor concept are needed. NATO artillery systems must plan to move fre- quently to increase their survivability greater range is needed...IMPROVED AREA MUNITIONS TARGET ACQUISITION *NUMBERS -AIR FIRE DIRECTION ’ UNDER ARMOR ’ARTI LLERY *RANGE "ALL" WEATHER PGMs *MUNITIONS MINES Figure 42. NATO

  5. Can NATO's new Very High Readiness Joint Task Force deter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rynning, Sten; Ringsmose, Jens

    2017-01-01

    ” a distinct strategic rival – Russia. Chief among the Welsh summit initiatives was the decision to set up a new multinational spearhead force – the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) – as part of an enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) and within the framework of a so-called Readiness Action Plan (RAP...

  6. Aerial Refueling For NATO’s Smart Defence Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Rome: NATO Defense College, 2012, 148. 40 David A. Brown , "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force...accessed March 1, 2012). Brown , David A. "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force." Aviation Week...Aircraft. Coulsdon, Surrey: IHS Global Limited, 2011. Jennings, Gareth . "Nations Pool for NATO C-17A Fleet." Jane’s Defence Weekly, October 2008

  7. How Long Before NATO Aircraft Carrier Force Projection Capabilities Are Successfully Countered? Some effects of the fiscal crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučev Josip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and fiscal policy conducive to economic development have been severely jeopardized in most NATO member countries since 2008. In sharp contrast, China has experienced only a relatively slower GDP growth, which it has mitigated with a fiscally expansionary outlook. Under these conditions, when can we expect the politico-military position of NATO to be challenged? This paper surveys amphibious force projection capabilities in six countries: the USA, the UK, France, Russia, India and the People's Republic of China (PRC. An assessment of the current capability for aircraft carrier building and a survey of carrier-related ambitions is undertaken to offer projections of probable aircraft carrier fleets by 2030. The three non-NATO countries are far better positioned to build aircraft carriers than the three NATO members, with China in the lead. Nevertheless, there is a high probability of the continued military dominance of the USA and NATO, but also of a military build-up focusing on the Indian Ocean.

  8. NATO's requirements and policy for LRTNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    In a special meeting of Foreign and Defense Ministers, the NATO alliance on 12 December 1979 decided to modernize its long range theater nuclear forces (LRTNF) through the deployment in Europe of 572 Pershing II and ground launched cruise missiles (GLCM). This decision was accompanied by an offer from the US to the U.S.S.R. to negotiate limitations on these LRTNF which would be global, equal, and verifiable. The story of NATO's dual-track decision as well as the INF Treaty is well chronicled. What is missing is a detailed study of the processes within the US government and the NATO alliance by which the LRTNF decisions were made. The role that analysis played, and the lessons that can be drawn for future policies on NATO's theater nuclear forces are discussed

  9. NATO strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarr, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear weapons are for NATO both the primary instrument for deterring a nuclear attack and the fall-back option if, in the event of a conventional assault, NATO's non-nuclear defence forces cannot hold. The dilemma of depending upon potentially self-destructive nuclear responses if deterrence fails and defence falters has always haunted NATO strategy, but after the Soviets achieved nuclear parity with the United States, this dilemma became more intensely perceived. Now the credibility, viability, acceptability, sensibility and morality of nuclear weapons for deterrence and defence are increasingly at issue. As a result, an increasing variety of non-nuclear (conventional) alternatives are being advanced to replace or supplement nuclear deterrence for the Alliance. The thrust of the author of this paper remarks is to attempt to apply the definitions, requirements, and other key conceptual distinctions of nuclear deterrence found in the body of western strategic literature to three categories of non-nuclear alternatives currently in vogue: strengthened conventional forces; deployment of new, high-technology non-nuclear weapons; and adoption of an offensive manoeuvre strategy. Let me, therefore, begin by listing the basic definitions, concepts and apparent requirements of deterrence which the deterrence theory literature offers

  10. Can NATO Practice Grand Strategy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force.......In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force....

  11. NATO in Canada’s geopolitical interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Berehovyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canada, as one of the founding countries, plays an active role in NATO since its establishment and till the modern stage. Canadian military forces participate in international peacekeeping operations, counter­terrorism and maintaining security in the transatlantic area. Despite the close relationship with the US as a military, political and economic areas, Canada has always tried to conduct an independent policy within NATO. Canada national interests and NATO influence expand overlapping on the Arctic region deserves special attention. Canada’s position on the role of NATO in the Arctic rather contradictory. Canada fears the growing influence in the Arctic region of the NATO member countries, which are not the Arctic states as in the case of Britain. Canada has long been promoting the idea of the alliance’s transformation into the global organization like the United Nations Organization, which set a goal to provide security around the world. In fact, Canada seeks the creation of a «world policeman» who has modern special forces intended to participate in conflicts in different parts of the world. Also there is another scenario ­ the preservation of NATO as a «Eurocentric hybrid» with the former focusing on European security.

  12. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  13. NATO's Nuclear Glue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    .... nuclear weapons prepositioned in Europe? This paper reviews the past and current role of US nuclear forces in NATO, considers future nuclear policy options, and discusses potential consequences of those decisions...

  14. Kosovo Armed Forces Development; Achieving NATO Non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operations Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Intercultural Factors. ................................................................................................. 27 Allied Administrative...Multinational Military Operations and Intercultural Factors, NATO Standard Allied Administrative Publication (AAP) 47 Allied Joint Doctrine Development, NATO...standards for Peace Support Operations. NATO RTO Technical Report Multinational Military Operations and Intercultural Factors. NATO Research and

  15. Assessing Possible Improvements in NATO’s Non-Strategic Nuclear Deterrence Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    great country .”86 Consequently, this perspective brings Moscow into conflict with any former Soviet state wishing to align with a rival great power... Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY ( 2. REPORT DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND...Reinforcing Deterrence, 1. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid., 7. 8 Matthew Kroenig, Toward a More Flexible NATO Nuclear Posture: Developing a Response to a Russian

  16. Operational Implications of the NATO Strategic Concept 2010 for European Countries in NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    tnis von NATO und EU- Eine Analyse unter Beriicksichtigung des Lissabonner Reformvertrages (Munich: AVM-Verlag, 2009), 4. Martin Reichard, The EU-NATO...Lockheed Martin Corp., Moorestown, USA. The consortium developed the first multifunctional counter battery radar in the world with a fu lly active phased...significant forces in expeditionary missions. Gustav Lindstrom , Caaudia Major and Christian Mt>lling provide a good review of the historic background, the

  17. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  18. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  19. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  20. NATO's New Strategic Concept, kosovo and the Implications for Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, James

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of NATO's new strategic concept adopted in April 1999 and NATO's Operation Allied Force in Kosovo on the future development of intelligence capabilities within the Alliance...

  1. Improving NATO’S Capabilities: A Roadmap to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Australia and El Salvador . Today, according to the official NATO web site, there are 50 contributing countries to the mission.48 The US has contributed... earthquake . Furthermore, in his research on NATO transformation, David Rudd underlined the employment of the NRF as one of the burden-sharing flaws : the

  2. Measurements of Radioactive Contamination In Kosovo Battlefields Due to the Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons by NATO Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    During the last war in the Balkan area (Kosovo-Serbia War, spring-summer 1999), NATO forces admitted the use of weapons containing Depleted Uranium. In particular, 30 mm bullets being fired by A-10 anti-tank aircraft and probably all Tomahawk Cruise missiles in this action contain depleted uranium

  3. Victim of its own success: How NATO's Difficulties are Caused by the Absence of a First-Order Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2018-01-01

    NATO is neither in deep trouble nor destined to fall apart. The ‘NATO-in-crisis perspective’, which has gained currency in recent years, correctly identifies three centrifugal forces that threaten to undermine the Alliance: strategic divergence, a declining ability to act militarily and fading...... on a common core purpose, this does not mean that NATO will fall apart. Three centripetal forces that will continue to keep it together trumps the three centrifugal forces identified by the NATO-in-crisis perspective: converging national security interests, a strong sense of community and US leadership....

  4. NATO Joint Medical Support - Reality and Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roedig, Erich

    2004-01-01

    .... Multinational solutions to medical support were not considered necessary or practical. The new NATO force structures and strategic concepts emphasise mobility, interoperability, sustainability, jointness and multinationality; i.e...

  5. PERSPECTIVES ON INTEROPERABILITY INTEGRATION WITHIN NATO DEFENSE PLANNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian CIOCAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability is not a new area of effort at NATO level. In fact, interoperability and more specifi cally standardization, has been a key element of the Alliance’s approach to fi elding forces for decades. But as the security and operational environment has been in a continuous change, the need to face the new threats and the current involvement in challenging operations in Afghanistan and elsewhere alongside with the necessity to interoperate at lower and lower levels of command with an increasing number of nations, including non-NATO ISAF partners, NGOs, and other organizations, have made the task even more challenging. In this respect Interoperability Integration within NATO Defense Planning Process will facilitate the timely identifi cation, development and delivery of required forces and capabilities that are interoperable and adequately prepared, equipped, trained and supported to undertake the Alliance’s full spectrum of missions.

  6. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SECURITY – A PRESENT NATO PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU TATOMIR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A situation often met in the Romanian Armed Forces in recent years is the need for interconnecting two networks (domains with different levels of classification. Considering that the Romanian armed troops are involved in numerous missions with NATO partners, solutions, already implemented across the organization, are considered to be applied in domestic systems, also. This paper presents the solutions adopted by NATO in order to solve the problem of cross -domains interconnections. We present the maturity level reached by these solutions and the possibility of implementing these solutions in the Romanian Armed Forces, with or without specific adaptation to our own rules and regulations. The goal is to use a NATO already proved solution to our national classified networks.

  7. Baltic States in NATO: Results of the Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Vorotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Soviet period participation in NATO was one of the major goals of euro-atlantic integration for the Baltic states. Political leaders of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have considered participation in the alliance as an important element of euro-atlantic solidarity which allows small - from all viewpoints - states claim decision-making over global issues. This satisfies demands of the political elites and victimized public consciousness for more security, makes it possible for elites to consider their states as bulwark against Russia. Throughout the whole decade, such reasoning has been reflected in doctrines and speeches of Baltic politicians. After joining NATO, the Baltic states became the most active supporters of a deeper integration in the military area and "open door" policy. They have continued reforming their armed forces and renovating military infrastructure. They have acquired "specialization" within NATO by establishing centers of excellence. In terms of euro-atlantic solidarity, the participation in the International Security Assistance Force in Afganistan has become the most important international project for the Baltic states. However, only Estonia managed to mount their defence expenses to the level of 2% GDP. During the „Ukranian crisis" the issue of Baltic membership in NATO acquired special importance. Confrontational rhetoric and appeals to "Russian threat" in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, on the one hand, make it possible for their political leaders to constantly demonstrate their importance in the eyes of Western partners and demand more activity of the alliance and, on the other hand, make ground for the political elites to consolidate the electorate, by that ensuring that the right-wing conservative forces remain in power.

  8. Nato Multinational Brigade Interoperability: Issues, Mitigating Solutions and is it Time for a Nato Multinational Brigade Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Mark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Brigade Operations involving NATO and its European Partners are the norm in the post-Cold War Era. Commonplace today are Multinational Brigades, composed of staffs and subordinate units representing almost every NATO Country and Partner, participating in training exercises or actual operations in both the European and Southwest Asian Theatres. Leadership challenges are prevalent for the Multinational Brigade Commander and his staff, especially those challenges they face in achieving an effective level of brigade interoperability in order to conduct successful operations in NATO’s present and future operating environments. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine the major interoperability obstacles a multinational brigade commander and his staff are likely to encounter during the planning and execution of brigade operations; and, to recommend actions and measures a multinational brigade commander and his staff can implement to facilitate interoperability in a multinational brigade operating environment. Several key interoperability topics considered integral to effective multinational brigade operations will be examined and analysed to include understanding partner unit capabilities and limitations facilitated by an integration plan, appropriate command and support relationships, compatible communications, synchronized intelligence and information collection, establishing effective liaison, and fratricide prevention. The paper conclusion will urge for a NATO land brigade doctrine considering doctrine’s critical importance to effective brigade command and control interoperability and the expected missions a land brigade will encounter in future NATO operating environments as part of the NATO Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF.

  9. NATO strategy in a new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertner, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the most immediate threat to Western Europe during the cold ware was the specter of Soviet military superiority looming from the East, proscribing Western political and economic freedom. NATO and the link to U.S. military power deterred political intimidation as well as a less probable military thrust into Central Europe. But these threat have faded under Mikhail Gorbachev, replaced by revolutions in Eastern Europe, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, receding Soviet military power, German unification, and the stirring of political and economic freedom nurtured by the West. These events are linked directly to the Gorbachev domestic revolution, a revolution that depends not only on domestic change, but also on political-economic integration with the West and dramatic shifts from defense to domestic investment. New Soviet military thinking, arms control, and unilateral cuts in conventional force structure and dramatic in themselves. But when projected on a new map of Europe, these events call for a major reexamination of NATO military strategy and the future role of the U.S. armed forces in a revised organization. A new strategy for NATO has been quietly taking shape since 1989, the debate often muffled by more dramatic events in the Soviet Union and more recently by war in the Persian Gulf. By the spring of 1991, the broad outlines of a new NATO within a radically new European security regime began to emerge. This chapter assesses both the emerging new strategy and the larger European security environment in which it will evolve

  10. NATO Initiatives to Improve Life Cycle Costing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a long and documented history of both cost growth and estimating optimism within military programmes. This is particularly the case for multi-national programmes. The NATO ALP-10 –Guidance on Integrated Logistics Support for multi-national equipment projects (ILS) dated June 1990 (Reference

  11. NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallis, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the last round of NATO enlargement. The report analyzes the key military and political issues in the debate over seven prospective members named at NATO's Prague summit...

  12. NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl W

    2008-01-01

    Member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contribute to the activities of the alliance in several ways, the chief of which is through the deployment of their own armed forces, funded by their national budgets...

  13. NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl W

    2009-01-01

    Member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contribute to the activities of the alliance in several ways, the chief of which is through the deployment of their own armed forces, funded by their national budgets...

  14. Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojor Laviniu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of a conflict, called by some American analysts as “America’s Longest War”, after the withdrawal of the majority of NATO military forces, requires a careful analysis of the conditions and security environment that ISAF mission, International Security Afghan Forces, leaves as legacy to the Afghan military forces. The transfer of authority towards a strong government, recognized by most Afghan provinces, and benefiting from the support of national military forces able to cope with terrorist and insurgent threats on its own, are the minimum and necessary conditions leading the country towards a stable and secure environment and towards a sustainable development. Given these realities, any approach on the consequences of the transition towards self-sustainable governance becomes interesting and timely for any military political study. These are the prospects that we propose in our paper.

  15. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ineffective with “ virtually no prospect that their soldiers would fire a shot in anger.”10 This situation in turn reduces the overall morale of the force...NATO countries would not go on record to express their concern.32 The arms sales by “Old Europe” to Russia suggest a type of myopia in their view...in capabilities” that might possibly result in a “collective military irrelevance.” Finally, Secretary Gates warned, The blunt reality is that there

  16. Roland: A Case for or Against NATO Standardization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    of the annual NATO conventional force research and development (R&D) expenditures, should the bugaboos of "duplication" in weapons research and fierce...export controls. Perhaps a better policy than lead nation assignment and export control would be to invest In advancing research and development. In

  17. For a NATO defensive deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy

  18. NATO Summit – 2016: results and prospects for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the results and prospects of the NATO Summit in Warsaw in 2016 for Ukraine. It was determined that one of the Summit’s outcomes for Ukraine can be considered categorical NATO’s condemnation of aggression acts of the Russian Federation against our country, and also that will never be legitimized its actions on the change of borders, in particular the annexation of Crimea and support of separatism in Ukraine. It is proved that the approval of the Comprehensive Assistance Package for Ukraine will contribute to the reforming of the defense and security structures based on NATO’s standards and principles, including the establishment of civilian democratic control over the armed forces and to ensure their interoperability with NATO. Reasoned argument that the presentation of the Strategic Defense Bulletin of Ukraine at the Summit is a demonstration of execution of the programming steps of Ukraine’s cooperation with NATO, but at the same time, its practical component of the full implementation raises a number of doubts. It is founded that the content of the joint statement of the Commission Ukraine – NATO at the highest level is, to a greater extent, declarative than practical. It made a conclusion that the outcomes of the NATO Summit on Ukraine could be more if the Ukrainian delegation had previously worked in more detail the practical component of their positions. It was determined that an important issue for Ukraine in the future will clearly define NATO’s position with regard to the Russian Federation. On how quickly this happens will depends the further determining (or, perhaps, transformation of the course of cooperation with NATO.

  19. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  20. NATO tippkohtumine Bukarestis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    1.-3. aprillil Bukarestis toimunud NATO 20. tippkohtumisel osales ka Eesti delegatsioon eesotsas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega. Eesti riigipea esines sõnavõtuga tippkohtumisega paralleelselt toimunud NATO temaatikaga tegelevate noorteorganisatsioonide esindajate (Young Atlanticists) konverentsil ning mõttekoja German Marshall Fund korraldatud konverentsil

  1. Building Future Transatlantic Interoperability Around a Robust NATO Response Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    than already traveled . However, this accrued wealth of interoperable capa- bility may be at its apogee, soon to decline as the result of two looming...and Bydgo- szcz, Poland, as well as major national training centers such as the bilateral U.S.- Romanian Joint Task Force– East at Kogalniceanu...operations. Increase U.S. and Allied Exchange Students at National and NATO military schools. Austerity measures may eventually affect the investment

  2. Collection and sharing of medical information and medical intelligence (M2I) in NATO: a transversal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedubourg, Gabriel; Wiik, H; Queyriaux, B; Lausund, P; Meynard, J-B

    2018-04-06

    There is a requirement for adequate medical expertise to be available throughout the range of potential future operations involving members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The aim of this study was to assess the collection and sharing of medical intelligence and medical information (M2I) by NATO Nations, Partner Nations and NATO Command Structure and NATO Force Structure Headquarters (NCS/NFS HQs). A transversal survey was conducted between December 2014 and March 2015 using a survey form on M2I sent to NATO Nations and Partnership for Peace (PfP) Nations as well as NCS/NFS HQs. Correctly completed responses were received from 15/40 (37.5%) of the possible NATO and PfP Nations (37.5%) and 7/8 (87.5%) of the NCS/NFS HQs (100.0%). Deficiencies in the collection of M2I data were found due to lack of specific doctrines, networks, tools, structures and organisation. The survey provided an indication even though the participation rate was low for Nations. Part of the problem is thought to be that medical information and medical intelligence often lie in different chains of command. Future directions for this research could include studying the possibilities of a new specific information technology (IT) system to collect and to share M2I. Collection and sharing of M2I within the NATO/PfP community requires facilitation in order to strengthen the basis for decision-making and force health protection. The development of a dedicated NATO IT system may be a precondition for the implementation of an efficient M2I network. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  4. The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the NATO Model as a Hedge in Lean Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    1 AIR FORCE FELLOWS AIR UNIVERSITY THE REGIONAL SPECIAL OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS: FRANCHISING THE NATO MODEL AS A HEDGE IN LEAN...Headquarters: Franchising The NATO Model As A Hedge In Lean Times 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the

  5. Russia and the Future Expansion of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    rhetoric frequently used 9 by the Russian leadership in recent years, the United States and NATO are not explicitly mentioned in the document as a...Plan (MAP), linked from The NATO Home Page at “NATO A-Z,” http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_37356.htm (accessed January 7, 2011). 39 Aristotle

  6. 32 CFR 728.42 - NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 728.42 NATO. (a) NATO SOFA nations. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom...

  7. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O’Connell, P

    1991-01-01

    Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera­ tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sp...

  9. ESDP: NATO's Demise or Opportunities for NATO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DECamp, William S., Jr

    2005-01-01

    ...) known as European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP). Concurrently, the U.S. has put a lot of emphasis in transforming NATO into an effective, modern warfighting entity capable of deploying out of Europe...

  10. An Examination of the Legal Authority for the 1999 NATO Air Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnan, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...?s use of force against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). My objective for this article is to investigate the legal authority for NATO's use of force against the FRY during the Kosovo air campaign...

  11. Consultation and cooperation in NATO: nuclear planning, 1975-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernoff, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    This study looks at three types of explanation of international cooperation, which deal in different ways with communication and consultation. Themost-general theoretical explanation contrasts recent realist theories, like those of Waltz and Gilpin, with Keohane's functional theory of regimes. Secondly, the study looks at theories of information flow and processing (an element of consultation) within the alliance, like those of Deutsch and Steinbruner. Such theories explain governmental behavior using concepts like equilibrium of systems and feedback loop. Third, the study considers hypotheses that deal specifically with NATO and military alliances. The hypotheses relate alliance consultation processes to the cooperativeness of the cases' outcomes. Evidence is drawn from case studies of NATO decision-making. The cases include politically sensitive deployment issues, like the enhanced radiation warhead controversy in 1977-78 and the intermediate-range nuclear force deployment decision in 1979, and important, but less politically volatile arms-control decisions, including the 1975 option three proposal, the French plan for a conference on disarmament in Europe, approved in 1980, and the 1987 American zero-zero proposal on short- and intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe.

  12. Is NATO ready for a cyberwar?

    OpenAIRE

    Canbolat, Mustafa; Sezgin, Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the sufficiency and effectiveness of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) cyber policies against cyber threats, considering the recent cyber cases and incidents that could be related to NATO's cyber defense. The authors use analytical and descriptive approaches to answer the research questions by examining the categories of cyber threats facing NATO and the policies implemented to fight against cyber ope...

  13. Moves to withdraw nuclear weapons from NATO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The American nuclear landscape in Europe could change in the coming months. The signs are already there, and a new strategic posture will have major implications for the Europeans as well as for the visibility of France deterrent force. Nonetheless, the Georgian crisis, tensions with Iran, Russian muscle flexing and NATO's line cast doubt on the idea that a partial or even complete withdrawal of American B-61 bombs could be on the agenda at the Alliance's 60. anniversary in April 2009. (author)

  14. 10 YEARS AFTER NATO MEMBERSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske...... forsvarsminister, er den estiske og litauiske forsvarsminister og NATO’s vicegeneralsekretær blandt bidragyderne. Konferencens formål var at fejre, inddrage og diskutere 10 års forsvarspolitisk NATO-samarbejde i Østersøområdet. Den internationale udvikling i Europa betød at konferencens dagsorden i stedet for kom...

  15. Analyzing Ukraine's Prospects for NATO Membership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Derek W

    2008-01-01

    .... The majority of Ukrainian society opposes Ukraine becoming a member of NATO, while political discord within the Ukrainian government may also limit the likelihood of Ukraine's accession to NATO...

  16. U.S. and NATO Naval Engagement with Russia in the Black Sea: Historical Patterns and Current Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    encouraged its NATO Allies to march up and knock on the front door of Russian borders. In 2009, Dmitry Medvedev, then the Russian President, was one of...Vladimir Putin, Russian sports committee officials, and select Russian politicians claim that “It’s possible the U.S. is behind” the World Anti-Doping...rescue operations, joint maneuvers and communications, as well as sports activities, to build up a team spirit between Romanian and NATO forces.”142

  17. NATO SCEPC functions and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somer, E.

    1998-01-01

    The main functions and tasks for Civil Emergency Planning Directorate of NATO are presented. As a support and complement of United Nations Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council established a regional arrangement - a Europ-Atlantic Disaster Response capability with Coordination Center at NATO headquarters. Responsibility for disaster response is with the stricken nation while Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council role is one of coordination rather than direction. Europ-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Center act as focal point for information sharing on disaster assistance request among Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council countries. NATO Civil Emergency Planning Directorate consists of representatives from Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council countries and United Nations liaison officer

  18. The politics of nuclear consultation in NATO, 1965-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buteux, P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the least known but most effective Western institutions is the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) of NATO. Conceived in 1965 as a result of the debacle of the multilateral nuclear force, it has been a forum for consultation on the Alliance's strategic policy, especially regarding tactical atomic weapons and the control of nuclear arms. This is an account of about as much as can be discussed about NPG deliberations

  19. Rice targets Lukashenko during NATO meeting in Vilnius / Milda Seputyte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seputyte, Milda

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide välisminister Condoleezza Rice kritiseeris NATO tippkohtumisel Valgevene presidenti Aleksandr Lukashenkot, nimetades tema režiimi Euroopa viimaseks diktatuuriks. NATO tippkohtumisest Leedus. Lisad: NATO foorumi kultuuriline programm; NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer

  20. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  1. Queen Margarethe II Wants You! Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  2. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  3. NATO Education and Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Federated Battle Laboratories Network (CFBLNet) .............................................. 15  5.1  History ...CFBLNet countries, NATO nations and Partners perspective (January 2009) 5.1 History In April 1999, the US made a proposal to the NATO C3 Board to...permanent subscription provides standard access to the: • CFBLNet Blackbone ( IPv4 (IPv6) transport network) • CFBLNet CUE (Unclassified Enclave all

  4. NATO enlargement : all aboard? Destination unknown / Richard E Rupp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rupp, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    NATO eesmärkidest läbi aegade, külma sõja järgse üleminekuaja mõjudest NATO arengule, laienemisega seonduvast temaatikast lähtuvalt Leedu, Rumeenia ja Venemaa seisukohtadest ning NATO tulevikuväljavaadetest

  5. NATO's Strategic Partnership with Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Russian actions in Ukraine have altered the security land- scape in Europe, highlighting a renewed emphasis on the differences between members and non-members. In this context, NATO must a) create a strategic understanding of partnerships as something that can be transformative, even if it will n......Russian actions in Ukraine have altered the security land- scape in Europe, highlighting a renewed emphasis on the differences between members and non-members. In this context, NATO must a) create a strategic understanding of partnerships as something that can be transformative, even...... if it will not lead to membership in the short or even long term, and b) build such a strategic relationship with Ukraine. In sum, the Russian-induced Ukraine crisis should spur the reform of NATO partnerships – with Ukraine as a case in point....

  6. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  7. Project ATTACK and Project VISTA: Benchmark studies on the road to NATO's early TNF policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with those studies and analyses that affected early NATO nuclear policy and force structure. The discussion focuses specifically on two open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes activities. Project VISTA and Project ATTACK. These two studies were chosen less because one can document their direct impact on NATO nuclear policy and more because they capture the state of thinking about tactical nuclear weapons at a particular point of time. Project VISTA offers an especially important benchmark in this respect. Project ATTACK is a rather different kind of benchmark. It is not a pathbreaking study. It is much narrower and more technical than VISTA. It appears to have received no public attention. Project ATTACK is interesting because it seems to capture a open-quotes nuts-and-boltsclose quotes feel for how U.S. (and thereby NATO) theater nuclear policy was evolving prior to MC 48. The background and context for Project VISTA and Project ATTACK are presented and discussed

  8. NATO's security agenda after enlargement / Knut Kirste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirste, Knut

    2004-01-01

    NATO tegevusest julgeoleku ja stabiilsuse tagamiseks Afganistanis, Balkanil, Iraagis. Autori arvates sõltub laienenud NATO tulevik poliitiliste ja sõjaliste reformide läbiviimisest ning partnerluse ja koostöö arendamisest rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh Euroopa Liiduga

  9. Effect-Based Thinking in NATO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, a comprehensive approach has been adopted and implemented in planning and conducting all the operations of NATO. It is built on the logic that military operations do not stand alone, but are inherently deep-rooted in the strategic context provided by other strategic instruments of power...... such as the political/diplomatic, economic, and civil society. As effects have to be generated within this multifaceted context, common sense dictated that effect-based thinking for military plans and operations has to become intrinsically tied to the comprehensive approach. Legitimacy is not directly identified...... in the NATO strategy, concepts, doctrines, or planning documents yet, as pointed out earlier in chapter two, it is an important holistic strategic parameter that in this case will determine the scope of NATO action—or inaction. This chapter will argue that despite its absence in the wording of doctrine...

  10. Nato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattberg, Erik; Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2015-01-01

    historia. Idag har Sverige en möjlighet att fatta ett beslut som inte bara skulle stärka vår egen säkerhet, utan även hela Östersjöregionens. Nordiskt försvarssamarbete skulle ha stor nytta av ett svenskt (och finskt) Natomedlemskap liksom det skulle förbättra Natos möjligheter att skydda Baltikum....

  11. NATO-l pidev puudus rahast, meestest ja võimekusest / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    NATO kaitseministrite kohtumisel ütles peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, et kaitsekulutused NATO-s ei vasta nõudmistele ning hoiatas, et kui olukord ei parane, satub ohtu NATO töö Afganistanis, Kosovos, Darfuris ja mujal. Raportis kaitsejõudude ümberkorraldamise kohta kritiseeriti Eestit liigse pühendumise pärast territoriaalkaitsele

  12. NATO pärast Riia-tippkohtumist / Victoria Punga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO ühingu 3. veebruaril toimunud üldkogul olid arutluse all kolm suuremat teemaderingi: NATO tegevus ja operatsioonid Afganistanis, alliansi edasine laienemine ning Riias peetud tippkohtumise poliitiline sõnum

  13. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  14. Jack Deverell : NATO ei kao kuhugi / Jack Deverell ; interv. Margus Kolga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deverell, Jack

    2005-01-01

    NATO põhjapiirkonna vägede endise juhi arvates võiks NATO olla endiselt peamine sõjalise jõu instrument, olgu tegemis siis NATO või EL-i juhitud sõjalise operatsiooniga, ta ei usu, et NATO ja EL muutuvad sõjaliselt ning poliitiliselt omavahel võistlevateks organisatsioonideks. Riigid peaksid tegutsema koos selliste sõjaliste võimete loomisel, milleks nad üksi suutelised ei ole

  15. The Relevancy of NATO Membership in Russia’s Near Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    attempted professionalization and reform of the Armed Forces through a volunteer military has foundered , and the armed forces’ deficiencies in training...position described by the 19th Century British historian and poet Hilaire Belloc, who wrote of the Zulu Wars, “(the British) have got the Maxim guns and...they (the Zulus ) have not.”44 Accordingly, NATO assistance, training, and equipping should be directed toward national defense as a whole, rather

  16. Admiral Pitka kujundab Eesti mainet NATO-s / Ahti Piirimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirimägi, Ahti

    2005-01-01

    Eesti mereväe lipulaeva Admiral Pitka osalemine NATO reageerimisjõudude koosseisus aitab märkimisväärselt kaasa Eesti kui tõsiseltvõetava liitlase ja traditsioonidega mereriigi maine saavutamisele. Lisa: Admiral Pitka

  17. NATO Summit in Wales: From global megatrends to the new Euro-Atlanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Lidija Čehulić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous representatives of theories of international relations, security theories or alliance theories have examined the new role of the North Atlantic Alliance or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO in the post-bipolar world. Parallel with the theoretical examination of goals and tasks, NATO has transformed itself in practice, following the realities of the contemporary global era. In trying to achieve and keep the primacy of the strongest military- political organization, the Alliance has - especially in the Strategic Concept adopted in Lisbon in 2010-set the normative and institutional foundations of its global engagement, fulfilling the military (hard and a wide array of non-military (soft security challenges. This strategy has given rise to "Euro-Atlanticism", as a subsystem of international relations based on strong American-European relations, to fit with the process of regionalization of global politics. However, the 2013-2014 crisis in Ukraine has turned the focus of interest and activities of NATO once again primarily to Europe and it has stressed the importance and necessity of strengthening Euro-Atlantic security and defence ties. The most powerful member of the Alliance, the United States, is again strongly engaged in Europe and Russia, as a kind of successor to the Soviet Union, is once more detected as a major threat to European security. There have been many aspects of theories of international relations that have tried to explain the dynamic of the post-Cold War international community. However, the approach based on neo-realistic assumptions of the role of a security community, collective defence and the use of military force has proved to be dominant. NATO will continue to work on its political dimension as an alliance of the democratic world and the September 2014 Wales Summit will certainly mark the return of NATO to its roots, strengthening its security and military dimensions in the collective defence of Europe

  18. NATO peab jääma oluliseks / Jamie Shea, Ronald Asmus ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shea, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    NATO peasekretäri poliitikaplaneerimise juht dr. Jamie Shea ja USA Saksa Marshalli Keskuse direktor dr. Ronald Asmus räägivad NATO uuendamise tähtsusest ja selleteemalise avaliku debati vajalikkusest. NATO Riia tippkohtumise ülesandest, Eesti uutest väljakutsetest NATO-s

  19. Wikileaks kinnitas NATO otsust teha Baltimaadele kaitsekavad / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Wikileaksi avalikustatud saladokumentidest sai teatavaks, et NATO kiitis heaks varem Poola kaitseks mõeldud Eagle Guardiani nimelise plaani laiendamise Eestile, Lätile ja Leedule. NATO ja Venemaa reageeringutest

  20. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  1. NATO's Global Role: To What Extent Will NATO Pursue a Global Orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svejda, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    ..., after having permanent out-of-area debates, has realized that it can no longer be circumscribed by artificial geographic boundaries to meet the future, At its Summit in Prague 2002, NATO initiated...

  2. Trusting Relationships in the NATO Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    – particularly given the historical (and even current) animosities between some of the member states. How is it that so many states can work together given the structural bias towards distrust in the international system? Given the goal of the papers on this panel to investigate how NATO might in fact facilitate......, in order to reveal the points of intersection that might help us to understand how and why trusting relationships can be formed within the NATO alliance....

  3. NATO Logistics Handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), is intended as a simple guide to logistics in NATO. It does not attempt to examine current issues or provide answers to the problems that logisticians will face, but it rather aims at introducing them to some of the basic principles, policies...

  4. NATO and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the Third Dimension of NATO. Presses for increased efforts to overcome the disparity in the rate of scientific development among the countries of the alliance. Discusses scientific nobility, the rise of European science, science for stability, environmental protection, and the changed scientific climate. (CW)

  5. NATO Enlargement and Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    1998-01-01

    In March 1998, the Senate began consideration of a resolution giving the Senate's advice and consent to protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty admitting Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic to NATO...

  6. Venemaa teod lõid NATOs haruldase üksmeele / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. aug. 2008, lk. 6. Prantsusmaa välisministri Bernard Kouchneri pressikonverentsist ja NATO välisministrite otsustest Venemaaga suhtlemise osas seoses Venemaa-Gruusia sõjalise konfliktiga. USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi, NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi ja Eesti välisministri Urmas Paeti seisukohti. Vt. samas: Uusliikmed ootavad NATO-lt kaitseplaane; Gruusiat kurvastab OSCE vaatlejate arv

  7. NATO AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akmataliyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.

  8. NATO lubab Afganistanis tsiviilohvreid vähendada / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi ajalehele Financial Times antud usutlusest, kus ta lubab, et NATO hakkab tsiviilelanike säästmiseks Afganistani islamiliikumise Taliban vastu võitlemisel kasutama väiksemaid pomme. Pantvangide võtmisest islamistide poolt Afganistanis

  9. NATO and EU/European Defense Initiatives: Competitive or Complementary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muckel, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper analyzes the current status of NATO and the European Union (EU) defense initiatives examines national objectives and interests of European key-players and the US and evaluates the aspects of competitiveness or complement of NATO and EU defense initiatives.

  10. Search for the truth about the NATO use of depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia - truth under the DU carpet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, V.; Jaksic, P.

    2002-01-01

    Having produced thousands atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs USA and other members of NATO possess large amount of nuclear waste, which also includes depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is natural uranium out of which 0.5% of Uranium-235 isotope is removed to be used for atomic bombs and nuclear fuel. Produced in this way, 'depleted uranium' is still highly radioactive. In one kilogram of such uranium 25 million radioactive decays take place in one second. During the NATO war against Yugoslavia in 1999 their planes A-10 fired the shells containing 272 grams of depleted uranium as they did previously in the Gulf war with Iraq and in 1995 against the Serbs in former Bosnia and Herzegovina. The effects of this 'dirty weapon', forbidden by international conventions, have been already known as disastrous, causing not only human but ecological consequences as well. That is why depleted uranium got the name: metal of dishonor. After long denial, on May the 3 rd American General Chuck Weld has confessed that NATO aviation is using ammunition with depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia in Kosovo and Metohija. Number of the locations under the fire of depleted uranium after the war was rising with time. At the beginning NATO information contained small number of such 'targets', 20-30. When the soldiers of the UN peacekeeping forces at Kosovo became ill, NATO was forced to reveal the new data of the used depleted uranium. In their report from January 24, 2001 (Updated on February 8 same year) they claim that 112 locations in Kosovo and Montenegro were exposed to depleted uranium rounds fired from the guns GAU-8 of A-10 planes. According to this report one can estimate the use of about 9 tons of depleted uranium. Our careful analysis points to many mistakes, lack of data, misleading conclusions and contradictions. At least 115 locations were contaminated by depleted uranium. The minimal number of rounds could be close to 43,300, e.g. minimum 12 tons of depleted uranium

  11. Balkan's Perspectives in the middle of NATO Emerging Security Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Smileski, Rose; Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2012-01-01

    Security challenges have proven that NATO cannot longer rely on sole Military Power. Ranging from Cyber attacks to failed states, from energy security to “Arab Spring’s” democratic transition and from fragile security in Afghanistan to the severe financial crisis NATO have realized that in order to be able effectively to cope with security threats it needs active civilian component. Strategic shift over the past years from geographical to functional security have tasted NATO legitimacy in sev...

  12. NATO chief arrives to discuss alliance's new strategy / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    8. oktoobril Eestis visiidil viibinud NATO peasekretär Anders Fogh Rasmussen kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja välisminister Urmas Paetiga. Teemadeks oli Afganistanis toimuv, NATO ja viimase suhted Venemaaga

  13. NATO Allied Medical Publication 7.5 Study Draft 3 (AMedP 7.5 SD.3), NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of CBRN Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO) NATO STANDARDIZATION OFFICE (NSO) NATO LETTER OF PROMULGATION [ Date ] 1. The enclosed Allied Medical...The radioisotopes modeled are 60Co, 90Sr, 99Mo, 125I, 131I, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, 238Pu, 241Am, 252Cf. 2) Whole-body irradiation (from cloudshine...Carrier 1.22 2.70 Earth Shelter 16.67 66.67 Exposed/Dismounted 1.00 1.00 Foxhole (nuclear only)† 3.00 10.00 Masonry Building 8.33 6.67 Multi-Story

  14. The NATO and Russia: is the Antiterrorist Cooperation Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of the NATO-Russia antiterrorist cooperation organization. Problems which partners face organizing it are considered by authors. The sight is given not only from Russia's point of view, but also from the position of NATO.

  15. THE CHART ROMANIA-NATO-UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available viewed in the context of geopolitical and geostrategic current and through the elements of distinction in terms of identity and cultural institutions, chart Romania - NATO / Israel - EU stands under the sign of the common interest channel, firstly, on common values and hence the collective interests of the partners involved in the two organizational structures. Noteworthy in this context is the extent of bilateral involvement of Romania in the bodies and the politico-military, represented by NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which is primarily military values and the construction superstate permanent expansion and development - European Union , both generating as much for our country as obligations of a politico-military security, and economic, social, institutional, cultural.

  16. NATO, the Baltic states and Russia : a framework for sustainable enlargement / Mark Kramer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kramer, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Baltimaad said 2002. aasta novembris toimunud Praha tippkohtumisel kutse NATO-ga liitumiseks. Autor analüüsib selle kutse tagamaid, võimalikku mõju NATO ja Venemaa suhetele ning leiab, et viimasega suhete parandamiseks peaks julgustama Venemaad samuti NATO-ga liituma

  17. Transatlantic Current. Number 7. October 2012. Building Future Transatlantic Interoperability Around a Robust NATO Response Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    inss short, multinational skills have reached an all time high, though there is more road ahead than already traveled . However, this accrued wealth of...training centers such as the bilateral U.S.- Romanian Joint Task Force– East at Kogalniceanu Airbase Romania. Stand up a U.S. Corps Forward Element in...which facilitates practical cooperation downstream, either within NATO or in any coalition operations. Increase U.S. and Allied Exchange Students

  18. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the comprehensive...

  19. NATO harjutas Suwalki koridori kaitsmist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Baltimaades rahvusvahelistel õppustel Saber Strike osalevad NATO väed harjutasid nädalavahetusel Suwalki koridori kaitsmist, mida liitlased saaksid kriisi korral kasutada Leedu, Läti ja Eesti toetamiseks

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO operations: Doctrine, studies, and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karber, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A listing of papers is presented on the doctrine, studies, and exercises dealing with nuclear weapons and NATO operations for the period 1950-1983. The papers deal with studies on massive retaliation, sword and shield, and flexible response. Some of the enduring issues of nuclear weapons in NATO are listed

  1. Nato odottaa Ukrainalta maan sisäisen kuohunnan rauhoittamista

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud üheksa NATO-riigi ning Ukraina kaitseministri kohtumisest. NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves meenutasid, et liikmelisuse tegevuskava (Membership Action Plan, MAP) on üks vahend teiste hulgas ning see pole ainus viis, kuidas alliansi liikmeks pääseda

  2. NATO ja EL lubavad tagada Kosovo ühtsuse / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi teatel on NATO 16 000 rahukaitsja ülesanne tagada kogu Kosovo turvalisus ja kaitsta kõiki Kosovo kodanikke. Javier Solana sõnul hakkab Euroopa Liidu tugimissioon tegutsema kogu Kosovo territooriumil

  3. NATO: Maintaining Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    proportionality.129 NATO displays Kantian respect toward the peoples of sovereign nation-states that provide legitimate governance for their citizens. The...qualities of Kantian respect. Most recently, NATO deems this function its “responsibility to protect.” Dr. Robert Jackson, professor of international...Relational Sovereignty,” 398. 35 The Kantian ethics of duty illustrate the moral imperative for the Alliance, given contemporary context, the perceived

  4. NATO komandörid käisid allveelaevahirmu ohjamas / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2016-01-01

    Juunis saabub Tallinna NATO õppusele BALTOPS 2016 mitu tuhat sõjalaevastiklast. Tallinna abilinnapea Kalle Klandorfi kohtumisest NATO 1. alalise mereväegrupi ülemakohusetäitja Jose Enricue Delgadoga

  5. A Conceptual Design Model for CBT Development: A NATO Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    CBT (computer-based training) can benefit from the modern multimedia tools combined with network capabilities to overcame traditional education. The objective of this paper is focused on CBT development to improve strategic decision-making with regard to air command and control system for NATO staff in virtual environment. A conceptual design for…

  6. Endise NATO kõrge juhi sõnul on Afganistan alliansi proovikivi / Harald Kujat ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kujat, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Kindral, endine NATO sõjalise komitee esimees räägib alliansi tegevusest turvalisuse tagamisel Afganistanis, Eesti osalemisest NATO missioonil, NATO õhupatrullidest Baltimaades. Harald Kujati CV. Vt. samas: NATO võttis mässu summutamise oma õlule

  7. NATO’s partnerships: initiatives, institutions, and ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Slovenia , and Sweden had observer status. 4 beginning, PfP focused on the first line of former Warsaw Pact members in addition to Finland and...Security Strategies Journal 10, no. 20 (October 2010): 58. 12 Military Framework (PMF) for partner involvement in NATO-led operations” constitutes ...so-called referendum in Ukraine’s Autonomous Republic of Crimea – which violated the Ukrainian Constitution and international law – NATO suspended

  8. NATO "readjustments" likely / Jeremy Bransten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bransten, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    USA kaitseminister Donald Rumsfeld ütles, et Washington võib lõpetada NATO peakorteri ehituse finantseerimise ja USA sõjaväelaste saatmise Belgiasse kui viimane ei muuda oma sõjakuritegude-alast seadusandlust

  9. Russia, NATO enlargement and the Baltic States / Konstantin Khudoley, Dmitri Lanko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Khudoley, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Autor analüüsib NATO laienemisprotsessi, sh Baltimaade liitumise mõju Venemaa välispoliitilistele seisukohtadele ja strateegiatele ning kirjeldab Venemaa ja NATO vahelise koostöö arendamise kolme võimalikku stsenaariumi

  10. The Multinational Logistics Joint Task Force (MLJTF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higginbotham, Matthew T

    2007-01-01

    In this monograph, by analyzing the UN, NATO and the US Army's evolving Modular Logistics Doctrine, the author integrates the key areas from each doctrine into a multinational logistics joint task force (MLJTF) organization...

  11. In the environmental pollution air raid of NATO; NATO no kubaku ga kankyo osen ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-05

    In recent European Union commissioned report, there was no evidence that the air raid of the NATO military in Yugoslavia became a cause of the large-scale ecology destruction until now. However, the pollution is very serious in industrial area suburb which becomes a target for Novi Sad and Pacncevo, Prahovo. The Hungary-based Regional Environment Center for Central and Eastern Europe in Hungary: REC was reported. According to REC, the pollution of the Danube river after the air raid which reaches for 11 weeks by the NATO military was serious, and ammonia of 100 tons, ethylene dichloride over the 1 thousand tons, 33% hydrochloric acid solution of the 1 thousand tons escaped to the Danube river from the air raid of Pancevo on April 18th. And, the mercury accumulated in sodium hydroxide of about 3 thousand tons, liquid chlorine of several decade tons and chlorine/alkali plant also escaped from Pancevo. United Nations-led Environmental Damage Assessment Mission should inspect Kosovo and Yugoslavia on July 19th, and it was announced with 'NATO does not show still us all well-informed information'. The investigation is carried out on the item which the Yugoslavia authorities designates, and the atmosphere level of VCM has reached 10600 times the concentration of the acceptable level near Pancevo, and it reports that acid rain was observed in each place. (translated by NEDO)

  12. NATO Symposium on Human Detection and Diagnosis of System Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, William

    1981-01-01

    This book includes all of the papers presented at the NATO Symposium on Human Detection and Diagnosis of System Failures held at Roskilde, Denmark on August 4-8, 1980. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO and the Rise National Laboratory of Denmark. The goal of the Symposium was to continue the tradition initiated by the NATO Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held in Berchtesgaden, F .R. Germany in 1976 and the NATO Symposium on Theory and Measurement of Mental Workload held in Mati, Greece in 1977. To this end, a group of 85 psychologists and engineers coming from industry, government, and academia convened to discuss, and to generate a "state-of-the-art" consensus of the problems and solutions associated with the human IS ability to cope with the increasing scale of consequences of failures within complex technical systems. The Introduction of this volume reviews their findings. The Symposium was organized to include brief formal presentations of pape...

  13. NATO 1949-2009: Fra regional forsvarsorganisation til global militær aktør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Baggrunden for Atlantpagtens oprettelse, NATOs formative periode i 1950erne, 'out-of-area'-operationer i Den Tredje Verden, atomstrategier, afspændingsperioden, den kolde krigs afslutning, samt NATOs transformation og udvidelse efter 1991 tematiseres i en oversigtlig analyse.......Baggrunden for Atlantpagtens oprettelse, NATOs formative periode i 1950erne, 'out-of-area'-operationer i Den Tredje Verden, atomstrategier, afspændingsperioden, den kolde krigs afslutning, samt NATOs transformation og udvidelse efter 1991 tematiseres i en oversigtlig analyse....

  14. NATO Logistics Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-19

    wart me logstcs support. Development of NATO Co operatve Logstcs arrangements s largely facltated by the use of...ndvdually or collectvely. The objectve of the NAMSO msson s to maxmse, both n peacetme and wart me, the effectveness of logstcs...and steam rasng plant n shps. Some natons are usng ths fuel n ground equpment operated by compresson gnton engnes F-76 s the

  15. NATO Conference on Work, Organizations, and Technological Change

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the Symposium entitled, "Work, Organizations and Technological Change" which was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany, 14-19 June 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the Special Panel on Systems Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. In proposing this meeting the Symposium Directors built upon several preceding NATO conferences in the general area of personnel systems, manpower modelling, and organization. The most recent NATO Conference, entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design," was held in Stresa, Italy in 1977. That meeting was organized to foster research on the interrelationships between programmatic approaches to personnel planning within organizations and behavioral science approachs to organization design. From that context of corporate planning the total internal organizational perspective was the MACRO view, and the selection, assignment, care and feeding of the people was the MICRO view. Conceptually, this meant that an integrated appr...

  16. How to Brand an International Organization. NATO Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Mihaita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Branding products and companies has always been associated with private enterprises and less, if ever, with international intergovernmental organizations. International organizations now have a long history behind them, a history often marked by contradictory events. In the last decade the international organizations developed their own public relations department in an attempt to communicate promptly and transmit the general audience their version of reality. Having this in mind we will try to briefly present in the current work the main reasons why we believe that the international organizations, NATO in particular, have started to see themselves as brand and to create a so called “commercial identity” by becoming a brand. By applying the conceptual and analytical framework used in analyzing the marketing strategies of the private companies we will try to see whether NATO is about to become a brand. Our starting point will be a 2008 statement of Jean-François Bureau, deputy general secretary responsible with NATO’s public diplomacy: “We have the green light to think about a branding policy for NATO”. Nowadays global society, perceptions tend to become more important than reality itself, and thus positive perceptions tend to become crucial. NATO has suffered an image decline in the last decade, therefore some new communication measures tend to impose themselves. The distinction between soft power and propaganda must be carefully analyzed when we speak about branding NATO. Thus we hope to bring some necessary clarifications in the area of NATO branding. Is there a brand? Is a brand going to be constructed? How does it differ from a commercial society? Does NATO need its own TV channel? Raising questions and offering a new perspective is, in the end, our primary goal, as a debate on this subject is a must that offers a new perspective in the area of theory of international organizations.

  17. Geopolitický pohled na členství Gruzie v NATO : Analýza gruzínské připravenosti a strategických zájmů NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Kufčák, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis addresses the issue of Georgian NATO membership and its strategic and geopolitical importance for NATO between 2003 and 2008. This thesis focuses in the first place on the question to what extend did Georgia fulfil Alliance's membership requirements. The aim of this section is to demonstrate that the reasoning behind NATO's refusal to award Georgia with Membership Action Plan cannot be objectively justified by Georgia's failure to meet the criteria but is to be derived fr...

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of the Republic of Serbia's membership in NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of possible membership of the Republic of Serbia in NATO as an opportunity to answer the question of whether a commitment to military neutrality of the Republic of Serbia in comparison to the region is the best choice? The fact is that almost no other topic in our public causes so much disagreement among citizens, non-governmental organizations and political elite as is the relationship Serbia to NATO and possible membership in the union. However, although the frequent occurrence experience any reason to discuss the (un desirability of joining the military alliance, NATO membership is not a question of 'to be or not to be' that is often asked, but of the actual budget, strategic and security assessments maximizing the consensus at the national political level, as well as some public support in the country. The opinions about Atlantic integration are therefore opposed. The fact that Serbia has declared its military neutrality, which was voted by the Assembly of the Republic of Serbia. But the fact that we have dissonant tones in public, which are in line with the declaration of neutrality, despite Serbia introduced in Atlantic integration, ie. NATO. The aim of this paper is to present the needs and commitment of Serbia's membership in NATO, but to present what is good, and what's membership in NATO would have negative connotations for the country. Based on this, the reader to conclude that solution is more correct and what should be done.

  19. NATO’s Northeastern Flank - Emerging Opportunities for Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary • Hungary has been among the most reticent about the U.S. and NATO approach to Russia during the Ukraine crisis ...region of Crimea and active efforts to occupy and destabi- lize other parts of eastern Ukraine sharply challenged this underlying assumption...Aggression in Ukraine , combined with Russian snap exercises on NATO’s borders, multiple aerial incursions into NATO and partner territory, cruise missile

  20. Adding Reports to Coalition Battle Management Language for NATO MSG-048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, J.M.; Corner, D.; Singapogo, S.S.; Clarc, N.; Cordonnier, N.; Menane, M.; Khimeche, L.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Alstad, A.; Schad, U.; Frey, M.; Reus, N. M. de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Grand, N.P. le; Brook, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with modeling and simulation. Its initial work in defining and

  1. NATO’s Changing its Posture Against Russia from Assurance to Deterrence: Does it Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    resurgence.73 However, this spending must continue in an upward trajectory and delinquent NATO members must hasten their attainment of the stated...accessed 17 Dec 2016) 2 http://www.nato.int/ history /nato-history.html 3 Paulauskas, Kestutis, (2016). On Deterrence. Retrieved from http

  2. NATO Advanced Research Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    This book covers latest development in theory and experiments of unconventional radiation production. Specifically, the generation of Tera-Hertz and X-ray radiation from low energy electron beams in the form of Channeling, Transition, Diffraction, Cherenkov, Smith-Purcell, PXR and Crystalline Undulator Radiation are presented. Material characteristics like thin targets, curved or bend crystals, inhomogeneous and left handed materials, multilayers as well as stimulation by external radiation are covered to demonstrate their influence in these processes. Novel ideas are offered on the use of such radiation in detectors and particle beam monitor development with improved energy or time resolution. The book assumes some familiarity of the reader with theoretical concepts underlying these phenomena and is therefore of primary use to the practicing scientist. More fundamental discussions of these phenomena can be found in the 2002 monograph "Electron-Photon Interaction in Dense Media" within the NATO Science Series...

  3. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  4. Operation Allied Force: Setting a New Precedent for Humanitarian Intervention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    .... Operation Allied Force was conducted without the explicit authorization of the United Nations Security Council, but was justified by NATO allies as a means to bring peace and stability to Kosovo...

  5. NATO and a Nuclear Iran - Concept Paper, Workshop Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    On October 7, 2010, The Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique) convened a day-long workshop in Paris to discuss the consequences for NATO of a nuclear-armed Iran, with support from the German Marshall Fund of the United States. The workshop involved around twenty experts from Alliance and non-Alliance countries, NATO officials, and French officials. This paper is a brief summary of the debate, focusing on the main ideas developed by the participants

  6. NATO and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nal, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The author gives a fine analysis of NATO's nuclear posture in Europe and considers its technical complexity in the context of modernization of the weapons and their launch systems, the political aspect of the nuclear disarmament question and the link with the ABM defensive shield. He demonstrates that we must not neglect the traditional element of relationships with Russia. (author)

  7. Enlargement Issues at NATO's Bucharest Summit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallis, Paul; Belkin, Paul; Ek, Carl; Kim, Julie; Nichol, Jim; Woehrel, Steven

    2008-01-01

    NATO will hold a summit in Bucharest on April 2-4, 2008, and a principal issue will be the consideration of the candidacies for membership of Albania, Croatia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...

  8. NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Yerznkanyan, K.; Diamond, D.; Vardanyan, M.; Sevikyan, G.

    2010-01-01

    The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

  9. The NATO Summit at Bucharest, 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallis, Paul

    2008-01-01

    .... The allies face an enduring challenge in their effort to stabilize Afghanistan. A "Strategic Vision" paper on Afghanistan clarified several issues but did not lead to a greater sharing of the combat burden among NATO governments...

  10. NATO-EU PARTNERSHIP: FOSTERING RESILIENCE FOR A COOPERATIVE SECURITY SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia MOISE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Present events indicate an encompassing process of multi-level changes - political, military, economic, and technological that highlights the idea that we are going through a phase of transition at systemic level that is redesigning the structure of power of the 21st century. This paper will try to find out first if the cooperative security concept can be seen as a security theory according to Baldwin’s criteria and second if NATO’s partnership policy in general and the NATO EU partnership in particular can foster resilience. The objectives of this article are to envisage the role of the NATO-EU partnership in the future by: reviewing the theoretical approaches on cooperative security, analysing NATO’s partnership policy, analysing the ability of NATO-EU partnership to foster resilience.

  11. NATO RESILIENCE STRATEGY TOWARDS RUSSIAN HYBRID WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Filip

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the greatest security challenges of this generation, the Nord Atlantic Alliance is currently implementing the most significant strategy for strengthening its collective defense capabilities since the end of the Cold War. While the public attention has focused on NATO’s military adaptation, the concerted efforts to strengthen the Alliance’s ability to withstand and recover from a military attack, have so far been less visible. However, this is changing. At the 2016 Alliance high level meeting in Warsaw, NATO leaders agreed on an unprecedented commitment to “increase resilience”. The 28 Allies work urgently to put this commitment into practice. But how to understand this NATO resilience?

  12. Common security and defence policy of the European Union and NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural analysis of cooperation collectivity NATO and the EU, who are the guarantors of foreign security policy in the region and in the world. In this regard, it outlines the hypothetical discourse in the EU's relations with NATO, the United States, that have marked the start of the independence of each individual battle in terms of security. Standalone approach, reflecting the credibility of each individual collectivity, ultimately lead to a reduction of investment potential. It starts by considering a presentation of possible options on the reflection of the relations between the EU and NATO that the 'fine-tuning' proclaims the need for integration and pragmatic and rational manner, accepted by the political and economic realities in achieving interests. In this paper, the intention of the data on CSDP and critical analysis of relations between the EU and NATO and the presentation of the most significant agreements between the two collectives, help bridge the gap in the division of political interest and commitment of its leading members.

  13. Nato's response to the challenge of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteside, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will cover the alliance's response to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) proliferation, placing this in the context of the dangers involved in the potential use of such devices by non-state actors. It will include the political measures taken by NATO, the ongoing work with Russia, activities underway within the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, as well as the concrete 'deliverables' for the Prague Summit in November 2002. NATO deals with these issues both from the point of view of deployed military forces, as well as civil emergency planning measures, and the overview covers both elements. The alliance has recognized since the early 1990s that it is important to strengthen efforts against proliferation. The principal goal remains that of preventing proliferation from taking place, or, should it take place, to reverse it through diplomatic means. Hand in hand with such an approach goes the important role of ensuring an appropriate defense posture against the possible use of WMD. It is very important to maintain the flexibility and effectiveness of alliance forces despite the presence, the threat or the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. In this context, the alliance draws upon a mix of means to address the challenges of proliferation, including deterrence and offensive and defensive means, and enhancing the effectiveness of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as diplomatic and counter-proliferation measures. In the wake of 11 September, there is clearly an increased awareness of the potential use of WMD by non-state actors. As a result, NATO has adapted its work program to the evolving demands of the Committees we support. That said, there is a great deal of continuity in the work of a committee such as the senior defense group on proliferation - in terms of what it has been doing over recent years to enhance military readiness to operate in a WMD environment. Many of the

  14. NATO õppusel harjutavad 16 riigi meeskonnad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Tallinnas paiknev NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus korraldab sel nädalal õppuse «Locked Shields 2015», kus 400 osalejat ning 16 riigi meeskonnad võtavad mõõtu tehniliste küberjuhtumite lahendamises

  15. "Die Nato hat einen grossen Fehler begangen" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Ansgar Graw

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti president räägib sõjalistest kokkupõrgetest Gruusias, vajadusest uue rahvusvahelise julgeolekustruktuuri järele, ootustest rahvusvahelise üldsuse suhtes, Balti riikide julgeolekust ning kritiseerib NATO otsust mitte anda Gruusiale NATO liikmelisuse tegevuskava

  16. Rogozin võib saada Moskva esindajaks NATO juures / Ravil Khair Al-Din

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Al-Din, Ravil Khair

    2007-01-01

    Vene riigiduuma liige Dmitri Rogozini võib saada Venemaa NATO-esindajaks. Vt. samas: Mihkelson: kaks kärbest ühe hoobiga. Riigikogu EL-i asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson nimetab kaks eesmärki, mida võib teenida Dmitri Rogozini võimalik nimetamine Venemaa NATO-esindajaks

  17. Dezvoltarea diplomației publice. O analiză comparată între NATO și UE* (The development of public diplomacy: A comparative analysis between NATO and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Georgiana IVAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that NATO, EU and other organizations tend to include public diplomacy elements in their official documents and strategies, we can say that states are no longer the exclusive actors in this field. Through this paper, I seek to identify some similarities and differences between NATO and EU’s public diplomacy. In this research I will also study how much of their soft power capabilities these organizations use, if they are used in order to influence rather internal than external audiences and if we can talk about elements of public diplomacy with involvements for development. Beyond these aspects, I will take into account the fact that Philip Seib claims that NATO should focus on using soft power in order to justify its hard power and try to see if there are differences in the goals that NATO and the EU target to reach through the implementation of some public diplomacy strategies.

  18. NATO, Russia, Poland, and Ukraine: Perspectives on the Ukraine Candidacy for NATO Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Ukraine have the potential to join NATO while Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro , and Cyprus are possibly the next in line.60 Similarly, Ukraine...responsible for the design of the SS-18 and the SS-24 ICBMs, and the Pivdenmash (formerly Yuzhmash) Machine-Building Plant , which produced a wide...westernization, particularly in medicine and architecture but also strategy and foreign relations.163 In addition to his western

  19. NATOs Deterrence Strategy is Failing. The Enhanced Forward Presence: Delusion or Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    with serving, senior leaders across the NATO Alliance. Research reveals a variety of shortcomings and associated recommendations to improve the EFP...levers, answerable to a single NDCC exploits Russia’s autocratic politics and grand strategy of mobilization. Routine, democratic checks and...the reduction of commitment in Afghanistan. Senior leaders are aligned on the requirement for an updated deterrence strategy and what might be termed

  20. A Model to Transform NATO’s Operational Level Military Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    stabilization operations include security, economic recovery, social well-being, justice and reconciliation, and public participation in governance. Jean ... Millet and Murray define military effectiveness as the process by which a military converts its available resources into fighting power. Contemporary...Failure. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996. Durfourcq, Jean and David S. Yost. “NATO-EU Cooperation in Post Conflict Operations.” Research Paper, NATO

  1. President Ilves : NATO liikmed peavad enda kaitsmisel olema innovatiivsed / Kristel Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves esines Bukarestis NATO temaatikaga tegelevate noorteorganisatsioonide esindajate (Young Atlanticists) konverentsil. Riigipea kõneles Eesti kogemusest liitumisel NATOga, ühenduse tulevikust ja laienemisest, samuti uutest julgeolekuohtudest. Ingl. k. ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 3. apr. 2008, lk. 12, pealk.: President Ilves: NATO must be innovative in its defence. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Bukarestis 1.-3.04.2008

  2. Anne Applebaum: Kas NATO lõpp on lähedal? / Indrek Veiserik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veiserik, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    USA ajakirjaniku Anne Applebaumi kriitikast NATO kui organisatsiooni toimimise ja Afganistani missiooni suhtes. Kesknädala arvates võiks president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, kes on annetanud A. Applebaumile Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi, kuulata tema välispoliitilisi seisukohti. Viidatakse ka Kanada kindrali Rick Hillieri kriitikale NATO kohta

  3. Stepping Up: Burden Sharing by NATO’s Newest Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    trustworthiness as a partner in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Af- ghanistan, and also in Iraq. Now, as a full member of the Alliance, our responsibility in...Rein Lang at the celebrating of the first anniversary of Estonia’s NATO accession,” Tallinn, Estonia, April 4, 2005, available from www.vm.ee/eng...Lang, Rein (Estonian Foreign Minister). “Address by Foreign Minister Rein Lang at the celebration of the first anniversary of Estonia’s NATO accession

  4. The INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) Controversy: A Confluence of Foreign and Domestic Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Socialist Party, PASOK , in 1981, on a platform of withdrawing Greece from NATO and expelling US forces from Greece . 5 3 Schwartz, p. 73. 47 Turkey was...Portugal, Greece , and Turkey (Spain was not a NATO member in 1979). Basing any of the new INF weapons in Portugal would have had limited effect because...of range limitations (not - as pronounced, but similar to the IRBMs deployed in Western . Europe in the late 1950s). As for Greece , anti-Americanism

  5. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  6. NATO "röövib" Eestilt kogu jõueliidi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Bukarestis toimuvatel NATO tippkohtumisega seotud üritustel esindavad Eestit president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, peaminister Andrus Ansip, välisminister Urmas Paet, kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo ja kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Ants Laaneots. Poliitikute päevakavast. President T. H. Ilves esineb NATO temaatikaga tegelevate noorteorganisatsioonide esindajate konverentsil ning mõttekoja German Marshall Fund korraldataval konverentsil "The Bucharest Conference". Vabariigi President töövisiidil Bukarestis 1.-3.04.2008

  7. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  8. Summary of remarks by R.C. Richardson: NATO's basic TNF problem and principal posture findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of atomic weapons in NATO defense planning seems to be an issue of special interest to writers and historians. It is also an issue fraught with confusion for the official record of actions taken does not tell the whole story. Both writers and historians seem to be having a hard time getting a clear and agreed position on this subject and for good reasons. Reasons which are not generally understood although important not only to history but also to future U.S. security planning. The confusion over tactical nuclear planning in NATO can be traced to the early 1950s when the Alliance was faced with the need to develop and present a credible defense posture for its European members while being unable to field classic force levels anywhere near comparable to those of the Warsaw Pact nations that threatened them. A summary paper is presented in two parts. Part I explains what the Basic TNF Problem appears to be and how it came about and Part II discusses examples of the type of corrective measures that should have been - and still should be - taken

  9. On some aspects of the UN Security Council Mandate Application during the NATO Operation Unified Protector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the compliance of the NATO operation Unified Protector with the international law has not become a key topic of scholarly debate yet. The prevailing attitude is such that NATO intervention was in accordance with the international law. Nevertheless, the article argues that NATO in Libya exceeded the UN Security Council mandate. Unified Protector was an operation conducted in the favour of one side, in this case, the rebels. NATO military engagement in Libya very much approached providing air support to Libyan rebelling groups in order to topple the regime. Furthermore, this conclusion is also confirmed by the fact that Western countries had provided military advisors and arms as well.

  10. NATO palkas Coca-Colast mainekujundaja / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    NATO otsustas oma kaubamärgi värskendamiseks palgata viimased kaks aastat Coca-Cola mainet kujundanud Michael Stopfordi, kelle põhiülesandeks tõenäoliselt jääb tavakodanikele organisatsiooni tähtsuse ja rolli selgitamine

  11. Moves to withdraw nuclear weapons from NATO?; Vers un retrait des armes nucleaires de l'Otan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, A. [Ecole Royale Militaire, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    The American nuclear landscape in Europe could change in the coming months. The signs are already there, and a new strategic posture will have major implications for the Europeans as well as for the visibility of France deterrent force. Nonetheless, the Georgian crisis, tensions with Iran, Russian muscle flexing and NATO's line cast doubt on the idea that a partial or even complete withdrawal of American B-61 bombs could be on the agenda at the Alliance's 60. anniversary in April 2009. (author)

  12. The Future of NATO Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Baltic states, Estoma , Latvia and Llthuama, as well as Albania and states of the former Yugoslatla are also generally consldered to be part of...Rornama, Slovema. Slovakia, Bulgaria. Macedoma Albania, Estoma , Latvia and Llthuama) decided to participate. The exceptions were the three states...reforms. Estoma 1s already a strong candidate for NATO member&up Latvia and Lrthuama are havmg greater drfficulties in implementing reforms, but then

  13. The use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO aggression against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaric, M.; Petkovic, S.; Devic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that DU (depleted uranium) weaponry was extensively used during the 'Desert Storm' operation in Iraq. There is no doubt that NATO used DU ammunition in Bosnia in 1994 and 1995. It is also common knowledge that many NATO armies are equipped with DU ammunition in various calibers (from 20 up to 155 mm) as a standard part of certain weapon systems. These facts, as a result of literature research, as well as Yugoslav Army (YA) intelligence data on the eve of the aggression clearly showed that NATO most probably would use DU ammunition. (author)

  14. NATO kõrgeim sõjaväelane: olge abi vastuvõtuks valmis / Raymond Henault ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henault, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    NATO sõjalise komitee esimehe sõnul on NATO eesmärk aidata Balti riike õhuturbega kuni 2018. aastani, õhuturbe kontseptsioon vaadatakse üle 2011. aastal. Ämari lennuväli peab muutuma kättesaadavaks kõigile NATO õhuvägedele. Kindral tõstis esile küberkaitse kompetentsikeskuse loomise vajadust ning avaldas arvamust Eesti kaitseväe praeguse mudeli kohta

  15. Läänemerel näeb pingelist Vene-NATO vastasseisu / Peter Roberts ; intervjueeris Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roberts, Peter

    2017-01-01

    NATO üksuste tegutsemisest Läänemerel. Sagenenud on juhtumid, kus Venemaa ründab elektrooniliste vahenditega NATO laevade navigatsioonisüsteeme. Intervjuu Briti mereväeeruohvitseri ja RUSI mõttekoja sõjateaduste direktori Peter Robertsiga

  16. A Sustainable NATO/EU Partnership for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfrengle, Franz X

    2008-01-01

    A major question dealing with future security challenges of the United States and Europe will be about the relationship between both, especially through two major organizations, NATO and the European Union (EU...

  17. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Relativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on "R@lativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids", co-sponsored by Simon Fraser University (SFU) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) was held Aug 10- 21, 1992 at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. A total of 90 lecturers and students with backgrounds in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and various interdisciplinary subjects attended the ASI. In my proposal submitted to NATO for financial support for this ASI, I pointed out that a NATO ASI on the effects of relativity in many-electron systems was held ten years ago, [See G.L. Malli, (ed) Relativistic Effects in Atoms, Molecules and Solids, Plenum Press, Vol B87, New York, 1983]. Moreover, at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on advanced methods for molecular electronic structure "an assessment of state-of­ the-art of Electron Correlation ... " was carried out [see C.E. Dykstra, (ed), Advanced Theories and Computational Approa...

  19. NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture After the Chicago Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    were NATO, how would 28 nations manage the message when the stakes are so very high indeed? . . . What can we do now to prevent us from finding...miscalculation” and vulnerability to “a bear, a snake, a scorpion ,” or some other threat. “If NATO cannot use the words used by the IAEA and the UN...most of NATO’s strategic missile defense capability via its European Phased Adaptive Approach, this British participant asked, “ What does the U.S

  20. The status of foreign forces in Afghanistan post 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voetelink, J.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    On 30 September 2014 the long-awaited Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) between Afghanistan and the US and the post-2014 Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) between Afghanistan and NATO were signed, ending a process that dragged on for almost two years. While the media often stress that the

  1. Reform of Command and Control Structures in North Atlantic Treaty Organization Special Operations Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    .... The central research question is as follows: Does NATO require a standing Special Operations Force Command and Control structure and combat capability to meet the emerging global security requirements of the Alliance...

  2. Intelligence Reform in Albania: Its Relation to Democratization and Integration into the EU and NATO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bala, Eduart

    2008-01-01

    ...) that are now part of the European Union (EU) and NATO. For most of the CEECs, the need to satisfy the challenging conditions for membership in the EU and NATO has acted as an "anchor" of democratization and other reforms...

  3. Towards a persistent capability for NATO MTDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, A.; Huiskamp, W.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Pink, S.

    2016-01-01

    NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) and nations have a common need for training of air combined and joint collective tactical training. Due to reduced availability of live assets in the military air space, the general restrictions inside the airspace

  4. Venemaa asus piirama koostööd NATO poole püüdleva Ukrainaga / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Ukraina palus NATO-l kaaluda alliansi tippkohtumisel Ukrainale liikmesuse tegevusplaani (MAP) andmist, Venemaa reageeris sellele Ukrainaga 1997. aastal sõlmitud lepingu katkestamisega. Ukrainas on NATO-ga liitumise vastu üle poole elanikkonnast

  5. Recasting NATO’s Strategic Concept. Possible Directions for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the end of the Cold War, these missions have proven more and more challenging for the alliance as their distance from Brus - sels increases. Meanwhile...www.basicint.org/europe/NATO/afghanistan.pdf Sherwood-Randall, Elizabeth , Alliances and American National Security, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War...Huffington Post, April 1, 2008. As of July 14, 2009: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ elizabeth -sherwoodrandall/is-nato-dead-or alive_b_94469.html Sky, Emma

  6. Wesley Clark pooldab NATO harta tugevdamist / Evi Evart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evart, Evi

    2003-01-01

    Endine NATO vägede ülemjuhataja Euroopas Wesley Clark pidas USA välispoliitikanõukogus kõne, milles tegi ettepaneku sõlmida uus Atlandi harta ning võrdles USA suhteid Euroopa riikidega raudeesriide-aegse olukorraga

  7. Basic Combat Unit of the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    public sector .6 There are three main reasons why: 1. After Slovenia joined NATO, political support for the armed forces began to decline. Image...can put three $20 bills together, but if we have an $18 or $20 fight, we have a unit that’s capable of a better integration (with other forces) and... three different $20 bills . It has to be noted, that the U.S. Army did significantly reduce the number of types of combat brigades from seventeen to

  8. Eesti NATO ukselävel / Mari-Ann Kelam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelam, Mari-Ann, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Seda, et NATO liitumisläbirääkimistele kutsutavate seas on ka Eesti, saab veel tänagi pidada üheks meie iseseisva riikluse suursaavutuseks, kui mitte imeks, kirjutab Riigikogu liige Mari-Ann Kelam. Autor: Isamaaliit. Parlamendisaadik

  9. 77 FR 13232 - Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... political figures, the G8/NATO Summit is expected to draw significant domestic and international media... mitigate the threat of violence and ensure the safety and security of those who attend, participate, and... NATO; the high concentration of dignitaries and political figures; the expected interest of domestic...

  10. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  11. NATO's silent side / Tomas Urbonas ; interviewed by Matthew Garrick

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbonas, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    Afganistani provintsis Ghowr rahvusvaheliste suhete spetsialisti ja Kabulis NATO esindajana töötanud Tomas Urbonas räägib sealsest elust, kohalike elanike sõbralikkusest, oma tegevustest ja oma eluvaadetest

  12. Balts react to anti-NATO magazine article / Andris Straumanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Straumanis, Andris

    2002-01-01

    Moskva korrespondent Jeffrey Tayler kirjutas Ameerika ajalehes The Atlantic Monthly artikli venelaste diskrimineerimisest Balti riikides ja et sellepärast ei peaks Eestit, Leedut ja Lätit NATO-sse võtma

  13. NATO and the Challenges of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    to the area west of Egypt and includes Morocco , Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, and Mauritania. xviii NATO and the Challenges of Austerity States would...takeoff but arrested recovery COIN counterinsurgency CROs Completion Reserve Officers CSAR combat search-and-rescue CSR Comprehensive Spending Review CTOL...2010, the Comprehensive Spending Review ( CSR ), part of the Strategic Defense and Security Review (SDSR), instructed the Ministry of Defence (MoD) to

  14. Trump, NATO og den europæiske sikkerhedsarkitektur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Henriksen, Anders

    Manglende klarhed i den amerikanske linje over for det NATO, landet indtil nu har taget føringen i, vil få konsekvenser for Europa og for Danmarks muligheder og valg. Denne rapport ser på konsekvenserne for den europæiske sikkerhedsarkitektur....

  15. NATO STRATEGY AND POLICY IN THE CONFLICTS OF “THE ARAB SPRING”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е А Антюхова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the NATO strategy and policy in the conflicts of “the Arab spring”. New doctrinal purposes of the military-political block under the conditions of transformation of the world politics system are subjected to analysis. The special focus is on the development of political crises and conflicts in Libya and Syria and approaches of the North Atlantic Alliance to their settlement. The conse-quences of the NATO actions for the states of the Arab world are analyzed.

  16. Minister: Estonia, NATO await greater transparency from Zapad exercise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Eesti kaitseminister Jüri Luik kinnitas, et Eesti ja NATO jälgivad hoolikalt Venemaa sõjalise õppuse Zapad 2017 ettevalmistusi. Venemaalt ja Valgevenelt oodatakse rahvusvahelistest lepingutest kinnipidamist ning välisvaatlejate lubamist õppusele

  17. NATO Pallet with Javelin Missiles, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted tests in accordance with MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the NATO pallet with Javelin missiles...

  18. NATO Conference on Materials for Advanced Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhead, J; Steele, B

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...

  19. NATO’s Preparedness for Cyberwar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump sent shockwaves through the Alliance by declaring that, if elected president, he would not guarantee...NATO.252 Le Pen, who is currently expected to advance to the second round of voting in the 2017 French presidential elections ,253 has advocated a...prospective head of state of their strongest and closest Ally is alarming.259 If Trump was elected president, his statements could undermine the

  20. The NATO Warsaw Summit: How to Strengthen Alliance Cohesion (Strategic Forum, Number 296)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    notion of European disintegration—if it were to take hold—cannot have but the most profound im- plications for Alliance management. The rise of political...BEL SVN CAN DEU HRV NOR FRA ESP HUN GBR USA TUR DNK NLD CZE ROU PRT EST GRC LVA SVK LUX POL LTU Figure. NATO Defense Expenditure Data Source: Defence ...Danish Institute for International Studies, August 2015); Rainer L. Glatz and Martin Zapfe, NATO Defence Planning between Wales and Warsaw: Politico

  1. A relação NATO-Rússia e o tratado START III

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Alcino Miguel dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A presente dissertação efetua uma análise às relações entre a NATO e a Rússia nos últimos anos e procura saber se esta relação tem sido ou não condicionada pela conjuntura internacional. Neste trabalho verifica-se que a relação entre os dois atores internacionais, NATO-Rússia foi profundamente influenciada pelo conjunto de acontecimentos que decorreram no sistema internacional. Esta análise permite compreender melhor as atitudes, comportamentos da organização internacional q...

  2. NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Matthias; Mueller, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The study on NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe covers the following topics: From the Prague speech to the strategic concept - the significance and role of the substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe: the substrategic nuclear weapons (SSNW) in the USA: relict of the Cold war or clamps of the transatlantic security? The future of the SSNW from the Prague speech to the strategic concept. The positions of selected NATO members and Russia. Conclusions and recommendations: From the significance of the US nuclear weapons in Europe. Arms control policy options.

  3. Article 5 revisited : Is NATO up to it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, Margriet; Homan, Kees; van Ham, Peter

    The events in Ukraine pose fundamental questions about the Alliance's military and political ability to uphold its obligations to defend NATO's member states. Russian tactics in Georgia and Ukraine remain below the article 5 threshold of an 'armed attack against one or more' Allies, which means that

  4. NATO Conference on Manpower Planning and Organization Design

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard

    1978-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the conference entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design" which was held in Stresa, Italy, 20-24 June 1977. The Conference was sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division and organized jointly through the Special Programs Panels on Human Factors and on Systems Science. Two Conference Directors were appointed with overall responsibilities for the programme and for policy, and they were assisted in their tasks by a small advisory panel consisting of Professor A. Charnes (University of Texas), Professor W.W. Cooper (Carnegie Mellon University, now at Harvard University) and Dr. F.A. Heller (TavistQck Institute of Human Relations). Professor R. Florio of Bergamo kindly agreed to become Administrative Director and, as such, was responsible for all the local arrangements. The Conference Directors were further assisted by "national points of contact" appointed from each of the member countries of NATO. These national representatives played a substantial part in the s...

  5. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Health Services Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Werff, Albert; Hirsch, Gary; Barnard, Keith

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute on "Health Services Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. A special word is said in this respect supra by Pro­ fessor Checkland, Chairman of the Systems Science Panel. The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) was organized for the purpose of bringing together senior scientists to seek a consensus on the assessment of the present state of knowledge on the specific topic of "health services systems" and to present views and recom­ mendations for future health services research directions, which should be of value to both the scientific community and the people in charge of reorienting health services. The conference was structured so as to permit the assembly of a variety of complementary viewpoints through intensive group discussions to be the basis of this final report. Invitees were selected fr...

  6. Protection of biodiversity in Yugoslavia after NATO aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, G.; Tatic, B.

    2002-01-01

    In comparison with other countries Yugoslavia is very rich by great genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. The territory of Yugoslavia is 102173 km 2 , it is only 0,07% of world's land and 2,1% of the European continent. We have 6 biomes, 5 of the 12 terrestrial biomes of the world and biome of the sea as sixth biome. According to the international criteria the territory of Yugoslavia is one of the six European and one of the 153 world's centers of biological diversity. In period from March 24. until June 10. 1999. NATO carried out more than 35000 assaults against the Yugoslavia. All these have lasting consequences on the health of the entire population and the environment with prominent transboundary effects. Many species have become extinct due to the NATO bombings, and wildlife has started migrating and abandoning its natural habitat. The necessity of future scientifically based monitoring is evident and also very strong protection of biodiversity. (author)

  7. Scotland’s Potential Independence: Defense Implications for Britain, NATO, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EU European Union GDP Gross Domestic Product MoD Ministry of Defence NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NPT...Scottish 2 territory in a minimal amount of time. The implications of this effort for NATO could be of concern not only for current regional stability ...Lowlanders focused more on the economic grievances they were facing as businessmen and entrepreneurs whereas the Highlanders found their grievances in

  8. NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe; Das Neue Strategische Konzept der NATO und die Zukunft der nuklearen Abruestung in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Matthias; Mueller, Harald

    2010-07-01

    The study on NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe covers the following topics: From the Prague speech to the strategic concept - the significance and role of the substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe: the substrategic nuclear weapons (SSNW) in the USA: relict of the Cold war or clamps of the transatlantic security? The future of the SSNW from the Prague speech to the strategic concept. The positions of selected NATO members and Russia. Conclusions and recommendations: From the significance of the US nuclear weapons in Europe. Arms control policy options.

  9. Second NATO/SIBCA Exercise on Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wils, E

    1999-01-01

    In order to practise the sampling of chemical warfare agents under realistic conditions, the Netherlands participated successfully in the second NATO/SIBCA sampling exercise conducted in Poland on 1-3...

  10. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... Over several decades, great disparities in the funding of defense research and technology by NATO members has produced a widening technological gap that threatens to become a divergence a condition...

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Submicron Semiconductor Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David; Jacoboni, C

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES...................

  12. Inclusive Security: NATO Adapts and Adopts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    population. Our mostly all-male units were handicapped early on by their inability to interact with or serve half the Afghan population. NATO...nations to underwrite the costs of security and defense related projects focusing on support- ing the Jordanian Armed Forces’ efforts to increase...Alliance adapts to ever-evolving and complex threats, we can- not afford to draw from less than 100 percent of our talent pool. Diversity in all its forms

  13. NATO'S Response to the 11 September 2001 Terrorism: Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kouzmanov, Krassi

    2003-01-01

    This thesis analyzes NATO's decisions and actions in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and assesses the probable future role of the Alliance in combating...

  14. The Literature Review of Analytical Support to Defence Transformation: Lessons Learned from Turkish Air Force Transformation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    available [11]. Additionally, Table-3 is a guide for DMAIC methodology including 29 different methods [12]. RTO-MP-SAS-081 6 - 4 NATO UNCLASSIFIED NATO...Table 3: DMAIC Methodology (5-Phase Methodology). Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Project Charter Prioritization Matrix 5 Whys Analysis...Methodology Scope [13] DMAIC PDCA Develop performance priorities This is a preliminary stage that precedes specific improvement projects, and the aim

  15. Taking the lead in professional growth the development of a NATO SOF intelligence officer

    OpenAIRE

    Vores, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis analyzes intelligence support to NATO Special Operations and the training that facilitates this capability and recommends a model to increase competence in the field of intelligence. The training provided by the NSTEP has led NATO SOF intelligence personnel to fill critical positions that have afforded operational elements to execute missions. The successes of ISAF SOF have been attributed to the skilled analysts that have...

  16. Software Process Improvement Using Force Field Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvement plan is then drawn and implemented. This paper studied the state of Nigerian software development organizations based on selected attributes. Force field analysis is used to partition the factors obtained into driving and restraining forces. An attempt was made to improve the software development process ...

  17. Underwater detection, classification and localisation : Improving the capabilities of towed sonar arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, M.E.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Warsaw pact have resulted in a change of operational theatre for the naval forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). In particular, the focus of Anti Submarine Warfare forces has shifted from tracking Soviet nuclear ballistic missile

  18. Burden-sharing in NATO. The Trump effect won’t last

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    The Trump Administration has adopted a more confrontational and transactional approach to burden-sharing in NATO. It has threatened to “moderate” its commitment to the Alliance unless the European members increase their defence spending (US Mission to NATO 2017), and contribute more to out......-of-area operations. Since President Trump entered the office, European defence spending has risen at a quicker pace, and the nature of the defence debate in Europe has changed. The Europeans are no longer debating whether they need to increase their spending; the questions discussed are how fast and how much....... Is this evidence of a “Trump effect”, and will it last? This is the question addressed in this policy brief. Because it is hard to predict the future, we adopt an historical perspective....

  19. Global NATO: Transformation of a Regional Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    institutionalized security cooperation clashes with the Russian perception of NATO violating its sphere of interest. Second, for the first time in American... theatres with geostrategic relevance are Europe and Asia-Pacific. As a result, this paper will primarily revolve around global issues in these two...some cases they (re-)emerge with unanticipated intensity, often from casually neglected sources. Recent Russian neo- expansionism might be the most

  20. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Design of Mathematical Modelling Courses for Engineering Education

    CERN Document Server

    Moscardini, Alfredo

    1994-01-01

    As the role of the modern engineer is markedly different from that of even a decade ago, the theme of engineering mathematics educa­ tion (EME) is an important one. The need for mathematical model­ ling (MM) courses and consideration of the educational impact of computer-based technology environments merit special attention. This book contains the proceeding of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held on this theme in July 1993. We have left the industrial age behind and have entered the in­ formation age. Computers and other emerging technologies are penetrating society in depth and gaining a strong influence in de­ termining how in future society will be organised, while the rapid change of information requires a more qualified work force. This work force is vital to high technology and economic competitive­ ness in many industrialised countries throughout the world. Within this framework, the quality of EME has become an issue. It is expected that the content of mathematics courses taught in schools o...

  1. NATO Advanced Research Wokshop “Recent Trends in Energy Security: With Special Emphasis on Low-Dimensional Functional Materials”

    CERN Document Server

    Matrasulov, Davron; Rakhimov, Khamdam; Low-Dimensional F unctional Materials

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining and improving energy security is one of the biggest challenges worldwide.  The NATO ARW conference in Tashkent, October 2012, was devoted to discussing visions and concepts that are currently discussed in different research fields. Leading scientists have written concise contributions to introduce the reader to this exciting topic.  The present volume summarizes the discussions at the conference.

  2. Towards a European Defense Identity Compatible with NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estrella

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI is a common but not defined goal, due to disagreements among Europeans on its political content. Reasons to explain this are related to the resistance to the idea of a European defense authority, fears of German hegemony, and the conviction that Europe is uncapable of defending herselfwithout the assistance of the United States. Estrella states that, with the end of the Cold War, some arguments opposing ESDI lost weight. However, the evolution and restructuring of NATO is not the product of European initiative, but rather an element of the U.S.strategy in Europe. Moreover, while the U.S. has a global strategy, Europe has not yet defined its security interests neither globally nor regionally. The author reviews the steps undertaken by NATO and the WEU towards further collaboration and the development of a European identity. He wonders whether there is enough political will either in Europe or the U.S. to overcome archaic views on trans-atlantic relations and narrow concepts about the future of Europe.

  3. Kindral Clark: tehke NATOs kõva häält! / Wesley K Clark ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Clark, Wesley K

    2005-01-01

    NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede endine juhataja, USA erukindral 2004. aasta presidendivalimistest USA-s, võimalikust kandideerimisest presidendiks 2008. aasta valimistel, demokraatide võimalustest järgmised presidendivalimised võita, oma seisukohtadest Iraagi sõja küsimuses, diplomaatiliste vahendite kasutamisest sõjaliste konfliktide lahendamisel, NATO laienemisest ja organisatsiooni sõjalisest suutlikkusest ning intsidendist Vene hävitajaga. Lisa: Wesley K. Clark

  4. Prospects for Closer Israeli-NATO Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Actions and Arab Perceptions.” In The Middle East and the United States, 5th ed., edited by David W. Lesch and Mark L. Haas, 177–96. Boulder, CO...Ibid. 110 David W. Lesch, Mark L. Haas, eds., The Middle East and the United States, 5th ed. (Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 2014), 2 21 beginning...to Israel in 2005, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer stated, “the interplay of Middle Eastern and transatlantic security is becoming

  5. NATO in Europe: Between Weak European Allies and Strong Influence of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Lidija Čehulić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the bipolar international order, NATO has been focused on its desire to eradicate Cold War divisions and to build good relations with Russia. However, the security environment, especially in Europe, is still dramatically changing. The NATO Warsaw Summit was focused especially on NATO’s deteriorated relations with Russia that affect Europe’s security. At the same time, it looked at bolstering deterrence and defence due to many concerns coming from eastern European allies about Russia’s new attitude in international relations. The Allies agreed that a dialogue with Russia rebuilding mutual trust needs to start. In the times when Europe faces major crisis from its southern and south-eastern neighbourhood - Western Balkan countries, Syria, Libya and Iraq - and other threats, such as terrorism, coming from the so-called Islamic State, causing migration crises, it is necessary to calm down relations with Russia. The article brings out the main purpose of NATO in a transformed world, with the accent on Europe, that is constantly developing new security conditions while tackling new challenges and threats.

  6. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys­ tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl­ edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten­ sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces­ sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....

  7. NATO Symposium on Women and the World of Work

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    From August 4 to 8, 1980, the Science Committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored the symposium, "Women and the World of Work," which was held at the Hotel Sintra Estoril in the coastal area south of Lisbon, Portugal. This symposium hatl been "in progress" since 1977 when the idea to prepare a proposal for a NATO­ sponsored symposium on the topic of women and the military was first suggested by Dr. Walter Wilkins, then Scientific Director of the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California. At that time and during the previous 5 years, increasing numbers of women were being recruited into military service not only in the United States but also in several NATO-allied countries. Few research projects on the utilization of women in the military had been reported in the scientific literature with the exception of work conducted at the University of Chicago and Naval Health Research Center. Several investigators, however, were identified who had recently initiated research in this ...

  8. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Appli­ cations was held at the Hotel Algarve in Praia Da Rocha, Portugal, from March 26 through March 30, 1979, and was sponsored by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science. There were forty-one participants representing a wide range of backgrounds and interests. The purpose of the institute was to bring together people working in search theory and applications with potential users of search techniques to stimulate the increased application of recent­ ly developed search technology to civilian problems such as search and rescue, mineral exploration, surveillance, and fishing. Con­ versely, it was felt that by exposing search analysts to potential applications and new problems, they would be stimulated to develop new techniques for these applications and problems. The exchange of ideas and problems necessary to accomplish these goals was provided in the meeting workshops. There were three workshops, Search and Rescue, Exploration, and Sur...

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Microlocal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Castel vecchio-Pas coli NATO Advanced Study Institute is aimed to complete the trilogy with the two former institutes I organized : "Boundary Value Problem for Evolution Partial Differential Operators", Liege, 1976 and "Singularities in Boundary Value Problems", Maratea, 1980. It was indeed necessary to record the considerable progress realized in the field of the propagation of singularities of Schwartz Distri­ butions which led recently to the birth of a new branch of Mathema­ tical Analysis called Microlocal Analysis. Most of this theory was mainly built to be applied to distribution solutions of linear partial differential problems. A large part of this institute still went in this direction. But, on the other hand, it was also time to explore the new trend to use microlocal analysis In non linear differential problems. I hope that the Castelvecchio NATO ASI reached its purposes with the help of the more famous authorities in the field. The meeting was held in Tuscany (Italy) at Castelvecchio-P...

  10. 2004 Space Report: Environment and Strategy for Space Research at NATO's Research and Technology Organisation (RTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the motivation for and a strategy to enhance the NATO Research and Technology Organisation's (RTO) current space research effort to reflect NATO's growing military dependence on space systems. Such systems and services provided by these systems are critical elements of military operations. NATO uses space systems for operational planning and support, communication, radio navigation, multi-sensor and multi-domain demonstrations. Such systems are also used to promote regional stability. A quantitative analysis of work related to space in the NATO RTO showed that during the period of 1998 - 2004, 5% of the research pursued in the NATO RTO has been clearly focused on space applications. Challenging environmental and organizational barriers for increasing RTO space research were identified. In part, these include lack of sufficient space expertise representation on panels, the military sensitivity of space, current panel work loads and the need for specific technical recommendations from peers. A strategy for enhancing space research in the RTO is to create a limited-life Space Advisory Group (SAG) composed of Space Expert Consultants who are panel members with appropriate expertise and additional expertise from the nations. The SAG will recommend and find support in the nations for specific technical activities related to space in the areas of Space Science, Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Spacecraft Systems, Surveillance and Early Warning, Training and Simulation and Policy. An RTO Space Advisory Group will provide an organizational mechanism to gain recognition of RTO as a forum for trans-Atlantic defence space research and to enhance space research activities.

  11. NATO Glossary of Abbreviations Used in NATO Documents and Publications (Glossaire OTAN des Abreviations Utilisees dans les Documents et Publications OTAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    provided by the ONTC for NASG meetings held at NATO HQ and by CC MAR HQ Northwood, for NASG meetings held at CC MAR HQ Northwood. METHOD OF WORK 6...ATAOO air tactical area of operations OPLAN 40104 zone d’opérations aériennes tactiques OPLAN 40104 ATARS advanced tactical air reconnaissance system

  12. Kogu NATO kaitsekulude tõstmine näib kahtlane / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Üks aasta pärast Walesi tippkohtumist tehtud järeldused kaitsepoliitikast ja kahe protsendi poliitikast NATOs ; Carnegie mõttekoja raporti peamised seisukohad ja intervjuu mõttekoja juhi Jan Techauga

  13. Russia warns NATO on presence in Eastern Europe / Lorne Cook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Lorne

    2004-01-01

    Vene kaitseminister Sergei Ivanov kutsus Müncheni rahvusvahelisel julgeolekufoorumil NATO-t hoiduma kohaloleku laiendamisest Poolasse ja Balti riikidesse. USA senaator John McCain ründas Venemaad reageeringute eest, mis esitavad väljakutse naabrite demokraatlikule ja territoriaalsele terviklikkusele

  14. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Zinc Oxide as a Material for Micro- and Optoelectronic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H

    2005-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest experimental and theoretical studies in the field of ZnO. The chapters reflect the topics that were discussed during the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, which brought together researchers from Nato countries, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan to encourage cross fertilization and wider dissemination of the advances in this important research field. Fundamental issues such as growth of ZnO, structural, optical and electric properties, the role of the hydrogen and more were discussed.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  16. NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribanova G. I.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors employ geopolitical analysis to identify the core characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards the Baltic Sea region. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the region was considered as one of the safest in terms of military security. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the region has witnessed a growing tension in relations between NATO and the Russian Federation. A comparative analysis of NATO’s official documents on the Baltics shows that the chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to emerging military threats but also to launch an awareness campaign to explain its position and dispel the myth about Russia preparing to start a hybrid war against the Baltic States.

  17. Symposium by NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII on Computer-Based Instruction in Military Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Weddle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...

  18. NATO Enlargement 2000 - 2015. Determinants and Implications for Defense Planning and Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szayna, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... Created as an organization dedicated to the collective defense of its members, NATO transformed itself in the 1990s, expanding its mission to include conflict prevention and conflict management...

  19. Internationally recognised armed forces / Urmas Roosimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosimägi, Urmas

    1999-01-01

    Eesti Kaitseväe juhataja kohusetäitja kolonel Urmas Roosimägi Eesti kaitseväest, osalemisest NATO-PFP (NATO-Partnership for Peace) programmis ja sõjalisest koostööst NATO partnerriikidega. Urmas Roosimägi biograafia. Programm Partnerlus Rahu Nimel

  20. Nato and warsaw pact | Wagner | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nato and warsaw pact. N Wagner ...

  1. SMART DEFENSE: AN EMPOWERED AND UNITED NATO PLAYING A STRATEGIC ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CHIFU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 20th and the 21st May this year the NATO summit took place in Chicago, in the presence of heads of states or governments of over 50 countries and international organizations.

  2. NATO Telecommunications Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, William; Conrath, David

    1978-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first international symposium devoted to research on the evaluation and planning of new person-to-person telecommunication systems. It was sponsored by NATO's Special Programme Panel on Systems Science and took place, in September 1977, at the University of Bergamo in the north of Italy. Telecommunication systems which provide for communication be­ tween people, rather than computers or other instruments, are of two kinds. There are mass communication systems (broadcast radio and television) and interpersonal systems (for example, the telephone and Telex) which join together individuals or small groups. Here we have included in the interpersonal category certain systems for re­ trieving information from computers, essentially those systems in which the role of the computer 1s primarily to act as a store and to identify that information which best fits a user's request. (This excludes management information systems in which the computer performs important transformat...

  3. At gøre en dyd af nødvendigheden. Hans Hedtoft og Danmarks internationale placering fra Norden til NATO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Hans Hedtofts afgørende rolle for Danmarks internationale sikkerhedspolitiske stilling fra ikke-allieret brobyggerrolle over forsøget på deltagelse i et nordisk forsvarsforbund til medlemskab af Atlantpagten/NATO tematiseres. Hedtofts NATO-loyale, men samtidig på flere områder forbeholdne tilgang...

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  5. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Efficiency of Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, C; French, D

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (A.R. 1.) on "the efficiency of Manufacturing Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programm~ Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international co-operation. Advanced Research Institutes are organised for the purpose of bringing together experts in a particular field of interest to identify and make known the present state of knowledge in that area and, through informed debate, to make recommendations for directions for future research that would benefit the community at large. To this end two kinds of contribution were obtained by invitation. There were those papers which were about the current state of work in the area of manufacturing systems and its organisation; in addition three theme papers were presented to provide a stimulus to the discussion in terms of ways of thinking, both about the area and about the kind of research needed.

  6. Current NATO strategy and no first use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkemeier, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that spurred by the public controversy about the implementation of the NATO dual-track decision, the Western Alliance is currently in the third phase of its strategy debate. The first phase ended in 1967 with the official adoption of the doctrine of massive retaliation whose center-piece was NATO's threat to respond to a Soviet attack in Europe by an early and if need be massive use of nuclear weapons. Soon thereafter this concept was called in question in the US. The critics pointed out that at a time where its vulnerability to Soviet nuclear strikes was growing (the so-called Sputnik shock of 1957 played a special role in this context), it was too risky for the United States to stumble into a nuclear exchange with the USSR over any outbreak of an armed East-West confrontation in Europe. They therefore propounded that the over-reliance of the West's deterrence on nuclear arms be diminished in favor of a stronger conventional deterrent. With the advent of the Kennedy administration in January 1961, this stance became official American policy and was expounded to the European members of the Alliance by then Secretary of Defence McNamara. This second phase of the strategy debate was concluded in 1967 by promulgating the current strategy of Flexible Response

  7. Cephalic region war injuries in children: Experience in French NATO hospital in Kabul Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Hussam El; Agard, Emilie; Dot, Corinne

    2018-06-09

    The NATO KAIA Hospital (Kabul International Airport), under French command, provided medical support for NATO forces in the Kabul region from 2009 to 2014. Medical assistance to civilians was an additional mission which included support for children who were war injured. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics of cephalic injuries in children victims of war trauma. A retrospective study was conducted and commenced with the hospital opening (July 2009) to March 2012 on all children (<15years) with war trauma. We distinguished cephalic lesions in cranial (neuro-surgical), ophthalmological and neck regions. We analyzed mechanism, region, severity score, surgeries and resuscitation efforts. 217 children were operated on with 81 war traumas (mean age 10.2years). 36 children (44.4%) had a cephalic injury. 52.9% of the injured had an ophthalmological injury, 38.2% a cranial region injury and 29.4% a neck lesion. Mortality rate was 5.6% (1 hemorrhagic shock and 1 cerebral wound) in this cephalic lesion group. Ophthalmic injuries were the most common of cephalic injuries; 19 children of which 7 had a bilateral injury (26 eyes). In this group, fragmentary injuries were the most frequent (64% of eyes). In cerebral lesion group, the lesions were linked to a bullet or a shrapnel in 9 of 13 children. This mechanism systematically caused a crania-cerebral wound. Explosion (fragmentary and shrapnel) was the most important in the neck lesions (7 children of 10). The cephalic lesions were the second most common region in children during our experience in Afghanistan. Lack of protection (helmet) in children may explain the frequency of cephalic wounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ühendriigid otsivad NATOs taas liitlast / Jamie Patrick Shea ; interv. Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shea, Jamie Patrick

    2004-01-01

    NATO asepeasekretäri asetäitja räägib alliansi kaitseplaneerimisest, rahukaitsest, arengust, tegevusest Afganistanis, rollist Iraagis, võitlusest terrorismiga, koostööst USA-ga. Lisa: Jamie Patrick Shea

  9. NATO Glossary of Abbreviations Used in NATO Documents and Publications (glossaire otan des abreviations utilisees dans les documents et publications otan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    au danger des mines MRF multiplexage par répartition en fréquence frequency-division multiplexing /FDM/ MRFL master radio frequency list liste...1. ligne de tir restreinte 2. restricted frequency list 2. liste des fréquences restreintes RFO Règlement financier de l’OTAN NATO Financial...or-foe identification ami/ennemi IFIB invitation for international bidding appel d’offres international /AOI/ IFL international frequency

  10. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Power and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Diamond, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this NATO workshop is to contribute to the critical assessment of how to prepare for a new national nuclear energy program, and to make recommendations for future action. In addition, our goal is to promote close working relationships between technical people from different countries and with different professional expertise. In particular, the countries that are involved in this workshop are those from NATO and those from the Partner countries such as those in the Commonwealth of Independent States. A NATO workshop is not an international conference or symposium but rather a forum for advanced level, intensive discussions. The presentations are part of the growing font of knowledge on the subject of how to develop a national nuclear energy program. It is heard about the infrastructure that is needed and how the IAEA and countries with existing experience are helping to provide that infrastructure to those working toward a nuclear energy program. It is heard about the experiences of several countries embarking on new nuclear development, with an emphasis on how progress is being made in Armenia. It is also heard about the potential for using small and medium size reactors; something not being pursued by the countries with large nuclear programs

  11. NATO eskaader on Admiral Pitka juhtimisel teel Tallinna / Hannes Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Hannes

    2005-01-01

    Eesti mereväe lipulaeva Admiral Pitka komandör Jüri Saska tõstab esile laeva meeskonna uusi praktilisi kogemusi, mis on saadud viimastel kuudel NATO miinitõrjeeskaadri staabilaeva meeskonna rollis. Eskaadri ülem kaptenleitnant Nico Vasseur on Eesti mereväelaste tööga väga rahul

  12. NATO Briti peakorter kutsub Eesti kaitseväge endaga liituma / Tuuli Jõesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõesaar, Tuuli

    2013-01-01

    Suurbritannias Cornwallis toimunud NATO Briti peakorteri ARRC (Allied Rapid Reaction Corps) staabiõppusest Arrcade Fusion, kus osales ka kaks Eesti ohvitseri. Eesti kaitseväge oodatakse liituma ARRC-ga, Eesti poolt on liitumine esialgu lahtine

  13. Hvad er NATO enhanced Forward Presence, og hvordan bidrager Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillelund, Lene Sonne; Ringsmose, Jens

    I begyndelsen af januar 2018 udsender Danmark et militært bidrag på ca. 200 soldater til NATO's såkaldte "forstærkede fremskudte tilstedeværelse" / "enhanced Forward Presence" (eFP) i Baltikum og Polen. Det danske kontingent bliver udstationeret i Tapa, Estland, og det skal dels være med til...

  14. NATO’s Future Role in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us 4 Kuross, “An Ambiguous Role: NATO in the Arctic.” 5 Derek Reveron & Kathleen Mahoney- Norris , Human...The RAND Corporation, April 1989, http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P7558.html, 12-3. 22 Reveron & Mahoney- Norris , Human Security in a Borderless...trying-to-start-a- war-in-the-arctic-its-just-keeping-out-the-riffraff Reveron, Derek & Mahoney- Norris , Kathleen. Human Security in a Borderless

  15. NATO Enlargement and the National Agendas of America, Great Britain, France, and Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irving, William

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the enlargement of NATO from the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, through the formation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and the Partnership for Peace...

  16. NATO Allied Medical Publication 7.5 (AMedP 7.5) NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of CBRN Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PROMULGATION [ Date ] 1. The enclosed Allied Medical Publication AMedP-7.5, NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of CBRN Casualties, which has been... radioisotopes modeled are 60Co, 90Sr, 99Mo, 125I, 131I, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, 238Pu, 241Am, 252Cf. 2) Whole-body irradiation (from cloudshine, groundshine,9... Earth Shelter 16.67 66.67 Exposed/Dismounted 1.00 1.00 Foxhole (nuclear only)† 3.00 10.00 Masonry Building 8.33 6.67 Multi-Story Brick Building 1.33

  17. Second NATO Workshop on Passive Infrared Optical Materials and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    sponsor, NATO AC/243 ( Panel III tion is sprayed through a furnace at RSG 2). This is an abridged version of about 1000*C. A 7-hour operation yields the...strength, generate high-quality optical surfaces Cl, of the monocrystalline material is 4 162 MPa at a load increase rate of 18 MPa due to removal of water

  18. Estonian President : Missile Shield Should Cover All NATO Member Countries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynski ühepäevasest töövisiidist Eestisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Poola riigipea kõnelesid kohtumisel Euroopa tulevikust, NATO laienemisest, Euroopa Liidu naabruspoliitikast ja energiajulgeolekust, võtsid vastu ühisdeklaratsiooni, milles kutsusid Euroopa riikide valitsusi arutama võimalust luua rahvusvaheline komisjon kommunismi inimsusevastaste kuritegude ja inimõiguste rikkumiste uurimiseks

  19. U.S. Support for Baltic Republic Membership in NATO: What Ends, What Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Kent

    2000-01-01

    .... President Clinton has declared, through the U.S. National Security Strategy, his administration's support for NATO enlargement to well qualified democracies regardless of geography or history, including those in northeastern Europe. U.S...

  20. Molotovi lapselaps : NATO laienemine on suur viga / Vjatsheslav Nikonov ; interv. Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikonov, Vjatsheslav

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress, 9. apr., nr. 15, 2004, lk. 32-33. Venemaa poliitikaanalüütik kirjutab raamatut oma vanaisast, NSV Liidu kunagisest välisministrist Vjatsheslav Molotovist ning räägib Venemaa ja Balti riikide suhetest, NATO laienemisest

  1. Turning Point: Operation Allied Force and the Allure of Air Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Air Force Base in Nevada, from “a windowless bunker, lit by constantly flickering computer screens,” a Predator drone operator zoomed in on the...how the Army would mitigate risks to the Apaches by using artillery to suppress Serb air defenses before the Apaches went on their deep strike...conflict.” 162Clark, Waging Modern War, 236-7. 163Drozdiak, A22. 164To mitigate alliance member concerns, NATO did not officially refer to

  2. Department of Defense Annual Report Fiscal Year 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-29

    armed forces. Increases in FMS financing have been proposed for Thailand, Malaysia , and Indonesia to assist them in force improvements which should...installation compliance with environmental and OSHA standards, and NATO Infrastructure facilities funds. A. Military Construction Program I. Facilities

  3. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Analyst-Oriented Volume - Code of Best Practice for Soft Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  4. The United States, NATO and the European Union: A New Trans-Atlantic Relationship?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry, Charles

    1994-01-01

    .... The United States wants the concept of a "European Security and Defense Identity" (ESDI) implemented in such a way that it neither duplicates NATO nor threatens to dismantle or replace the alliance. U.S...

  5. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  6. Long-Range Precision-Strike Cruise Missiles in Nato Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    international and domestic politics played, the difficulty of forging an acceptable military option agreeable to both the UN and NATO, economic sanctions...Conversely, the V-1 had a number of disadvantages . As Richard K. Betts has observed, “At first it was quite effective, but because the technology was...not compete with ballistic missiles which had distinct advantages.”59 Because these disadvantages outweighed the many advantages, the United States

  7. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...5d. PROJECT NUMBER Colonel John K. Jones 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  8. How is NATO Meeting the Challenge of Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    top priority. This should help NATO and the EU to hold more table top exercises and do joint strategic thinking on the future of the internet and...to work.9 So we will have to think more strategically about increasing the penalties and limiting the Whereas we have a good idea how to deter a...implementation, but in reality we need to learn bet - ter to do these things simultaneously—learning to transform the plane while we are flying it—if we

  9. Potential Partners in the Pacific? Soft Power and the SINO-NATO Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    shaping the international environment to maximize the possibility of preventing a situation which may eventually necessitate (costly) NATO intervention...these norms are based on liberal, Kantian ideals, and can employ non-military means for achieving this end. Attracting global partners into this

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guyot, A

    1987-01-01

    Due to their specific properties, polymers with well-defined structures have been receiving increasing attention over the last several years. Owing to the wide variability of their properties, these specialty polymers have been used in various areas from biomedical engineering to electronics or energy applications. The synthesis of such polymers necessi­ tates the use of new methods of polymerization which derived from an insight into the mechanism of polymerization reactions. A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis" was held in BANDOl (FRANCE) in February 1987. Its aim was to assess the new polymerization methods, as well as the latest advances in the mechanisms of conventional polymerization reactions together with their applications to the synthesis of new macromolecular structures. The financial support from the NATO Scientific Affairs Division which covered the "lecturers' accomodation and travel expenses as well as the organization charges of th...

  11. U.S. Decision Making and Post-Cold War NATO Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    interactions with one another and by external events. Additionally, enlarging NATO entails modifying the North Atlantic Treaty, which, by constitutional ...III discusses NATO’s second enlargement round, which welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia into the...membership for Romania and Slovenia , it might give the impression that Russian objections carried weight, discouraging the future pursuit of membership and

  12. NATO topmødet i Warszawa: Højdespring eller limbo?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Hvis USA fortsat skal gå forrest i afskrækkelsen af Rusland og bekæmpelsen af truslerne i syd, skal europæerne til gengæld hæve deres forsvarsudgifter. Det er hovedkompromiset, som NATO landene skal have forhandlet på plads i Warszawa. Resultatet afgør, hvor mange penge forsvaret får i næste...

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With the development of lasers that can generate light 11 14 pulses ranging from 10- - 10- sec duration, and capable of 13 peak powers in excess of 10 watts scientists have been able to investigate the interactions of light with matter in a time and power domain not previously possible. These ultrashort laser pulses provide a powerful tool for the study of chemical phenomena at the most fundamental level. Many of the elementary processes of importance in chemistry including energy dissipa­ tion, molecular motions, structural and chemical changes occur on a very short time scale and thus require special approaches. Th~ use of ultrashort laser pulses to perturb and to probe systems of interest affords a direct approach to the time reso­ lution of very rapid chemical phenomena. It was recognition of the impact of these relatively new approaches to chemical phenomena that motivated NATO to sponsor a meeting on the applications of picosecond spectroscopy in chemistry. The primary aim of the NATO workshop was to ...

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electronic Structure of Polymers and Molecular Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ladik, János

    1975-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure of Polymers and Molecular Crystals" was held at the Facultes Universi­ taires de Namur (F.U.N.) from September 1st till September 14th, 1974. We wish to express our appreciation to the NATO Scientific Affairs Division whose generous support made this Institute possible and to the Facultes Universitaires de Namur and the Societe Chimique de Belgique which provided fellowships and travel grants to a number of students. This volume contains the main lectures about the basic principles of the field and about different recent developments of the theory of the electronic structure of polymers and molecular crystals. The school started with the presentation of the basic SCF-LCAO theory of the electronic structure of periodic polymers and molecular crystals (contributions by Ladik, Andre & Delhalle) showing how a combination of quantum chemical and solid state physical methods can provide band structures for these systems. The numerical aspects of these ...

  15. 78 FR 24158 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive Bidding AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is the executive agency responsible for certifying U.S...

  16. NATO Bureaucratic & Infrastructure Transformation for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-22

    humamtanan, and out-of- area mlsslons not related to Arncles 4 and 5 ’ K-4-1-0 Office of InformatIon and Press \\ATO Handbook Bmss& October 1995 p 20...importantI>, soclall> and culturall > related interests We have strong polmcal and economic ties to the region \\\\ hlch certainly Just& contmuatlon of the NATO...regional air defense complement U S unilateral operations m the area Fmallq. close ties have developed at the military le\\ el. faclhtatmg ewzellent

  17. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  18. NATO - Standardization of Equipment Now and in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-14

    RD-RI66 472 NATO - STANDRROIZRTION OF EGUI UET MOM AMO IN THE 1/1 FUTUREMU RY MAR COLL CARLISLE SARACKS PA T C SCOBIE 14 NAY SE UNCLASSIFIEP F/O 15/5...FUTURE BY COLONEL TIMOTHY C. SCOBIE D T IC IIELECTE JUN 17 LD DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release- distribution is unlimited. Aq14...AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) COL Timothy C. Scobie 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA d WORK

  19. NATO and EU Need Not Enlarge Hand in Hand - Estonian President in Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riias NATO tippkohtumise ajal toimunud rahvusvahelisel julgeolekukonverentsil esinenud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves toetas Euroopa Liidu edasist laienemist, kuid möönis ühenduses tekkinud nn. laienemisväsimust. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Läti Vabariiki ja Rootsi Kuningriiki 28.-30.11.2006

  20. Non proliferation and disarmament: chronology of the multilateral force (1960-1965) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The Multilateral Force (MLF) is a US project of the mid 1950's for the development of NATO integrated strategic force. The author proposes a brief history of this project which emerged at the end of 1960, and was finally given up at the end of 1965 for various reasons. The author indicates the different events and facts related to this project or occurring at these moments. He distinguishes three main periods: a period of propositions (1960-1962), a political phase (1963-1964), and the abandonment phase of the project. In a last part, the author discusses the relationships between MLF, proliferation and disarmament

  1. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  2. Antecedents to Organizational Performance: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Aircraft Maintenance Officer Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Aviation Course 0 MOIC- Maintenance Officer Intermediate Course 0 NATO Nuclear Surety Managemen t Course D NWOC ·Nuclear Weapons Orientation Course 0...Arnold AFB, TN which performs a ground T &E mission. I do not perform many normal duties like a 21A assigned to an operational or depot. My answers to...THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of

  3. Pressing reset on Moscow is worth a little Nato anxiety / Jonathan Steele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steele, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    USA president Barack Obama on avaldanud soovi vajutada USA-Vene suhetes reset-nuppu. Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütles NATO tippkohtumise eelõhtul kuivalt, et arvutil reset-nuppu vajutades ei kustu mällu salvestatud failid siiski ära. President T. H. Ilvese teravast sõnavõtust president Lennart Meri konverentsi avamisel Tallinnas

  4. An assessment of environmental damage caused by NATO bombing of NIS Jugopetrol facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, D.; Radu, A.; Novakovic, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper present our investigation of the effects of NATO bombing of the Jugopetrol facilities in Serbia during the Spring of 1999. Concentrations of hazardous material in air, water and soil have been measured and compared to the situation before the bombing. Only partial results are presented in this paper. High concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in the air immediately after the bombing and the destruction of installations, due to burning and evaporation of oil derivatives. A great amount of spilled mineral oils has been detected in water and soil near the destroyed installations. We have detected a noticeable increase in pollution after the NATO bombing. In addition to above mentioned pollution, the destruction of large parts of waste treatment system within the Jugopetrol's installations caused severe environmental problems. The recovery of the destroyed installation and waste treatment systems require considerable amount of money and time, and cannot be accomplished without the help of foreign investment. (author)

  5. NATOs Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    advice, and friendship will have a lasting and positive effect on not only my military career but also my professional & personal life after the Army...if NATO didn’t exist today, the United States would not seek to create it.”1 Magnus Petersson flrnher asserts that within the United States...this topic relevant to the current and emerging strategic environment.7 Magnus Petersson, The US-NATO Debate: From Libya to Ukraine. (New York

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Preparation and Properties of Stereoregular Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardelli, Francesco

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the texts of the main lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Studies Institute on "Advances in Preparation and Properties of Stereoregular Polymers" held at Tirrenia near Pisa, Italy, from October 3 to 14, 1978. A few contributed papers have also been included because they were concerned with topics not included in the main lectures. The primary objective of the Institute was to assist in the further development of stereoregular polymers because of the ever-increasing demand for new products with exceptional chemical and physical properties. This need has reawakened interest in the field. Indeed there is now a rapidly increasing activity in the study of stereoregular polymerization and the preparation of structurally-ordered polymers with the aim of achieving apprecia­ ble improvements in existing polymeric materials through new developments in synthesis and properties as well as in discovering new polymeric structures. In order to achieve these objectives, a broad interdiscipli­ nary co...

  7. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  8. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamprommarat Chumpol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  9. Assessing Grand Strategies: How the EU and NATO Rock the Strategic Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    part to constitute the embryos of the European Union and NATO grand strategies briefly illustrated in the extracts presented in the epigraph. These... embryos gestated over time becoming de facto grand strategies for these institutions. Applying the characterization of grand strategy elaborated in...6. Michio Kaku, Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily

  10. Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for

  11. NATO Conference on Molecular Metals

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    During the past few years there has been intense research activity in the design, synthesis, and characterization of materials which are formed from molecular precursors, and which have high or metal-like electrical conductivities, i.e. dcr/dT < O. It has been widely supposed that these new materials, which are commonly called molecular metals, would be pressed into service, for example as devices. Up to now, widespread, practical applications of these sub­ stances have not developed. The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Molecular Metals at Les Arcs, France, September 10-16, 1978 was organized to discuss the scientific and technological potential of research and development in this field. The proceedings of the Institute constitute this book. Several lectures were devoted to the assessment of the present status of research on systems which serve to define major components of the field. The systems which were discussed included TTF-TCNQ, platinum chain compounds, (SN)x, polyacetylene, polydiacetylene, g...

  12. Battle Management Language capable Computer Generated Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkers, R.; Henderson, H.; Reus, N.M. de; Alstad, A.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Skogsrud, G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) by SISO and its evaluation by the NATO MSG-085 task group and predecessor NATO MSG-048 has led Norway and the Netherlands to develop C-BML interfaces for their Command and Control Information Systems (C2ISs) NORTaC-C2IS and ISIS. FFI

  13. The New NATO Policy Guidelines on Counterterrorism: Analysis, Assessments, and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Civil Protection, Transport, Public Health, Food and Water, and Industrial Resources and Communications. Available at <www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive...operations are increasingly dependent on local “ franchises ,” such as in Yemen, Somalia, the Middle East, and North Africa.4 While potentially...experts from the public and private sectors and industry to coordinate planning in various areas of civil activity. The five planning groups are

  14. 2000 Annual report NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Molin, Christine; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    The NATO/Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society third Pilot Study meeting on Clean Products and Processes was held in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 7-12, 2000. This meeting maintained the momentum generated during the of the first two years of the pilot study, focusing on progress made on sev...... homepage....

  15. Eesti ja USA juhtide kohtumiste peateema on NATO ja demokraatia / Vahur Koorits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidi ajal toimuvatel USA ja Eesti riigijuhtide kohtumistel räägitakse NATO ja demokraatia tulevikust, samuti tulevad kõne alla missioonid Afganistanis ja Iraagis ning eestlaste viisavabadus USA-sse reisimisel. Lisa: Millest kavatsevad riigijuhid kohtumistel rääkida: Ansip, Ilves, Bush. Vt. samas: Bushi visiidi ajal vilksatab Eesti üheks õhtuks ameeriklaste teleekraanidel

  16. NATO Foreign Ministers December 2017 Meeting : What will emerge from NATO’s December meeting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    What are the prospects of anything concrete emerging from the recent Foreign Ministers meeting at NATO Headquarters in Brussels? Should we anticipate that ministers attending the meeting will be able to build broad international support for any policies that might advance the alliance’s interests in

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J

    1989-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the "Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces" was held in St. Andrews, Scotland in June 1988. Many of the leading international researchers in this area were present at the workshop and all made oral presentations of their results. In addition, significant amounts of time were set aside for Round Table discussions, in which smaller groups considered the current status of mechanistic knowledge, identified areas of dispute or disagreement, and proposed experiments that need to be carried out to resolve such disputes so as to advance our understanding of this important research area. All the papers presented at the workshop are collected in this volume, together with summaries of the conclusions reached at the Round Table discussions. The workshop could not have taken place without financial support from NATO, and donations were also received from Associated Octel, Ltd., STC Ltd., and Epichem Ltd., for which the organisers are very grateful. The orga...

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  20. NATO’s Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    advice, and friendship will have a lasting and positive effect on not only my military career but also my professional & personal life after the Army...if NATO didn’t exist today, the United States would not seek to create it.”1 Magnus Petersson flrnher asserts that within the United States...this topic relevant to the current and emerging strategic environment.7 Magnus Petersson, The US-NATO Debate: From Libya to Ukraine. (New York

  1. NATO's approach to the Libyan crisis in the events of the «Arab spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Repeshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern system of international relations more often faces the conflicts of different tension which appear in different regions of the world. Conflicts of the beginning of XXI century are determined by different political, economic, national and confessional reasons. The system of international relations faced the crisis. This system had existed for many centuries and was adopted in the Westphalia Peace. The ending of the Cold War made the world see the new conditions whose distinctive feature was an increasing quantitative index of clashes. A number of political changes at the beginning of the current decade have resulted in changes of political regimes in these countries. On the whole, the process of peaceful political transformation was characteristic of the events of the so-called «Arabic spring». However, similar changes in Libya proved to have a different character causing military changes and NATO's military intervention. If the process of social uprising turned into protest-street disturbances in Egypt and Tunis, in Libya there was an armed overthrow of the authorities by the opposition supported by foreign states. The author touches upon the events of the Arabic spring which resulted in overthrowing Gaddafi's regime. NATO' policy was criticized in the course of military actions in Libya. The author considers NATO's views, particularly, that of the USA, France and Great Britain in terms of the Libyan crisis and its solutions. The study of the conflict mechanism, its nature will allow to estimate taken by the world measures influencing the modern system of international relations.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Margaris, Manolia

    2013-01-01

    This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering.  Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine (9) different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen (18) countries, participated in the ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU).   The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting chemical and bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments and improved energy sources, and help propel development in NATO partner countries.  At the end of the ASI students had an appreciation of how to apply each technique to their own particular research problem and to demonstrate that multifaceted approaches and new technologies are needed to solve the biological challenges of our time.  The course...

  3. The Evolution of the Security Order in Europe: Importance of Multinational Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-25

    facto-- prevented the economic self - sufficiency of the republics.1 Therefore, it would have been necessary to agree some form of common market and...Defense Identity", Survival (July/August 1991), 336. 32 Douglas T. Stuart, "Can NATO Trascend Its Europeans Borders? NATO Out of Area Disputes", Strategic...Overaio (Novembre 1990): 1-18. Stuart, Douglas T. "Can NATO Trascend Its European Borders?." Strateoic Studies Institute (USAWC): 1-21. 48 Taylor

  4. NATO Nuclear Reductions and the Assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security Between NATO and the Russian Federation, signed in Paris , May 27, 1997, Section IV. Political...in Central Europe,” in Bruno Tertrais, ed., Perspectives on Extended Deterrence, Researches and Documents No. 3 ( Paris : Fondation pour la Rescherche...I. • • • • • • Wrodaw 0 Lo~t Radom L bl’ o u 1n ·= ... 0 Brest 0 Pinsk

  5. Target Bosnia: Integrating Information Activities in Peace Operations. NATO-Led Operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, December 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Pascale C

    1998-01-01

    This monograph examines the role of information in Peace Support Operations (PSO) and its impact on command and control through the prism of NATO-led operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina from December 1995 into 1997...

  6. A Training Method to Improve Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.

  7. NATO vallutas jaanipäeval Aafrika ranniku lähedal väikese saareriigi / Hannes Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Aafrika ranniku lähedal Cabo Verde saareriigis toimunud NATO kiirreageerimisüksuste õppusest. Vt. samas: Krause, Hannes. NRF-i hakkab pärssima raha ja mugavus. Lisad: Eestlane tagas sõdurite julgeolekut; Scheffer: Eestil pole vaja karta mingit ohtu

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    The first NATO Advanced Study Institute on Olefin Metathesis and Polymerization Catalysts was held on September 10-22, 1989 in Akcay, Turkey. Based on the fundamental research of RRSchrock, RGrubbs and K.B.Wagener in the field of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) and alkyne polymerization, these areas gained growing interest within the last years. Therefore the second NATO-ASI held on metathesis reactions was on Ring Opening Metathesis Po­ lymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes on September 3-16, 1995 in Akcay, Turkey. The course joined inorganic, organic and polymer chemists to exchange their knowledge in this field. This volume contains the main and short lectures held in Akcay. To include ADMET reactions better into the title of this volume we changed it into: Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Alkyne Polymerization. This volume is addressed to research scientists, but also to those who start to work in the area of olefin metathesis and al...

  9. Improvement and Neuroplasticity after Combined Rehabilitation to Forced Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Arima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasp reflex is a distressing symptom but the need to treat or suppress it has rarely been discussed in the literature. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had suffered cerebral infarction of the right putamen and temporal lobe 10 years previously. Forced grasping of the hemiparetic left upper limb was improved after a unique combined treatment. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A was first injected into the left biceps, wrist flexor muscles, and finger flexor muscles. Forced grasping was reduced along with spasticity of the upper limb. In addition, repetitive facilitative exercise and object-related training were performed under low-amplitude continuous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Since this 2-week treatment improved upper limb function, we compared brain activities, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during finger pinching, before and after the combined treatment. Brain activities in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex (SMC and medial frontal cortex (MFC during pinching under electrical stimulation after treatment were greater than those before. The results suggest that training under electrical stimulation after BTX-A treatment may modulate the activities of the ipsilesional SMC and MFC and lead to functional improvement of the affected upper limb with forced grasping.

  10. Stop the Insanity: Halt NATO Enlargement to Salvage Relations with Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    several battles against the Poles and ultimately gaining over half of Polish territory (including modern Lithuania , Belarus and western Ukraine) through...they’re all rich and we’re being kicked out like dogs .”43 Any NATO expansion into one of the former Warsaw Pact nations would merely add insult to injury...2006 report by the Council on Foreign Relations, “from 1991 to 1998, the contraction of Russia’s gross domestic product (GDP) was almost 40 percent

  11. Bi-National Corps of Nato’s Main Defense Forces in Central Europe: Creating Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    reductions of their forces after the desintegration of the Soviet Union. Moreover, the European countries, whose force structure focused solely on...Korps--Anspruch und Wirklichkeit (A House for many families ; about the example LANDJUT: Multinational Corps--Request and Reality)," Truopenpraxis, 4/1992

  12. Summary of the Defense Science Board 1978 Summer Study on ’Achieving Improved NATO Effectiveness Through Armaments Collaboration’ Held 31 July-11 August 1978, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    of air-to-air missiles. There are acknowledged difficulties with the concept which is still in embrionic stages: (1) Should a "family" be defined...dealing only with the IEPG. But it is far from clear whether this would be effective or put far too much strain on an embrionic institution. Extra-NATO

  13. The Ukraine Crisis and the End of the Post-Cold War European Order: Options for NATO and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert; Hoffmann, Rune; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of economies and societies after the end of the Cold War. An important element in the idea of a united, free Europe is that conflicts must be resolved by peaceful means and not by force of arms. 3. It demonstrates that a number of the partnerships, etc., that have formed the foundation for EU and NATO policies......, have been inadequate. Therefore, the crisis creates a need to rethink Western strategy. In the light of this new risk, the West’s existing policy is inadequate. This does not necessarily mean that the policy hitherto has been mistaken, and it absolutely does not mean that we are facing a new Cold War....... These consequences will apply not least to the West itself because the crisis has revealed differences in priorities among the Western powers and challenged the world view that the West’s policy has been based on. Furthermore, the West must acknowledge that Russia is willing to use military means to accomplish its...

  14. Thermal Transport and Drag Force in Improved Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gürsoy, Umut; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Nitti, Francesco; 10.1088

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the bulk viscosity, drag force and jet quenching parameter in Improved Holographic QCD. We find that the bulk viscosity rises near the phase transition but does not exceed the shear viscosity. The drag force shows the effects of asymptotic freedom both as a function of velocity and temperature. It indicates diffusion times of heavy quarks in rough agreement with data. The jet quenching parameter values computed via the light-like Wilson loop are in the lower range suggested by data.

  15. NATO, Libya operations and intelligence co-operation – a step forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    2011-01-01

    developments can be opened up for some further analysis, forming the main focus of this article. Ultimately, this article concludes that, over time and albeit while gradual, we have seen what can be regarded as ‘a step forward’ in co-operative intelligence activities in Libya. Although several pressing......"With the ‘fall’ of Tripoli towards the end of August 2011, it has become increasingly apparent that the intelligence co-operation witnessed in Libya during the NATO campaign performed an increasingly important role in realizing operational and strategic ‘successes’. These recent intelligence...

  16. Going Vertical To Improve the Accuracy of Atomic Force Microscopy Based Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Robert; Van Patten, William J; Adhikari, Ayush; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-01-23

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful technique to characterize the energy landscape of individual proteins, the mechanical properties of nucleic acids, and the strength of receptor-ligand interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS benefits from ongoing progress in improving the precision and stability of cantilevers and the AFM itself. Underappreciated is that the accuracy of such AFM studies remains hindered by inadvertently stretching molecules at an angle while measuring only the vertical component of the force and extension, degrading both measurements. This inaccuracy is particularly problematic in AFM studies using double-stranded DNA and RNA due to their large persistence length (p ≈ 50 nm), often limiting such studies to other SMFS platforms (e.g., custom-built optical and magnetic tweezers). Here, we developed an automated algorithm that aligns the AFM tip above the DNA's attachment point to a coverslip. Importantly, this algorithm was performed at low force (10-20 pN) and relatively fast (15-25 s), preserving the connection between the tip and the target molecule. Our data revealed large uncorrected lateral offsets for 100 and 650 nm DNA molecules [24 ± 18 nm (mean ± standard deviation) and 180 ± 110 nm, respectively]. Correcting this offset yielded a 3-fold improvement in accuracy and precision when characterizing DNA's overstretching transition. We also demonstrated high throughput by acquiring 88 geometrically corrected force-extension curves of a single individual 100 nm DNA molecule in ∼40 min and versatility by aligning polyprotein- and PEG-based protein-ligand assays. Importantly, our software-based algorithm was implemented on a commercial AFM, so it can be broadly adopted. More generally, this work illustrates how to enhance AFM-based SMFS by developing more sophisticated data-acquisition protocols.

  17. Validation of the NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel for use in small-arms fire control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In support for the development of a new small-arm ballistic computer based on the NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel (NABK for the Canadian snipers, DRDC Valcartier Research Centre was asked to carry out high-fidelity 6 degree-of-freedom (6-DOF trajectory simulations for a set of relevant vignettes for the snipers, and to compare the direct fire 6-DOF simulation results with those obtained with the 4-DOF NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel (NABK adapted to simulate small-arm ammunition trajectories. To conduct this study, DRDC Valcartier Research Centre used BALCO v1.0b. This paper presents (1 the process and the methodology employed to carry out the sniper direct fire solution study, (2 the modeling and the simulation of the sniper projectile, the approach used in calculating the firing solutions, and the results of direct fire simulations for the sniper vignettes, and (3 an analysis of firing solutions obtained with the BALCO engine versus those of NABK. The work presented in this paper serves to validate the use of NABK for the new sniper ballistic computer.

  18. The superpower, the bridge-builder and the hesitant ally : how defense transformation divided NATO (1991-2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Arie Rem

    2011-01-01

    What shaped the defense transformation policies of NATO member-states? And what does it mean for the future of the alliance? This dissertation explores the impact of the strategic cultures of the United States, the Netherlands and Germany on their efforts to adapt their defense policies and armed

  19. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  20. Challenges, Capability and Will: Is NATO Relevant in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    Heads of State and Government at the NATO Summit in Lisbon November 19-20, 2010, 33. 18 Europe Field Study Notes, September 11, 2014. 19 Martin L. Cook ...has caused schizophrenia among policy makers in our country. Some say we are covered, and some say we are not, so we don’t put all our eggs in one...Documents 33, i.22 (June 2, 1997): 780- 782. Cook , Martin L. The Moral Warrior: Ethics and Service in the US Military. Albany, NY: State

  1. The Great Strategy Debate: NATO’s Evolution in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    business . But even his severest critics were hardpressed to refute the notion that McNamara’s plans flowed from a coherent strategic concept. McNamara’s...sensed this even before he had the data to prove it. In contrast to Westem inteligence analysts, who tended to focus solely on the Soviet Union, McNamara...energy. For a period, it disrupted normal business and diverted the Alliance’s attention from other pressing matters. In addition, de Gaulle denied NATO

  2. Concurrent Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Interaction Forces Improves Particle Deposition Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Ren, Carolyn L; Emelko, Monica B

    2016-04-19

    It is widely believed that media surface roughness enhances particle deposition-numerous, but inconsistent, examples of this effect have been reported. Here, a new mathematical framework describing the effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough spherical collectors in absence of an energy barrier was developed and validated. In addition to quantifying DLVO force, the model includes improved descriptions of flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation functions. This work demonstrates that hydrodynamic effects can significantly alter particle deposition relative to expectations when only the DLVO force is considered. Moreover, the combined effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough, spherical media are not additive, but synergistic. Notably, the developed model's particle deposition predictions are in closer agreement with experimental observations than those from current models, demonstrating the importance of inclusion of roughness impacts in particle deposition description/simulation. Consideration of hydrodynamic contributions to particle deposition may help to explain discrepancies between model-based expectations and experimental outcomes and improve descriptions of particle deposition during physicochemical filtration in systems with nonsmooth collector surfaces.

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barbara, Bernard; Sawatzky, G; Stamp, P. C. E

    2008-01-01

    This book is based on some of the lectures during the Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics (PITP) summer school on "Quantum Magnetism", held during June 2006 in Les Houches, in the French Alps. The school was funded jointly by NATO, the CNRS, and PITP, and entirely organized by PITP. Magnetism is a somewhat peculiar research field. It clearly has a quantum-mechanical basis – the microsopic exchange interactions arise entirely from the exclusion principle, in conjunction with respulsive interactions between electrons. And yet until recently the vast majority of magnetism researchers and users of magnetic phenomena around the world paid no attention to these quantum-mechanical roots. Thus, eg., the huge ($400 billion per annum) industry which manufactures hard discs, and other components in the information technology sector, depends entirely on room-temperature properties of magnets - yet at the macroscopic or mesoscopic scales of interest to this industry, room-temperature magnets behave entirely classic...

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics

    1989-01-01

    The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...

  5. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data For Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress, January 31, 1983. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System ( ATARS ) program, PE 63239F. All projects in this-program element are coordinated as appropriate with the Major...Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System ( ATARS ) program. The Tactical Air Forces (TAF) have a requirement for near-real-time high quality...technical panels and working grops. Support AGARD meetings in the US to include French/ English interpretation. Support initiatives under the NATO Conference

  6. U.S. Leading from Behind in Libya? Thoughts for NATO before the Chicago Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    degli anni 1990, la linea di base della tecnologia e business divenne inglese. Paesi come la Francia abbandonarono la loro resistenza e ha ceduto...bene." 20 I social media su internet e il progresso della tecnologia smart phone ha dato vita a un linguaggio comune delle informazioni 24/7. Un...appello rivolto su NATO Review del Vice Segretario generale aggiunto per gli armamenti, e coordinatore della tecnologia per l‘antiterrorismo

  7. NATO peasekretär : Londoni terror ei peata võitlust terrorismi vastu / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    8. juunil Brüsselis toimunud erakorralisest istungist, kus avaldati toetust Suurbritanniale pärast Londoni terrorirünnakut, toimunu laadsed rünnakud ei suuda väärata NATO võitlust terrorismiga kogu maailmas. Lisa: G8 ei lasknud end terrorist kõigutada. Kommenteerivad USA president Georg W. Bush, Venemaa president Vladimir Putin, Austraalia peaminister John Howard, Pariisi linnapea Bertrand Delanoe ja ROK-i president Jacques Rogge

  8. THE NECESSITY OF LAND FORCES BATTLEGROUPS TO DIVERSIFY THEIR STRUCTURE AND ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ltc. Ilie MELINTE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given, on the one hand, the trends of military conflicts in the proximity of our country, and on the other hand the features the operating mode of the Land Forces brigades with the highest operational level, we consider it necessary to develop the principles envisaging the use of these large units in combat. The Romanian Land Forces brigades have gathered knowledge and experience on the unfolding of operations by participating, on various occasions, in international missions in operation theatres such as Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq, through a close study of the allied doctrines and of the NATO representative armies, by updating their document base and, last but not least, by intensifying combined arms and combined forces training both on a national and on a multinational level. Regarding the involvement of the operational units and large units in combat, in terms of taskorganising, we believe that they are able to act both in the classic format based on the current organization pattern and in the battlegroup format, especially set up for missions (Battlegroups - BGs.

  9. Human-machine communication for educational systems design : NATO Advanced Study Institute proceedings, Eindhoven August 16-26, 1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.D.; Harrington, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on the Basics of Man-Machine Communication for the Design of Educational Systems, held August 16-26, 1993 in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The ASI addressed the state of the art in the design of educational systems with

  10. Non-nuclear, non-provocative defense for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.; Boeker, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the conventional wisdom which is that if Warsaw Pact forces attacked NATO they would probably win the war in a few weeks unless NATO used battlefield nuclear weapons to stop the advancing Warsaw Pact forces. This means, of course, also the risk of having to use nuclear weapons on West German territory; this use would inevitably result in the death of a large number of West German civilians and great damage to property. The cost to NATO in death and collateral damage of using battlefield nuclear weapons would be so high as to make this use incredible

  11. Defending Norway and the Northern Flank: Analysis of NATO’s Strategic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Prof. Patrick J. Parker 646-2097 56 DV C")RM 1473,s84 MAt 53...34Roy Breivik , Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway," NATO s Fifteen Nations, special issue no. 2 (1982), pp. 66 67. 22...Analyses 1 2000 North Beauregard Street P.O. Box 11280 Alexandria, Virginia 22311 5. Professor Patrick J. Parker, Code 56Pr 1 4 Department of National

  12. An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff timber connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Blond, Mette

    2012-01-01

    An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff metal dowel-type timber connections is presented, a method based on use of three-dimensional finite element simulations of timber connections subjected to moment action. The study that was carried out aimed at determining how...... the slip modulus varies with the angle between the direction of the dowel forces and the fibres in question, as well as how the orthotropic stiffness behaviour of the wood material affects the direction and the size of the forces. It was assumed that the force distribution generated by the moment action...

  13. Does Flywheel Paradigm Training Improve Muscle Volume and Force? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez Sanchez, Francisco J; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training. Increases in muscle volume and force were noted through the use of flywheel systems during short periods of training. The increase in muscle mass appears was not influenced by the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The increase in force was significantly higher with the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals regarding the most appropriate dose response trends for flywheel paradigm systems to optimize the increase in muscle volume and force.

  14. Effect of Global Posture Strategy on U.S. Influence in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCormack, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    .... interest in NATO and Europe. Will following this new strategy take the U.S. across an invisible threshold where its force presence in Europe no longer guaranties leadership and influence in NATO? How is U.S...

  15. Applying a pelvic corrective force induces forced use of the paretic leg and improves paretic leg EMG activities of individuals post-stroke during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; Kim, Janis; Tang, Rongnian; Roth, Elliot J; Rymer, William Z; Wu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether applying a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis during treadmill walking would enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve gait symmetry in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis participated in this study. A customized cable-driven robotic system based over a treadmill generated a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis toward the paretic side during early stance phase. Three different amounts of corrective force were applied. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paretic leg, spatiotemporal gait parameters and pelvis lateral displacement were collected. Significant increases in integrated EMG of hip abductor, medial hamstrings, soleus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were observed when pelvic corrective force was applied, with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight inducing greater muscle activity than 3% or 6% of body weight. Pelvis lateral displacement was more symmetric with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight. Applying a mediolateral pelvic corrective force toward the paretic side may enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve pelvis displacement symmetry in individuals post-stroke. Forceful weight shift to the paretic side could potentially force additional use of the paretic leg and improve the walking pattern. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Utilization of Network Enabled Capability in NATO Air C2 and Targeting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    TBMCS Mission Exchange 3.1 ICC-JCOP JCOP aims to provide a common operational picture to the NATO users to increase the situational awareness by...transformation steps (Figure 9). Figure 9: WISI consumed by Oracle’s SOA tools 3.4 ICC-ACCS- TBMCS Mission Exchange The aim of this experiment was to... TBMCS ) using a common methodology. For this purpose, initially, a common mission definition (CMD) was defined which had the same meaning for all of

  17. Sword or Ploughshare? New Roles for NATO and the Changing Nature of Transatlantic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    1990/91. On this topic, see Paul Cornish, “European Security: The End of Architecture and the New NATO,” International Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 4...Basingstoke, New York, Palgrave, 2001, Vol. 2, Part V, pp. 29-42 (31). 82 On this topic, see Paul Cornish, “European Security: The End of Architecture ...increasing prosperity, but also due to its leading role in art and literature and their mass dissemination through the medium of cinema , for example

  18. NATO-Warsaw Pact. Force Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    National Laboratories dealing with national security issues. He has served as a member of th, ,rtment of State Policy Planning Staff (1978-1981), and...together with Australia and New Zealand, of Malaysia when it con- fronted Indonesia); or bilateral (such as agreements or commitments for the...293., 5, See Cyril Falls, The Great War, 1914-1918 (New York: Putnam 1959), pp.. 227-230 for a brief account of the campaign. 6. See P, Abbott and D

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Metal Hydrides

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex­ panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti­ tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun­ tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...

  20. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Lieutenant General, Canadian Forces, Canadian Military Repre- sentative to NATO Elizabeth Race, Deputy Defence Policy Advisor, Canadian Joint...Ruehle, Head, Energy Security Section, Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO ( Brus - sels) Patrick Nash, Lieutenant General, Irish Army, for- mer

  1. Driving forces behind the Chinese public's demand for improved environmental safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Wang, Jigan; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-12-15

    Over the past decades, the public demand for improved environmental safety keeps increasing in China. This study aims to assess the driving forces behind the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety using a provincial and multi-year (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) panel data and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model. The potential driving forces investigated included population size, income levels, degrees of urbanization, and educational levels. Results show that population size and educational level are positively (Pdemand for improved environmental safety. No significant impact on demand was found due to the degree of urbanization. For the impact due to income level, an inverted U-shaped curve effect with the turning point of ~140,000 CNY GDP per capita is indicated. Since per capita GDP of 2015 in China was approximately 50,000 CNY and far from the turning point, the public demand for improved environmental safety will continue rising in the near future. To meet the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety, proactive and risk prevention based environmental management systems coupled with effective environmental risk communication should be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NATO mission in Kosovo: historical backgrounds and informations of working as radiologist in the German field hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, M.; Danz, B.

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how the NATO mission in Kosovo came into existence and focuses on the historical background and ethnical problems. The second part deals with the working conditions of a radiologist in the German field hospital in Prizren and focuses on the personnel and technical equipment in the radiological department. (orig.) [de

  3. NATO ARI on Ergonomic Data for Equipment Design

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    For many years ergonomists and human engineering specialists have made significant contributions to the solution of problems faced in the area of human labour and to the introduction of their research results and field experience into the process of equipment design. However, the rapid increase in complexity of equipment in use as well as in development demonstrates the necessity of broaden­ ing the point of view continuously. The workshop held in Munich from March 22nd to March 26th, 1982, was an excellent opportunity for the participants to discuss their respective interests and their interpretation of needs for future research. The workshop was sponsored by the Human Factors Special Programme Panel of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO. This sponsorship, together with the helpful assistance rendered by Drs. Bayraktar, Kroemer, and Sanders, is gratefully acknowledged. This volume contains the papers presented during the workshop. All these papers are directly related to the general aim: the ex­ chang...

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...

  5. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  6. Toward Improved Force-Field Accuracy through Sensitivity Analysis of Host-Guest Binding Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Fenley, Andrew T.; Henriksen, Niel M.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Improving the capability of atomistic computer models to predict the thermodynamics of noncovalent binding is critical for successful structure-based drug design, and the accuracy of such calculations remains limited by non-optimal force field parameters. Ideally, one would incorporate protein-ligand affinity data into force field parametrization, but this would be inefficient and costly. We now demonstrate that sensitivity analysis can be used to efficiently tune Lennard-Jones parameters of aqueous host-guest systems for increasingly accurate calculations of binding enthalpy. These results highlight the promise of a comprehensive use of calorimetric host-guest binding data, along with existing validation data sets, to improve force field parameters for the simulation of noncovalent binding, with the ultimate goal of making protein-ligand modeling more accurate and hence speeding drug discovery. PMID:26181208

  7. The Effect of Improving the Logistics Pipeline on Supply Support of Aerospace Expeditionary Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... If so, the Air Force should be able to trim its wartime stocks of aircraft spares. This thesis investigated the effect of improving the logistics pipeline on the size and cost of Air Force mobility readiness spares packages (MRSPs...

  8. Forced, not voluntary, exercise improves motor function in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Vitek, Jerrold L; Alberts, Jay L

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies indicate forced exercise (FE) improves overall motor function in Parkinsonian rodents. Global improvements in motor function following voluntary exercise (VE) are not widely reported in human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of VE and FE on PD symptoms, motor function, and bimanual dexterity. Ten patients with mild to moderate PD were randomly assigned to complete 8 weeks of FE or VE. With the assistance of a trainer, patients in the FE group pedaled at a rate 30% greater than their preferred voluntary rate, whereas patients in the VE group pedaled at their preferred rate. Aerobic intensity for both groups was identical, 60% to 80% of their individualized training heart rate. Aerobic fitness improved for both groups. Following FE, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores improved 35%, whereas patients completing VE did not exhibit any improvement. The control and coordination of grasping forces during the performance of a functional bimanual dexterity task improved significantly for patients in the FE group, whereas no changes in motor performance were observed following VE. Improvements in clinical measures of rigidity and bradykinesia and biomechanical measures of bimanual dexterity were maintained 4 weeks after FE cessation. Aerobic fitness can be improved in PD patients following both VE and FE interventions. However, only FE results in significant improvements in motor function and bimanual dexterity. Biomechanical data indicate that FE leads to a shift in motor control strategy, from feedback to a greater reliance on feedforward processes, which suggests FE may be altering central motor control processes.

  9. Variability in Cadence During Forced Cycling Predicts Motor Improvement in Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L.; Abdar, Hassan Mohammadi; Alberts, Jay L.; Discenzo, Fred M.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in severity and progression of Parkinson’s disease symptoms makes it challenging to design therapy interventions that provide maximal benefit. Previous studies showed that forced cycling, at greater pedaling rates, results in greater improvements in motor function than voluntary cycling. The precise mechanism for differences in function following exercise is unknown. We examined the complexity of biomechanical and physiological features of forced and voluntary cycling and correlated these features to improvements in motor function as measured by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Heart rate, cadence, and power were analyzed using entropy signal processing techniques. Pattern variability in heart rate and power were greater in the voluntary group when compared to forced group. In contrast, variability in cadence was higher during forced cycling. UPDRS Motor III scores predicted from the pattern variability data were highly correlated to measured scores in the forced group. This study shows how time series analysis methods of biomechanical and physiological parameters of exercise can be used to predict improvements in motor function. This knowledge will be important in the development of optimal exercise-based rehabilitation programs for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23144045

  10. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  11. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  12. NATO/CCMS pilot project: Risk assessment for accidental pollution related to the maritime transport of harmful substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melguen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NATO/CCMS Workshop on open-quotes Risk Assessment for Accidental Pollution Related to the Maritime Transport of Harmful Substancesclose quotes which took place at CEDRE in 1991 was a follow-up to the workshops which took place in 1987 and 1989. It was the direct continuation of work accomplished during the first two seminars and covered the following topics: Improvement and Intercomparison of Models: elaboration of the list of indispensable parameters for modeling slick movements analysis and integration of the physico-chemical processes studied at sea. Model Validation: release of bulk chemicals drift of drums and containers of toxic substances. Risk Assessment for Man and the Environment: development and adaptation of Help-in-Decision-Making System (ex: CAMEO, MORGANE, etc.) means for rapid, on-site detection (including the advanced Canadian know how in this domains). Intervention Ways and Means: experience of a rescue company; research for elements for Help-in-Decision-Making regarding the location and eventual recovery of drums and containers lost at sea

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Emergency Management after a Major Terror Attack : the New Challenges for First Responders and Civil Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhäusler, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    International terrorism remains a significant threat to the peace of the world. Weapons using various materials and delivery systems have been directed against cities and infrastructure, and other materials are postulated to be usable within the near future. Some of these materials are unusual or exotic, while some are modifications of materials used daily for other purposes: biological, chemical, radiological, nuclear and explosive. These materials pose a safety challenge for first responders, slowing the response and potentially killing scarce trained personnel. This book provides information about how leading agencies across the NATO membership are preparing to confront and respond to terrorists deploying Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), Weapons of Mass Killing (WMK) and Weapons of Mass Disruption (WMDi). Based on contributions by experts from NATO member states, Israel and the Russian Federation, this book offers information on fourth generation warfare as a new challenge to first responders. It also pr...

  14. Improving Estimates of Cloud Radiative Forcing over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Zender, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple driving mechanisms conspire to increase melt extent and extreme melt events frequency in the Arctic: changing heat transport, shortwave radiation (SW), and longwave radiation (LW). Cloud Radiative Forcing (CRF) of Greenland's surface is amplified by a dry atmosphere and by albedo feedback, making its contribution to surface melt even more variable in time and space. Unfortunately accurate cloud observations and thus CRF estimates are hindered by Greenland's remoteness, harsh conditions, and low contrast between surface and cloud reflectance. In this study, cloud observations from satellites and reanalyses are ingested into and evaluated within a column radiative transfer model. An improved CRF dataset is obtained by correcting systematic discrepancies derived from sensitivity experiments. First, we compare the surface radiation budgets from the Column Radiation Model (CRM) driven by different cloud datasets, with surface observations from Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net). In clear skies, CRM-estimated surface radiation driven by water vapor profiles from both AIRS and MODIS during May-Sept 2010-2012 are similar, stable, and reliable. For example, although AIRS water vapor path exceeds MODIS by 1.4 kg/m2 on a daily average, the overall absolute difference in downwelling SW is CRM estimates are within 20 W/m2 range of GC-Net downwelling SW. After calibrating CRM in clear skies, the remaining differences between CRM and observed surface radiation are primarily attributable to differences in cloud observations. We estimate CRF using cloud products from MODIS and from MERRA. The SW radiative forcing of thin clouds is mainly controlled by cloud water path (CWP). As CWP increases from near 0 to 200 g/m2, the net surface SW drops from over 100 W/m2 to 30 W/m2 almost linearly, beyond which it becomes relatively insensitive to CWP. The LW is dominated by cloud height. For clouds at all altitudes, the lower the clouds, the greater the LW forcing. By applying

  15. NATO’s Out-of-Area Disputes: Prospects for Common Western Strategies in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    behalf for inclusion in the alliance. In a telegram to Secretary of State Acheson, Italian Ambassador Alberto Tarchiani candidly requested Italy’s...West European Defence Identity," p. 335. lu’For an excellent essay on establishing institutional links between the WEU and NATO see, Joao de Deus...Returns to the Middle East." American-Arab Affairs No. 24 (Fall 1990): 46-52. Pmheiro, Joao de Deus . "The European Security Architecture Translantic

  16. Does combined strength training and local vibration improve isometric maximum force? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.

  17. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  18. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Lloyd, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model. PMID:24074941

  19. Proceedings of the NATO IST-128 Workshop: Assessing Mission Impact of Cyberattacks Held in Istanbul, Turkey on 15-17 June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    the NATO IST-128 Workshop: Assessing Mission Impact of Cyberattacks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...2001. [7] John Surdu, Kevin Kittka, “The Deep Green Concept,” Spring Simulation Multiconference, 2008. [8] Lieutenant General Edward Cardon

  20. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 3, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fighting power of NATO has been much reduced. Superior fighting power over all-comers is the creed of US forces and should be the sine qua non of...undertaken by Joint Command Lisbon, Portugal – under the overall command of Allied Command Operations – where the local responsibility for the NATO SMLO... Portugal . http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept- 2010-eng.pdf (accessed May 30, 2011). Strategic Insights • Winter 2011 Volume 10, Issue 3 39

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Turbulence, Weak and Strong

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, O

    1994-01-01

    The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to­ gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep­ arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...

  3. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  4. Unmanned Aerial Systems: Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    the best UAS pilot candidates, including by conducting additional research and testing a tool that measures multitasking ability, a competency...UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces...Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces What GAO Found The Air Force and the Army have not fully applied four of the five

  5. Brute force meets Bruno force in parameter optimisation: introduction of novel constraints for parameter accuracy improvement by symbolic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsui, M; Horimoto, K; Lemaire, F; Ürgüplü, A; Sedoglavic, A; Boulier, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent remarkable advances in computer performance have enabled us to estimate parameter values by the huge power of numerical computation, the so-called 'Brute force', resulting in the high-speed simultaneous estimation of a large number of parameter values. However, these advancements have not been fully utilised to improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Here the authors review a novel method for parameter estimation using symbolic computation power, 'Bruno force', named after Bruno Buchberger, who found the Gröbner base. In the method, the objective functions combining the symbolic computation techniques are formulated. First, the authors utilise a symbolic computation technique, differential elimination, which symbolically reduces an equivalent system of differential equations to a system in a given model. Second, since its equivalent system is frequently composed of large equations, the system is further simplified by another symbolic computation. The performance of the authors' method for parameter accuracy improvement is illustrated by two representative models in biology, a simple cascade model and a negative feedback model in comparison with the previous numerical methods. Finally, the limits and extensions of the authors' method are discussed, in terms of the possible power of 'Bruno force' for the development of a new horizon in parameter estimation.

  6. Importância da avaliação oftalmológica em recém-natos Importance of the ophthalmological evaluation in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wasilewski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar a existência de afecções oculares, nas primeiras 48 horas de vida de recém-natos, e relacioná-las com a suspeita clínica dos pediatras. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo prospectivo em que todos os recém-natos no período de julho a dezembro de 2000 foram examinados no alojamento conjunto do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC. Seiscentos e sessenta e sete recém-natos foram avaliados, através de um protocolo, por médicos residentes e preceptores de oftalmologia, independentemente se havia ou não qualquer suspeita de alteração ocular pelo pediatra. Procedeu-se à inspeção, iluminação oblíqua, avaliação de desvio ocular e oftalmoscopia direta à distância (reflexo vermelho em todos os pacientes. Resultados: em 3,75% dos pacientes avaliados, encontrou-se alguma alteração ocular. A principal afecção ocular foi a opacidade corneana, detectada pelo exame de reflexo vermelho à distância. Cinqüenta e seis por cento dos recém-natos portadores de patologia ocular passaram despercebidos pelos pediatras, neonatologistas e pais. Conclusão: este estudo demonstrou que a maioria das desordens oculares presentes ao nascimento não é diagnosticada pelos pediatras (56%, evidenciando, desta forma, a importância do exame oftalmológico como rotina no atendimento ao recém-nato nas primeiras 48 horas de vida.Objective: To verify the existence of ocular diseases in the first 48 hours of life of newborns and relate it to the clinical suspicious of pediatricians. Methods: A prospective study was performed. All infants that were born between July and December of 2000 were evaluated in the nursery of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC. Six hundred sixty-seven newborns were evaluated through a protocol by residents and tutors of ophthalmology, regardless of pediatricians’ suspicious of ocular disorder. The examination consisted of inspection, oblique illumination, evaluation of ocular

  7. Leveraging Capabilities: The Integration of Special Operation Forces and Conventional Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    88 Christopher N Koontz , ed., Enduring Voices: Oral Histories of the U.S. Army Experience in...Christopher N Koontz , ed., Enduring Voices: Oral Histories of the U.S. Army Experience in Afghanistan 2003-2005. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 2008), 7...39. 93 Koontz , Enduring Voices, 7-8. 43 entire country except for the northern region, which was commanded by NATO (See above “Figure#3: Map of

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  9. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  10. The Nature of Russia’s Threat to NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Russia seeks to influence Rossotrudnichestvo, as well as citizens of the Baltic States through IW. Its goals are to erode faith in the legitimacy and...punishment. However, the Baltic States, and thereby NATO, remain vulnerable to Russian political and social influence by way of energy dependence, malign...state influence in the information sphere, and Estonia and Latvia’s own divisive citizenship policies. NATO’s ability to develop consensus on and

  11. THE SMART DEFENCE CONCEPT - A NEW APPROACH OF COMMON DEFENCE WITHIN NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu IONIȚĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Defence concept was introduced in the NATO policy in a time when the Alliance is confronted with new challenges generated by the global economic crisis, a lack of balance in the participation of the member states in the financing of common operations, threats coming from states that do not adhere to nuclear non-proliferation treaties, as well as the emergence of new state actors at the global level. By implementing the Smart Defence concept, the Alliance intends to adapt its own means of generating critical capabilities in accordance with the pooling and sharing paradigm, implemented with the European Union, an initiative that might lead to stronger cooperation between the two organisms and to a more efficient use of shared capabilities.

  12. Russian Influence on NATO Member/Non-Member Relationships: A Case Study of the US-Ukraine Military to Military Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    influence? C. METHODOLOGY The methodology for this thesis will be a qualitative analysis of topical scholarly texts, government policy, personal ...other elements of collective security. The best example of collective defense language is contained in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty which... histrionics , has been essentially powerless to halt the enlargement of NATO. All of the actions taken by Russia during the Kosovo crisis in 1999

  13. Model of the naval base logistic interoperability within the multinational operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Pac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the model of the naval base logistics interoperability within the multinational operations conducted at sea by NATO or EU nations. The model includes the set of logistic requirements that NATO and EU expect from the contributing nations within the area of the logistic support provided to the forces operating out of the home bases. Model may reflect the scheme configuration, the set of requirements and its mathematical description for the naval base supporting multinational forces within maritime operations.

  14. The Guardian. Volume 9, Number 3, Winter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    message correctly. Muslims will ultimately determine whether the ideology of al Qaeda, its affiliates, franchisees , and fellow travelers represents...opined that the effort would not work or would not pass the cost– benefit comparison. Others wanted to develop comprehensive NATO doctrine to guide...full BAT capability, the access-control benefits of BAT/HIIDE are a significant improvement to overall ISAF force protection, even in stand-alone mode

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Exploiting Mental Imagery with Computers in Mathematics Education

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John

    1995-01-01

    The advent of fast and sophisticated computer graphics has brought dynamic and interactive images under the control of professional mathematicians and mathematics teachers. This volume in the NATO Special Programme on Advanced Educational Technology takes a comprehensive and critical look at how the computer can support the use of visual images in mathematical problem solving. The contributions are written by researchers and teachers from a variety of disciplines including computer science, mathematics, mathematics education, psychology, and design. Some focus on the use of external visual images and others on the development of individual mental imagery. The book is the first collected volume in a research area that is developing rapidly, and the authors pose some challenging new questions.

  16. Who Are the Supporters of Croatian Membership in the European Union and NATO? Predictive Value of Personal and National Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarovic, Toni; Burusic, Lidija Cilic; Burusic, Josip

    2011-01-01

    Like many other Central and Eastern European countries Croatia has passed through substantial political changes and transition processes from state to liberal market economy in the last two decades. The next important step is accession to EU and NATO, and public opinion about joining these associations is divided. The aim of this study is to…

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir

    1990-01-01

    This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc­ ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater­ gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom­ ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso­ lution laser spectroscop...

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Physical laws are for the most part expressed in terms of differential equations, and natural classes of these are in the form of conservation laws or of problems of the calculus of variations for an action functional. These problems can generally be posed as Hamiltonian systems, whether dynamical systems on finite dimensional phase space as in classical mechanics, or partial differential equations (PDE) which are naturally of infinitely many degrees of freedom. This volume is the collected and extended notes from the lectures on Hamiltonian dynamical systems and their applications that were given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Montreal in 2007. Many aspects of the modern theory of the subject were covered at this event, including low dimensional problems as well as the theory of Hamiltonian systems in infinite dimensional phase space; these are described in depth in this volume. Applications are also presented to several important areas of research, including problems in classical mechanics, continu...

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF GETTING INJURED AND WOUNDED IN THE NATO AGGRESSION VICTIMS ON THE TERRITORY OF BELGRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Atanasijevic

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available During the NATO aggression against Yugoslavia in the period from March toJune, 1999, at the Institute for Forensic Medicine in Belgrade there were 34 victimsregistered, namely, 22 of male and 12 of male sex. The greatest number of the killedwas of younger age, namely, of 31 to 40 years of age (l O persons and from 21 to 30years of age (8 persons while three victims were children up to 10 years of age. Onlyin one čaše the person on duty was wounded while all the other victims were civilianswho got fatal injuries out of the military objects. The wounds were in most casesinflicted by the NATO aviation actions at night, from midnight to 6 o'clock a. m. (28.In the inner city zone 26 persons were hurt; 6 were hurt in the villages aroundBelgrade and two in the suburban settlements. Half of them were killed at their jobs;16 of them were killed in the building of the Radio Television of Serbia; 9 were killedin their homes; 3 were killed in the hospital just like in the embassy and 2 in the street.Most of the persons (33 got injured due to a direct mechanical and/or thermal effectof explosive weapons. The forensic-medical autopsy was done on 31 victims. In 30cases the death occurred at the place where in the injury was inflicted.

  1. Norwegian Security Determinants: Deterrence and Reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    September 1979, pp. 20-25; Rear Admiral 104 |eve Roy Breivik , R.N.N., Inspector General, "Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway," NATO’s Fift...2-15; a:zc $ Patrick Wall, "The Third Battle of the Atlantic," i Power, July 1981, pp. 52-57. 11 Richard K. Betts, "Surprise Attack: NATO’s...Force," NATO’s Fifteen Nations, December 1977-January 1978, pp. 81-89. 186 Breivik , Pear Admiral Roy, R.N.N., "Assuring the Security: of Reinforcements

  2. STRONG POINTS AND INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VULNERABILITIES OF THE MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATICS SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS DEVELOPED IN THE ROMANIAN ARMED FORCES UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CURRENT SECURITY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly presents a series of recent aspects in the current geopolitical context regarding some strong points as well as internal and external vulnerabilities of the military communication and informatics systems and networks developed in the Romanian Armed Forces since 1997. In the second section we referred to the evolutions in austerity and hostility conditions of the main operational and technical sequels of Romanian Armed Forces Transmissions System - STAR (RTP/RMNC. Furthermore, we presented some strong points of the achieved systems and principles taken into account along the modernization and transformation effort (regarding the NATO criteria and requirements, as well as their internal and external vulnerabilities identified following a thorough analysis.

  3. The Role of a Commander in Military Lessons Learned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Waliński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of a commander in military Lessons Learned systems. In order to achieve the aim, the paper presents (1 the architecture of the Lessons Learned capabilities in the U.S. Army, NATO and the Polish Armed Forces, (2 the commander’s role in the Lessons Learned process (3 the commander’s role in fostering Lessons Learned organisation culture. The paper is based on multiple case study analysis including Lessons Learned systems in NATO, the U.S. Army and the Polish Armed Forces.

  4. The Latvian Armed Forces today / Raimonds Graube

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graube, Raimonds

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade Läti kaitsevägede olukorrast, eesmärkidest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst ja valmistumisest liitumiseks NATO-ga. Tabelid: Läti kaitsejõudude planeerimise süsteem, käsuliinid, kaitsejõudude struktuur rahu- ja sõjaajal. Raimonds Graube biograafia

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes : Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, H; Pinho, M

    1986-01-01

    The chapters in this book are based upon lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes (June 26-July 8, 1983, Alcabideche, Portugal), which provided an integrated presentation of syn­ thetic membrane science and technology in three broad areas. Currently available membrane formation mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the manner in which synthesis conditions can be controlled to achieve desired membrane structures. Membrane performance in a specific separa­ tionprocess involves complex phenomena, the understanding of which re­ quires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing polymer chemistry, phys­ ical chemistry, and chemical engineering. Progress toward a global understanding of membrane phenomena is described in chapters on the principles of membrane transport. The chapters on membrane processes and applications highlight both established and emerging membrane processes, and elucidate their myriad applications. It is our hope that this book will be an enduring, comprehensi...

  6. Practical demonstration of urban air quality simulation models. Part I. A report of the NATO/CCMS pilot study on air pollution assessment methodology and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    Report shows cooperation of NATO member nations in developing standardized methods for emissions data storage and retrieval to support requirements in conduct of national air quality management programs. Shows cooperation in developing standardized techniques for projecting emissions and predicting future ambient air quality.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics : Principles Enabling Basic Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John; Silvestri, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

  8. Improving Civil-Military Information Sharing in Peace Support Operations Using a Service-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    solutions that operate reliable under adverse conditions including a bandwidth-limited environment, and provide them with customised information...236 Klein, G. (1998) Sources of Power: How people make decisions, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass ., USA, 1998 NATO (2007) NATO Architecture Framework

  9. Service to the Nation, Strength for the Future. Fiscal Year 2013 United States Army Annual Financial Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    September 25, 2013. Forward-stationed Army forces in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Europe, and elsewhere provide Geographic Combatant Commands with...designs more easily tailored to meet the varied demands of the geographic combatant commanders and reduce the complexities of joint planning and... Nike Hercules systems in Italy. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) MEADS Management Agency (NAMEADSMA) is the NATO contracting authority

  10. Improving estimation of kinetic parameters in dynamic force spectroscopy using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Fu; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic Force Spectroscopy (DFS) is a widely used technique to characterize the dissociation kinetics and interaction energy landscape of receptor-ligand complexes with single-molecule resolution. In an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)-based DFS experiment, receptor-ligand complexes, sandwiched between an AFM tip and substrate, are ruptured at different stress rates by varying the speed at which the AFM-tip and substrate are pulled away from each other. The rupture events are grouped according to their pulling speeds, and the mean force and loading rate of each group are calculated. These data are subsequently fit to established models, and energy landscape parameters such as the intrinsic off-rate (koff) and the width of the potential energy barrier (xβ) are extracted. However, due to large uncertainties in determining mean forces and loading rates of the groups, errors in the estimated koff and xβ can be substantial. Here, we demonstrate that the accuracy of fitted parameters in a DFS experiment can be dramatically improved by sorting rupture events into groups using cluster analysis instead of sorting them according to their pulling speeds. We test different clustering algorithms including Gaussian mixture, logistic regression, and K-means clustering, under conditions that closely mimic DFS experiments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we benchmark the performance of these clustering algorithms over a wide range of koff and xβ, under different levels of thermal noise, and as a function of both the number of unbinding events and the number of pulling speeds. Our results demonstrate that cluster analysis, particularly K-means clustering, is very effective in improving the accuracy of parameter estimation, particularly when the number of unbinding events are limited and not well separated into distinct groups. Cluster analysis is easy to implement, and our performance benchmarks serve as a guide in choosing an appropriate method for DFS data analysis.

  11. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II

    2016-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  12. NATO CCMS Workshop on Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security (SMECS)

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzane, Daoud

    2008-01-01

    Rapid evolution of trade, cultural and human relations provides the qualitative and quantitative enhancement of international collaborations, linking the countries with different economical and technological level. Delocalization of High-Tech industry inevitably leads to development of the material science and engineering researches in emergent countries, requiring transfer of know-how, restructuration of basic research and educational networks. This book presents the contributions of participants of the Advanced Research Workshop “Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security” (ARW SMECS; www.smecs.ferroix.net), organized in December 2007 in Marrakech in frame of the “NATO - Science for Peace” program. The objective of this event was the attempt to overview several hot topics of material physics related with problems of modern society: transformation and storage of energy, treatment and transmission of information, environmental security issues etc., with the focus of their implementation i...

  13. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.; Markovic, S; Plecas, I.

    2001-01-01

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  14. Nuclear deterrence and the Alliance in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Camille

    2016-01-01

    For more than two decades, nuclear debates had vanished from the heart of Western strategic debates. The general perception within the Alliance was that NATO was not facing direct threats on its territory and borders. NATO was surrounded by multiple 'partners', many of which were aspiring to membership. The threat of nuclear weapons seemed remote, and debates focused on the risks of proliferation or the prospects of a world free of nuclear weapons. This situation has changed dramatically in the last few years. Major and regional powers are modernising their nuclear forces and giving them a central role in their broader strategic posture. In such a context, deterrence is back and NATO needs to re-establish a robust and credible defence and deterrent vis-a-vis multiple and diverse threats, a topic which will be high on the agenda at NATO's summit in Warsaw in early July. There is a strong nuclear component to this debate. Reprint of a paper published in 'Nato Review', 2016

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hydrogen in Disordered and Amorphous Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    This is the second volume in the NATO ASI series dealing with the topic of hydrogen in solids. The first (V. B76, Metal Hydrides) appeared five years ago and focussed primarily on crystalline phases of hydrided metallic systems. In the intervening period, the amorphous solid state has become an area of intense research activity, encompassing both metallic and non-metallic, e.g. semiconducting, systems. At the same time the problem of storage of hydrogen, which motivated the first ASI, continues to be important. In the case of metallic systems, there were early indications that metallic glasses and disordered alloys may be more corrosion resistant, less susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and have a higher hydrogen mobility than ordered metals or intermetallics. All of these properties are desirable for hydrogen storage. Subsequent research has shown that thermodynamic instability is a severe problem in many amorphous metal hydrides. The present ASI has provided an appropriate forum to focus on these issu...

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bányai, L

    1989-01-01

    This book contains all the papers presented at the NATO workshop on "Optical Switching in Low Dimensional Systems" held in Marbella, Spain from October 6th to 8th, 1988. Optical switching is a basic function for optical data processing, which is of technological interest because of its potential parallelism and its potential speed. Semiconductors which exhibit resonance enhanced optical nonlinearities in the frequency range close to the band edge are the most intensively studied materials for optical bistability and fast gate operation. Modern crystal growth techniques, particularly molecular beam epitaxy, allow the manufacture of semiconductor microstructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots in which the electrons are only free to move in two, one or zero dimensions, of the optically excited electron-hole pairs in these low respectively. The spatial confinement dimensional structures gives rise to an enhancement of the excitonic nonlinearities. Furthermore, the variations of the microstr...

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Lower-Dimensional Systems and Molecular Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Peter; Papavassiliou, George

    1990-01-01

    This volume represents the written account of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Lower-Dimensional Systems and Molecular Electronics" held at Hotel Spetses, Spetses Island, Greece from 12 June to 23 June 1989. The goal of the Institute was to demonstrate the breadth of chemical and physical knowledge that has been acquired in the last 20 years in inorganic and organic crystals, polymers, and thin films, which exhibit phenomena of reduced dimensionality. The interest in these systems started in the late 1960's with lower-dimensional inorganic conductors, in the early 1970's with quasi-one-dimensional crystalline organic conductors. which by 1979 led to the first organic superconductors, and, in 1977, to the fITSt conducting polymers. The study of monolayer films (Langmuir-Blodgett films) had progressed since the 1930's, but reached a great upsurge in . the early 1980's. The pursuit of non-linear optical phenomena became increasingly popular in the early 1980's, as the attention turned from inorganic crystals t...

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Lugiato, L; Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains tutorial papers from the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics", held at the "Il Ciocco" Conference Center, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Lucca, Italy, June 28-July 7, 1987. The title of the volume is designated Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II, because of the nearly coincident publication of a collection of articles on research in this field edited by F.T. Arecchi and R.G. Harrison [Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics, (Springer, Berlin, 1987) 1. That volume provides more detailed information about some of these topics. Together they will serve as a comprehensive and tutorial pair of companion volumes. This school was directed by Prof. Massimo Inguscio, of the Department of Physics, University of Naples, Naples, Italy to whom we express our gratitude on behalf of all lecturers and students. The Scientific Advisory Committee consisted of N.B. Abraham of Bryn Mawr College; F.T. Arecchi of the National I...

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earth Rotation : Solved and Unsolved Problems

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under­ standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe­ rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Microscopic Simulations of Complex Hydrodynamic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Holian, Brad

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute which was held in Alghero, Sardinia, in July 1991. The development of computers in the recent years has lead to the emergence of unconventional ideas aiming at solving old problems. Among these, the possibility of computing directly fluid flows from the trajectories of constituent particles has been much exploited in the last few years: lattice gases cellular automata and more generally Molecular Dynamics have been used to reproduce and study complex flows. Whether or not these methods may someday compete with more traditional approaches is a question which cannot be answered at the present time: it will depend on the new computer architectures as well as on the possibility to develop very simple models to reproduce the most complex phenomena taking place in the approach of fully developed turbulence or plastic flows. In any event, these molecular methods are already used, and sometimes in an applied engineering context, to study strong s...

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  2. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    1988-01-01

    The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...

  3. Improved theoretical approximation for the ion drag force in collisionless plasma with strong ion-grain coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapak, S. A.; Nosenko, V.; Morfill, G. E.; Merlino, R.

    2009-01-01

    We point out a deficiency in our previous analytic calculation of the ion drag force for conditions of the experiment by Nosenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 103702 (2007)]. An inaccurate approximation is corrected and the ion drag force is recalculated. The improved model yields better overall agreement with the experimental results as compared to the original calculation.

  4. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Shota; Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2015-01-01

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Structural Theory of Automata, Semigroups and Universal Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Ivo; Goldstein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Several of the contributions to this volume bring forward many mutually beneficial interactions and connections between the three domains of the title. Developing them was the main purpose of the NATO ASI summerschool held in Montreal in 2003. Although some connections, for example between semigroups and automata, were known for a long time, developing them and surveying them in one volume is novel and hopefully stimulating for the future. Another aspect is the emphasis on the structural theory of automata that studies ways to contstruct big automata from small ones. The volume also has contributions on top current research or surveys in the three domains. One contribution even links clones of universal algebra with the computational complexity of computer science. Three contributions introduce the reader to research in the former East block.

  6. Environmental Assessment for Landfill Drainage Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    became increasingly important, corresponding to development of the tomol (a plank canoe), single-piece shell fishhooks, and harpoons (Glassow 1996...Chumash had a culture that "was as elaborate as that of any hunter-gatherer society on earth" (Moratto 1984: 118). Leadership was hereditary and chiefs...Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California I I I I I I I Erlandson, Jon M., and Kevin Bartoy 1995 Cabrillo, the Chumash, and Old

  7. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  8. How Should SOF Be Organized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    186 Eric Micheletti, French Special Forces: Special Operations Command (Paris: Histoire & Collections, 1999), 16. 187 NSCC, NATO SOF...University, September 2008. Micheletti, Eric. French Special Forces: Special Operations Command. Paris: Histoire & Collections, 1999. Millet, Allan

  9. Corrected direct force balance method for atomic force microscopy lateral force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, David B.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports corrections and improvements of the previously reported direct force balance method (DFBM) developed for lateral calibration of atomic force microscopy. The DFBM method employs the lateral force signal obtained during a force-distance measurement on a sloped surface and relates this signal to the applied load and the slope of the surface to determine the lateral calibration factor. In the original publication [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043903 (2006)], the tip-substrate contact was assumed to be pinned at the point of contact, i.e., no slip along the slope. In control experiments, the tip was found to slide along the slope during force-distance curve measurement. This paper presents the correct force balance for lateral force calibration.

  10. NATO Allied Joint Medical Publication 7: Allied Joint Medical Doctrine for Support to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Defensive Operations, Final Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    assets such as RDOIT and MRIIT c. Utilization of national outreach, reach back and fusion, and forensic capabilities d. Availability and utilization...hazards can be naturally occurring, including those related to air, water, soil quality and entomology , and man-made, including industrial sites...soil and water quality, entomological hazards, and TIMs encountered during operations. 5. NATO has recently undertaken a number of initiatives

  11. Dynamic electrostatic force microscopy technique for the study of electrical properties with improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragliano, C; Heskes, D; Stefancich, M; Chiesa, M; Souier, T

    2013-01-01

    The need to resolve the electrical properties of confined structures (CNTs, quantum dots, nanorods, etc) is becoming increasingly important in the field of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we propose an approach based on amplitude modulated electrostatic force microscopy to obtain measurements at small tip–sample distances, where highly nonlinear forces are present. We discuss how this improves the lateral resolution of the technique and allows probing of the electrical and surface properties. The complete force field at different tip biases is employed to derive the local work function difference. Then, by appropriately biasing the tip–sample system, short-range forces are reconstructed. The short-range component is then separated from the generic tip–sample force in order to recover the pure electrostatic contribution. This data can be employed to derive the tip–sample capacitance curve and the sample dielectric constant. After presenting a theoretical model that justifies the need for probing the electrical properties of the sample in the vicinity of the surface, the methodology is presented in detail and verified experimentally. (paper)

  12. Effects of NATO air-raids on human environment and health of the population of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanov, V.; Vukicevic, A.; Grozdanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bombing targets of NATO forces were almost all larger towns in Serbia, and particularly the facilities of chemical and oil industry. The most severely attacked cities were Pancevo, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Nis, Kragujevac, Sombor, Krusevac, Bogutovac, Kraljevo, Smederevo, Bor, Prahovo, etc. Constantly and repeatedly attacked chemical and oil plants, in addition to direct destruction of the plants, produced divergent effects, such as emission of a variety of primary and secondary pollutants into the living environment (air, water, soil). The majority of these pollutants are documented to have not only the toxicological but also the potential carcinogenic, teratogenic and/or mutagenic effects. The activities of health service (preventive before all) included qualitative and, to a permissible extent, the quantitative measurements of the mineral oils, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic carbons, total carbons, phenol, 3-chloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, phosgene, vinyl chloride monomer, 1 ,2-dichlor-oethane, dioxin, furan, toxic metals (lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, mercury) -first in air, then in water currents, soil, plants and animals. The peacetime networks for monitoring environmental pollution (air, water, foodstuffs) were not capable to follow up all changes that occurred during aggression. During bombing of the chemical and oil plants the health service did not register any significant increase of individuals (dwellers) presenting with accident-related signs and symptoms. The results of environmental quality obtained so far, indicate a need to follow up the subclinical and clinical manifestations of a long-term exposure of the population. However, the majority of substances that we were able to identify indicate the presence of environmental pollution which will persist for a long time in the years ahead and in concentrations which may eventually have toxicological, carcinogenic, mutagenic

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nondestructive Evaluation of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    From September 19-29, a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Non­ destructive Evaluation of Semiconductor Materials and Devices was held at the Villa Tuscolano in Frascati, Italy. A total of 80 attendees and lecturers participated in the program which covered many of the important topics in this field. The subject matter was divided to emphasize the following different types of problems: electrical measurements; acoustic measurements; scanning techniques; optical methods; backscatter methods; x-ray observations; accele­ rated life tests. It would be difficult to give a full discussion of such an Institute without going through the major points of each speaker. Clearly this is the proper task of the eventual readers of these Proceedings. Instead, it would be preferable to stress some general issues. What came through very clearly is that the measurements of the basic scientists in materials and device phenomena are of sub­ stantial immediate concern to the device technologies and end users.

  14. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Incommensurate Crystals, Liquid Crystals, and Quasi-Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, N

    1988-01-01

    In this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop we succeeded in bringing together approximately forty scientists working in the three main areas of structurally incommensurate materials: incommensurate crystals (primarily ferroelectric insulators), incommensurate liquid crystals, and metallic quasi-crystals. Although these three classes of materials are quite distinct, the commonality of the physics of the origin and descrip­ tion of these incommensurate structures is striking and evident in these proceedings. A measure of the success of this conference was the degree to which interaction among the three subgroups occurred; this was facili­ tated by approximately equal amounts of theory and experiment in the papers presented. We thank the University of Colorado for providing pleasant housing and conference facilities at a modest cost, and we are especially grate­ ful to Ann Underwood, who retyped all the manuscripts into camera-ready form. J. F. Scott Boulder, Colorado N. A. Clark v CONTENTS PART I: INCO...

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Dynamics of Polyatomic Van der Waals Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Janda, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on the Dynamics of Polyatomic Van der Waals Molecules held at the Chateau de Bonas, Castera-Verduzan, France, from August 21 through August 26, 1989. Van der Waals complexes provide important model problems for understanding energy transfer and dissipation. These processes can be described in great detail for Van der Waals complexes, and the insight gained from such studies can be applied to more complicated chemical problems that are not amenable to detailed study. The workshop concentrated on the current questions and future prospects for extend­ ing our highly detailed knowledge of triatomic Van der Waals molecule dynamics to polyatomic molecules and clusters (one molecule surrounded by several, or up to sev­ eral tens of, atoms). Both experimental and theoretical studies were discussed, with particular emphasis on the dynamical behavior of dissociation as observed in the dis­ tributions of quantum states of the dissociatio...

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Interactions with Atoms, Solids,and Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this NATO Advanced Study Institute was to bring together scientists and students working in the field of laser matter interactions in order to review and stimulate developmentoffundamental science with ultra-short pulse lasers. New techniques of pulse compression and colliding-pulse mode-locking have made possible the construction of lasers with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range. Such lasers are now in operation at several research laboratories in Europe and the United States. These laser facilities present a new and exciting research direction with both pure and applied science components. In this ASI the emphasis is on fundamental processes occurring in the interaction of short laser pulses with atoms, molecules, solids, and plasmas. In the case of laser-atom (molecule) interactions, high power lasers provide the first access to extreme high-intensity conditions above 10'8 Watts/em', a new frontier for nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and molecules. New phenomena observed include ...

  17. Single Fuel Concept for Croatian Army Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spudić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During the process of approaching the European associationsand NATO the Republic of Croatia has accepted the singlefuel concept for all ground vehicles of the Croatian Army.Croatia has also undertaken to insure that all aircraft, motorvehicles and equipment with turbo-engines or with pressurizedfuel injection, for participation in NATO and PfP led operationscan • operate using the kerosene-based aviation fuel(NATO F-34. The paper gives a brief overview and the resultsof the earned out activities in the Armed Forces of the Republicof Croatia, the expected behaviour of the motor vehicle andpossible delays caused by the use of kerosene fuel (NATOF-34 as fuel for motor vehicles. The paper also gives the advantagesand the drawbacks of the single fuel concept. By acquiringnew data in the Croatian Armed Forces and experienceexchange with other nations about the method of using fuelF-34, the development of the technologies of engine manufacturingand its vital parts or by introducing new standards in theproductjon of fuels and additives new knowledge will certainlybe acquired for providing logistics support in the area of operations,and its final implementation will be a big step forward forthe Republic of Croatia towards Europe and NATO.

  18. Incubating Isolated Mouse EDL Muscles with Creatine Improves Force Production and Twitch Kinetics in Fatigue Due to Reduction in Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stewart I.; Greenaway, Bronwen; Chan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. Methods and Results The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12–14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i) before fatigue; (ii) immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii) after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. Conclusion Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation. PMID:21850234

  19. Incubating isolated mouse EDL muscles with creatine improves force production and twitch kinetics in fatigue due to reduction in ionic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart I Head

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12-14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i before fatigue; (ii immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. CONCLUSION: Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca(2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation.

  20. Next-Generation NATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) Development (Developpement de la nouvella generation du modele de mobilite de reference de l’OTAN (NRMM))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    There is little by way of success stories to build upon on this front, though deep learning and other machine learning technologies are highly...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(AVT-ET-148)TP/728 www.sto.nato.int STO EXPLORATORY...Distribution and Availability on Back Cover NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323

  1. Assessing Freedom of Movement for Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    basic elements of life,” while an official NATO documentary video on the contribution of Afghan security forces to FoM declared, “Freedom of...narrowly—some people walk or use donkeys , horse-drawn carts, bicycles, and other conveyances to travel. 27 Locals who are intent on selling such equipment...Organization, “NATO in Afghanistan—Freedom of Movement,” video , November 12, 2008. As of September 16, 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v

  2. Relating Operational Art to the National Guard State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Program Coordinator GEF Global Employment of the Force DSCA Defense Support of Civil Authorities BCA Budget Control Act NATO North Atlantic Treaty...between Florida and the U.S. Virgin Islands are referred to as the Regional Security System (RSS). Florida and the U.S. Virgin Islands partner with... Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2004 due, in part, to the mentorship from the Maryland National Guard.54 Not only did the Maryland National Guard

  3. Acquisition Logistics Guidelines for Improving the Argentine Air Force Weapon System Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    the Argentine Air Force Academy, in 1979. He earned a degree as an Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineer from Escuela de Ingenieria Aeronäutica in...Independent Assessments Innovative Practices Continuos Improvement Legality of Weapons Under International Law Software Intensive Systems...optimize total system performance and life cycle cost. The term total implies the prime mission equipment -hardware and software -, its operational and

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Time-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics : Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lathouwers, L

    1992-01-01

    From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Geometrical Derivatives of Energy Surfaces and Molecular Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Jack

    1986-01-01

    The development and computational implementation of analytical expres­ sions for the low-order derivatives of electronic energy surfaces and other molecular properties has undergone rapid growth in recent years. It is now fairly routine for chemists to make use of energy gradient information in locating and identifying stable geometries and transition states. The use of second analytical derivative (Hessian or curvature) expressions is not yet routine, and third and higher energy derivatives as well as property (e.g., dipole moment, polarizability) derivatives are just beginning to be applied to chemical problems. This NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on analyzing the re­ lative merits of various strategies for deriving the requisite analyti­ cal expressions, for computing necessary integral derivatives and wave­ function parameter derivatives, and for efficiently coding these expres­ sions on conventional scalar machines and vector-oriented computers. The participant list contained many scientist...

  6. Air Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    leather, furs,6 apparel , and shoes • FSG 84 – clothing , individual equipment and insignia • FSG 89 – subsistence (food) If these items are purchased...during the audit by completing Buy American Act training and amending standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the...Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act F E B R U A R Y 2 4 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-051

  7. Minimizing tip-sample forces in jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Esteban, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Horcas, I. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Hernando-Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ares, P. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Berna, A.J.; San Martin, C.; Carrascosa, J.L. [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pablo, P.J. de [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, J., E-mail: julio.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Control and minimization of tip-sample interaction forces are imperative tasks to maximize the performance of atomic force microscopy. In particular, when imaging soft biological matter in liquids, the cantilever dragging force prevents identification of the tip-sample mechanical contact, resulting in deleterious interaction with the specimen. In this work we present an improved jumping mode procedure that allows detecting the tip-sample contact with high accuracy, thus minimizing the scanning forces ({approx}100 pN) during the approach cycles. To illustrate this method we report images of human adenovirus and T7 bacteriophage particles which are prone to uncontrolled modifications when using conventional jumping mode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in atomic force microscopy in buffer solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak force detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subtracting the cantilever dragging force. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forces in the 100 pN range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging of delicate viruses with atomic force microscopy.

  8. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  9. Stakeholder-Driven Quality Improvement: A Compelling Force for Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Wyer, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Clinical practice guideline development should be driven by rigorous methodology, but what is less clear is where quality improvement enters the process: should it be a priority-guiding force, or should it enter only after recommendations are formulated? We argue for a stakeholder-driven approach to guideline development, with an overriding goal of quality improvement based on stakeholder perceptions of needs, uncertainties, and knowledge gaps. In contrast, the widely used topic-driven approach, which often makes recommendations based only on randomized controlled trials, is driven by epidemiologic purity and evidence rigor, with quality improvement a downstream consideration. The advantages of a stakeholder-driven versus a topic-driven approach are highlighted by comparisons of guidelines for otitis media with effusion, thyroid nodules, sepsis, and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. These comparisons show that stakeholder-driven guidelines are more likely to address the quality improvement needs and pressing concerns of clinicians and patients, including understudied populations and patients with multiple chronic conditions. Conversely, a topic-driven approach often addresses "typical" patients, based on research that may not reflect the needs of high-risk groups excluded from studies because of ethical issues or a desire for purity of research design.

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory Integrated Omics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    fuel exposures and cognitive fatigue. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biomonitoring, omics, metabonomics, proteomics, genomics, epigenetics, biomarker, toxin...biomarker discovery in a number of toxicology and human performance projects, including jet fuel exposures and cognitive fatigue. INTRODUCTION One of...chemical exposure for U.S. and NATO military personnel46; inhalation and dermal have been shown to represent the primary routes of exposure47 This

  11. Performance Improvement of a Radioactive Forced Circulation Evaporator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.; Hala, A.A.; Othman, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaporation is a proven method for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes providing both good decontamination and high concentration. In a radioactive waste treatment plant a forced circulation evaporator is used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquid wastes arising from different applications of nuclear industries. The safe operation, limiting the composition of the liquid radioactive waste at a prescribed value, with high performance efficiency, requires good control for the evaporator operating pressure and the level of liquid waste inside the separator part of the evaporator. The aim of this work was to improve the safety and performance of a forced-circulation evaporator used in a liquid radioactive wastes treatment plant. In this respect, a level controller system for this type of evaporator was designed, where proportional (P), proportional Integral (PI) and deadbeat response controllers for the separator level system were suggested. More over, an ideal 2×2(2 inputs and 2 outputs )de coupler controller for controlling the operating pressure and the product composition was developed. Computer results demonstrated that the deadbeat response has been success fully obtained from the developed separator control system. The maximum over shoot in the unit-step response curve was reduce d to 25 % and the settling time also was reduced to more than the half; about 26 minutes using Ziegler-Nichols tuning technique.The designed de coupling controller has been found effective in achieving a good trade-off between stability and performance

  12. A changing European Security and defense architecture and its impact on Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yikilkan, Orhan.

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1991 Maastricht Treaty, the European Union countries have been trying to form a common security and defense identity as one facet of the European Union unification process. The efforts to create "separable but not separate" European forces within NATO have accelerated in the last three years and changed direction toward creating an autonomous "European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)" within the framework of the EU. This policy concerns some non-EU European NATO allies, such as T...

  13. Soviet Military Objectives in the Artic Theater and How They Might be Attained

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    on NATO’s Northern Flank," Armed Forces Journal International, April 1984, 88 ff.; Roy Breivik , "Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway...Publishing Co., 1985), 72-78 passim; Patrick Wall, "The Importance of NATO’s North- em Flank," Defence, vol. 10, no. 1 (January 1979), 9-11. 48. The...Ellingsen, Militaerbalansen 1983-1984; Breivik , "Assuring the Security of Rein- forcements to Norway," 66. 50. The reinforcements include a

  14. Evaluating and improving the performance of thin film force sensors within body and device interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitlersuang, Jirapat; Leineweber, Matthew J; Andrysek, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Thin film force sensors are commonly used within biomechanical systems, and at the interface of the human body and medical and non-medical devices. However, limited information is available about their performance in such applications. The aims of this study were to evaluate and determine ways to improve the performance of thin film (FlexiForce) sensors at the body/device interface. Using a custom apparatus designed to load the sensors under simulated body/device conditions, two aspects were explored relating to sensor calibration and application. The findings revealed accuracy errors of 23.3±17.6% for force measurements at the body/device interface with conventional techniques of sensor calibration and application. Applying a thin rigid disc between the sensor and human body and calibrating the sensor using compliant surfaces was found to substantially reduce measurement errors to 2.9±2.0%. The use of alternative calibration and application procedures is recommended to gain acceptable measurement performance from thin film force sensors in body/device applications. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. U.S. Theater Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the brief period between May 1978 and December 12, 1979, U.S. policy, and the policy of the NATO Alliance, toward theater nuclear forces (TNF) changed dramatically. The consequences of this change now dominate the political agenda in East-West (and West-West) relations. The ultimate outcome of the now renamed intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) debate will have far-reaching consequences for the future of the Atlantic Alliance. How did this issue emerge? Why did the US change its policy? How did it work with its Alliance to change NATO policy? These questions, among others, are now figuring in the debate. The answers to these questions are discussed in detail

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings are based upon introductory talks, research reports and discussions from the NATO Advanced Workshop on the "Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp", held at Lillehammer, Norway, 7-12 May, 1984. The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is called the "Earth's win­ dow to outer space". Through various electrodynamic coupling process­ es as well as through direct transfer of particles many geophysical effects displayed there are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in the deep space. The high latitude ionosphere will also exert a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled, acting as a momentum and energy source and sink, and a source of particles. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric pro­ cesses and a focusing on to the ionosphere. In the ...

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low-Dimensional Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, S; Dobson, P; Neave, J; Arrott, A

    1987-01-01

    This work represents the account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low Dimensional Structures", held at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England from 15-19 Sept. 1986. The objective of the workshop was to review the problems of the growth and characterisation of thin semiconductor and metal layers. Recent advances in deposition techniques have made it possible to design new material which is based on ultra-thin layers and this is now posing challenges for scientists, technologists and engineers in the assessment and utilisation of such new material. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has become well established as a method for growing thin single crystal layers of semiconductors. Until recently, MBE was confined to the growth of III-V compounds and alloys, but now it is being used for group IV semiconductors and II-VI compounds. Examples of such work are given in this volume. MBE has one major advantage over other crystal growth techniques in that the structure of the growi...

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Painlevé Transcendents, their Asymptotics and Physical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Winternitz, Pavel; Painlevé Transcendents, their Asymptotics and Physical Applications

    1992-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Painleve Transcendents, their Asymp­ totics and Physical Applications", held at the Alpine Inn in Sainte-Adele, near Montreal, September 2 -7, 1990, brought together a group of experts to discuss the topic and produce this volume. There were 41 participants from 14 countries and 27 lectures were presented, all included in this volume. The speakers presented reviews of topics to which they themselves have made important contributions and also re­ sults of new original research. The result is a volume which, though multiauthored, has the character of a monograph on a single topic. This is the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, the solutions of which have no movable singularities, other than poles, and the extension of this theory to partial differential equations. For short we shall call such systems "equations with the Painleve property". The search for such equations was a very topical mathematical problem in the 19th century. Early work concent...

  19. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  20. NATO International Conference on Applied General Systems Research : Recent Developments and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of papers presented at the International Conference on Applied General Systems Research: Recent Developments and Trends which was held on the campus of the State University of New York at Binghamton in August 15-19, 1977, under the sponsorship of the Special Panel on Systems Science of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. General systems research is a fairly new field which has been developing in the course of the last two or three decades. In my op~n10n, it can be best described as a movement which involves the study of all structural and context independent aspects of problem solving. As such, it is cross-disciplinary in nature and, in this sense, it might seem similar to mathematics. There is a consid­ erable difference, however, between the two. While pure mathe­ matics is basically oriented to the development of various axiomatic theories, regardless of whether or not they have any real world meaning, applied mathematics explores the applicability of some of these t...

  1. The NATO Advanced Study Institute on New Vistas in Electro-Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Caplan, H S; Dressler, E T; The NATO Advanced Study Institute on New Vistas in Electro-Nuclear Physics

    1986-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "New Vistas in Electro-Nuclear Physics" was held in Banff, Alberta, Canada from August 22 to September 4, 1985. This volume con­ tains the lecture notes from that Institute. The idea to organize this Institute coincided with the award of funding for a pulse stretcher ring at the University of Saskatchewan's Linear Accelerator Laboratory. This together with the high level of interest in electron accelerators worldwide convinced us that it was an appropriate time to discuss the physics to be learned with such machines. In particular that physics which requires high energy and/or high duty cycle accelerators for its extraction was intended to be the focus of the Institute. Thus the scope of the lec­ tures was wide, with topics ranging from the structure of the trinucleons to quark models of nucleons, QCD, and QHD. The theme however was that we are just trying to under­ stand the nucleus and that the electromagnetic probe can serve as a powerful tool in such a quest.

  2. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2015-12-15

    Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1) no socks, system turned-off; (2) wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3) wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP) movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits.

  3. The Lisbon Treaty and its Implications for the Common Security Defense Policy in the Light of the Emerging Strategic Partnership between NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Berücksichtigung des Lissabonner Reformvertrages (Munich: AVM-Verlag, 2009), 4. 34See Martin Reichard, The EU-NATO Relationship–A Legal and Political...high readiness, and the responsibility between ‘framework’ nations rotates. See Gustov Lindstrom , Chaillot Paper No. 97, “Enter the EU Battlegroups...Plus agreements remain controversial. Martin Reichard, a legal expert on European Defense, provides a good view on the evolution of these agreements

  4. The role of studies and analysis in the Berlin crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, K.

    1994-01-01

    The question posed for this conference was whether military exercises, studies and analysis have made an appreciable difference in the policies associated with tactical nuclear forces (TNF) in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Some of the papers leave the impression that studies, analysis and military exercises have very little impact on the strategy, policy decisions and force posture of NATO tactical nuclear forces. The studies and analyses undertaken during the 1961 Berlin crisis suggest a very different conclusion: that studies and analyses, when specific in scope and carrying some sense of immediacy, can be enormously influential. Whether one considers the changes to be positive or negative, the experience of the 1961 Berlin crisis suggests that studies and analyses had a tangible and direct impact both on contingency planning for the Berlin crisis specifically and on discussions of the role of tactical nuclear forces more broadly. The results of these studies and analyses are discussed

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  6. From Serpent to CEO: Improving First-Term Security Forces Airman Performance Through Neuroscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    support procedures and decision - making processes. Creating awareness that limitations are present creates a natural motivation to want to reduce...law enforcement decision - making ? What cultural norms within Security Forces should be challenged to improve responses of young adults faced with...enforcement and combat decision - making processes is available. However, it is not uncommon for laboratory discoveries to enter clinical practice, not to

  7. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Zong-Hao Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1 no socks, system turned-off; (2 wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3 wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p < 0.05, and increased the COP parameters (p < 0.017, indicating increased postural sway. After turning on the biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.017. The positive results of this study should inspire future development of wearable plantar force-based biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits.

  8. The Impact of Bulgarian Membership in NATO and the EU on the Development of the Bulgarian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-14

    The catastrophes in reforms affected the beginning of free market interconnections. Political parties, from November 1989 to the end of 1997...integration, democratic reform, and development of a market economy.14 The initiatives implementing by the UDF government were adopted by the next two...Development of Armed Forces – 2015,” available from http://www.mod.bg/bg/ startegy /vision.html; Internet; accessed 15 Dec2006. 24 Lieutenant General Atanas

  9. Remixing the ‘Appropriate Mix’: Reassessing NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture in the Face of New Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Anthony [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy

    2016-05-31

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the countries of Europe face a renewed challenge from the east vis-à-vis the Putin regime in Moscow. In the face of these new challenges, NATO must reconsider its deterrence and defense posture in order to deter conflict in Europe. Unfortunately, Russian attempts to rewrite the rules of the post-Cold War international order by force have been coupled with nuclear saber rattling and overt nuclear threats. Russia’s nuclear threats, in addition to provocative changes to Russia’s nuclear posture in its Military Doctrine, are methods to make up for Russia’s conventional military inferiority relative to NATO and the United States. Some have described Moscow’s actions as laying the groundwork for a nuclear coercion strategy. While the decrease in the nuclear arsenals of Russia and the United States has reduced the likelihood of nuclear annihilation to an all-time low since the height of the Cold War, Russia’s nuclear coercion strategy is increasing the probability of nuclear employment in Europe. The probability of nuclear use is compounded by Russia’s tremendous local military advantage around its periphery in spite of U.S. global military primacy. This military advantage increases the incentive to use military force if Russian decision-makers conclude that a quick military victory is possible, or if Russian leaders miscalculate based on an incorrect assessment of military force balance or resolve of their adversary. The integration of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (referred to as the Baltics in this paper) into the NATO alliance in 2004 makes Russia’s military advantage in its periphery increasingly relevant. Each NATO state is required to assist any NATO state that comes under attack per Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. The Baltic states’ proximity to Russia, their weak indigenous militaries, their former status as Soviet Republics, large population of ethnic Russians, and Russian President

  10. DefenseLink: Securing Afganistan, Stabilization & Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    since, the International Security Assistance Force, under NATO leadership, has taken charge of extensive conditions for the growth of an effective, democratic national government in Afghanistan. As the lead member

  11. KOSOVO FORCE (KFOR ORGANIZATION IMAGE: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON KOSOVO SECURITY FORCES (KSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan ARUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Comprehensive efforts to rebuild a society’s security and peace-enforcing have become an increasingly frequent activity of the NATO as KFOR (Kosovo Force, which is formed of many countries that its image results from these countries collateral relations. KFOR’s image has come to the fore because it affects the mission success and decisions about its existence in Kosovo. The image has two components, functional and emotional: Military symbols and uniforms of NATO (KFOR are functional and emotional relations of countries with Kosovo Security Forces (KSF members are emotional part. In this research; the main objective is finding out the effects that shape KFOR image. Sublevel objectives are the effects of Kosovo’s “connections”, KSF “personal links” and “perceived mission success” with KFOR member states in KFOR image. To study these effect 3 hypothesis are formed and empirical research is done with KSF members to get a foundation of emotional relationship which affects country image. Evaluating of questionnaires with linear regression, correlation and factor analysis, besides the important effects of ethnocentrism and patriotism, military personnel relations formed by countries military involvement and activities found as predictor factors in KFOR image. As a matter of course these base components of emotions about the image will enlighten future literature about building an organizational image. Keywords: Organizational Image, Country Image, Image, KFOR (Kosovo Force. ÖZ: Birçok ülkenin katkılarıyla oluşan ve imajı da bu ülkelerin tamamlayıcı ilişkileri sonucu ortaya çıkan NATO’nun uluslararası topluma yansıyan yüzü olarak Kosova Gücü (KFOR için toplumun güvenliğini yeniden tesis etmek ve barışı zorlama faaliyetleri gittikçe daha geniş kapsamlı bir çaba haline gelmektedir. KFOR’un imajının öne çıkmasının nedeni görevin başarılmasında ve Kosova’daki varlığıyla ilgili

  12. NATO Symposium entitled "Symposium on the Study of Motion Perception : Recent Developments and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenaar, Willem; Leibowitz, Herschel

    1982-01-01

    From August 24-29, 1980 the international "Symposium on the Study of Motion Perception; Recent Developments and Applications", sponsored by NATO and organized by the editors of this book, was held in Veldhoven, the Netherlands. The meeting was attended by about eighty scholars, including psychologists, neurologists, physicists and other scientists, from fourteen different countries. During the symposium some fifty research papers were presented and a series of tutorial review papers were read and discussed. The research presentations have been published in a special issue of the international journal of psychonomics "Acta Psychologica" (Vol. 48, 1981). The present book is a compilation of the tutorial papers. The tutorials were arranged around early versions of the chapters now appearing in this book. The long discussions at the Veldhoven tutorial sessions resulted in extensive revisions of the texts prior to this publication. Unfortunately this led to a delay in publication, but we feel that this was justifi...

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Methods and Mechanisms for Producing Ions from Large Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ens, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Methods and Mechanisms for Producing Ions from Large Molecules was held at Minaki Lodge, Minaki, Ontario, Canada, from 24 to 28 June 1990. The workshop was hosted by the time-of-flight group of the Department of Physics at the University of Manitoba, and was attended by 64 invited participants from around the world. Twenty-nine invited talks were given and 19 papers were presented as posters. Of the 48 contributions, 38 are included in these proceedings. The conference was organized to study the rapidly changing field of mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Particle-induced desorption (especially with MeV particles) has been the most effective method of producing molecular ions from biomolecules. An important part of the workshop was devoted to recent developments in this field, particularly to progress in understanding the fundamentals of the desorption process. In this respect, the meeting was similar to previous conferences in Marburg, FRG (1978); Paris, F (1980); Uppsala...

  14. The Enforcer Aircraft Program: A Lower-Cost Alternative Weapon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    armoured striking forces. NATO’s air forces then, sns 1.select the optimum aircraft(s) to maximize the damage to the enemy while minimizing the cost to...the reascns Congress kept the Enforcer program alive was their inclination to support the underdog , an underdog with persuasiveness and tenacity. To

  15. Land operations in the year 2020 (LO2020): Opérations terrestres à l'horizon 2020 (LO2020)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... This study identified the types of land forces and their capabilities and characteristics that will be required on the NATO battlefield in the year 2020 for warfighting and other military operations...

  16. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

  17. Improvements in force variability and structure from vision- to memory-guided submaximal isometric knee extension in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2018-03-01

    We examined changes in variability, accuracy, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of force signal from vision-guided to memory-guided force-matching tasks in 17 subacute stroke and 17 age-matched healthy subjects. Subjects performed a unilateral isometric knee extension at 10, 30, and 50% of peak torque [maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] for 10 s (3 trials each). Visual feedback was removed at the 5-s mark in the first two trials (feedback withdrawal), and 30 s after the second trial the subjects were asked to produce the target force without visual feedback (force recall). The coefficient of variation and constant error were used to quantify force variability and accuracy. Force structure was assessed by the median frequency, relative spectral power in the 0-3-Hz band, and sample entropy of the force signal. At 10% MVC, the force signal in subacute stroke subjects became steadier, more broadband, and temporally more irregular after the withdrawal of visual feedback, with progressively larger error at higher contraction levels. Also, the lack of modulation in the spectral frequency at higher force levels with visual feedback persisted in both the withdrawal and recall conditions. In terms of changes from the visual feedback condition, the feedback withdrawal produced a greater difference between the paretic, nonparetic, and control legs than the force recall. The overall results suggest improvements in force variability and structure from vision- to memory-guided force control in subacute stroke despite decreased accuracy. Different sensory-motor memory retrieval mechanisms seem to be involved in the feedback withdrawal and force recall conditions, which deserves further study. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that in the subacute phase of stroke, force signals during a low-level isometric knee extension become steadier, more broadband in spectral power, and more complex after removal of visual feedback. Larger force errors are produced when recalling

  18. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  19. German writers and the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces debate in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1979, NATO announced its decision to deploy American intermediate-range nuclear missiles throughout Western Europe. From then until 1987, when the historic Intermediate-range Nuclear forces (INF) treaty provided for the withdrawal of these weapons as well as those deployed by the Soviets in Eastern Europe, the issue of nuclear weapons preoccupied many Europeans, particularly Germans. Beginning in 1980, fear of nuclear war, with the two Germanies as a potential battlefield, mobilized the largest peace movement that the Federal Republic had witnessed since the fifties, occasioned a massive increase in peace propaganda in East Germany, and brought to public notice that country's first unofficial peace movement. Throughout most of the eighties, writers in both German states opposed missile deployment. This study examines their aims and achievements in this effort and investigates the implications of political engagement for the aesthetic production of selected authors. Analysis of press reports, writers' speeches, interviews, essays and literary texts yielded the following results: INF deployment motivated writers of all political persuasions to take up a variety of peace-oriented pursuits

  20. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database

  1. Improvement of a force field to model the edges of clay particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouvreau, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The CLAYFF force field is widely used to model the interfaces of clay minerals - and related layered materials - with an aqueous phase. In the simulations, clay particles are typically represented by semi-infinite layers, i.e. only surfaces parallel to the layer plane (basal surfaces) are considered. This simplification is acceptable to a certain extent, but clay layers are really nano sized and terminated by lateral surfaces or edges. These surfaces can not only adsorb solvated species but are also subject to proton transfers, and all physico-chemical processes related to the aqueous phase acidity predominantly occur at the edges. By adding to the CLAYFF force field a Metal-O-H angle bending term whose parameters are correctly adjusted, the simulations of edge interfaces become possible.The parameters of Al-O-H and Mg-O-H terms were obtained from DFT calculations on bulk, basal surface and edge structural models of gibbsite Al(OH) 3 and brucite Mg(OH) 2 , whose layers can be considered as the backbones of clay minerals and related materials. In addition, the Si-O-H term was parametrized from an edge model of kaolinite Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 . Molecular dynamics simulations based on DFT and on CLAYFF with and without Metal-O-H term were performed. The modified force field clearly improves the description of hydroxylated surfaces: the orientation and the vibrational dynamics of the hydroxyl groups, the hydrogen bonding, and the coordination of metal atoms belonging to the edge are all closer to reality [fr

  2. Tactical Fuel and Energy Strategy for The Future Modular Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    Environmental Protection Agency ESSP Energy Strategic Security Plan EV Electric Vehicle FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Appendix...1992. Methanol can be used to make methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), oxygenate that is blended with gasoline to enhance octane and create cleaner...Military Occupation Specialty MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether MW Megawatt NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North

  3. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I S; Youcef-Toumi, K; Burns, D J; Fantner, G E

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Effect of contact stiffness on wedge calibration of lateral force in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative friction measurement of nanomaterials in atomic force microscope requires accurate calibration method for lateral force. The effect of contact stiffness on lateral force calibration of atomic force microscope is discussed in detail and an improved calibration method is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. The improved method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate the method in this article

  5. Identification of Random Dynamic Force Using an Improved Maximum Entropy Regularization Combined with a Novel Conjugate Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunPing Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel mathematical algorithm to offer a solution for the inverse random dynamic force identification in practical engineering. Dealing with the random dynamic force identification problem using the proposed algorithm, an improved maximum entropy (IME regularization technique is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem, and a novel conjugate gradient (NCG method was applied to solve the objective function, which was abbreviated as IME-NCG algorithm. The result of IME-NCG algorithm is compared with that of ME, ME-CG, ME-NCG, and IME-CG algorithm; it is found that IME-NCG algorithm is available for identifying the random dynamic force due to smaller root mean-square-error (RMSE, lower restoration time, and fewer iterative steps. Example of engineering application shows that L-curve method is introduced which is better than Generalized Cross Validation (GCV method and is applied to select regularization parameter; thus the proposed algorithm can be helpful to alleviate the ill-conditioned problem in identification of dynamic force and to acquire an optimal solution of inverse problem in practical engineering.

  6. Angola, 1975–1989 Ian Liebenberg, Jorge Risquet and Vladimir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McGill Alexander

    a useful, if somewhat disjointed, background to the conflict in and over Namibia. This ..... These included NATO, SEATO (the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), ... which a South African armoured division and nine South African Air Force.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Improved Methods for Examining the Submicron World

    CERN Document Server

    McGowan, J; Shinozaki, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    An Institute like ours cannot help but lend credence to the notion of the late Derek J. de Solla Price of Yale University that "the scientific revolution was largely the improvement, invention and use of a series of instruments . . . . that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions". Most of science today and in years gone by depends on the experimental observation of struc­ ture on the small scale with microscopes, and on the large scale with telescopes. The first instruments to expand the observational range of the human eye were simple optical systems, designed in the case of microscopes and telescopes to magnify the image. The big breakthrough in the 17th century was not when Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens, but when improvements in lens-grinding techniques allowed eyeglass makers to make the first telescope. Early microscopy revealed new and previously unsuspected microstruc­ tures in biological and non-biological materials and thus helped to enlarge on the understanding...

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security & Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A; Extreme Photonics & Applications

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Photophysical and Photochemical Tools in Polymer Science : Conformation, Dynamics, Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    In 1980 the New York Academy of Sciences sponsored a three-day conference on luminescence in biological and synthetic macromolecules. After that meeting, Professor Frans DeSchryver and I began to discuss the possibility of organizing a different kind of meeting, with time for both informal and in-depth discussions, to examine certain aspects of the application of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy to polymers. Our ideas developed through discussions with many others, particularly Professor Lucien Monnerie. By 1983, when we submitted our proposal to NATO for an Advanced Study Institute, the area had grown enormous ly. It is interesting in retrospect to look back on the points which emerged from these discussions as the basis around which the scientific program would be organized and the speakers chosen. We decided early on to focus on applications of these methods to provide information about polymer molecules and polymer systems: The topics would all relate to the conformation and dynamics of macro...

  10. Improved Parameters for the Martini Coarse-Grained Protein Force Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Djurre H.; Singh, Gurpreet; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Arnarez, Clement; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Schafer, Lars V.; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D. Peter; Marrink, Siewert J.

    The Martini coarse-grained force field has been successfully used for simulating a wide range of (bio)molecular systems. Recent progress in our ability to test the model against fully atomistic force fields, however, has revealed some shortcomings. Most notable, phenylalanine and proline were too

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics for Enhancing Light-Matter Interactions on a Molecular Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a considerable number of interrelated contributions dealing with the new scientific ability to shape and control matter and electromagnetic fields on a sub-wavelength scale. The topics range from the fundamental ones, such as photonic metamateriials, plasmonics and sub-wavelength resolution to the more applicative, such as detection of single molecules, tomography on a micro-chip, fluorescence spectroscopy of biological systems, coherent control of biomolecules, biosensing of single proteins, terahertz spectroscopy of nanoparticles, rare earth ion-doped nanoparticles, random lasing, and nanocoax array architecture. The various subjects bridge over the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, making this volume of interest to people working in these fields. The emphasis is on the principles behind each technique and on examining the full potential of each technique. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute that was held in Erice, ...

  12. Conditions of Poland’s foreign and security policy within the EU and NATO environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak- Barzan Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to answer the question about the state of Poland’s security after the first decade of the twenty-first century, what are its determinants, what kind of challenges Poland faces and which of them may turn into a threat and which into an opportunity, or what Polish potential is and which of its components determine its position on the international arena. It is achieved through a detailed analysis of actions undertaken by Poland in the international arena to strengthen its international position as well as the level of its security. Thus, the aim is to identify those determinants which may contribute to establishing a stronger position and which can create problems and become a formidable challenge in the context of various aspects of security, and even develop into a threat. Unfortunately, the picture which comes out of the above mentioned analysis is not optimistic and the impression is that Poland did not use the chance it was given after the accession to the NATO and the EU.

  13. Improving the strength of ceramics by controlling the interparticle forces and rheology of the ceramic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Ping

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the modification of the interparticle forces of colloidal ceramic particles in aqueous suspensions in order to improve the microstructural homogeneity, and hence the reliability and mechanical performances, of subsequently formed ceramic compacts. A concentrated stable fine ceramic powder suspension has been shown to be able to generate a higher density of a ceramic product with better mechanical, and also electrical, electrochemical and optical, properties of the ceramic body. This is because in a colloidally stable suspension there are no aggregates and so defect formation, which is responsible for the ceramic body performance below its theoretical maximum, is reduced. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to form a well dispersed ceramic suspension by ensuring the interparticle forces between the particles are repulsive, with as a high a loading with particles as possible. By examining the rheological behaviour and the results of Atomic Force Microscope, the dispersion state of the suspensions and hence the interparticle forces can be analysed. In this study, concentrated ceramic suspensions were made from two kinds of zirconia powders, monoclinic (DK1) and yttria partially stabilised (HSY3) zirconia, in the presence of a dispersant, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (Tiron), in aqueous system. The optimum dispersant concentrations, where the viscosity and rheological moduli are the entire minimum, for DK1 and HSY3 suspensions, respectively, are 0.625% and 0.1%. The modifications of the interparticle forces were also achieved by pH adjustment and it was found that both of the suspensions at the optimum dispersant concentration were stable over the pH range 7 ∼ 10, which coincide with the results of the electrophoretic mobility measurements. Ceramic compacts have then been made by slip casting the suspensions of different dispersant concentration, followed by firing procedure. Mechanical properties of

  14. Hybrid threats, cyber warfare and NATO's comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats: mapping the new frontier of global risk and security management

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The end of the so-called ‘Cold War’ has seen a change in the nature of present threats and with it to the overall role and mission of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in 1991 also removed the original raison d’etre of the Alliance: the prospect of having to repel a Soviet led attack by the Warsaw Pact on the West through the so called ‘Fulda gap’ in Germany (referring to the German lowlands between Frankfurt am Main and the for...

  15. A standards-based approach to quality improvement for HIV services at Zambia Defence Force facilities: results and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Bazant, Eva; Necochea, Edgar; Banda, Joseph; Stender, Stacie

    2015-07-01

    The Zambia Defence Force adopted the Standards-Based Management and Recognition approach to improve the quality of the HIV-related services at its health facilities. This quality improvement intervention relies on comprehensive, detailed assessment tools to communicate and verify adherence to national standards of care, and to test and implement changes to improve performance. A quasi-experimental evaluation of the intervention was conducted at eight Zambia Defence Force primary health facilities (four facilities implemented the intervention and four did not). Data from three previous analyses are combined to assess the effect of Standards-Based Management and Recognition on three domains: facility readiness to provide services; observed provider performance during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and antenatal care consultations; and provider perceptions of the work environment. Facility readiness scores for ART improved on four of the eight standards at intervention sites, and one standard at comparison sites. Facility readiness scores for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV increased by 15 percentage points at intervention sites and 7 percentage points at comparison sites. Provider performance improved significantly at intervention sites for both ART services (from 58 to 84%; P improved at intervention sites and declined at comparison sites; differences in trends between study groups were significant for eight items. A standards-based approach to quality improvement proved effective in supporting healthcare managers and providers to deliver ART and PMTCT services in accordance with evidence-based standards in a health system suffering from staff shortages.

  16. Magnetostatic torsional actuator with embedded nickel structures for the improvement of driving force and wobble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Tsung-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the magnetostatic torsional actuator consisting in a Si–Ni compound frame to significantly improve the driving force. The present design has three merits: (1) it employs a Si mold to simultaneously electroplate/pattern thick Ni, and the Ni and Si structures respectively provide magnetostatic force and superior mechanical properties, (2) the embedded Ni structures not only increase the ferromagnetic material volume but also enhance magnetization strength to enlarge magnetostatic torque, (3) the Si–Ni compound structure, which is nearly symmetric about the torsional axis in the out-of-plane direction, can decrease the moment of inertia and also reduce the wobble motion. In applications, one-axis torsional actuator is implemented and characterized. The experiments show that the Si–Ni compound scanner has an optical scan angle θ optical = 90° with the input power 81 mW. The input power is decreased as compared with the existing scanner. Moreover, the out-of-plane wobble motion is only 44 nm at θ optical = 15°. Compared with the existing designs consisted of asymmetric structures in the out-of-plane direction, such as electroplated film and silicon rib, about the torsional axis, the equivalent eccentric force is reduced nearly two-fold. In short, the proposed design not only increases the driving force but also decreases the wobble motion

  17. European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) After Ten Years - Current Situation and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Reconnaissance and Observation ( MUSIS ), enhancement of the use of the EU Satellite-Center (EUSC), enhancement of Unmanned Armed Vehicles (UAV), Maritime Mine...stipulated by the capability declaration of 2008, are within the responsibility of the agency. Specific capabilities initiatives, such as the MUSIS ...Product ISAF = International Security Assistance Force KFOR = NATO Kosovo Force MUSIS = Multinational Space-Based Imaging System for Surveillance

  18. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 72, 1st Quarter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    trying to prevent all catastrophes in advance was the best course of action.43 Moreover, Warren Buffet insists that “the CEO should regard his... account of cost and coproduction considerations, this decision certainly had to be under- stood as one that would invite conflict with Turkey’s NATO...by his recent accounting of personnel changes that resulted in the reduction of civilian professor positions at the Army War College.3 Douglas

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfur and Nitrogen in the Remote Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Charlson, Robert; Andreae, Meinrat; Rodhe, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Viewed from space, the Earth appears as a globe without a beginning or an end. Encompassing the globe is the atmosphere with its three phases-­ gaseous, liquid, and solid--moving in directions influenced by sunlight, gravity, and rotation. The chemical compositions of these phases are determined by biogeochemical cycles. Over the past hundred years, the processes governing the rates and reactions in the atmospheric biogeochemical cycles have typically been studied in regions where scientists lived. Hence, as time has gone by, the advances in our knowledge of atmospheric chemical cycles in remote areas have lagged substantially behind those for more populated areas. Not only are the data less abundant, they are also scattered. Therefore, we felt a workshop would be an excellent mechanism to assess the state­ of-knowledge of the atmospheric cycles of sulfur and nitrogen in remote areas and to make recommendations for future research. Thus, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop '~he Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfu...

  20. Finite-time adaptive sliding mode force control for electro-hydraulic load simulator based on improved GMS friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shuo; Yan, Hao; Dong, Lijing; Li, Changchun

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the force tracking problem of electro-hydraulic load simulator under the influence of nonlinear friction and uncertain disturbance. A nonlinear system model combined with the improved generalized Maxwell-slip (GMS) friction model is firstly derived to describe the characteristics of load simulator system more accurately. Then, by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm ​combined with the system hysteresis characteristic analysis, the GMS friction parameters are identified. To compensate for nonlinear friction and uncertain disturbance, a finite-time adaptive sliding mode control method is proposed based on the accurate system model. This controller has the ability to ensure that the system state moves along the nonlinear sliding surface to steady state in a short time as well as good dynamic properties under the influence of parametric uncertainties and disturbance, which further improves the force loading accuracy and rapidity. At the end of this work, simulation and experimental results are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control strategy.

  1. Attainment and retention of force moderation following laparoscopic resection training with visual force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Travascio, Francesco; Asfour, Shihab

    2017-11-01

    Laparoscopic training with visual force feedback can lead to immediate improvements in force moderation. However, the long-term retention of this kind of learning and its potential decay are yet unclear. A laparoscopic resection task and force sensing apparatus were designed to assess the benefits of visual force feedback training. Twenty-two male university students with no previous experience in laparoscopy underwent relevant FLS proficiency training. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Both groups trained on the task for 2 weeks as follows: initial baseline, sixteen training trials, and post-test immediately after. The treatment group had visual force feedback during training, whereas the control group did not. Participants then performed four weekly test trials to assess long-term retention of training. Outcomes recorded were maximum pulling and pushing forces, completion time, and rated task difficulty. Extreme maximum pulling force values were tapered throughout both the training and retention periods. Average maximum pushing forces were significantly lowered towards the end of training and during retention period. No significant decay of applied force learning was found during the 4-week retention period. Completion time and rated task difficulty were higher during training, but results indicate that the difference eventually fades during the retention period. Significant differences in aptitude across participants were found. Visual force feedback training improves on certain aspects of force moderation in a laparoscopic resection task. Results suggest that with enough training there is no significant decay of learning within the first month of the retention period. It is essential to account for differences in aptitude between individuals in this type of longitudinal research. This study shows how an inexpensive force measuring system can be used with an FLS Trainer System after some retrofitting. Surgical

  2. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    equipment, and habitat destruction from general construction (DoE, “ Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats,” pgs 2-4). Another...utility-resource-efficiency>, accessed 16 December 2014. Department of Energy, Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats... Wind power is a mature technology, with wind turbines first being used for electricity in the late 19th century. The Air Force operates two wind

  3. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  4. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Immunodeficiency Virus NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization OGD Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drugs PKK Kurdistan Workers’ Party SECI Southeast...Global and Regional Overview). Bucharest: By the SECI Center Anti- Terrorism Task Force Based on Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department (KOM

  5. On the Concept of Force: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Some physicists have pointed out that we do not know what force is. The most common definition of force in textbooks has been criticized for more than two centuries. Many studies have shown that the concept of force is a problem for teaching. How to conceive force on the basis of the concepts and criticism of force in the works of Newton, Euler,…

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...

  7. Imaging stability in force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung I.; Boehm, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the stability of force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy (HSAFM) by imaging soft, hard, and biological sample surfaces at various applied forces. The HSAFM images showed sudden topographic variations of streaky fringes with a negative applied force when collected on a soft hydrocarbon film grown on a grating sample, whereas they showed stable topographic features with positive applied forces. The instability of HSAFM images with the negative applied force was explained by the transition between contact and noncontact regimes in the force–distance curve. When the grating surface was cleaned, and thus hydrophilic by removing the hydrocarbon film, enhanced imaging stability was observed at both positive and negative applied forces. The higher adhesive interaction between the tip and the surface explains the improved imaging stability. The effects of imaging rate on the imaging stability were tested on an even softer adhesive Escherichia coli biofilm deposited onto the grating structure. The biofilm and planktonic cell structures in HSAFM images were reproducible within the force deviation less than ∼0.5 nN at the imaging rate up to 0.2 s per frame, suggesting that the force-feedback HSAFM was stable for various imaging speeds in imaging softer adhesive biological samples. - Highlights: ► We investigated the imaging stability of force-feedback HSAFM. ► Stable–unstable imaging transitions rely on applied force and sample hydrophilicity. ► The stable–unstable transitions are found to be independent of imaging rate

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  9. Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Counsel • Air Force Office of Special Investigations • Air Force Audit Agency • Boeing Aerospace Operations Inc . • Defense Security Service...this corresponds to a factor of 10 in relative sound energy (Bolt, Beranek, and Meuman, Inc . 1973). Table 4-1 shows the dBA scale of commons...configuration for the B-47. Intact -Interior shop upgraded for Nike Hercules in 1961. 5020 Field Maintenance Hangar Large Aircraft Maintenance Dock

  10. Emerging methods and tools for environmental risk assessment, decision-making, and policy for nanomaterials: summary of NATO Advanced Research Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linkov, I; Steevens, J; Adlakha-Hutcheon, G

    2009-01-01

    and the environment. A unique feature of this workshop was its interdisciplinary nature and focus on the practical needs of policy decision makers. Workshop presentations and discussion panels were structured along four main themes: technology and benefits, human health risk, environmental risk, and policy......Nanomaterials and their associated technologies hold promising opportunities for the development of new materials and applications in a wide variety of disciplines, including medicine, environmental remediation, waste treatment, and energy conservation. However, current information regarding...... the environmental effects and health risks associated with nanomaterials is limited and sometimes contradictory. This article summarizes the conclusions of a 2008 NATO workshop designed to evaluate the wide-scale implications (e.g., benefits, risks, and costs) of the use of nanomaterials on human health...

  11. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reference Book on NATO Rationalization, Standardization and Interoperability (RSI). Volume 1. Public Laws and Reports, Memoranda of Understanding, Secretary of Defense Annual Report to Congress, Intellectual Property Rights Transfer Guidelines, History, Definitions, Bibliography, Points of Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    air missiles. There are acknowledged difficulties with the concept which is still in embrionic stages: (1) Should a "family" be defined primarily by...would be effective or put far too much strain on an embrionic institution. Extra-NATO Arms Sales. US arms export policy as currently stated and

  13. Further analysis and evaluation of the results of the NATO common shield-DAT#7 experiment: defence against terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Jirousek, Matthias; Süß, Helmut

    2009-09-01

    The contactless control of persons and the remote surveillance of sensitive infrastructures are important tasks in order to provide the required security measures to protect the human population against the threads of international terrorism. Passive microwave imaging allows a daytime independent observation and examination of objects and persons under nearly all adverse ambient conditions without artificial exposure, hence fully avoiding health risks. The penetration capability of microwaves provides the detection of objects through atmospheric obstacles like bad weather, fog or dust, vapour and smoke, as well as through thin non-metallic materials and clothing. For the latter the detection of hidden objects like weapons, explosives, and contraband is possible by monitoring dielectric anomalies. The experiment "Common Shield" is part of a perennial investigation series leaded by the "Center for Transformation of the German armed forces (Bundeswehr)". In 2008 the protection of soldiers and facilities was experimentally investigated under the aspect of a networked operational leadership. In this context as well a harbour protection trial was carried out in August/September 2008 at the naval base Eckernfoerde in Germany. This trial was part of the NATO CNADs program of work for "Defence Against Terrorism (DAT)" starting in 2003, and Germany is the lead nation for item 7 on "Technology for Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance & Target Acquisition of Terrorists (ISRTA)". One main activity in the Eckernfoerde trial was the simulation of a military entrance control facility by a tent including various imaging and a chemical sensor suite in order to provide security for a military camp. Besides commercial optical and infrared cameras various passive millimeter-wave imagers have been used from different German research institutions. The DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute, Department for Reconnaissance and Security (HR-AS), provided an imaging radiometer scanner

  14. Toward Structure Prediction for Short Peptides Using the Improved SAAP Force Field Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Dedachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observation that Ramachandran-type potential energy surfaces of single amino acid units in water are in good agreement with statistical structures of the corresponding amino acid residues in proteins, we recently developed a new all-atom force field called SAAP, in which the total energy function for a polypeptide is expressed basically as a sum of single amino acid potentials and electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potentials between the amino acid units. In this study, the SAAP force field (SAAPFF parameters were improved, and classical canonical Monte Carlo (MC simulation was carried out for short peptide models, that is, Met-enkephalin and chignolin, at 300 K in an implicit water model. Diverse structures were reasonably obtained for Met-enkephalin, while three folded structures, one of which corresponds to a native-like structure with three native hydrogen bonds, were obtained for chignolin. The results suggested that the SAAP-MC method is useful for conformational sampling for the short peptides. A protocol of SAAP-MC simulation followed by structural clustering and examination of the obtained structures by ab initio calculation or simply by the number of the hydrogen bonds (or the hardness was demonstrated to be an effective strategy toward structure prediction for short peptide molecules.

  15. No Men in Combat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    NATO nations are incorporating advanced technologies that enable military forces to find and strike targets precisely from great distances at little risk to themselves. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent the next step in modern airpower’s long-range reconnaissance/precision strike complex...

  16. But who's flying the plane?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members such as Canada and Denmark have transformed their military forces to better engage in expeditionary warfare. They are incorporating advanced technologies to find and strike targets precisely from great distances at little risk to themselves. The p...

  17. Of Ballots and Bullets: Explaining Civilian Control of the Military in Turkey, 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    society is “one of the most accurate indicators of the existence of a substantive, participatory democracy . A high degree of...the armed forces is an essential component to a free and open democracy . The states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) rely on civilian...these forces challenge military supremacy in democracies . Policies or budget decisions that infringe on military prerogatives lead to conflict with

  18. An improved method for calculation of interface pressure force in PLIC-VOF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefollahi, M.; Shirani, E.

    2004-08-01

    Conventional methods for the modeling of surface tension force in Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation-Volume of Fluid (PLIC-VOF) methods, such as Continuum Surface Force (CSF), Continuum Surface Stress (CSS) and also Meier's method, convert the surface tension force into a body force. Not only do they include the force in the interfacial cells but also in the neighboring cells. Thus they produce spurious currents. Also the pressure jump, due to the surface tension, is not calculated accurately in these methods. In this paper a more accurate method for the application of interface force in the computational modeling of free surfaces and interfaces which use PLIC-VOF methods is developed. This method is based on the evaluation of the surface tension force only in the interfacial cells and not the neighboring cells. Also the normal and the interface surface area needed for the calculation of the surface tension force is calculated more accurately. The present method is applied to a two-dimensional motionless drop of liquid and a bubble of gas as well as a non-circular two-dimensional drop, which oscillates due to the surface tension force, in an initially stagnant fluid with no gravity force. The results are compared with the results of the cases when CSF, CSS and Meier's methods are used. It is shown that the present method calculates pressure jump at the interface more accurately and produces less spurious currents comparing to CSS an CSF models. (author)

  19. Improvements to Air Force Strategic Basing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    24th Air Force need to have locations in Silicon 36 Valley or Northern Virginia to draw on the existing cyber industrial bases. Similarly, an issue...cross valuation . Cross valuation results in a simpler model than if GBM were allowed to run until it achieved a perfect fit. In ten-fold cross... valuation , the dataset is randomly split into ten mutually exclusive subsets. The model is fit on nine-tenths of the data, and that model is used to 62

  20. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel T; Beaven, Christopher M; Mayo, Brad; Gill, Nicholas; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = -0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  1. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy Diagnostic Task Force Criteria Impact of New Task Force Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Moniek G. P. J.; van der Smagt, Jasper J.; Noorman, Maartje; Wiesfeld, Ans C.; Volders, Paul G. A.; van Langen, Irene M.; Atsma, Douwe E.; Dooijes, Dennis; Houweling, Arjan C.; Loh, Peter; Jordaens, Luc; Arens, Yvonne; Cramer, Maarten J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; van Tintelen, Peter; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Hauer, Richard N. W.

    Background-Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) Diagnostic Task Force Criteria (TFC) proposed in 1994 are highly specific but lack sensitivity. A new international task force modified criteria to improve diagnostic yield. A comparison of diagnosis by 1994 TFC versus

  2. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  3. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  4. Determinants and Politics of German Military Transformation in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cold War. Additionally, the prevalent antimilitarism called for armed forces that had to break with their historic record of authoritarianism and... paternalism ‖ in NATO affairs. In light of these diverging perceptions, the new Strategic Concept (SC 99), approved at the anniversary summit in

  5. A force-sensing surgical tool with a proximally located force/torque sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalb, W; Shirinzadeh, B; Smith, J

    2017-03-01

    Robotic surgery has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the last few decades because advantages such as increased accuracy and dexterity can be realized. These systems still lack force-feedback, where such a capability is believed to be beneficial to the surgeon and can improve safety. In this paper a force-feedback enabled surgical robotic system is described in which the developed force-sensing surgical tool is discussed in detail. The developed surgical tool makes use of a proximally located force/torque sensor, which, in contrast to a distally located sensor, requires no miniaturization or sterilizability. Experimental results are presented, and indicate high force sensing accuracies with errors <0.09 N. It is shown that developing a force-sensing surgical tool utilizing a proximally located force/torque sensor is feasible, where a tool outer diameter of 12 mm can be achieved. For future work it is desired to decrease the current tool outer diameter to 10 mm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. An improved method to determine neuromuscular properties using force laws - From single muscle to applications in human movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, T; Sust, M; Thaller, S; Tilp, M; Wagner, H

    2007-04-01

    We evaluate an improved method for individually determining neuromuscular properties in vivo. The method is based on Hill's equation used as a force law combined with Newton's equation of motion. To ensure the range of validity of Hill's equation, we first perform detailed investigations on in vitro single muscles. The force-velocity relation determined with the model coincides well with results obtained by standard methods (r=.99) above 20% of the isometric force. In addition, the model-predicted force curves during work loop contractions very well agree with measurements (mean difference: 2-3%). Subsequently, we deduce theoretically under which conditions it is possible to combine several muscles of the human body to model muscles. This leads to a model equation for human leg extension movements containing parameters for the muscle properties and for the activation. To numerically determine these invariant neuromuscular properties we devise an experimental method based on concentric and isometric leg extensions. With this method we determine individual muscle parameters from experiments such that the simulated curves agree well with experiments (r=.99). A reliability test with 12 participants revealed correlations r=.72-.91 for the neuromuscular parameters (p<.01). Predictions of similar movements under different conditions show mean errors of about 5%. In addition, we present applications in sports practise and theory.

  7. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  8. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmdmdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Gurel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmdmdx mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmdmdx mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmdmdx mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated.

  9. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. McMaster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes.Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13–31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ, respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured.Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36. Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08 and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = −0.01. A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises.Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  10. Resolution of Port/Starboard Ambiguity Using a Linear Array of Triplets and a Twin-Line Planar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    frequency modulation NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NF near-field NURC NATO Undersea Research Centre ONR Office of Naval Research PS port...1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer, and linguist. Excerpt reprinted in L. Lúcia Sá, Rain Forest Literatures...pushed by advances on ocean acoustics, electronics, and signal processing, towed sonars have improved drastically. Along with military

  11. The Search for Stability: Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-07

    forces was incomplete. These were examples of how a technologically superior force can succeed in Decisive Operations with lower numbers of troops than...never been matched by firm troop contributions, and even recent agreement to widen the ISAF mandate (now under NATO command) to all Afghanistan is more...international support for operations, thus legitimising them. As part of the internationalising of this effort, it is probable that non- military agencies

  12. Implications for the U.S. of Anglo-French Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    previous Labour government, has continued. Although there are many factors, it has been argued that the principal motivating force is the belief...jdin/index.shtml Bickerton, C. (2010, March). “Oh bugger, they’re in the tent”: British responses to French reintegration into NATO. European

  13. Evaluation of DoD Compliance with the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    entry as non-military personnel. According to INTERPOL, U.S. Armed Forces, with support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and...the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Indian Tribes) in which he or she

  14. Down force calibration stand test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  15. The consequences of NATO Bombing on the Environment in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Simic, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the air strikes in 1999 NATO used ammunition with depleted uranium (DU) in FRY. It is known that the DU has a long time of semi-disintegration; actually its effect is ever lasting. More than few years after the end of conflict, particles of DU dust can be detected in a soil samples as well as in some air samples. Also DU was found in the sensitive bio-materials. In this material cytogenetic and clinical laboratory investigations in persons, who lived in Southern Serbia (Vranj) and on the Kosovo have been presented. the changes have been detected in the blood cells and chromosomes. There were not found disorders in the bone marrow. The examinations included general clinical assessment blood count ratio percentage of individual leukocyte line elements, morphological changes of the blood cells in the stained capillary smears observed under microscope, leukocyte enzyme activity. Incidence of the chromosomal aberrations in our series evidence the results characteristic for individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing irradiation for the prolonged period of the time. The difference in number of aberrations and aberrant cells in the exposed and unexposed subjects is statistically significant. Future environmental investigations are needed, as well as awareness-raising for the local population and other risk groups. The contamination should be prevented by clean up of DU particles and stop its entry into the food chain. The population of the contaminated regions should be subjected to annual screenings according to the program of the targeted examination aimed at detection of internal contamination in order to enable early diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. The particular attention should be paid to children and pregnant women, due to their increased radio-sensitivity. (Author) 24 refs

  16. NATO Intervention in Kosovo in light of Security Council Actions and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The horrors of World War Two made it universally clear that the world cannot progress without general respect for human rights. Still, the need for humanitarian intervention arose several times before 1999, but international political and military organisations including the UN, were either late or hesitant to prevent genocides or other related human catastrophes worldwide. The NATO intervention in Kosovo, however, marked the beginning of the new era in international relations. The facet of this intervention in view of legality is the topic of this paper. The aim of this study, above all, is to analyze the Security Council actions, debates and resolutions concerning situation in Kosovo, and the level of impact that the military operation had in international law (in particular and international relations (in general.  The study uses many authentic documents issued by the United Nations Security Council itself and other material related to the theme in order to develop an argument on the points raised. Throughout, this research paper has attempted to answer numerous issues related to the topic and offer a balanced view on the all the themes examined. Several but distinct points raised focus on relevant core subjects, discuss the challenges and opportunities of the humanitarian intervention and offer recommendations regarding the future of such operation for the well being of the humanity.

  17. Improvement in thrust force estimation of solenoid valve considering minor hysteresis loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hwan Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solenoid valve is a very important hydraulic actuator for an automatic transmission in terms of shift quality. The same form of pressure for the clutch and the input current are required for an ideal control. However, the gap between a pressure and a current can occur which brings a delay in a transmission and a decrease in quality. This problem is caused by hysteresis phenomenon. As the ascending or descending magnetic field is applied to the solenoid, different thrust forces are generated. This paper suggests the calculation method of the thrust force considering the hysteresis phenomenon and consequently the accurate force can be obtained. Such hysteresis occurs in ferromagnetic materials, however the hysteresis phenomenon includes a minor hysteresis loop which begins with an initial magnetization curve and is generated by DC biased field density. As the core of the solenoid is ferromagnetic material, an accurate thrust force is obtained by applying the minor hysteresis loop compared to the force calculated by considering only the initial magnetization curve. An analytical background and the detailed explanation of measuring the minor hysteresis loop are presented. Furthermore experimental results and finite element analysis results are compared for the verification.

  18. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  19. Improving nuclear utility generation capacity, understanding the sources of forced outage and learning how to prevent them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, D.L.; Todreas, N.E.; Angus, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    MIT and PECO Energy have completed a detailed examination of the sources of forced outages at the Limerick Generating Station (LGS) Boiling Water Reactor Class IV (BWR IV) site over a five year period and contrasted that information to similar BWR IV utilities in the United States over the same period. Each forced outage was attributed to one system and assigned causal codes of equipment versus human factors and failure attributes such as weak design, poor craftsmanship, and worn parts. It was found that fifty four percent of the lost power at LGS was the result of Balance of Plant failures. Industry wide data identifies fifty nine percent of the lost power as attributed to Balance of Plant failures. Balance of Plant systems are those systems not included in the primary and safety related system category. Considering failure causal factors, forty six percent of the lost power at the utility under study was the result of equipment factors such as weak design or worn parts. Significantly, the study showed a high variance between those systems which caused significant forced outage at the two sister LGS units. This demonstrated the infrequent nature of plant forced outages within a given system. This was supported by the observation that dominant systems attributing to forced outage at LGS were not equally represented in industry data. It is suggested that for individual utilities to dramatically improve unit capability factors with regard to Balance of Plant systems, they must learn from industry wide experiences and develop cooperative means of exchanging lessons learned among similarly designed plants and systems. With the broad knowledge base of system failures, current designs must be frequently assessed and altered until each system poses an acceptable level of risk to generation capacity. (author)

  20. The Philippine Navy’s Strategic Sail Plan 2020: A Strong and Credible Force by 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    achieved by France and other NATO allies - where PME may well take twenty per cent of an officer’s career .”125 Why should it matter? Well, Till...small navies could use. These include: “work-shop based approaches,” toolkits (design interfaces), and “go-between” organizations.164 Mulqueen and