WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving farmyard poultry

  1. Improving farmyard poultry production in Africa: Interventions and their economic assessment. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    A major objective of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to support research projects involving nuclear and related techniques leading to improved animal production in developing countries. Chicken produced on a relatively small scale, at the farmyard level, are an important source of animal protein for human consumption in developing countries. Limiting factors to maximize this resource include infectious diseases and overall production management. A Coordinated Research Project on Small Scale Poultry Production was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the impact and cost efficacy of inputs in management and veterinary care and provide guidelines to improve the livelihood of farmers. This publication contains the results of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project entitled Assessment of the Effectiveness of Vaccination Strategies against Newcastle Disease (ND) and Gumboro Disease (IBR) using Immunoassay-based Technologies for Increasing Farmyard Poultry Production in Africa. Thirteen research contract holders in Africa evaluated the major constraints to poultry production in different regions of their countries, analysed the disease situation, management and marketing practises and developed improved ND vaccination and husbandry strategies with the support of the four research agreement holders. This exercise highlighted the added benefit strategic vaccination had on the survival rate and the number of birds produced. A thermostable ND-vaccine seed strain (provided by CSIRO, Australia) reduced the cost of vaccination substantially, as it could be produced locally, with the added advantage of being thermo-resistant, thus reducing the need of a prolonged cool chain. This was further improved by the training of 'village vaccinators' performing vaccine inoculations without the need of veterinary staff on place, insuring vaccination frequency. The efficacy and the level of protection resulting from vaccination were evaluated based on

  2. Improving farmyard poultry production in Africa: Interventions and their economic assessment. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    A major objective of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to support research projects involving nuclear and related techniques leading to improved animal production in developing countries. Chicken produced on a relatively small scale, at the farmyard level, are an important source of animal protein for human consumption in developing countries. Limiting factors to maximize this resource include infectious diseases and overall production management. A Coordinated Research Project on Small Scale Poultry Production was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the impact and cost efficacy of inputs in management and veterinary care and provide guidelines to improve the livelihood of farmers. This publication contains the results of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project entitled Assessment of the Effectiveness of Vaccination Strategies against Newcastle Disease (ND) and Gumboro Disease (IBR) using Immunoassay-based Technologies for Increasing Farmyard Poultry Production in Africa. Thirteen research contract holders in Africa evaluated the major constraints to poultry production in different regions of their countries, analysed the disease situation, management and marketing practises and developed improved ND vaccination and husbandry strategies with the support of the four research agreement holders. This exercise highlighted the added benefit strategic vaccination had on the survival rate and the number of birds produced. A thermostable ND-vaccine seed strain (provided by CSIRO, Australia) reduced the cost of vaccination substantially, as it could be produced locally, with the added advantage of being thermo-resistant, thus reducing the need of a prolonged cool chain. This was further improved by the training of 'village vaccinators' performing vaccine inoculations without the need of veterinary staff on place, insuring vaccination frequency. The efficacy and the level of protection resulting from vaccination were evaluated based on

  3. Adsorption of copper (II) by using derived-farmyard and poultry manure biochars: Efficiency and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Saima; Idrees, Muhammad; Hussain, Qaiser; Kong, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Biochar (BC) has recently become an attractive adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals from aqueous media. In this study, the adsorption efficiency of BCs derived through farmyard and poultry manure (DBC-FYM, DBC-PM) for the removal of copper (Cu2+) from water was evaluated. The porosity, surface structure, internal morphology, thermal stability and functional groups of the DBCs were analyzed using different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Kinetics and isothermal data were acquired by batch adsorption mode. The isothermal sorption data was well correlated (R2 > 0.98) with the Freundlich model describing multilayer sorption of Cu2+ on heterogeneous DBCs surface. The maximum Cu2+ sorption was estimated as 44.50 mg/g for DBC-FYM and 43.68 mg/g for DBC-PM. The sorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetics, indicating the chemical interaction between Cu2+ and the negative charged surface of DBCs. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the reaction was exothermic and spontaneous. Post-sorption analysis of the DBCs by XPS suggested the formation of CuO and carbonate dihydroxide. The outcomes of the present study indicated that DBCs could be valuable green sorbents for removing Cu2+ from contaminated aqueous media.

  4. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  5. Economics of poultry manure utilization in land quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid growth of Nigerian's poultry has made it more advantageous in terms of providing the essential raw material for soil fertility enhancement than other livestock. This paper evaluates the benefits of poultry manure use among integrated poultry-maize farmers in Ekiti and Osun States of Nigeria for improved land ...

  6. Training needs of small scale poultry farmers on improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry business is a job opportunity for numerous for earning income and ... needs of the small scale commercial poultry farmers to improve poultry production ... strategies (88%) while only 24.1% of the respondents need training on types of ...

  7. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  8. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  9. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  10. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference AGENCY... notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP... Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094...

  11. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference AGENCY... notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP... CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

  12. 75 FR 70712 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY: Animal and... Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year period. The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that.... Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, Suite 101, 1498 Klondike...

  13. 77 FR 1051 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The meeting will be... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS...

  14. 77 FR 42257 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership AGENCY... regional membership for the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS...

  15. Biochar affected by composting with farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Katharina; Borchard, Nils; Siemens, Jan; Kautz, Timo; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Möller, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf

    2013-01-01

    Biochar applications to soils can improve soil fertility by increasing the soil's cation exchange capacity (CEC) and nutrient retention. Because biochar amendment may occur with the applications of organic fertilizers, we tested to which extent composting with farmyard manure increases CEC and nutrient content of charcoal and gasification coke. Both types of biochar absorbed leachate generated during the composting process. As a result, the moisture content of gasification coke increased from 0.02 to 0.94 g g, and that of charcoal increased from 0.03 to 0.52 g g. With the leachate, the chars absorbed organic matter and nutrients, increasing contents of water-extractable organic carbon (gasification coke: from 0.09 to 7.00 g kg; charcoal: from 0.03 to 3.52 g kg), total soluble nitrogen (gasification coke: from not detected to 705.5 mg kg; charcoal: from 3.2 to 377.2 mg kg), plant-available phosphorus (gasification coke: from 351 to 635 mg kg; charcoal: from 44 to 190 mg kg), and plant-available potassium (gasification coke: from 6.0 to 15.3 g kg; charcoal: from 0.6 to 8.5 g kg). The potential CEC increased from 22.4 to 88.6 mmol kg for the gasification coke and from 20.8 to 39.0 mmol kg for the charcoal. There were little if any changes in the contents and patterns of benzene polycarboxylic acids of the biochars, suggesting that degradation of black carbon during the composting process was negligible. The surface area of the biochars declined during the composting process due to the clogging of micropores by sorbed compost-derived materials. Interactions with composting substrate thus enhance the nutrient loads but alter the surface properties of biochars. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry’s survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  17. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  18. 76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General Conference... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094-5104; (770) 922-3496...

  19. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  20. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... samples from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks... required only for egg- type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird.... Avian Influenza Clean program of the Plan in Sec. 145.23(h); Meat-type breeding chickens from a flock...

  1. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  2. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2Department of Crop Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. ... of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment ..... roselle as an industrial crop in Nigeria.

  3. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  4. 77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew... the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094; (770) 922-3496...

  5. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal rainwater losses through increased runoff volumes reduce soil moisture and hence result in agricultural drought. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of two tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field ...

  6. 78 FR 33799 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Washington, DC, this 3rd day of June 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0032] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  7. Effects of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure on some soil physical properties and lettuce yield

    OpenAIRE

    Çerçioğlu, Melis; Okur, Bülent; Delibacak, Sezai; Ongun, Ali Rıza

    2008-01-01

    This research was held in Agriculture Faculty of Ege University Menemen Investigation and Practise Farmyard. Tobacco waste gathered from cigarette industry were composted and applied to the soil together with farmyard manure. lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was grown as test plant. No mineral fertilizers or pestisides were applied. The effects of composted tobacco wastes and farmyard manures on soil physical properties and lettuce yield were investigated. All application...

  8. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  9. Rehabilitation of Problem Soils Through Environmental Friendly Technologies-I: Effect of Sabins and Farmyard Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Mirza B.; Ziaeldin, Mohammad S.; Mahler, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental problem due to land degradation in the developing countries have been a matter of great cocern for the decades. The rehabilitation of problem land has been through many chemical means and engineering approaches, that have resulted in enhancing the gravity and the magnitude of problems. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of environmental friendly practices to address the salinity issue. the effect of organic manuring (green manure and farmyard manure) or rice was investigated in a field study on a saline-sodic soil of the Saline Agriculture Research Station, Sadhuke, Pakistan. Sesbania was grown as a green manuring crop for two months and then incorporated into soil. farmyard manure (FYM) was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20/ha before the sowing of Sesbania. Rice,Cv. Basmati 385 was used as the indicator/test crop. Results revealed that both paddy and straw yields were significantly improved by the application of sesbina and FYM. Green manure with sesbina improved the paddy and straw yields by 15.4% and 14.5% respectively. Productive tillers were also increased by the application of FYM but difference were not significant between 10 and 20ha/ of FYM application. FYM application also improved the paddy and straw yield significantly. The incrase in paddy yield due to application of 5, 10 and 20/ha of FYM were 6.8%, 24.4% and 37.6% over control, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphprus utilizationn by rice were also significantly improved with the application of green manure. Nitrogen uptake by rice was incresed by 17.8% and that of phosphorus by 21.9% with the green manuring. Nitrogen uptake was significantlty increased by the application of different rates of FYM. Also phosphorus uptake was increased significantly with the application of FYM. (author)

  10. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nplantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and CEucalyptus stand).

  11. Poultry Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  12. Health and management improvements of family poultry production in Africa - Survey results from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Macharia, M.J.; Gacheru, S.G.; Mbugua, H.C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Kenya the poultry population is about 25 million, 80% of which comprises local chicken and the rest, improved breeds. With the ever-increasing prices of red meat, local chicken has become the main source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs for the rural population. Both egg production and egg size varies with season as the quantity and availability of feed varies. This paper describes work done during the wet season to identify constraints of family chicken production in the study area. The study was repeated on the same farms that were identified in work done earlier during the dry season. Data were gathered from 24 family poultry farms located in Kangundo and Kikuyu divisions. Through the Veterinary Officers and the Animal Health Assistants who assisted in the dry season fieldwork the farmers were contacted a week before the intended f m visits. Baseline and disease survey forms were administered again. The baseline survey achieved 100% response rate. During the farm visits, serum samples, blood and faecal samples were collected. Post mortem examination was also done on sick birds. The flock size in the two ecological zones decreased during the wet season, most probably due to the Christmas festivities. The percentage deaths in Ecological Zone III (ECZIII) were high because most farmers in this zone set their chicken free thus predisposing them to predators, disease and harsh weather conditions. Disease control information was scanty as most farmers were not keen about it. Worm infestation was not as prevalent in the wet season as compared to the dry season. Except for three farms, all the other twenty-one farms had been exposed to Salmonellosis at one time or another. Women were involved in aspects of poultry management, while the men were significantly involved in shelter construction. The local birds were free-range feeding on green grass, leafy vegetables and insects. Occasionally, the birds were supplemented with crushed maize grains or

  13. Influence of farmyard manure on some morphological and biochemical parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedling grown in cadmium-treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asagba, Samuel Ogheneovo; Ezedom, Theresa; Kadiri, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in all the treated soils relative to control. Addition of poultry manure to the soil significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soil augmented with poultry manure but not in cowpea seedlings in cadmium-treated soil with pig manure amendments. Similarly, augmentation of Cd-treated soil with pig manure did not alter the Cd-induced effect on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in leaf, stem and roots, as SOD remained significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soils amended with poultry manure were restored to a level not significantly (p > 0.05) different from control. Like in the case of SOD, the Cd-induced inhibition of the activity of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase remained significantly (p  0.05) different from control. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed that supplementation of Cd-treated soils with pig and poultry manures reversed effects of Cd on cowpea seedlings. However, poultry manure was more effective than pig manure in ameliorating the effects of Cd.

  14. Farming and processing factors for improving quality properties of poultry and rabbit meat

    OpenAIRE

    Mudalal, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global meat market is facing several dramatic changes due to shifting in diet and life style, consumer demands, and economical considerations. Firstly, there was a tremendous increase in the poultry meat demand. Furthermore, current forecast and projection studies pointed out that the expansion of the poultry market will continue in future. In response to this demand, there was a great success to increase growth rate of meat-type chickens in the last few decades in order to optimize...

  15. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  16. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  17. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  18. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  19. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A.; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L.; Zedek, Andrea S.; Kwan, Tiffany W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L.; Oakley, Brian B.; Collett, Stephen R.; Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.

    2013-01-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no

  20. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Maurer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB, the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vat

  1. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-09-25

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  2. USING A GERMICIDAL INSTALLATION TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION AT A POULTRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Mayorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the effect of bactericidal installation in combination with a device for creating a water curtain on the microclimate in the poultry house and environment. Methods. Epizootic research was carried out according to "epizootic methodology", FGI «Federal Centre for Animal Health» (FGI «ARRIAH». Gas composition of air was investigated by means of universal gas-analyzer (UG-2; the content of carbon dioxide was measured by Subbotin-Nagorskiy titrimetric method; the amount of dust in the air was measured by a gravimetric (weight method. Air humidity was calculated by means of August statistical psychrometer. Evaluation of the microbial contamination of air was carried out using the Krotov’s device. Results. The performed studies before and after the air bactericidal purification in a poultry farm showed a reduction of carbon dioxide and ammonia by 2-2.5 times, the total microbial contamination of air by 1.9 times and the dust by 4.3 times. We found a direct link between the increases in the amount of microbial bodies of air depending on the age of the bird. Thus, after air-cleaning in the poultry house room where they kept 15-d-old chicks, we calculated 5 thousand microbial cells per one m3 found (E.coli, and at the age of 45 days, the level of contamination reached 11 thousand microbial bodies. Conclusion. Research in the poultry house reveals that using bactericidal installation paired with water curtain device can significantly reduce the concentration of gases, dust and microorganisms in the air of the house and decrease the release into the environment, which will undoubtedly have an impact on the ecological situation of the environment, animal and human health. 

  3. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (±0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (±910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m 3 day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ dosages, and the ratio of H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ . Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 1200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit

  4. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (+/-0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (+/-910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32+/-2 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m3day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe2+ and H2O2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H2O2 and Fe2+ dosages, and the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 1200 mg H2O2/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit.

  5. Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondwasy, H.O.; Okitoi, L.O.; Obali, M.P.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM 1 ), Butula (LM 1 ) Malava (LM 2 ), and Uranga (LM 3 ). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain

  6. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguini, Mohamed Nadir; Righi, Souad; Zeroual, Fayçal; Saidani, Khelaf; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Lice are permanent ectoparasites, extremely specific to their hosts. Their great importance in veterinary medicine remain significant, they can cause their direct pathogenic actions like irritability, dermatitis, anemia, decreased weight gain, and milk production. The purpose of this work was to made the first time an inventory of mammalian lice in North-eastern Algeria. Our survey of lice infestation was conducted on several animal species from five provinces of North-eastern Algeria. A total of 57 cattle, 83 sheep, 77 goats, 111 wild boars, and 63 farmyard chickens were examined. The collection of lice was carried out much more in mammals and chickens during the winter period. Lice were collected either manually or using brushing and kept in flasks containing 70% ethanol. The identification of lice was achieved in the laboratory using a binocular loupe. Concerning cattle, 63% and 27% of those examined subjects from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus . For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were identified in Mila and four other species only in Souk-Ahras. Finally, 25

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  10. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  11. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Lierz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and

  12. Improvement of production standards in a company leader in the poultry meat market: the competent authority’s role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gramenzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate, in a company that is leader in the production of poultry meat, the effects of the combined action between the official veterinary controls and the food business operator (FBO on corporate manufacturing standards. To this purpose, the corporate documentation have been examined (inspection reports and audits of official veterinary controls and data obtained by self-control procedures on a four-year period between 2008 and 2011. The results obtained showed that, despite the application of specific procedures by the FBO, the competent authority has observed a number of non-compliances, grouped into four main areas: cleaning and disinfection, maintenance in the plant, staff training, management of animal by-products. The immediate response of the FBO for the resolution of the non-compliances resulted in an overall significant improvement in hygiene and safety of products and processes, a gradually reduced number of non-compliance reports, a decrease of all microbiological parameters and the extension of products’ shelf life.

  13. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  14. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  15. Improving digestive utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pigs and poultry by processing and enzyme technologies: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Pustjens, A.M.; Schols, H.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing technologies, whether or not combined with cell wall degrading enzymes, on the physicochemical properties of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and the resulting effects on NSP degradation in both pigs and poultry were reviewed. Evaluation of the effects of processing

  16. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  17. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.

  18. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Van Boeckel

    Full Text Available Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide

  19. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Sakar, Suleyman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 ({+-}0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 ({+-}910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 {+-} 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} dosages, and the ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 1200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a

  20. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  1. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  2. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Swiatkiewicz, S; Dlugosz, Jakub; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein wit...

  3. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  4. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  5. 77 FR 31292 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Poultry Improvement... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the National Poultry Improvement Plan... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the National Poultry Improvement Plan, contact Dr...

  6. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  7. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  8. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  9. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  10. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanta, I. S.; Hasnat, Md A.; Zeidner, N.

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry...... interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2–12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock...... handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk...

  11. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission and increase productivity of

  12. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  13. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  14. Diversification and epidemic risks of poultry production systems in Hanoi suburb

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Dang, Thang; Duquesne, Brigitte; Lebailly, Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to address this question and to improve the income of small poultry producers through identification of poultry production systems and the supply chains with their various constraints, including the diseases and to analyze the explicative factors of the poultry development at local level. The research was conducted by interviewing and production record keeping system at the household farms which have poultry production at different scales in Hanoi suburb from...

  15. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  16. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  17. Stunning systems for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  18. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  19. Application of modern nutrition principles in poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be improved by formulating poultry feeds based on the daily feed intake and .... for phase 1(20- 28 weeks) are shown in Table 4. The sulfur amino acid .... per 100birds per day, they will receive 10070less of all nutrients than is desired. ..... of copper and two levels of nutrient density. Nutrient. Egg. Egg-. Feed density. Copper.

  20. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  1. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  2. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  3. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Dutch notes on BAT (Best Available Techniques) for pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.J.M.; Van de Weerdhof, A.M. [Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, National Reference Centre Agriculture, Ede (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    This document describes available environmental control techniques for the pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms. The purpose of this document is to support the identification of BAT for the European pig- and poultry housing, following the requirements of article 16 of the Council Directive 96/61, concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Directive), which has been adopted on 24 September 1996. In this document, an attempt is made to include all relevant environmental aspects of the presented techniques. In this way, the integral weighing of available techniques is facilitated. Economical aspects of presented techniques are given as well. This document comprises the following elements: Process description; Emissions, economics and energy demand; and Candidate Best Available Techniques The rules concerning covered manure storage and low emission housing are based on the Environmental Management Act. This act sees to the activities in the 'appliance', which is in fact the farmyard and the animal-housing. The permit based on the Environmental Management Act regulates the nuisance and the environmental effects in relation to the housing. Manure application does not take place in the appliance but the application techniques are also added in this document as extra information. Those measures which are based on the Manure Act and the Manure Relocation Act are not taken into account. The Netherlands will deliver separate information on these subjects.

  5. Radiation processing of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Hauser, G.A.M.; Clarke, I.R.; Thomas, A.C.

    1977-06-01

    Gamma irradiation, through its ability to inactivate microorganisms, has been shown to effectively extend the shelf life of commercially slaughtered chickens from 2-4 d to 14-21 d under normal refrigeration temperatures. Although a high percentage of carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella, the level of contamination was relatively low; the doses applied for shelf-life extention thus also served to eliminate this pathogen. Even when carcasses were artificially inoculated with Salmonella of levels several orders of magnitude higher than normal, the recommended radiation doses (3 or 5 kGy) were still capable of rendering the product 'pathogen free'. Irradiated poultry could not be distinguished organoleptically from control samples, even when twice the maximum recommended dose was applied. In conclusion, the irradiation of commercially produced poultry in South Africa with relatively low doses can be of significant benefit by (1) markedly extending the acceptable shelf life and (2) eliminating pathogenic bacteria present on the commercially available product [af

  6. Nutritional modulation of the immune response in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic efficiency demanded by the poultry industry has pushed selection towards high production with improved feed conversion ratios (FCR) and high yield; however, selection based heavily on growth characteristics and other phenotypic traits has adversely affected immune competence. Despite incre...

  7. The significance of Campylobacter jejuni infection in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S M

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter is a significant cause of enterocolitis in consumers of undercooked poultry meat. Campylobacter jejuni is the most significant of the three thermophilic Campylobacter species, and is responsible for intestinal colonization in poultry and food-borne enteritis in humans. Generally, C. jejuni is apathogenic in poultry, although newly hatched chicks and turkeys may develop a transient diarrhoea following infection. Modern intensive poultry production favours the introduction of infection into commercial growing units, resulting in intestinal colonization during the second to fourth weeks inclusive. Routes of infection include contaminated fomites, infected water supply, rodents, insects, and free-living birds. Vertical transmission is considered unlikely. Contamination of poultry meat is enhanced by deficiencies in transport and processing of broilers and turkeys. Scalding, defeathering and evisceration represent the significant points of cross-contamination during processing. Epidemiological correlation has been established between consumption of contaminated chicken and outbreaks of human campylobacteriosis. Amelioration of infection by application of improved standards of hygiene and decontamination is possible in the context of commercial poultry production. Improvement in washing of carcasses, and the application of chemical disinfectants and gamma irradiation have the potential to reduce the prevalence of C. jejuni contamination in poultry meat. These innovations, together with improved storage and handling of meat products, will reduce the risk of campylobacteriosis to consumers.

  8. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or..., Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... governing the importation of live birds and poultry and poultry meat and products from the APHIS-defined EU...

  9. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  10. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  11. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  12. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  13. Family poultry production in Mauritius: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugessur, V.S.; Seenevassen Pillay, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of Mauritius has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for more than two decades and has been successfully meeting the increasing demand for these commodities. About 85% of the poultry meat is presently produced by four industrial farms, 10% by small commercial producers, and around 5% by family (backyard) poultry farms. The flourishing broiler production industry has transformed the erstwhile important traditional backyard poultry farming of indigenous chickens into an insignificant side activity on the main island of Mauritius, while on the other hand, scavenging chickens continue to be an important source of both food and income on Rodrigues, the second biggest island territory of the Republic. A survey carried out on 30 selected family poultry farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues in 1999 and 2000 enabled the identification of the major problems faced by smallholder poultry farmers. At the same time the results provided a basis for future interventions for improving family poultry production. The results showed that diseases like fowl pox, Newcastle disease, Gumboro disease, respiratory and parasitic diseases occurred all year round on 42% and 82% of farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. Low to mild helminth and lice infestations were detected on 40% and 50% of the farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. (author)

  14. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., 94, 95, and 104 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094] RIN 0579-AD45 Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and adding it to the list of regions we...

  15. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum requirements for organic fertilizers. It seems that recycling of organic waste from the poultry industry should be the primary method of nutrient recovery for plants and organic matter contained in them, however on condition that the health safety is preserved.

  16. Neighbourhood Acceptability of Poultry Farms Located in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... due to poultry production in their neighbourhood. It was recommended that farmers should be encouraged to adopt technologies that can keep poultry litters dry and odourless. In addition, poultry farm locations should be sited far away from residential areas. Keywords: Poultry Farms, Acceptability, Waste management, ...

  17. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO_2_e_q/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  19. American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Perspective of Alternative Poultry Production Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) is a nonprofit educational and networking organization dedicated to encouraging the production, processing, and marketing of poultry raised on pasture, and is the largest industry group focused on pastured poultry. APPPA passionately embr...

  20. THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DETERMINATION POULTRY GRADE AND POULTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Makhonina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There was proposed the system of classification of poultry by grades, taking into account the rate of individual bone-in and boneless pieces, and minced meat according to objective quality indexes, namely the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein in terms of protein quality (ratio of tryptophan to hydroxyproline, the ratio of the energy value and other indicators established for land and water-floating bird and is comparable to similar measures for beef and pork. Was given the quantitative criteria for rating the quality of poultry meat for content of muscle, connective and fatty tissues (skin with fat in gutted carcass and its parts, installed there output and factors consumer value (FCV. Also was given the comparative rate of biological value of raw meat of slaughter animals and poultry, poultry meat mechanically deboning and nutritional supplements of animal and vegetable origin. It is established, that poultry meat mechanically separated on the functional-technological properties and bioavailability significantly superior to animal and vegetable proteins. The biological value of the lump meat of chickens-broilers and hens egg directions 1 grade has values 73.12 and 72.92%, the same time the biological value of goose meat from deboning carcasses of 2 and 1 grades has high values and varies from 79.77 to 81.14%. The new approach of the definition types of meat poultry and poultry products increases the range of foods allowed by the introduction in the recipe of sausage stuffing alternative sources of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin, adequate and balanced protein composition that is a definite contribution to the solution of the problem of providing the population with goods of high quality and enhance production efficiency.

  1. Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001. In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004. In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019, and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040. In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming

  2. Transgenesis techniques and its application in poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenesis is applied in production of therapeutic proteins, improvement of economic traits such as meat quality, disease resistance, feed conversion efficiency; as well as protection of humans from zoonotic diseases. Thus, transgenic technologies may revolutionalize the production of poultry birds with improved meat ...

  3. Simulations at Czech poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the possible scenarios of the development of the poultry market in the Czech Republic, in view of the trends in production, consumption and foreign trade. The individual scenarios are based upon the forecasts of selected factors that have a substantial impact on the poultry market and whose changes can be expected in the subsequent years with great likelihood. The article sets out and addresses various scenarios for the period of 2012–2014. The scenarios are based upon the partial equilibrium model of the poultry market, which has been derived on the basis of time series and panel data within the years 1995–2009. The conducted analysis clearly shows that changes in the prices of agricultural producers will have an effect on changes in the production of poultry meat, an increase in VAT through consumer prices will impact the rate of domestic consumption, as well as changes in disposable income. Similarly, a change in the exchange rate will have an effect on the amount of poultry imported into the Czech Republic.

  4. Village poultry in Ethiopia : socio-technical analysis and learning with farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgedom, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries village poultry keeping is regarded an important livelihood opportunity for the poor. To improve poultry systems, it is necessary to keep in mind a large number of local complexities. This study aimed to integrate participatory-, survey- and model-based approaches to

  5. Modelling the impact of interventions on the dynamics in village poultry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Asgedom, A.H.; Viets, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    There are many technical possibilities to improve free-range and backyard poultry keeping. Rural households, however, are not adopting these technologies widely. This paper presents a model approach for ex ante evaluation of interventions in village poultry systems. The dynamic deterministic

  6. Combustion of poultry litter in a fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; J. Seabra Barros; I. Cabrita; J. Leahy; B. Kelleher; M. Leahy [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-04-01

    Combustion studies of poultry litter alone or mixed with peat by 50% on weight basis were undertaken in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed. Because of high moisture content of poultry litter, there was some uncertainty whether the combustion could be sustained on 100% poultry litter and as peat is very available in Ireland, its presence was considered to help to improve the combustion. However, the results showed that, as long as the moisture content of poultry litter was kept below 25%, the combustion did not need the addition of peat. The main parameters that were investigated are (i) moisture content, (ii) air staging, and (iii) variations in excess air levels along the freeboard. The main conclusions of the results are (i) combustion was influenced very much by the conditions of the fuel supply, (ii) the steady fuel supply was strongly dependent on the moisture content of the poultry litter, (iii) temperature appeared to be still very influential in reducing the levels of unburned carbon and hydrocarbons released from residues, (iv) the air staging in the freeboard improved combustion efficiency by enhancing the combustion of volatiles released from residues in the riser and (vi) NOx emissions were influenced by air staging in the freeboard. Particles collected from the bed and the two cyclones were analysed to determine the levels of heavy metals and the leachability tests were carried out with ashes collected to verify whether or not they could safely be used in agricultural lands. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  7. Poultry production and constraints in Eastern Province of Rwanda: case study of Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazimpaka, Eugene; Tukei, Micheal; Shyaka, Anselme; Gatari, Eugene N

    2018-04-01

    A study was conducted in Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district, to determine the status of poultry production. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 poultry farmers randomly as 20 farmers from each of the five cells. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and presented in chart and tables. The majority of the farmers (84%) reared their poultry in free range system while 10% practiced semi-intensive and only 6% did intensive production. Only 12% of the respondents kept exotic poultry breeds. The breeding stock were mostly obtained from local markets (63%) and the average flock size was about 1-10 birds per homestead (70%). The confinement of poultry at night was either in the main domestic house (33%), in kitchen (32%), or in separate poultry house (35%). Flock records were rare and kept by only 9% of respondents. Poultry products were reportedly at high demand by 87% of respondents and 89% farmers reported profit from their enterprises. Lack of veterinary and financial assistance was reported by 72% of respondents. Newcastle disease (57%) was the main health constraint followed by ectoparasites and internal worms. Many farmers (50%) were in dire need of veterinary assistance and financial support to improve their poultry enterprises. Poor management practices were reported to be one of the crucial factors leading to poor production. Lack of quality feeds (38%) and feeding of poultry, credit (20%), and poor market accessibility (19%) were the main challenges reported.

  8. Ionizing energy treatment of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an ionizing energy treatment to poultry carcasses results in a decrease of the number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Salmonellae. At the same time the refrigerated shelf life of treated poultry products is considerably increased. To achieve these beneficial effects doses ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 kGy are needed, but in poultry doses over 5.00 kGy may cause undesirable side-effects. To asses the microbiological quality of ionizing radiation treated end-products adequate isolation methods should be used to include all sublethally injured microorganisms in the colony counts. The assessment of the required lethality of an ionizing energy treatment is difficult as D 10 (decimal reduction) - values depend greatly on several parameters

  9. Changes in poultry handling behavior and poultry mortality reporting among rural Cambodians in areas affected by HPAI/H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Van Kerkhove

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, 21 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and eight human cases have been confirmed in Cambodia. As a result, a large number of avian influenza education campaigns have been ongoing in provinces in which H5N1outbreaks have occurred in humans and/or domestic poultry.Data were collected from 1,252 adults >15 years old living in two southern provinces in Cambodia where H5N1 has been confirmed in domestic poultry and human populations using two cross-sectional surveys conducted in January 2006 and in November/December 2007. Poultry handling behaviors, poultry mortality occurrence and self-reported notification of suspect H5N1 poultry cases to animal health officials in these two surveys were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that although some at risk practices have declined since the first study, risky contact with poultry is still frequent. Improved rates of reporting poultry mortality were observed overall, but reporting to trained village animal health workers decreased by approximately 50%.Although some improvements in human behavior have occurred, there are still areas--particularly with respect to the handling of poultry among children and the proper treatment of poultry and the surrounding household environment--that need to be addressed in public health campaigns. Though there were some differences in the sampling methods of the 2006 and 2007 surveys, our results illustrate the potential to induce considerable, potentially very relevant, behavioral changes over a short period of time.

  10. [Epizootiology of aegyptianellosis in poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Ts S

    1983-01-01

    Epizootiologic studies were carried out on avian aegyptianellosis, especially with birds raised at poultry dressing combines and industrial poultry farms within the country. It was found that the mechanism of infection transmission was mediated not only by the role of Argas persicus ticks but also by bed bug insects of the Cimex genus, belonging to the Hemiptera order. Carriers of aegyptianellosis might also be migratory birds coming from tropical countries, such as swallows. It is concluded that avian aegyptianellosis can be referred to the group of the natural focal transmissive infections.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey, poultry waste and cattle dung -a study of the use of mixture of adsorbents and/or surfactants to improve digester performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Manik; Madamwar, Datta (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India). Post Graduate Dept. of Biosciences)

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the improvement of anaerobic digestion process due to the addition of various surfactants and adsorbents in different combinations. Among the different combinations tested mixture of silica gel (2000 mg litre[sup -1]) and sodium lauryl sulphate (300 mg litre[sup -1]) showed maximum enhancement in gas production as well as methane content indicating better process performance. (author)

  12. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  13. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  14. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b...

  15. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for some poultry classes, while extensive cross breeding has produced poultry with higher meat yields... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) for consultation to ensure that there is no inconsistency... classifications, proposed changes to the game hen classes, and other proposed editorial changes. Response: FSIS...

  16. Developing control points for halal slaughtering of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, I A; Regenstein, J M; Shahabuddin, A S M; Rahman, M T

    2016-07-01

    Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. POULTRY AGRIBUSINESS FOR INCREASE UKBM (ENTREPRENEURSHIP BRAHMA MANDIRI UNITED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartatik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology entrepreneurship programe (IBK used to improve the UKBM (Entreprenurship Brahma Mandiri United. This method is done by recruited 20 tenants of students and alumni of the Brahmaputra Husbandry Academy. The participants of the training are lectures, practice and visit to poultry agribusiness industry. After that they are required to make a business plan and presented. participans who do not feel sufficient skill in the field of business planned advised to practice at a poultry industry. Students who have been awarded funding ready tried stimulant. Poultry Agribusiness Entrepreneurship training results 18 business plans in the field of poultry feasible and funded stimulant, although the majority did not carry out an internship therefore already have enough skill results from practice some lectures and PKM. Performance tenant IBK with Poultry Agribusiness is the activity for training the average attendance 76 percent the ability to create a business plan 90 percent, quality of products produced average has not reached maximum quality and sustainability efforts are 12 tenant-up (60 percent and six tenant stops

  18. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A. M.; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies. PMID:25050050

  19. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  20. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  2. Modeling the burden of poultry disease on the rural poor in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L. Rist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock represent a fundamental economic and nutritional resource for many households in the developing world; however, a high burden of infectious disease limits their production potential. Here we present an ecological framework for estimating the burden of poultry disease based on coupled models of infectious disease and economics. The framework is novel, as it values humans and livestock as co-contributors to household wellbeing, incorporating feedbacks between poultry production and human capital in disease burden estimates. We parameterize this coupled ecological–economic model with household-level data to provide an estimate of the overall burden of poultry disease for the Ifanadiana District in Madagascar, where over 72% of households rely on poultry for economic and food security. Our models indicate that households may lose 10–25% of their monthly income under current disease conditions. Results suggest that advancements in poultry health may serve to support income generation through improvements in both human and animal health.

  3. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI. Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1 egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2 egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3 poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.

  4. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  5. Bio-Security Measures Employed by Poultry Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In spite of this, food security, improved livelihood and attainment of self- ..... experience in farm business management enables farmers to set realistic time and ... had no significant effect on biosecurity practices of poultry farmers is inconsistent.

  6. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdar, S.N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile ( 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to o C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  8. H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza suitability models for China: accounting for new poultry and live-poultry markets distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artois, Jean; Lai, Shengjie; Feng, Luzhao; Jiang, Hui; Zhou, Hang; Li, Xiangping; Dhingra, Madhur S; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Xiao, Xiangming; Robinson, Timothy P; Yu, Hongjie; Gilbert, Marius

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, two important avian influenza viruses infecting humans emerged in China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in the late nineties, and the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus in 2013. China is home to the largest population of chickens (4.83 billion) and ducks (0.694 billion), representing, respectively 23.1 and 58.6% of the 2013 world stock, with a significant part of poultry sold through live-poultry markets potentially contributing to the spread of avian influenza viruses. Previous models have looked at factors associated with HPAI H5N1 in poultry and LPAI H7N9 in markets. However, these have not been studied and compared with a consistent set of predictor variables. Significant progress was recently made in the collection of poultry census and live-poultry market data, which are key potential factors in the distribution of both diseases. Here we compiled and reprocessed a new set of poultry census data and used these to analyse HPAI H5N1 and LPAI H7N9 distributions with boosted regression trees models. We found a limited impact of the improved poultry layers compared to models based on previous poultry census data, and a positive and previously unreported association between HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and the density of live-poultry markets. In addition, the models fitted for the HPAI H5N1 and LPAI H7N9 viruses predict a high risk of disease presence for the area around Shanghai and Hong Kong. The main difference in prediction between the two viruses concerned the suitability of HPAI H5N1 in north-China around the Yellow sea (outlined with Tianjin, Beijing, and Shenyang city) where LPAI H7N9 has not spread intensely.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Poultry Meat Consumption on Cardiovascular Health and the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Metin Donma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an animal product important in human nutrition. A variable, and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals make poultry meat a valuable food. Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as well as the Mediterranean Diet. The substitution of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts and legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Low-fat diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular health benefits. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative diet enriched with high-quality foods reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inflammatory milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function and ultimately act as a barrier to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and development of atherosclerosis. The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on different factors such as age, feeding, keeping, hybrids, carcass parts and type of meat. Preventive measures against risky aspects of the matter should be developed. Since the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens, antibiotics must be replaced by herbs and spices with growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health related benefits to solve the problem. Enrichment and fortification with nutrients may cause poultry meat to gain even more functional food character.

  10. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Moreki; S.C. Chiripasi

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Giv...

  11. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y.; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H.; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains...

  12. The use of inulin in poultry feeding: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucław, M

    2016-12-01

    Since the European Union enforced the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in 2006, the research has been focused on natural feed additives which would have a proven positive impact on both production and animal health. Inulin is both the most commonly used and the most effective probiotic additive. The mechanism of inulin interactions with the avian body is complex, multidirectional and not fully understood. Despite a number of unresolved issues, many authors have demonstrated the positive impact of inulin on the host organism. Dietary supplementation of poultry feeding with inulin contributes to the modulation of intestinal microbiota through favouring a quick proliferation of beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbes. There are indications that inulin-provoked changes in the host gut microbiota in poultry may alter the structure and histomorphology of the intestinal mucosa and improve its absorption capacity in poultry. It has also been demonstrated that inulin may affect the immune system and the systemic metabolism of minerals and lipids. The reports on inulin effects on the body and performance of poultry are often contradictory, as the effectiveness of this prebiotic is strongly dependent on the type and dose used, and the duration of its administration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has created the necessity of replacement of antibiotic with other products like prebiotics, probiotics, organic acid botanicals, and herbal essential oils. Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices, and are used as natural alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry feed as these have antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Beside, other beneficial effects of EOs include appetite stimulation, improvement of enzyme secretion related to food digestion, and immune response activation. Recently, use of EOs in broiler chickens has drawn attentions. EOs are generally used as blend with a carrier oil or combination with other plant oils in the feed to enhance the productive performance of birds. Conclusively, EOs can be used in poultry feed, but there are still questions concerning their action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage in poultry, which are to be explored in detail. This mini-review describes the expanding horizons in the research on EOs in poultry nutrition.

  14. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  15. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  16. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  17. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  18. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On Productivity ... unbalanced feeding of poultry and low level of education of poultry farmers. ... were suggested by the study as a means of consolidating the gains of the impact.

  19. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  20. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  1. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  2. Conservation of Poultry Germplasm Through Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Setioko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundantly available genetic potential of local poultry that needs to be conserved for future use of poultry development. Live conservation of poultry, both in-situ and ex-situ, would be very expensive and has a risk of mortality due to diseases such as avian influenza. Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs, which are progenitor of eggs and spermatozoa, provides an alternative way to preserve both male and female genetic materials in poultry. PGCs in poultry can be specifically harvested from blatoderm or blood embryo, and preserved in a liquid nitrogen similar to sperm, ovum and embryo in large ruminant. Technique for producing germline chimeric chicken has been established by transferring PGCs into the circulated blood embryo where the original PGCs have been removed or inactivated. Mating of germline chimeras yields offsprings that are derived entirely from the donor stock. Conservation of genetic materials of Indonesian indigenous poultry through preservation of PGCs could be used for future poultry improvement.

  3. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  4. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  6. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  7. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  8. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  9. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  10. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  14. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  15. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  19. Perception of Farm Succession Planning by Poultry Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed poultry farm characteristics and poultry farmers' perception of farm succession planning in southwest Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting poultry farmers in Oyo and Osun states. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results reveal that poultry farmers ...

  20. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.; Živanov Nenad M.; Živković Jasmina Z.; Milojević Miloš J.; Teodosin Jovan M.; Pećanac Savka L.; Milić Dragan V.; Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Đekić Jovo P.

    2005-01-01

    Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with m...

  1. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  2. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadi, A. Ue Bari, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha -1 at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha -1 poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha -1 poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production

  3. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  4. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  5. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  6. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  7. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poultry production in China and the potential for using enzyme preparations .... The feed manufacturers produce about 310 × 106t of high-quality feed, saving about 30%, ...... Chickens and experimental designs used in the three experiments.

  8. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... and contribute to such systems and to the livelihood of households around the globe, with special emphasis on women. Furthermore, local production provides potential for production with minimum transport and, concomitantly, minimum usage of fossil fuels. Among the terrestrial animals, poultry has the best...

  9. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in al...

  10. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  11. Application of Probiotics in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years probiotics have constantly increased in importance and aroused growing interest in animal nutrition. Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. The bacteria of the probiotic attach to the intestinal mucosa, thereby forming a physical barrier that blocks the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. The mode of action of probiotics in poultry includes maintaining normal intestinal microflora by competitive exclusion and antagonism, altering metabolism by increasing digestive enzyme activity and decreasing bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia production, improving feed intake and digestion and neutralizing enterotoxins and stimulating the immune system. In experiment we research effect of probiotic on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group with probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight and GIT pH were recorded. Average body weight on the end of experiment in experimental group was 1493.6 g and 1689.6 g in control group. Average pH in experimental group was 2.79 in stomach, 6.28 in small intestine, 6.81 and 6.89 in caecum. In control group was average pH 3.54 in stomach, 6.41 in small intestine, 6.74 and 6.80 in caecum.

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  13. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  14. Effects of Poultry Species and Housing Types on the Poultry Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate information on the characteristics of wastes generated from poultry production particularly in the tropical region is lacking. This study investigated and characterized the wastes of different poultry species which included broiler, cockerel and layer with each under battery cage and or deep litter housing systems.

  15. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive...

  16. effects of poultry species and housing types on the poultry wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    Physical components of wastes from deep litter are however, higher ... The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicate that poultry species and ... T. U. Nwakonobi, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, ... density, aggregate stability and aeration can be ... In area of intense poultry production,.

  17. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-06-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01). The detection of strains related to RT 001 known for its ability to cause disease in humans makes poultry a potential reservoir for pathogenic C. difficile. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that

  20. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  1. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, J; Rabbani, I; Aslam, S; Ahmad, H A

    2015-12-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960's and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country's economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan's poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry.

  2. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. PMID:29161444

  3. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  6. Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry Health ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Antibiotics use among poultry farmers was motivated by factors such as growth promotion ( x̄ = 2.38), ...

  7. Farmers' reason for going into poultry production in Plateau state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... This study aimed at investigating the effect of the reasons for going into poultry ... Hence poultry farmers need services of veterinary doctors, subsidies on feeds and drugs, and

  8. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... streptomycin and tylosin among poultry farms in. Ekiti State, Nigeria. ... in poultry production due to its possibility of forming residue in ... withdrawal periods are not observed before selling ... Manipulating pig production IX.

  9. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat in the Kumasi ... reduced its freshness and taste and made it less healthy for consumption. ... the government should subsidize the cost of inputs for the local poultry industry, ...

  10. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  11. 77 FR 24873 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... require that all establishments that slaughter poultry have written programs to address sanitary dressing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 381 and 500 [Docket No. FSIS-2011-0012] RIN 0583-AD32 Modernization of Poultry... the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and responding to questions...

  12. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  13. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  14. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  15. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  16. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  17. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  18. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  19. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition...

  20. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  1. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  2. Climate change and poultry production in Nigeria: Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined perceived effects and adaptation measures employed by poultry farmers against climate change in derived savannah zone of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected poultry farmers were used. The respondents were mainly small scale with 6 years of experience in poultry production ...

  3. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  4. Phytochemical constituents of selected plants from Apiaceae family and their biological effects in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried ripe fruits of the plants from Apiaceae family are used in folk medicine for treating digestive disorders. They can be used in veterinary and animal production, especially poultry, as immunostimulants and as natural antibiotics. Plants from Apiaceae family improve performance parameters of poultry and can be used for prevention of diseases. This article is a review of present literature data on the usage of caraway, anise, coriander and fennel in broiler chickens and Japanese quail nutrition and their mode of action and effects on production performance, blood parameters, cholesterol and fatty acids profile.

  5. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Huber, David H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the performance of a thermophilic CSTR digester that has been stabilized on poultry litter will be enhanced or diminished by the addition of thin stillage as co-substrate. Replicate laboratory digesters, derived from a stable pilot-scale digester, were operated with increasing ratios (w/w) of thin stillage/poultry litter feedstock. After a period of adaptation to 20% and 40% thin stillage, digester performance showed increases in biogas, percent methane and COD removal, as well as a decrease in volatile acids. Peak performance occurred with 60% thin stillage. However, 80% thin stillage caused significant reduction of performance, including declines of methanogenic activity and COD removal. In conclusion, supplementing the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter with thin stillage improved the bioenergy (methane) output, but thin stillage became inhibitory at high concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of vaccination in risk mitigation and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jo; Mansfield, Karen L; Brown, Ian H

    2017-10-20

    Newcastle disease is regarded as one of the most important avian diseases throughout the world and continues to be a threat and economic burden to the poultry industry. With no effective treatment, poultry producers rely primarily on stringent biosecurity and vaccination regimens to control the spread of this devastating disease. This concise review provides an historical perspective of Newcastle disease vaccination and how fundamental research has paved the way for the development of instrumental techniques which are still in use today. Although vaccination programmes have reduced the impact of clinical disease, they have historically been ineffective in controlling the spread of virulent viruses and therefore do not always offer an adequate solution to the world's food security problems. However, the continued development of novel vaccine technology and improved biosecurity measures through education may offer a solution to help reduce the global threat of Newcastle disease on the poultry industry. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of research paper writing skills of poultry science undergraduate students studying food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C

    2006-02-01

    Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.

  8. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  9. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  10. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  11. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  12. Control of poultry coccidiosis: changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, A K; Maharana, B R

    2011-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important protozoan disease affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Control of poultry coccidiosis is presently based on managerial skills and the use of prophylactic coccidiostatic drugs. With the emergence of drug resistant Eimeria strains, emphasis has been laid on development and use of safer vaccines; some of them have been commercialized successfully. The present review deals with the various factors responsible for the development of clinical coccidiosis in poultry as well as an overview of the currently available inducers and boosters of immunity against coccidiosis. There are three groups of vaccines currently available against coccidiosis which can be distinguished on the basis of characteristics of the Eimeria species included in the respective products, viz. vaccines based on live virulent strains, vaccines based on live attenuated strains, and vaccines based on live strains that are relatively tolerant to the ionophore compounds. The latter vaccine combines the early chemotherapeutic effect of ionophores with the late prophylactic effect of vaccination. Although in the near future more varieties of oocyst based live vaccines are expected, identification of selective coccidian-specific immunoprotective molecules is likely to get more attention to facilitate the sustainable control of poultry coccidiosis.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiologica...

  14. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  15. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  16. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of 37 Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useh, Nicodemus M; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Akange, Nguavese; Thomas, Milton; Foley, Andrew; Keena, Mitchel Chan; Nelson, Eric; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Tomita, Masaru; Suzuki, Haruo; Scaria, Joy

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the availability of draft genomes of several Salmonella serotypes, isolated from poultry sources from Nigeria. These genomes will help to further understand the biological diversity of S. enterica and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. Copyright © 2016 Useh et al.

  18. Effects of Blending Alcohols with Poultry Fat Methyl Esters on Cold Flow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol in a linear fashion with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols t...

  19. ECONOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY POULTRY TO WOMEN’S INCOME IN NIGER-DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that family poultry husbandry, business activities and paid employment contribute 35%, 30% and 18% respectively to the household income of women in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The average income from family poultry is N16, 784.53 ($124.33, which is about 25% and 50% of national minimum wage and per capita income in Nigeria respectively. The major constraints to the family poultry in the study area are disease and pest, pilfering and lack of capital. The econometric analysis indicates that wage, business and family poultry income are significant determinants of income of women in the study area. The estimated regression coefficients are, 0.35, 0.32 and 0.19 for wage, business and family poultry income respectively. This suggests that if wage income, business income and family poultry income increase by 100%, total income of the women will increase by 35%, 32% and 19% respectively. This indicates that family poultry husbandry has third rating in potentially influencing women income in the study area. It is recommended from the study that the contribution of family poultry to total income of the women can be improved through proper medication and vaccination of their birds with vaccines that are stable under tropical environment. It is also imperative that semi intensive, if not intensive, rearing technology should be considered as a reasonable option if the problem of pilfering is to be addressed. Improving the capital base of the women through formation of cooperating and micro-credit schemes should also be a welcome development in addressing the problem of lack of capital.

  20. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation

  2. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  3. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  4. Marker-assisted selection in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, D.-J. de; Hocking, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among livestock species, chicken has the most extensive genomics toolbox available for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). The uptake of MAS is therefore not limited by technical resources but mostly by the priorities and financial constraints of the few remaining poultry breeding companies. With the cost of genotyping decreasing rapidly, an increase in the use of direct trait- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-associations in MAS can be predicted. (author)

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  6. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in all the three plant categories, averagely accounting for about 44% of the total energy consumption in the processing plants. Other processing operations consuming energy in the following order are eviscerating (17.5%, slaughtering (17%, washing & chilling (16% and packing (6%. The results of the study clearly indicated that the least mechanized of the plants consumed the highest energy (50.36 MJ followed by the semi-mechanized plant (28.04 MJ and the most mechanized plant (17.83 MJ. The energy audits have provided baseline information needed for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion in the poultry processing industries in the study area.

  7. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  8. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    /carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...... cages contain perches, nest boxes and dust bathing areas. This improves the welfare of the hens but also provides more hiding places for the PRM and may thus lead to increased ectoparasite problems. The approach taken against the PRM is to develop new control methods based on a combination of mite...

  9. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  10. The role of probiotics in the poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S M

    2009-08-12

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer's protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.

  11. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  12. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  13. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  15. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods......, and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive...

  16. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  17. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  18. O Comportamento das Aves Poultry Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Campos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre o comportamento das aves, principalmente as galinhas, datam de 1912, quando o gênero Gallus passou a ser estudado com mais intensidade na área da Genética. Tais estudos eram simplesmente filosóficos até o início da década de 80, quando uma nova era da produção industrial avícola surgiu, objetivando um maior volume de produção econômica em todas as áreas de exploração. Esse objetivo reativou de maneira científica os estudos de comportamento das aves face à tecnologia de produção empregada nos sistemas de exploração, tornando-os mais acentuados já na década de 90, culminando com um simpósio internacional realizado nos Estados Unidos onde foram traçados os objetivos ou linhas de pesquisas na exploração avícola. O intuito era evitar problemas com os movimentos ambientalistas, traçando novos rumos para uma produção eficiente sem interferir no comportamento das aves já no início do novo milênio. Esta revisão, tem como objetivo principal uma análise científica e filosófica sobre o comportamento das aves em diversos métodos de exploração.Studies on poultry behavior initiated in 1972, at that time, fowls from Gallus domesticus species were the most important animal for the initial studies of Genetic. Since then, just the philosophical concepts where involved in those studies. However, at the beginning of 80 decade, these studies were intensified taking into account technological approaches for an economical industrial poultry production. Meanwhile, the reactions from activists involved in the behavior of the animal subjected to production became more strong at the beginning of 90's as well as those studies on chicken behavior. Finally, in 1998, an international symposium, promoted by chicken behavior scientists were held in the United States, in order to establish new methods of exploitation of poultry without interfering in its normal behavior, at the beginning of new millenium. The main

  19. Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, T; Lampron, R; Hauck, R; Pitesky, M; Gallardo, R A

    2018-03-01

    Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). All visited flock owners answered a biosecurity questionnaire that assessed biosecurity measures. The questionnaire revealed that backyard poultry owners lack simple biosecurity measures such as use of dedicated shoes, their chicken sources are unreliable, and few of them benefit from veterinary oversight. Only one flock had a clear vaccination history against ND and IB. ORT, ND, IB, MS, MG, and ILT were the most seroprevalent in backyard poultry flocks with 97% (41/42), 77.5% (31/40), 75% (30/40), 73% (31/42), 69% (29/42), and 45% (19/42), respectively. The vaccinated flock was not considered in these calculations. When examining the distance between backyard flocks and the nearest commercial poultry facility, ND and MG were significantly more likely to be found in backyard flocks close to (4 miles) commercial poultry. Birds purchased directly from National Poultry Improvement Plan hatcheries showed a reduced ND, MG, and MS antibody prevalence. Wearing dedicated shoes decreased MS antibody-positive birds. Finally, history of wild bird contact had a clear effect on an increased seroprevalence of NDV and MG. Serological results suggest that backyard poultry flocks have the potential to serve as a reservoir or amplifier for poultry respiratory diseases. The information generated in this project should direct extension efforts toward emphasizing the importance of small flock biosecurity and chick acquisition sources.

  20. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  1. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    risks are considered to be similar for layer and broiler farms. Our results, including those on farmer opinions, are relevant for the communication with farmers and poultry-related businesses about practices and risks. We conclude by providing recommendations for improvement of control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  3. Trends in microbial control techniques for poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety management system certification together with technological steps, such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality, and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with nonthermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and natural alternatives, such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this article, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.

  4. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  5. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  6. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential Greenhouse Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal matter on potential greenhouse gas emission and its field application. Poultry litters were randomly assigned to four treatments viz; salt solution, alum, air exclusion and the control (untreated). Alum treated faeces had higher (p<0.05) percentage nitrogen ...

  7. Common Diseases of Poultry in Kaduna State: Perspective of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several reports on prevailing poultry diseases across some states in Nigeria have been documented. The common prevailing poultry diseases in Kaduna Sate ... As a single entity, Coccidiosis appeared to be the most occurring disease ... Private Veterinary Clinics have pivotal role to play in disease reporting in the country.

  8. A survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production in Gombe metropolis, 2,121 poultry cases were presented at the Gombe State Veterinary Clinic between January 1995 and December 2004. Out of the total number of cases presented, Newcastle disease (ND) accounted for 14.66%, chronic respiratory ...

  9. Effects of Climate Change on Poultry Production in Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83) poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority ...

  10. Poultry-based poverty alleviation projects in Ehlanzeni District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High price of poultry feeds force PAPs to stock fewer chickens was the major production constraint followed by diseases, in particular New Castle and Bronchitis are killing chickens and water supply is so erratic and unreliable that it affects effective running of poultry-based PAPs. It was concluded that despite the wide range ...

  11. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  12. The Challenges and Prospects of the Poultry Industry in Dormaa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poultry industry is perceived to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of nutrition and food security. In spite of these contributions, the poultry industry is entangled with a number of problems that necessitate redress. The purpose of the study was to determine ...

  13. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg farmers in Delta ... analysis of factors affecting the output of poultry farmers showed that stock ... should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the ...

  14. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  15. Yield analysis at a poultry processing plant in Harare, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to establish the yield of parts or organs of chickens brought for slaughter at a poultry processing plant in Harare. Results of the study will furnish management and other poultry farmers with information that will enable them to identify yield losses and sustainable ways of minimizing resultant ...

  16. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juin 2016 ... Farmers have also formed 18 marketing groups (716 men and 1,007 women) to negotiate better prices. For example, farmers obtained up to 75% more than the average price for bulk poultry purchases. Read the story of change: Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya (PDF, 423 KB).

  17. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  18. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  19. Biofilms associated with poultry processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D; Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria were enumerated on non-metallic surfaces and stainless steel test pieces attached to equipment surfaces by swabbing and a mechanical dislodging procedure, respectively, in a South African grade B poultry processing plant. Changes in bacterial numbers were also monitored over time on metal test pieces. The highest bacterial counts were obtained from non-metallic surfaces such as rubber fingered pluckers and plastic defeathering curtains which exceeded the highest counts found on the metal surfaces by at least 1 log CFU cm-2. Gram-negative bacterial counts on all non-metallic surface types were at least 2 log CFU cm-2 lower than corresponding aerobic plate counts. On metal surfaces, the highest microbial numbers were obtained after 14 days exposure, with aerobic plate counts ranging from 3.57 log CFU cm-2 to 5.13 log CFU cm-2, and Gram-negative counts from 0.70 log CFU cm-2 to 3.31 log CFU cm-2. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of bacterial cells on non-metallic and metallic surfaces associated with poultry processing. Rubber 'fingers', plastic curtains, conveyor belt material and stainless steel test surfaces placed on the scald tank overflow and several chutes revealed extensive and often confluent bacterial biofilms. Extracellular polymeric substances, but few bacterial cells were visible on test pieces placed on evisceration equipment, spinchiller blades and the spinchiller outlet.

  20. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  1. Structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Salkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to carry out a marketing research of the state and structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine; to identify the factors that hold back and stimulate the development of the poultry market and potential opportunities for growth. The competitive advantages of producers are determined and the main trends in the poultry meat market are characterized. The balance of supply and demand for meat and meat products in Ukraine has been studied. The Herfindahl-Hirschman index was used to determine the level of competition in the chicken meat market, which showed the disadvantages of competition in the market. The market is monopolistic, which poses a threat to the development of competition. The constraining factors of poultry meat market development are determined. Based on the conducted research, potential opportunities for the development of the industry and the competitiveness of the Ukrainian poultry meat producer in the external and internal market are identified.

  2. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  3. Airway Obstruction Among Latino Poultry Processing Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRABELLI, MARIA C.; CHATTERJEE, ARJUN B.; MORA, DANA C.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; CHEN, HAIYING; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MARÍN, ANTONIO J.; SCHULZ, MARK R.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities. PMID:24965321

  4. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  5. Avanços metodológicos na avaliação de alimentos e de exigências nutricionais para aves e suínos Methodological improvements in feedstuffs evaluation and nutritional requirements for poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio S. Rostagno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção industrial de aves e suínos mostrou enormes avanços nos últimos anos, principalmente devido ao aumento dos conhecimentos na área de genética e de nutrição. Na área de avaliação dos alimentos e das exigências nutricionais de animais monogástricos, as melhoras se dão a passos largos, devido á seriedade com que os profissionais encaram a responsabilidade de fazer pesquisa de qualidade dentro e fora do país. Neste trabalho serão abordadas as metodologias que permitem melhorar a utilização dos alimentos de maneira mais eficiente e econômica. Serão citados alguns cuidados e procedimentos essenciais para executar adequadamente experimentos de desempenho com aves e suínos. Na atualidade, para a realização de experimentos com monogástricos, é necessário: definir claramente os objetivos, utilizar animais com peso inicial uniforme, usar número adequado de repetições e de animais por unidade experimental. Testes de médias devem ser usados para as variáveis qualitativas e quando a variável independente for quantitativa aplicar análise de regressão. O nível de significância utilizado (5, 7, 10% pode variar conforme a importância econômica da característica estudada. A adequada condução dos ensaios, sejam de crescimento ou de digestibilidade, é fundamental para que as ferramentas apresentadas possam ter efetividade, resultando na melhora da produtividade e na redução dos custos e da excreção de nutrientes.Swine and Poultry production showed enormous progress in the last few years, mainly due to the increased knowledge in genetics and nutrition. In the area of feedstuffs evaluation and nutritional requirements the improvement also was big due to the seriousness of the professionals to make high quality research in Brazil and abroad. This paper shows methodologies that can improve feedstuffs utilization more efficiently with lower costs. Procedures are described for adequate execution of growth

  6. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptati...

  7. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this pou...

  8. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  9. Profile of selected bacterial counts and Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in a poultry slaughter establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W O; Williams, W O; Prucha, J C; Johnston, R; Christensen, W

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service determined populations of bacteria on poultry during processing at a slaughter plant in Puerto Rico in November and December 1987. The plant was selected because of its management's willingness to support important changes in equipment and processing procedures. The plant was representative of modern slaughter facilities. Eight-hundred samples were collected over 20 consecutive 8-hour days of operation from 5 sites in the processing plant. Results indicated that slaughter, dressing, and chilling practices significantly decreased the bacterial contamination on poultry carcasses, as determined by counts of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli. Salmonella was not enumerated; rather, it was determined to be present or absent by culturing almost the entire rinse. The prevalence of Salmonella in the study decreased during evisceration, then increased during immersion chilling.

  10. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  11. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  12. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  13. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rеsаnоvić Rаdmilа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity is ability to stop an infection. Immunosupression is a status where the immunity is reduced. Humoral (antibodies and/or cell immunity may be depressed. Immunosupression can be caused by infectious agents, improper feeding balance (deficiencies, lack of biosecurity, management failures, stress or by a combination of these factors. Each of these possible causes must be seriously worked out to prevent the consequences of immunosupression on profitability. Environmental factors and numerous infectious pathogens have been identified as a multi-factorial cause of various degrees of immunosupression. Mainly subclinical character and coinfections make the diagnosis of the primary immunosuppressive agents difficult. On the other hand, early diagnosis and identification of contributing factors are important to develop strategies to fight immunosupression in birds successfully. A combination of biosecurity measures, optimized housing condition and stress reduction together with appropriate vaccination strategies is necessary for the successful control of immunosupression in commercial poultry.

  14. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  15. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  16. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  17. Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient supply, high prices and competition with the human food and biofuel industries means there is a continuous demand for alternative energy sources for poultry. As a result, cassava is becoming an increasingly important ingredient in poultry diets, largely due to its high availability. Efficient use of cassava products has been shown to reduce feed costs of poultry production. The utilisation of cassava is, however, limited by a number of factors, including its high fibre and low energy content and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, primarily hydrocyanic acid (HCN. With correct processing the inclusion level of cassava in poultry diets could be increased. Extensive research has been conducted on cassava products for poultry, but there is still a lack of consistency amongst the measured nutritive values for cassava and its products, hence variation exists in results from poultry studies. This paper reviews the nutrient composition of cassava products and its value as an alternative energy source in poultry diets.

  18. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  19. Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut is a fundamental organ system which makes up two equally important functions, i.e., the digestion and host defence. To elicit the well-functioning and healthy gut, the dynamic balance of gut ecosystem is of importance. A wide range of factors related to diets and infectious disease agents seem to affect this balance, and subsequently affect the health status and production performance of the chicken. With the ban and/or reduction of the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry production, the alternatives to AGP are needed especially to preserve the balance of gut microbiota in chicken. This review provides a summary of the potentials and possible mechanisms of action of some alternatives to AGP (referred as nutraceuticals in improving the gut microbial ecosystem and immune system as well as growth performance of poultry.

  20. Recent advances in role of chromium and its antioxidant combinations in poultry nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is reared in open side houses in most of the tropical countries, which results in huge temperature variation in shed causing stress resulting in increased demand of antioxidant supplementation. Since cooling of poultry houses or environment control is very expensive, thus methods focused on nutritional modifications appears to be the much logical approach. Stress increases mineral and vitamin mobilization from tissues and their excretion. Effect of some minerals and vitamin supplements such as chromium (Cr and ascorbic acid to elevate the negative effects of environmental stress is well documented. Cr functions as an antioxidant and its deficiency are said to disrupt carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Cr has been utilized for weight gain, to improve feed conversion ratio, increase relative organ weight, muscle development, decrease cholesterol, increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and improve nutrient digestion. Therefore, the present review discusses the beneficial aspects of Cr with its effect in different doses and antioxidant combinations to explore and promote its optimum utilization in poultry nutrition and production.

  1. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... double strength skim milk.\\9\\ Seal the sterile containers and promptly refrigerate them at 2 to 4 [deg]C... strength skim milk from USDA-APHIS ``Recommended Sample Collection Methods for Environmental Samples...

  2. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his supervisor...

  3. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  4. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  5. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  6. 9 CFR 93.203 - Ports designated for the importation of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of poultry. 93.203 Section 93.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  7. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  8. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  9. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  10. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  11. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  13. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves Extracts of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum on Poultry Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Nallaiyan, S.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Doraiswamy, H.; Palanisamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Indian poultry industry in general, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, layer industry in particular, is remarkably fast and it is growing on leaps and bounds with respect to poultry egg production. The layer birds in poultry were affected by bacterial pathogens. However, antimicrobial activities of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum were examined using agar diffusion method against E. coli, Bacillus and Klebsiella isolated from poultry litter collected from poultry farm...

  15. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  16. Modelling the feed mix for poultry production, the case of Adama Musa farms, in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Amponsah; Dominic Otoo; A. K. Peprah; S. D. Ampofo

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has a significant importance on national economy. It is a popular industry for the small holders with tremendous contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment creation. Poultry feed cost represents over sixty (60) percent of the total cost of poultry production; consequently, efficient feed formulation practice is required for a sustainable poultry industry. Many Ghanaian poultry farmers, however, employ inefficient methods like rule of thumb, experiences, a...

  17. Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman area: A value chain analysis ... from each community as well as service providers and support institutions in ...

  18. The Microbial Burden Load of Eggshells from Different Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    In this study, the microbial load of egg shell from different poultry system in .... eggshell surface and also decrease bacterial and fungal invasion ... measures of central tendency (mean ± standard .... Salmonella Contamination and Disinfection.

  19. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  20. Listeria Occurrence in Poultry Flocks: Detection and Potential Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rothrock

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria are a major concern within the food industry due to their pathogenic potential to cause infection. Of these, Listeria monocytogenes, possesses a high mortality rate (approximately 20% and is considered one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens. Although the usual reservoirs for Listeria transmission have been extensively studied, little is known about the relationship between Listeria and live poultry production. Sporadic and isolated cases of listeriosis have been attributed to poultry production and Listeria spp. have been isolated from all stages of poultry production and processing. Farm studies suggest that live birds may be an important vector and contributor to contamination of the processing environment and transmission of Listeria to consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the occurrence, incidence, and potential systemic interactions of Listeria spp. with poultry.

  1. Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.H.M.; Havelaar, A.H.; Westra, P.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands in 2003, an outbreak of avian influenza in poultry resulted in extensive culling, especially of layer hens. Concurrently, human campylobacteriosis cases decreased, particularly in the culling area. These observations raise the hypothesis that Campylobacter spp. dissemination from

  2. Assessment of Risks and Uncertainties in Poultry Farming in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , identify the risks and uncertainties encountered by the farmers, determines the level of severity of the risks and uncertainties, and identifies the coping strategies employed by the farmers. Primary data obtained from 99 registered poultry ...

  3. Listeria Occurrence in Poultry Flocks: Detection and Potential Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Davis, Morgan L; Locatelli, Aude; Bodie, Aaron; McIntosh, Tori G; Donaldson, Janet R; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli , and Listeria are a major concern within the food industry due to their pathogenic potential to cause infection. Of these, Listeria monocytogenes , possesses a high mortality rate (approximately 20%) and is considered one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens. Although the usual reservoirs for Listeria transmission have been extensively studied, little is known about the relationship between Listeria and live poultry production. Sporadic and isolated cases of listeriosis have been attributed to poultry production and Listeria spp. have been isolated from all stages of poultry production and processing. Farm studies suggest that live birds may be an important vector and contributor to contamination of the processing environment and transmission of Listeria to consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the occurrence, incidence, and potential systemic interactions of Listeria spp. with poultry.

  4. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  5. RNA-interference gene knockdown in the poultry red mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... transmission of poultry diseases, such as salmonellosis. (Afrim et al., 2011; Moro et al., ... tick lysosomal cathepsin D- like protease and also cathepsin-like proteins ..... potential vector of pathogenic agents. Exp. Appli. Acarol.

  6. Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Authie, E.; Berg, C.; Bøtner, A.; Browman, H.; Capua, I.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Depner, K.; Domingo, M.; Edwards, S.; Fourichon, C.; Koenen, F.; More, S.; Raj, M.A.B.; Sihvonen, L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Thulke, H.H.; Vågsholm, I.; Velarde, A.; Willeberg, P.; Zientara, S.

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators, and their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death, for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry stunned using electrical waterbaths and gas mixtures or slaughtered without stunning. For

  7. A non-replicative adenovirus vaccine platform for poultry diseases ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... During financial crises, poultry become critical to food security due to their ... Diversity in local food production combats obesity in the Caribbean ... region, the combination of increased imports of processed foods and limited ...

  8. 24 hydrocarbon degradation in poultry droppings and cassava peels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels ... shift in the composition of bacterial community to ..... Oil and Gas Journal. pp. ... Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd.

  9. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  11. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  12. Retrospective study on cattle and poultry diseases in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Byaruhanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and poultry enterprises are among the major contributors to food security and socioeconomic empowerment of households in Uganda. However, various diseases constrain their productivity. A two-year retrospective study between April 2012 and March 2014 was conducted using records for cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed at the Central Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL to determine prevalent diseases in Uganda. The laboratory received 836 samples from poultry (36.3% and cattle (63.7%. Of the 836 samples, 47.5% had a definitive diagnosis of disease causation. Most of the cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed were protozoan diseases (39.3% followed by bacterial (21.4%, viral (17.1%, helminthiasis (11.1%, nutritional diseases (4% and others (7.1%. For poultry, viral diseases (29.5% and protozoan diseases (27.1% especially newcastle disease (44.3% and coccidiosis (100% respectively, were the most diagnosed. While for cattle, hemo-protozoan parasites (52.1% were the most prevalent, of which 92.9% were east coast fever infection. Bacterial infection (20.5% in cattle were the second most diagnosed diseases and mastitis was the most diagnosed (46.2%. In summary, coccidioisis, collibacillosis, newcastle disease, gumboro disease, and avian helminthiasis were the most prevalent poultry diseases while in cattle, east coast fever, helminthiasis, mastitis, brucellosis and rabies were the most frequently diagnosed diseases. This study has identified the major diseases that hinder poultry and cattle production in Uganda. The data generated by CDL could be used for surveillance, monitoring and designing strategic interventions for control of poultry and cattle diseases in Uganda. Keywords: Coccidiosis, Collibacillosis, East coast fever, Mastitis, Newcastle disease, Rabies

  13. Predicting the distribution of intensive poultry farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; D’Aietti, Laura; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Intensification of animal production can be an important factor in the emergence of infectious diseases because changes in production structure influence disease transmission patterns. In 2004 and 2005, Thailand was subject to two highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic waves and large surveys were conducted of the poultry sector, providing detailed spatial data on various poultry types. This study analysed these data with the aim of establishing the distributions of extensive and intensiv...

  14. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on myc...

  15. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  16. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.

  17. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Performance of West African Dwarf goats fed maize offal diets supplemented with dry poultry excreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Anigbogu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of poultry excreta in replacement of maize offal was evaluated in 16 growing West African Dwarf (WAD goats (eight females and eight males about eight months of age with an average liveweight of 6.5 kg. The goats were allotted to four different diets containing 0% (T1, control treatment, 10% (T2, 20% (T3 and 30% (T4 poultry excreta in maize offal based diets. Each animal was fed its assigned diet ad libitum for 120 days. Feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and fat efficiency ratio were generally higher (p 0.05. The leg, loin, rank, lean, shoulder, brisket cuts, fat and bone generally improved (p 0.05 in all treatments, except in T3 where it was slightly higher. It is concluded that WAD goats could be sustained on poultry excreta as a component of formulated diets for increased performances in weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield, and increased economic benefits to farmers.

  19. Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, U; Kim, W H; Oh, S T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. The classes of alternatives described include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, phytogenics, antimicrobial peptides, hyperimmune egg antibodies, bacteriophages, clay, and metals. A brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their uses are also presented. Though the beneficial effects of many of the alternatives developed have been well demonstrated, the general consensus is that these products lack consistency and the results vary greatly from farm to farm. Furthermore, their mode of action needs to be better defined. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity, while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry.

  20. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndum, S; Muschler, R; Nigussie, A; Magid, J; de Neergaard, A

    2017-07-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect of compost application on nitrogen mineralization. The results showed that delayed addition of poultry manure reduced total nitrogen loss by 33% and increased mineral nitrogen content by >200% compared with early addition. Similarly, less frequent turning reduced total N loss by 12% compared with frequent turning. Stratified placement of compost did not enhance N mineralization compared to a homogeneous mixing. Our results suggested that simple modifications of the composting process (i.e. delayed addition and/or turning frequency) could significantly reduce N losses and improve the plant-nutritional value of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  2. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  3. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  4. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  5. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent studies of gene expression and transcriptome responses to exposure, and mitigation strategies to reduce toxicity are discussed. Exposure to AFB1 primarily occurs by consumption of contaminated corn, grain or other feed components. Low levels of residual AFB1 in poultry feeds can cause reduction in growth, feed conversion, egg production, and compromised immune functions, resulting in significant economic costs to producers. Thus, AFB1 acts as a “force multiplier” synergizing the adverse effects of microbial pathogens and other agents, and factors detrimental to poultry health. Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1 due, in large part, to a combination of efficient hepatic bioactivation by cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37, and deficient hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST-mediated detoxification. Because of their sensitivity, turkeys are a good model to investigate chemopreventive treatments and feed additives for their ability to reduce AFB1 toxicity. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq of turkey poults (liver and spleen has identified AFB1-induced gene expression changes in pathways of apoptosis, carcinogenesis, lipid regulation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Current research focuses on further identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying AFB1 toxicity with the goal of reducing aflatoxicosis and improving poultry health.

  6. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  7. Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which, in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the aetiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that lead to over-proliferation of C. perfringens and the subsequent progression to disease are poorly understood. Any factor that causes stress in broiler chicks could suppress the immune system and disturb the balance of the intestinal ecosystem, in such a way that the risk of a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak increases. Poultry management could significantly affect the pathogenesis of NE. In particular, feed restriction and coccidiosis vaccination can protect against NE, while extreme house temperature, feed mycotoxins and high stocking density predispose to NE. It becomes really important to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to clarify the interactions between husbandry, nutritional and infectious factors and the outbreak of necrotic enteritis. This is necessary and extremely important in order to develop managerial strategies at the farm level to control the incidence and severity of the disease in the post-antibiotic era.

  8. 9 CFR 71.17 - Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or other animals. 71.17 Section 71.17 Animals and... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.17 Interstate movement...

  9. [Campylobacter jejuni in poultry processed in slaughterhouses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mícková, V

    1987-09-01

    The frequency of occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni germs in dressed poultry was studied for a year. The samples--smears from the body cavities of chickens--were collected during the technological dressing of the chickens; 101 strains of Campylobacter jejuni (i. e. 28.69%) were isolated from the 352 samples analyzed. The occurrence of the germs exhibited a considerable seasonal variance with peak rates in spring and summer. The use of a suitable culture medium, the technique of cultivation and the properties of the isolated strains were studied at the same time. The culture medium (Agar no. 3 IMUNA enriched with supplement C, horse blood and ingredients increasing the aerotolerance of the germs--sodium pyruvate and iron sulphate) used during the investigation was found to be suitable. The technique of cultivation by means of an anaerostat manufactured by the Development Station in Brno, atmosphere regulation (5% CO2) and with a pre-set cultivation temperature (43 degrees C) was found to be suitable for the screening of the Campylobacter jejuni germs.

  10. Evaluation of biogas of waste from poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Paes, Juliana; Ferreira Matos, Camila; Souza Pereira, Diego José de; Bruggianesi, Giancarlo; Silva Misquita, Ícaro da

    2015-01-01

    Most of the farms, the waste of agricultural production do not receive adequate treatment for the stabilization of organic matter and reduce its pollution potential. The anaerobic digestion is an alternative for the treatment of waste, as well as allowing the reduction of pollution potential and the health risks of waste to a minimum, promotes the generation of biogas used as a heat source for various uses on the farm. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biogas production efficiency from the chicken waste. For the supply of biodigesters, adopted the total solids content of 8% and discontinuous supply system. The biogas potential was determined on the basis of their daily production and explosive rate. It was observed that the biogas production started 24 hours after the start of supplying the digesters. The maximum biogas production was approximately 0.87 L after the ninth and the 54th day starting the digestion process. The average daily production of biogas generated from bird manure was 0.022 L, while the cumulative 0.91 L after 72 days of digestion. The explosive rate of biogas generated by poultry origin residues peaked at 51% after 32 days of the start of the digestion process. In this analysis, we found the presence of methane in the biogas produced in all substrates tested after 24 h of digestion, because it’s burning in the presence of an ignition source (Fire). (full text)

  11. Effects of labor motivation in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Broiler production is a significant economic activity in Brazil, and employs a large number of stockpeople in the integration process. Considering that the stockperson's perception may lead to better performance of his/her tasks and flock handling, this study aimed at verifying possible interactions between poultry productivity and stockperson's perception, emotions, and motivation. The study methodology considered two aspects: qualitative analysis, using Ergonomic Work Analysis, with observational method, and by applying a questionnaire and interview, and classification of the answers into positive relationship and "affection" to the job or negative relationship and "disaffection" to the job; and quantitative analysis, applying the Test of Hypothesis for Comparison of Means both for total flock mortality and Weight Equivalent Index data. Qualitative results showed that the stockpeople were aware that the housing environment causes specific health symptoms, as well as they presented different responses as to flock handling. Quantitative data showed a correlation between reduction of total flock mortality and positive relationship towards the broilers and "affection" to the job, whereas no statistical evidence that the same individuals influenced broiler Weight Equivalent Index was detected.

  12. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  13. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.

  14. Nutritional factors affecting poultry bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    Outlined are two main current research concerns relating to skeletal disorders in poultry: (a) osteoporosis in egg-laying hens; (b) leg problems caused by rapid bone growth in broiler chickens. Surveys indicate that 30% of caged laying hens suffer at least one lifetime fracture (a severe welfare issue). Modern hybrids produce one egg per d for 50 weeks. For this period 'normal' bone turnover ceases; only medullary bone (MB) is formed, a woven bone type of limited structural value. MB is resorbed for eggshell formation alongside structural bone, leading to increased fracture risk. Avian osteoporosis is reduced by activity and genetic selection but nutrition is also important. Fluoride and vitamin K are beneficial but the timing of nutritional intervention is important. Ca, inorganic P and vitamin D must be adequate and the form of Ca is critical. Limestone fed as particulates benefits skeletal and eggshell quality. In hens fed particulate limestone compared with flour-fed hens the tibiotarsus breaking strength and radiographic density are increased at 56 weeks of age (Pbroiler (meat) chickens selection for rapid growth from approximately 50 g to 3 kg in 42 d has inadvertently produced skeletal disorders such as tibial dyschondroplasia, rickets and associated valgus-varus deformities leading to lameness. The beneficial skeletal effects during growth of increased dietary n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA (utilising salmon oil) have been demonstrated. Experiments simulating daylight UVB levels have produced beneficial skeletal effects in Ca- and vitamin D-deficient chicks.

  15. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMuir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with confined rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory and offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGE, have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level and multi-trait selection have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Also, multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by l greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being . Because social effects are improved with such programs, it might be possible to increase stocking density, increase light levels, and use larger groups in floor pens. However, such changes raise ethical concerns that may constrain making these choices.

  16. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  17. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Frederic J

    2010-03-01

    Chickens, turkeys, and other poultry in a production environment can be exposed to stressors and infectious diseases that impair innate and acquired immunity, erode general health and welfare, and diminish genetic and nutritional potential for efficient production. Innate immunity can be affected by stressful physiologic events related to hatching and to environmental factors during the first week of life. Exposure to environmental ammonia, foodborne mycotoxins, and suboptimal nutrition can diminish innate immunity. Infectious bursal disease (IBD), chicken infectious anemia (CIA), and Marek's disease (MD) are major infectious diseases that increase susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases and interfere with acquired vaccinal immunity. A shared feature is lymphocytolytic infection capable of suppressing both humoral and cell-mediated immune functions. Enteric viral infections can be accompanied by atrophic and depleted lymphoid organs, but the immunosuppressive features are modestly characterized. Some reoviruses cause atrophy of lymphoid organs and replicate in blood monocytes. Enteric parvoviruses of chickens and turkeys merit further study for immunosuppression. Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys has immunosuppressive features similar to IBD. Other virulent fowl adenoviruses have immunosuppressive capabilities. Newcastle disease can damage lymphoid tissues and macrophages. Avian pneumovirus infections impair the mucociliary functions of the upper respiratory tract and augment deeper bacterial infections. Recognition of immunosuppression involves detection of specific diseases using diagnostic tests such as serology, etiologic agent detection, and pathology. Broader measurements of immunosuppression by combined noninfectious and infectious causes have not found general application. Microarray technology to detect genetic expression of immunologic mediators and receptors offers potential advances but is currently at the developmental state. Control

  18. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  19. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baron

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1 characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2 microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3 motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  20. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  1. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  2. Is syndromic data from rural poultry farmers a viable poultry disease reporting tool and means of identifying likely farmer responses to poultry disease incursion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2018-05-01

    Syndromic surveillance is a well described tool used in developed countries for alerting authorities to livestock disease incursions. However, little work has been done to evaluate whether this could be a viable tool in countries where disease reporting infrastructure and resources is poor. Consequently, a syndrome-based questionnaire study in Eastern Zambia was designed to gather data on previous encounters farmers had with poultry diseases, as well as control measures they use to mitigate them. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Farmers reported an overall annual disease incidence in rural poultry for eastern Zambia of 31% (90% CI 29-32%). Occurrence of poultry disease in the last 12 months was associated with use of middlemen to purchase poultry products (p = 0.05, OR = 7.87), poultry products sold or given away from the farm (p = 0.01, OR = 1.92), farmers experiencing a period with more trade of poultry and its products (p = 0.04, OR = 1.70), presence of wild birds near the farm or village (p = 0.00, OR = 2.47) and poultry diseases being reported from neighbouring farms or villages (p = 0.00, OR = 3.12). The study also tentatively identified three poultry diseases (Newcastle Disease, Gumboro Disease and Fowl Pox) from the thirty-four disease syndromes provided by farmers. Farmers reported an incidence of 27% for Newcastle Disease in 2014. When compared with the state veterinary services data which reported Newcastle Disease incidence at 9% in 2014, it seems syndromic data obtained from farmers may be more sensitive in identifying disease incursion. Thirty-six remedies and strategies farmers use to treat and control these diseases were revealed. The main control strategy for identified diseases was vaccination and the main treatment was unspecified herbs, which warrants further investigation and presents an opportunity for further research in ethno-veterinary medicine. More still

  3. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muje Gjonbalaj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.

  4. The condition of the poultry industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozioł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Poland is characterized by high dynamics of development and in this regard was placed at the forefront of European Union countries. The main reason for the acceleration and modernization of the industry was the Polish accession to the European Union. Sanitary and veterinary requirements, and rules on the placing of poultry products in the trade, which our country was obliged to fulfill, led to the sector producing products with a high level of security. Rapidly growing domestic demand and foreign markets for Polish products affectes the growth of poultry production. Consumers are attracted primarily by the high quality products and reasonable price, as well as the relatively low cost of production. The industry has become an example of what can grow even in a crisis. As a result of changes occurring in the Polish market, meat and aspecially poultry meat is becoming increasingly important, becoming an essential part of the economy. Forecasts for the poultry industry in 2014 are positive, sae to an anticipated decline in grain prices and a limited supply of pork and beef. This will increase the global and the European Union demand for white meat, due to its nutritional properties and competitive prices.

  5. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  6. 75 FR 80037 - Poultry Programs; Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-PY-10-0098] Poultry... David Bowden, Jr., Chief, Standards, Promotion, & Technology Branch; Poultry Programs, AMS, U.S.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sara Lutton, Standards, Promotion, & Technology Branch; Poultry...

  7. Serotypes and typability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Nielsen, Niels Ladefoged

    1999-01-01

    to study the serotype distribution of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from different food products of poultry origin sampled from retail outlets in Denmark. A total of 156 isolates were serotyped, 85% of these were C. jejuni and 15% were C. coli. The most common C. jejuni serotypes were O:2 (30%), O:1...... nontypable. This rate of nontypable isolates is significantly higher than experienced for isolates from other sources than food products, i.e faecal samples from animals and humans. Subculturing and re-typing of the nontypable isolates improved the typability. After two, five and 10 subcultures 16, six...

  8. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain - From culture to genes and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Bhunia, Arun; Engvall, Eva Olsson

    2015-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large...... numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors...

  9. Listeria monocytogenes in poultry and poultry products: Epidemiological investigations in seven Danish abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojeniyi, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 11/236 (4 . 7%) caecal samples from parent flocks, providing broilers to the abattoirs investigated. Caecal samples from 2078 broilers representing 90 randomly selected broiler flocks were negative for L. monocytogenes. A total of 3080 samples from seven...... abattoirs including poultry processing line samples, and final products were also examined for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 0 . 3% to 18 . 7% of the samples collected in the different abattoirs. Epidemiological typing of 247 L. monocytogenes isolates, including serotyping, phage...... isolates of L. monocytogenes since only 120/247 (48 . 6%) isolates were typable by phage typing and 230/247 (93 . 1%) L. monocytogenes belonged to serotype 01 while 6/247 (2 . 4%) belonged to 04. The discovery of a few dominating clones in each abattoir might indicate an endemic occurrence of L...

  10. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    , such as fishmeal. With estimated 1.5 to 3 million species, the class of insects harbours the largest species variety in the world including species providing a high protein and sulphur amino acids content, which can be successfully exploited as feed for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the present state...... of knowledge concerning the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of mass production of insects for the feed industry. There is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as a source of nutrients (protein) and active substances (polyunsaturated fatty acids, antimicrobial...... peptides) for poultry. It can be concluded, based on many experimental results, that meals from insects being members of the orders Diptera (black soldier fly, housefly), Coleoptera (mealworms) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locust, crickets and katylids), may be successfully used as feed material...

  11. FARM SUCCESSION PLANS AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasina O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of farmers in Nigeria and especially in capitalized sectors of agriculture requires attention to enhance sustainability and food security. The study thus examined the farm succession plans of 60 long established poultry farmers purposively selected from the Poultry Association of Nigeria in Ogun State Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and the Chi square analysis were used to present the findings of the study. Mean age of respondents was 61years. Their children were mostly over 18years (65%. Poultry farms were solely owned (76.7% with mean age of 17.9 years. Succession rate i.e. identification of a successor was eighty percent and were mostly respondents children (63.3%. This choice was based on their level of involvement in the business (63.6%. Majority (60% were not willing to fully retire from farming until death. Chi square analysis revealed age of farmer was significantly related to succession rate.

  12. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B P; Leahy, J J; Henihan, A M; O'Dwyer, T F; Sutton, D; Leahy, M J

    2002-05-01

    The land disposal of waste from the poultry industry and subsequent environmental implications has stimulated interest into cleaner and more useful disposal options. The review presented here details advances in the three main alternative disposal routes for poultry litter, specifically in the last decade. Results of experimental investigations into the optimisation of composting, anaerobic digestion and direct combustion are summarised. These technologies open up increased opportunities to market the energy and nutrients in poultry litter to agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Common problems experienced by the current technologies are the existence and fate of nitrogen as ammonia, pH and temperature levels, moisture content and the economics of alternative disposal methods. Further advancement of these technologies is currently receiving increased interest, both academically and commercially. However, significant financial incentives are required to attract the agricultural industry.

  13. Research on Consumer Behaviour in Bucharest Poultry Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pirvutoiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study consumer behaviour for poultry meat. In this purpose 100 individuals participated to a questionnaire based survey  in a supermarket of  Bucharest. Specific methods of marketing research in such a case assured the statistical processing of the respondents’ answers. The results pointed out an increased consumption of poultry meat,  a preference for fresh chicken meat which is daily bought  or 2-3 times a week in a varied amount ranging between 1-1.5 kg depending on consumer’s income for covering the family need. The main factors influencing consumer buying decision are the sensorial meat characteristics, meat quality, origin, price, prepaking grade. As a conclusion producers have to pay more attention to these aspects in their future strategy for producing and commercialising poultry meat.

  14. Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50 and gut samples (n=100 of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18% and forty from the gut (40%. The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley.

  15. Tetracycline Resistance in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm: Influence of Poultry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ball, W. P.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using the electromagnetic induction (EMI) method of geophysical characterization, we measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) at a CAFO site in order to assess the movement of pollutants associated with animal waste. The map of ECa and other available data suggest that (1) soil surrounding a poultry litter storage shed is contaminated by poultry waste, (2) a contamination plume in the subsurface emanates from that shed, and (3) the development of that plume is due to groundwater flow. We focused on understanding the spread of tetracycline resistance (Tc\\tiny R), because tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore probably used at our field site. Microbiological experiments show the presence of Tc\\tiny R bacteria in the subsurface and indicate higher concentrations in the top soil than in the aquifer. Environmental DNA was extracted to identify CAFO- associated Tc\\tiny R genes and to explore a link between the presence of Tc\\tiny R and CAFO practices. A "shot-gun" cloning approach is under development to target the most prevalent Tc\\tiny R gene. This gene will be monitored in future experiments, in which we will study the transmission of Tc\\tiny R to naive E.~coli under selective pressure of Tc. Experimental results will be used to develop a mathematical/numerical model in order to describe the transmission process and to subsequently make estimates regarding the large-scale spread of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  17. Irradiation of U.S. poultry: benefits, costs, and export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.; Roberts, T.; Witucki, L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents information on the benefits, costs, and export potential of the irradiation of United States (U.S.) poultry. Approval of poultry irradiation to combat foodborne disease; Cost of foodborne illnesses

  18. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  19. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  20. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria. ... Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.

    a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since......This study analyses consumers' willingness to try innovative products and investigates to what extent food industry innovations are aligned to consumers' demand. We realized a quantitative study with consumers to measure their willingness to innovate and we carried out a case study within...

  2. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  3. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  5. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable to select antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been arising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves a tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the related increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy and, concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and also avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for food animal production, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in feed poultry to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additive must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantities to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolizable and Quebracho (condennsed tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.

  6. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Dosman, James A; Juorio, Victor; Feddes, John JR; Willson, Philip; Classen, Henry; Reynolds, Stephen J; Guenter, Wilhelm; Hurst, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba during the winters of 1997 to 1999. POPULATION: Three hundred three poultry workers, 241 grain farmers and 206 nonfarming control subjects were studied. Poultry workers were further classified according to the ...

  7. Financial analysis of poultry commodity chains in Hanoi Suburb, North of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Dang, Thang; Vu Dinh, Ton; Dogot, Thomas; Lebailly, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poultry production plays an important role in the structure of familial incomes in Vietnam but this activity is currently met with difficulties caused by the great influence of inputs/outputs on the markets and the risks of epidemic diseases. This research was conducted for interviews and records according to book keeping among 280 poultry smallholders; 100 intermediary agents of poultry meat supply chains at the various scales of poultry supply chains and the diversification o...

  8. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  9. The use of poultry dejections for the reduction of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Ara, Alice; Sangiorgi Sergio; La Peruta, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The use of livestock products such as poultry dejections, contained in the manure of poultry farming in substitution of chemical formulations, generates economic benefits but above all of environmental impact. Subject of this paper is the use of poultry manure in the cycle of tanning hides and in the production of fertilizers. [it

  10. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.199 Section 381.199 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  11. Use of drugs and antibiotics in poultry production in Ghana | Turkson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the extent of drug and antibiotic use in small and large commercial poultry producers in Ghana, and the extent of the knowledge, perceptions and practice of drug withdrawal period in poultry production. In all, 483 poultry farmers in Greater Accra, Ashanti and Central regions were ...

  12. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  13. 76 FR 22667 - Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...] Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry Establishments That... production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products with respect to Salmonella and other pathogens... This document provides small and very small meat and poultry establishments \\1\\ that manufacture RTE...

  14. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  15. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.193 - Poultry carcasses, etc., not intended for human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry carcasses, etc., not intended..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Transportation...

  17. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  18. 9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry or other articles subject to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. Dry-extrusion of Asian Carp to supplement natural methionine for organic poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry in the United States, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methion...

  20. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LPS-13-0021] Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved Information Collection and To Merge the Collections of Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain... merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market News Division, creating the...

  1. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of committee meeting... Committee Act, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a public meeting on Wednesday, March 21, 2012, to discuss the proposed rule on the Modernization of Poultry...

  2. 9 CFR 381.74 - Poultry suspected of having biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry suspected of having biological... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem...

  3. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling...

  4. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being... label on meat and poultry packages. With this input, the Agency will consider whether or not the current...

  5. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a public meeting on September 29-30, 2010, to review and... disks or CD-ROMs: Send to National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th...

  6. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  7. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure...

  8. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2012-0030] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection... Agriculture National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture intends to reestablish the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. The purpose...

  9. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading, transporting...

  10. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. 201.100 Section 201.100 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND...) Right to discuss the terms of poultry growing arrangement offer. As a live poultry dealer...

  11. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Wolfs, P.; Faraji, F.; Roy, L.; Komdeur, J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  12. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  13. Physiological and behavioral responses of poultry exposed to gas-filled high expansion foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeegan, D.E.F.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Boulcott, P.; Sparrey, J.M.; Wathes, C.M.; Demmers, T.G.M.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Disease control measures require poultry to be killed on farms to minimize the risk of disease being transmitted to other poultry and, in some cases, to protect public health. We assessed the welfare implications for poultry of the use of high-expansion gas-filled foam as a potentially humane,

  14. Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional p...

  15. Foodborne Pathogen Ecology Throughout the Pastured Poultry Farm-to-Fork Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increased demand for non-conventional raised poultry in the US, with these types of “alternative” poultry products accounting for upwards a 20% of all poultry products sold in the US. While this consumer-driven shift has resulted in this increase of alternative production, there i...

  16. Analytical Values for Mushroom Compost, Poultry Deep Litter and Poultry Slurry Samples over a 5 Year Period 1978-82

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Staunton, L.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on the analysis of mushroom compost, poultry deep litter and poultry slurry samples over the period 1978-82. There was no difference in the dry matter (DM) content of compost samples between years either at time of filling or spawning, with mean values of 32 and 29%, respectively. The DM values were highest in the April-September period. Nitrogen (N) values were not different on an annual or quarterly basis, with means of 2.21 and 1.99%, on a DM basis, at spawning and filli...

  17. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws and diseases of chickens at slaughter: A pilot study in Kaduna state. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  18. Prevalent Diseases Identified in Semi-Industrial Poultry Farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2003-2007 with the aim of identifying prevalent diseases in modern poultry farming in Mali. It covered 22 modern layer farms located in the suburban areas of Bamako District and of Sikasso and Segou towns. Analyses focused on a total of 536 samples, 260 sera, 254 eggs, 149 organ samples, ...

  19. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  20. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa: An Underutilized Phytogenic Additive in Poultry Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Joseph Olarotimi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper is to explore the available information from research findings on the use of Turmeric (Curcuma longa as a reliable phytogenic antibiotic for poultry production in the tropics especially in Nigeria and other countries. A wide range of phytogenic additives has found a growing interest in fortification of poultry diets. Supplementation of natural alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in order to maintain both birds’ performance and health in the tropics will be a welcome development. Turmeric has reportedly been widely supplemented in poultry diets as natural alternative antibiotics in several studies with outstanding performances. The nutritional, medicinal, haematological and phyto-toxicological effects of turmeric were reviewed in this paper. Hence, turmeric supplementation at recommended inclusion rate in poultry feeds without posing any deleterious effects to the birds’ performances as well as the consumers of the products, and ultimately, leading to better profitability on the part of the farmers, will be a nutritional breakthrough for the farmers in the tropics.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni survival in a poultry processing plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero, Beatriz; Jaime, Isabel; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko; Rovira, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of poultry, especially chicken's meat is considered the most common route for human infection. The aim of this study was to determine if Campylobacter spp. might persist in the poultry plant environment before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures and the distribution and their genetic relatedness. During one month from a poultry plant were analyzed a total of 494 samples -defeathering machine, evisceration machine, floor, sink, conveyor belt, shackles and broiler meat- in order to isolate C. jejuni and C. coli. Results showed that C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence was 94.5% and 5.5% respectively. Different typing techniques as PFGE, MLST established seven C. jejuni genotypes. Whole genome MLST strongly suggest that highly clonal populations of C. jejuni can survive in adverse environmental conditions, even after cleaning and disinfection, and persist for longer periods than previous thought (at least 21 days) in the poultry plant environment. Even so, it might act as a source of contamination independently of the contamination level of the flock entering the slaughter line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the determination of technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. There is a considerable amount of literature in the field of measurement of efficiency; however, the existing knowledge with respect to technical efficiency and ...

  3. RESEARCH ON QUALITY OF POULTRY MEAT RELATED TO GROWTH SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Zeicu E.; Boltea F.; Vatca Gh.; Vekony E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of extensive and intensive growth systems on some physically-chemically characteristics of poultry meat. Humidity, protein and fat contents are higher in case of meat coming from broilers growth in intensive system, and the alteration rate also. High content of minerals was determined in the meat coming from broilers growth in extensive system

  4. Influence of poultry litter and double cropping on soybean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous cultivation of mono-cropping systems coupled with inorganic fertilizer consumption has led to a decline in soil fertility, negatively influencing crop yields. Poultry litter application and double cropping are two management practices that could be used with conservation tillage to increa...

  5. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  6. Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. M.B. Adewole

    20-10-10) applied at 0.4 t ha-1 and zero manure/inorganic fertilizer application served as ... poultry composts were air-dried, ground and analyzed for their chemical ..... research. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporation, New York, 680 p.

  7. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  8. Assessing Commercial and Alternative Poultry Processing Methods using Microbiome Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing poultry processing methods/strategies has historically used culture-based methods to assess bacterial changes or reductions, both in terms of general microbial communities (e.g. total aerobic bacteria) or zoonotic pathogens of interest (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter). The advent of next ...

  9. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition. Auteur(s) : Ronald R. ... mechanisms. Such studies will enhance our understanding of the role of dietary enzymes in animal nutrition. ... Six équipes de chercheurs de classe mondiale étudieront comment surmonter la résistance au traitement des cancers les plus mortels.

  10. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  11. Simple Processing Method for Recycling Poultry Waste into Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry wastes (PW) namely broiler litter (BL), caged-‐layer droppings (CLD) and layer litter (LL) were evaluated for nutrient composition and microbial loads in order to select the most suitable for use as a feedstuff. Broiler litter had the highest amount of crude protein (16.8%) and a phosphorus content of 0.49%. There were ...

  12. Seroprevalence of Marek's Disease Virus antibody in some poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports a survey of Marek's disease virus (MDV) antibody done in 21 selected poultry flocks in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. A total of 315 serum samples were examined using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Marek's disease virus antibody was present in ...

  13. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  14. Prediction of metabolisable energy of poultry feeds by estimating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Using only EDOM as predictor generated the equation: ME (MJ/kg DM) = -0.41. + 0.1769 x EDOM .... feed manufacturers and end users. The amount of .... the energy content of feed grains for poultry: a review. Aust. J. Agric.

  15. Mycoflora and naturally occurring mycotoxins in poultry feeds in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcero, A; Magnoli, C; Luna, M; Ancasi, G; Reynoso, M M; Chiacchiera, S; Miazzo, R; Palacio, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the mycoflora and mycotoxins natural incidence in poultry feeds from 2 factories in Río Cuarto, Córdoba. One hundred and thirty samples were taken from May/1996 to May/1997. The most dominant species isolated of poultry feed samples belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp 85% and Fusarium spp 70%. From Aspergillus genus eleven species were identified and A. flavus was the most frequent. Nine species were identified from the Fusarium genus and the predominant was F. moniliforme. Penicillium ranked third in the number of isolated cases. From this genus twelve species were collected of which P. brevicompactum (15%), P. restrictum (14%) and P. purpurogenum (12%) were the most common. The most significant mycotoxin from poultry feeds was aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) found in 48% of the samples, with levels ranging from 10 to 123 ng/g. For zearalenone (ZEA) the levels were 327 to 5, 850 ng/g and DON was not detected from the samples. Due to the fact that in Argentina there is little information about this topic, these data on poultry feeds in our region would be of worldwide interest.

  16. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  17. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  18. Analysis of hyperspectral fluorescence images for poultry skin tumor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong G.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Kim, Intaek; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-02-01

    We present a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system with a fuzzy inference scheme for detecting skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Hyperspectral images reveal spatial and spectral information useful for finding pathological lesions or contaminants on agricultural products. Skin tumors are not obvious because the visual signature appears as a shape distortion rather than a discoloration. Fluorescence imaging allows the visualization of poultry skin tumors more easily than reflectance. The hyperspectral image samples obtained for this poultry tumor inspection contain 65 spectral bands of fluorescence in the visible region of the spectrum at wavelengths ranging from 425 to 711 nm. The large amount of hyperspectral image data is compressed by use of a discrete wavelet transform in the spatial domain. Principal-component analysis provides an effective compressed representation of the spectral signal of each pixel in the spectral domain. A small number of significant features are extracted from two major spectral peaks of relative fluorescence intensity that have been identified as meaningful spectral bands for detecting tumors. A fuzzy inference scheme that uses a small number of fuzzy rules and Gaussian membership functions successfully detects skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Spatial-filtering techniques are used to significantly reduce false positives.

  19. Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting pattern on growth and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays l.) in the northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. M.S. Bature, D.B. Ishaya, M.A Mahadi, A.I Sharifai, A.A Muhammed, A.H Hassan, H.J Jibril, L Goma, G.M Munir ...

  20. Capability of Poultry Farmers Association for Extension Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr funmi owolade

    information on poultry management techniques and marketing during in-house ... optimum human and material resources for extension services delivery to its .... vii. investigate the constraints to extension services programme in Oyo state. ..... developing countries in Agricultural Extension in Nigeria S.F. Afolayan (ed) Ilorin.

  1. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that

  2. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  3. Profitability of Backyard Poultry Farming in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    results further showed that variable costs were the most important costs accounting for 88.41% of the total cost and ... and farmers in the business were faced with the problem of disease outbreak. .... backyard poultry farming is low compared to their ... Female. Single. Married. Islam. Christianity. Primary. Secondary. Tertiary.

  4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study involving 300 cloaca swabs from apparently healthy birds from 8 small-medium scale poultry farms in Ibadan Oyo State was carried out. A total of 201 (67%) Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the birds and they were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test by agar gel diffusion method.

  5. assessing the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Information regarding the dynamics of flock size, number of eggs laid daily, source of feed and management practices were orally obtained from the poultry keepers. Faecal Collection and Analyses. For each of the birds, faecal samples were collected per cloaca where possible or with a spatula for freshly voided faeces.

  6. Hydrocarbon Degradation In Poultry Droppings And Cassava Peels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels (CP) for nutrient-enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (THC) in a well drained Typic Paleustults using the THC levels and degradation duration as remediation indices. The performance of the organic ...

  7. Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... with 100% adoption however, were provision of adequate ventilation, removal of dead birds, offering of good quality feed and water, vaccination and provision of ...

  8. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  9. Management of poultry waste and its implications on urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important technique for soil management in most urban farms has been the use of poultry waste due to its perceived benefits.. In spite of these benefits, the management has been associated with pest and disease attacks on crops, environmental pollution and threats to public health .This situation has raised concern ...

  10. Patterns of contact within the New Zealand poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G; Gerber, N; French, N P

    2010-07-01

    Members of the Poultry Industry Association and the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (n=420) were sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the type and frequency of on- and off-enterprise movements relating to feed, live birds and hatching eggs, table eggs and poultry product, and manure and waste litter. Social network analyses were used to describe patterns of contact among poultry enterprises and their associates for these four movement types. The response rate to the survey was 58% (244 out of 420). Network structures for enterprise-to-enterprise movements of feed, live birds and hatching eggs, and table egg and poultry product were characterised by 'hub and spoke' type structures with small-world characteristics. Small worlds were created by network hubs (e.g. feed suppliers and hatcheries) providing goods and services to larger numbers of client farms. In addition to hubs acting as the predominant source of material moving onto farms we identified enterprises acting as bridges between identified small worlds. The presence of these bridges is a concern, since their presence has the potential to facilitate the spread of hazards (e.g. feed contaminants, infectious agents carried within feed) more readily throughout the population. An ability to predict enterprises with these network characteristics on the basis of factors such as shed capacity, enterprise type, geographic location would be useful for developing risk-based approaches to disease prevention, surveillance, detection, response and control activities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological analysis of composts produced on South Carolina poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M W; Liang, P; Jiang, X; Doyle, M P; Erickson, M C

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the methods used in compost operations of small and medium-sized poultry farms resulted in the production of an amendment free of foodborne pathogens. Nine compost heaps on five South Carolina poultry farms were surveyed at different stages of the composting process. Compost samples were analysed for coliforms and enriched for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The waste materials and composting practices differed among the surveyed farms. On two farms, new materials were added to heaps that had previously completed the active composting phase. Five compost heaps did not reach an internal temperature of 55 degrees C, and c. 62% of all internal samples in the first composting phase contained moisture contents poultry wastes. This research provides information regarding the effectiveness of the composting practices and microbiological quality of poultry compost produced by small- and medium-sized farms. Ensuring the safety of compost that may be applied to soils should be an integral part of preharvest food safety programme.

  12. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential greenhouse gas emission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal waste on potential greenhouse gas emission and inherent agronomic potentials. Sugar solution at 100g/l salt solution at 350g/l and oven-drying were the various faecal treatments examined using a completely randomized design.

  13. Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee = Literature study mutilations poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiks-van Niekerk, T.G.C.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Veldkamp, T.; Emous, van R.A.; Middelkoop, van J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this report the state of the art with regards to mutilations in poultry in the year 2005 is given. A restriction has been made for only those mutilations that are of importance for the Netherlands. These are beak treatments, toe clipping, despurring and dubbing. Also only the most common species

  14. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60–70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. - Highlights: • Column experiments examined fate of trace elements derived from poultry litter leachate in soils from Delaware, USA. • Influent solutions included poultry litter leachate and simulated solution without DOC. • Results showed increased mobility of litter-derived As, Cu, Zn and P in solution in the presence of DOC. • Mass balance showed all of Cu mass remained in solution but most (60–70%) of the Zn, As and P mass was associated with soil. • Study results show that DOC

  15. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  17. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  18. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  19. [Evaluation of the quality of poultry meat and its processing for vacuum packaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, F; Russel, S; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B; Cholewińska, E

    1997-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the quality of poultry meat, roasted and smoked chicken and poultry pie packing under low and high vacuum. All investigated products were stored at +4 degrees C and evaluated by microbiological analysis. It was showed that packing under low and high vacuum inhibited development of aerobic microorganisms, proteolytic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Vacuum-packaged storage of poultry meat and its products stimulated activity of anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria. The fast spoilage of fresh poultry meat was observed both under vacuum and conventional storage. The microbiology quality of poultry products depended on technology of production and microbiological quality of raw material.

  20. Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Klug, Christoph; Swoboda, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allergy to poultry meat is rare and affects both children and adults. The prevalence of poultry meat allergy is unknown, but presumably is similar to that of red meat allergy. There is no close relationship between allergy to poultry meat and allergy to red meat. Poultry meat allergy may present as primary (genuine) food allergy or as secondary food allergy resulting from cross-reactivity. Secondary poultry meat allergy may arise in the context of bird-egg-syndrome, which is due to se...

  1. Effect of probiotics in poultry diet on microbial hazards of poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are products from microbial cells that have useful influence on health and tranquility of humans. According to numerous studies, many valuable properties such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, boosting body immunity and resistance against enteric pathogens have been attributed to probiotics. Therefore the aim of this study is to specify the effect of probiotics use in the diet of broilers on microbial hazards of poultry meat. For this purpose, two groups of treatment and control each containing 40 broiler chicks were chosen and edible probiotic were given to the treatment group throughout the whole 55 days of the rearing period under the same conditions and following slaughter 100 grams of skin and breast meat samples were collected from each carcass and transferred to food hygiene laboratory of the veterinary faculty under sterile conditions. Total microbial count,    Staphylococcus aureous, fecal Streptococci, Clostridium perferingens, Coliforms counts and detection of Salmonella and E.coli were performedon the samples according to standard approaches of Iran. The results were analyzed using independent t-Test and Chi-square test. Comparison of the means of total microbial count, coliform, enteric streptococci and meat staphylococcus counts in the control and treatment group using independent t-Test showed a significant reduction (p

  2. Efficiency of Sanitary Treatment in Poultry Breeding and Poultry Meat Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kašková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effectiveness of disinfection on a broiler farm and in a plant processing the poultry from this farm. The broiler farm was disinfected with a preparation based on peracetic acid while a preparation based on quarternary ammonium salt was used in the processing plant. We evaluated swabs taken from surfaces, which come into contact with broilers and broiler meat. Results of the swabs taken by standard microbiological swabbing method were evaluated with results of the swabs taken by the ATP-bioluminescence method. The microbiological examination included total counts of microorganisms, coliform count and moulds. When using the standard plate counts method on the broiler farm we found that the plate counts in 0% of swabs were 100 CFU. In the processing plant, out of 22% of swabs 100. The bioluminescence method was applied only in the processing plant where 300 RLU were measured in 80, 10 and 10% of swabs, resp. Our observations and results allowed us to conclude that the disinfectants tested appeared suitable for the respective premises and the ATP bioluminescence method could be use as a as a suitable complement for detection of cleanliness of individual surfaces.

  3. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale, acquisition...

  4. 76 FR 22359 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Collection; Importation of Poultry Meat and Other Poultry Products From Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico AGENCY... an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on...

  5. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    .... FSIS-2005-0018] Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry... major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products and ground or chopped meat and poultry... Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 82148) that, among other...

  6. Mercury risk in poultry in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Guangyi; Feng, Zhaohui; Hurley, James P.; Yang, Liyuan; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4–62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source. Ducks and geese showed higher Hg levels than chickens. For all poultry species, the highest Hg concentrations were observed in liver (THg: 23.2–3917.1 ng/g; MeHg: 7.1–62.8 ng/g) and blood (THg: 12.3–338.0 ng/g; MeHg: 1.4–17.6 ng/g). We estimated the Hg burdens in chickens (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 2.2–15.6 μg), ducks (THg: 15.3–238.1 μg; MeHg: 3.5–14.7 μg) and geese (THg: 83.8–93.4 μg; MeHg: 15.4–29.7 μg). To not exceed the daily intake limit for THg (34.2 μg/day) and MeHg (6 μg/day), we suggested that the maximum amount (g) for chicken leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 1384, 1498, 2315, 1214, 1081, 257, and 717, respectively; the maximum amount (g) for duck leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 750, 1041, 986, 858, 752, 134, and 573, respectively; and the maximum amount (g) for goose leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 941, 1051, 1040, 1131, 964, 137, and 562, respectively. - Highlights: • Elevated mercury levels were observed in poultry from Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. • Ducks and geese showed higher mercury levels than chickens. • Liver and blood showed the highest mercury levels. • Poultry can be an important dietary Hg exposure source for local residents. - High levels of Hg associated with poultry surrounding the Wanshan Mercury Mine pose a great risk of Hg exposure to

  7. The identification of fungi collected from the ceca of commercial poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J A; Caldwell, D Y; Nisbet, D J

    2017-07-01

    Under normal conditions, fungi are ignored unless a disease/syndrome clinical signs are reported. The scientific communities are largely unaware of the roles fungi play in normal production parameters. Numerous preharvest interventions have demonstrated that beneficial bacteria can play a role in improving productions parameters; however, most researchers have ignored the impact that fungi may have on production. The goal of the present study was to record fungi recovered from commercial broiler and layer houses during production. Over 3,000 cecal samples were isolated using conventional culture methodology and over 890 samples were further characterized using an automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) methodology. Eighty-eight different fungal and yeast species were identified, including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Sporidiobolus spp, and 18 unknown genera were separated using rep-PCR. The results from the present study will provide a normal fungi background genera under commercial conditions and will be a stepping stone for investigating the impact of fungi on the gastrointestinal tract and on the health of poultry. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  8. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  9. Macro-biophysical properties of candidate novel feedstuffs for poultry feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omede, A; Okoro, V M O; Uchegbu, M C; Okoli, I C; Anyanwu, G A

    2012-12-15

    Information on the proximate composition and sometimes the toxicology of novel feedstuffs has been used routinely in determining the suitability of feedstuffs in poultry feeding, especially during animal feeding trials. Limited information however exists on the biophysical characteristics of such novel feedstuffs. The Bulk Density (BD), Water-holding Capacity (WHC) and Specific Gravity (SG) of three novel feedstuffs {Leaf Meal (LEM), Rumen Digesta (RD) and Poultry Dung (PD)}, were evaluated. Available published and unpublished results on the proximate compositions of the materials were related to the physical characteristics results. LEM had significantly (p > 0.05) lower BD and SG than RD and PD while RD recorded the highest WHC value although the value was similar (p > 0.05) to that of LEM. Particle Size (PS) effects showed that BD of RD and PD were lower at the > or = 1.00 mm PS than at the unmodified and or = 1.00 mm PS levels, respectively. This is evidence that grinding increased the surface area of the LEM, thus improving the ability of its Non-starch Polysaccharides (NSP) to bind water. Information on the feed physical characteristics could be used together with proximate and toxicological information to determine the nutritional and intake potentials of a novel feedstuff even before a feeding trial.

  10. Environmental tolerance of free-living stages of the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbiat, Behdad; Jansson, Désirée S; Höglund, Johan

    2015-04-15

    The poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli is re-emerging in laying hens in many European countries due to the increase in non-caged housing. A series of in vitro experiments was carried out to study the in ovo larval development (embryonation) under different environmental conditions. Between 83% and 96% of the eggs developed to L3 within 7-21 days of incubation in water between 20 and 30°C. Twenty-six percent completed development at 33°C and 4% at 35°C after 31 days. At 15°C parasite egg development was low with 8% L3 after 56 days. In another trial larval development occurred, when parasite eggs were exposed to freeze-thaw cycle (30' to 12h) followed by incubation for 2 weeks at 25°C. Alkaline and acidic conditions in the range of pH 2.5-12.5 had no adverse effect on development. Oxygen and relative humidity above 70% were necessary for development to occur. Thus, some A. galli eggs may complete development at conditions prevailing in poultry barns in temperate climate zones throughout the year. Although exposure to a 1% or 2% dilution of the broad-spectrum disinfectant chlorocresol for 4h or longer was ovicidal, further work is required to improve the method of application in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial inoculum enhances keratin degradation and biofilm formation in poultry compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, J M; Krizova, L; LeFevre, C A; Keener, H M; Elwell, D L; Burtt, E H

    2001-11-01

    Native microbial populations can degrade poultry waste, but the process can be hastened by using feather-degrading bacteria. Strains of Bacillus licheniformis and a Streptomyces sp. isolated from the plumage of wild birds were grown in a liquid basal medium and used to inoculate feathers in compost bioreaction vessels. Control vessels had only basal medium added to the feathers, litter and straw. Temperature, ammonia, carbon and nitrogen were monitored for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy of the feather samples showed more complete keratin-degradation, more structural damage, and earlier microbial biofilm formation on inoculated feathers than on uninoculated feathers. A diverse community of aerobic bacteria and fungi were cultured early, but declined rapidly. Thermophilic B. licheniformis and Streptomyces spp. were abundant throughout. Enteric gram-negative bacteria, (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli) originally found on waste feathers were not recovered after day 4. Vessel temperatures reached 64-71 degrees C within 36 h and stabilized at 50 degrees C. When tumble-mixed at day 14, renewed activity peaked at 59 degrees C and quickly dropped as available carbon was used. Feathers soaked in an inoculum of B. licheniformis and Streptomyces degraded more quickly and more completely than feathers that were not presoaked. Inoculation of feather waste could improve composting of the large volume of feather waste generated every year by poultry farms and processing plants.

  12. Sporulation dynamics of poultry Eimeria oocysts in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, P; Raman, M; Gomathinayagam, S

    2015-12-01

    The infective form of Eimeria is the highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the faeces of infected animals. Present study was carried out to understand the sporulation dynamics of six Eimeria oocysts viz. E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella in Chennai. Faecal samples of poultry were collected from various poultry farms located in and around Tamil Nadu. Oocysts of various Eimeria species were examined microscopically for sporulation on a 6 h interval basis till complete sporulation is acheived. The sporulation time recorded was 168, 120, 216, 192, 96 and 96 h for E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella respectively. It can be concluded on comparison with previous studies that humid weather conditions delay the sporulation time and dry weather and wet litter is the ideal condition for rapid sporulation.

  13. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  14. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Donald L; Engel, Ronald E

    1986-07-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  15. Compilation of poultry and egg parameters for the PATHWAY code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1982-08-01

    The PATHWAY computer code was developed as a part of the foodchain pathway analysis task. The objective was to estimate radionuclide ingestion rates of residents of Lincoln (Nevada), Washington (Utah), and Iron (Utah) counties during the period 1951-1962, which resulted from explosion of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Estimation of radionuclide ingestion rates involves determination of radionuclide concentrations in dietary items as a function of time and geographic area, and consumption rates of such items as a function of age and lifestyle. Poultry and eggs may have been relatively significant dose contributors to humans, because of the fairly large consumption rates of these products, and because of potential radionuclide concentration in them. This paper describes nuclide-dependent and nuclide-independent parameters related to poultry products, and the determination of specific values of these parameters. 17 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  17. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, Donald L.; Engel, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  18. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Haas, Bruno; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, have provided evidence indicating that bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, may be promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in poultry and swine production. This review provides an update on bacteriocins and their potential for use in the poultry and swine industries.

  19. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  20. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGGS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Bošnjaković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and eggs are a significant source of nutrients in the human diet. Poultry products are widely consumed because they are nutritionally valuable, there are no religious restrictions on consumption, it is relatively easy to prepare diverse meals based on poultry, and the price of such products is relatively low. The aim of this research was to investigate the development of poultry production in the Republic of Croatia in the period 2010-2014, comprising the period of two years after Croatia joined the EU. The paper also compares data of poultry production in Croatia and in the EU. Over the period in question, total meat production in Croatia was reduced by 23%, meat import was increased by 45%, poultry meat export was increased by 46%, and production of eggs decreased by 20%. At the same time, in the EU countries poultry production was increased by 8.8% on average, export was increased by 10%, and import was reduced by 3.7%, while the egg production stagnated. In 2014, consumption of poultry meat in Croatia was 18.3 kg per capita, and in the EU 26.8 kg per capita. Self-sufficiency in the poultry production over the analyzed period was not satisfactory, therefore in the coming years, Croatia will have to develop quickly this important branch of livestock breeding. In addition to conventional production, faster development refers to production of organic and functional poultry products.

  1. Production costs of the Mexican poultry and pig sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, Peter; Hoste, Robert; Wagenberg, van, Coen

    2018-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducted a study on the potential consequences of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the EU. The Dutch government is concerned that giving access to products from countries with a lower level of animal welfare could undermine the EU welfare standard. This study shows that production costs are lower in Mexico compared to the EU in all three sectors investigated: egg production, poultry meat and pig meat. In egg production in particular, the welfare standard...

  2. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m -2 were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m 3  kg -1 of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  3. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  4. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  5. Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    DHANASEKARAN, Dharumadurai; PANNEERSELVAM, Annamalai; THAJUDDIN, Noorudin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of aflatoxin in the growth of hens was histopathologically analyzed. Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The aflatoxin was extracted from Aspergillus flavus and their impact on the growth pattern of hens was evaluated. The histopathological analysis reveals that more lesions were found in the vital organs of hens in comparison with the control chick group. In the present study, it is concluded that the quality of poultry ...

  6. Understanding Going Concern in Auditing: Seker Poultry, Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayca Zeynep Suer; Ahmet Turel

    2016-01-01

    Under the going concern assumption, an entity is viewed as continuing in business for the foreseeable future. General purpose financial statements are prepared on a going concern basis, unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease operations, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. In this case study, we examine the recent financial problems of Seker Poultry, Inc. – one of the listed companies in Borsa Istanbul –and their impacts on the financial stat...

  7. New Approaches to Anti-Stress Practices in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Taşkın; Ahmet Şahin; Ömer Camcı; Güray Erener

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of health, productivity, behaviour and physiology which are used in order to determine the stress shaped by the effects of various factors in poultries can only be detected when the effects of stress emerge; in other words, when the changes are shaped. Therefore; it is important to interfere before the emergence of these indications in order to develop animal welfare by preventing stress. Information programmes, as traditional methods, and vitamin applications as well as anti-stres...

  8. Silver Nanoparticles and Studies on Using in Poultry Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif Özcan

    2015-01-01

    The use of colloidal silver as an antibiotic was becoming widespread until the 1940s. However, with the discovery of antibiotics, usage of colloidal silver had been reduced because of being expensive. The fact that bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics lead to prohibiton the usage of antibiotics in poultry diets as growth promoters. Based on these developments reuse of colloidal silver has been raised as an alternative to antibiotics. Without prejudice to the beneficial enzymes, colloida...

  9. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  10. Upwind impacts of ammonia from an intensive poultry unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Nizam, M.S.; Reynolds, B.; Bareham, S.; Oxley, E.R.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated potential ammonia impacts on a sand dune nature reserve 600 m upwind of an intensive poultry unit. Ammonia concentrations and total nitrogen deposition were measured over a calendar year. A series of ammonia and nitrogen exposure experiments using dune grassland species were conducted in controlled manipulations and in the field. Ammonia emissions from the intensive poultry unit were detected up to 2.8 km upwind, contributing to exceedance of critical levels of ammonia 800 m upwind and exceedance of critical loads of nitrogen 2.8 km upwind. Emissions contributed 30% of the total N load in parts of the upwind conservation site. In the nitrogen exposure experiments, plants showed elevated tissue nitrogen contents, and responded to ammonia concentrations and nitrogen deposition loads observed in the conservation site by increasing biomass. Estimated long-term impacts suggest an increase in the soil carbon pool of 9% over a 50-year timescale. -- Highlights: •Ammonia from a poultry unit can be detected 2.8 km upwind. •Ammonia caused exceedance of critical levels 800 m and critical loads 2.8 km upwind. •Dune grassland species utilised ammonia as a nutrient source. •Plant biomass increased at low levels of ammonia and total nitrogen deposition. •Soil C pools are predicted to increase by 9% over 50 years due to the excess ammonia. -- Ammonia from a poultry unit has upwind impacts, exceeding critical levels 800 m and critical loads 2.8 km upwind, and increasing biomass and tissue N of dune grassland species

  11. Physico-chemical analysis and calorific values of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, G; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E

    2010-05-01

    Spain is one of the major producers of broilers and laying hens in the European Union, with an overall market share of around 12%. The poultry manure that is produced is usually employed as fertilizer on cropland, either directly or after a composting process. In some cases, however, this waste is transported over 120km to be used as fertilizer, with the resulting high transport costs. In other countries, poultry manure is used as an alternative natural fuel source for power generation. In this study, poultry manure from all the laying hen farms in Asturias was characterized with a view to its possible use as an energy source. The Higher Heating Values on a dry basis (experimental) varies between 12,052 and 13,882kJ/kg. Lower Heating Values (LHVs) on a wet basis range are much lower (mean values of 2664kJ/kg) due to the high moisture content of poultry manure. Accordingly, the co-combustion of this waste with other types of waste such as forest and wood waste (LHV on a wet basis of 8044 and 15,830kJ/kg, respectively) or municipal solid waste (LHV on a wet basis of 10,725kJ/kg) should be considered as an alternative energy source. Chlorine and sulphur contents in dry matter vary around mean values of 0.64% and 0.11%, respectively. The waste also presents high amounts of Ca (4.84%) and K (2.38%). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  13. Natural Radioactivity In Poultry Rations And DCP For Bovine Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz-Filho, Isaias V.; Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity present in samples of poultry rations and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) used for cattle feed. Knowledge of these levels is of fundamental importance, because part of this radioactivity will possibly be transferred to humans. The radiation found in such samples is due to the presence of radioactive series of 238 U and 232 Th and 40 K. Measurements were performed with a 66% HPGe detector at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina. The measured samples were commercialized in Londrina, Brazil, in the second half of 2007. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 1 L Marinelli beaker. Poultry rations were divided into two types: for young chickens and adult chickens. Among these, the ration for adult chickens showed the highest values for the activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, 0.23±0.17 and 0.493±0.091 Bq/kg respectively. But the ration for young chickens showed the highest activity for the 40 K, 304±15 Bq/kg. The DCP sample showed a much higher value for the series of 238 U and 232 Th, 83±26 and 7.79±0.70 Bq/kg, respectively. However, the 40 K activity in this sample was about 5 or 6 times lower than samples for poultry feed, reaching 46.6±2.8 Bq/kg.

  14. T-2 toxin Analysis in Poultry and Cattle Feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour Azizi, Issa; Azarmi, Masumeh; Danesh Pouya, Naser; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2014-05-01

    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by the Fusarium fungi. Consumption of food and feed contaminated with T-2 toxin causes diseases in humans and animals. In this study T-2 toxin was analyzed in poultry and cattle feedstuff in cities of Mazandaran province (Babol, Sari, Chalus), Northern Iran. In this study, 90 samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin contamination by the ELISA method. Out of 60 concentrate and bagasse samples collected from various cities of Mazandaran province, 11.7% and 3.3% were contaminated with T-2 toxin at concentrations > 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. For mixed poultry diets, while 10% of the 30 analyzed samples were contaminated with > 25 µg/kg, none of the tested samples contained T-2 toxin at levels > 50 µg/kg. The results obtained from this study show that poultry and cattle feedstuff can be contaminated with different amounts of T-2 toxin in different conditions and locations. Feedstuff that are contaminated by this toxin cause different diseases in animals; thus, potential transfer of mycotoxins to edible by-products from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feeds drives the need to routinely monitor mycotoxins in animal feeds and their components. This is the basis on which effective management of mycotoxins and their effects can be implemented.

  15. Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Bandyopadhyay, R; Sulyok, M; Warth, B; Krska, R

    2012-08-01

    Metabolites of toxigenic fungi and bacteria occur as natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins) in feedstuffs making them unsafe to animals. The multi-toxin profiles in 58 commercial poultry feed samples collected from 19 districts in 17 states of Nigeria were determined by LC/ESI-MS/MS with a single extraction step and no clean-up. Sixty-three (56 fungal and seven bacterial) metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging up to 10,200 µg kg⁻¹ in the case of aurofusarin. Fusarium toxins were the most prevalent group of fungal metabolites, whereas valinomycin occurred in more than 50% of the samples. Twelve non-regulatory fungal and seven bacterial metabolites detected and quantified in this study have never been reported previously in naturally contaminated stored grains or finished feed. Among the regulatory toxins in poultry feed, aflatoxin concentrations in 62% of samples were above 20 µg kg⁻¹, demonstrating high prevalence of unsafe levels of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Deoxynivalenol concentrations exceeded 1000 µg kg⁻¹ in 10.3% of samples. Actions are required to reduce the consequences from regulatory mycotoxins and understand the risks of the single or co-occurrence of non-regulatory metabolites for the benefit of the poultry industry.

  16. An alternative for antibiotic se in poultry: probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FW Edens

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, there has been increasing amounts of antibiotics used prophylactically and as growth promoters. Today, there is a consumer and governmental outcry to eliminate that practice from poultry and livestock production. Evidence has been accumulated to show that there is a link between risk of zoonotic disease and growth promoting antibiotic usage in livestock and poultry. Therefore, alternatives to the use of growth promoting antibiotics must be found to promote growth or production at or near the genetic potential of the modern day broiler, turkey, and egg producer. The use of probiotics has many potential benefits and include modified host metabolism, immuno-stimulation, anti-inflammatory reactions, exclusion and killing of pathogens in the intestinal tract, reduced bacterial contamination on processed broiler carcasses, enhanced nutrient absorption and performance, and ultimately decreased human health risk. The development of these factors generally can be ascribed to the ability of most probiotic products to balance and maintain the intestinal microflora in poultry species.

  17. Evaluation of the hygienogram scores and related data obtained after cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses in Flanders during the period 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; De Reu, K; Van Weyenberg, S; Van Coillie, E; Meyer, E; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Van Immerseel, F; Vandenbroucke, V; Vanrobaeys, M; Dewulf, J

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D. Data relating to the C&D protocol, i.e., year, season, husbandry system, production type, cleaning product, sampler, active components of the disinfectant, disinfection time, disinfection temperature, and disinfection responsible, were collected.The average hygienogram score decreased significantly over time, suggesting a general improvement between 2007 and 2014. Differences in scores were found among the husbandry systems, with the barn/aviary system having a significantly better hygienogram score compared to the floor house, furnished cage, and battery. Significantly better scores also were found when a cleaning product was used in the C&D protocol. Disinfection with a peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide combination or formaldehyde gave the best scores. In addition, C&D protocols using ≥2 different disinfectants showed improved results compared to the use of one single disinfectant. Finally, disinfection applied by a specialist contractor resulted in a better score compared to disinfection by the farmer.In conclusion, analysis of the hygienogram scores and related data allowed identifying several factors, resulting in an improvement, which may reduce the total bacterial load in poultry stables and, consequently, the number of zoonotic and pathogenic micro-organisms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Bacteriophage therapy to combat bacterial infections in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, Andrzej; Nowaczek, Anna; Urban-Chmiel, Renata

    2017-09-16

    Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections. In the US, annual economic losses due to Salmonella infections run from $1.188 billion to over $11.588 billion, based on an estimated 1.92 million cases. Similar costs are observed in the case of other types of infections. In 2005 economic losses in the the poultry industry due to mortalities reached 1,000,000 USD.Infections caused by these pathogens, often through poultry products, are also a serious public health issue.The progressive increase in the number of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the complete ban on the use of antibiotics in livestock feed in the EU, as well as the partial ban in the US, have led to the growth of research on the use of bacteriophages to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals.The high success rate and safety of phage therapy in comparison with antibiotics are partly due to their specificity for selected bacteria and the ability to infect only one species, serotype or strain. This mechanism does not cause the destruction of commensal bacterial flora. Phages are currently being used with success in humans and animals in targeted therapies for slow-healing infections. They have also found application in the US in eliminating pathogens from the surface of foods of animal and plant origin. At a time of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the resulting

  19. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricty and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter

  20. An overview of the health and management challenges of rural poultry stock in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poultry production in rural areas is considered as an important source of livelihood for most rural communities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting production of rural poultry in three senatorial districts in North Central Nigeria namely Kwara Central, Kwara South and Kwara North.. Materials and Methods: The major factors affecting production of rural poultry were investigated using structured questionnaire to gather data on health and management practices between January to December 2014. Results: The socio-economic characteristics of respondents showed that majority of rural poultry farmers are women and illiterate, that sourced fund from their personal savings, relations and friends. The study also showed that seasonal variation and disease significantly influenced poultry production and its marketability. Conclusion: There is the need to put in place enabling environment to encourage commercialization of rural poultry production in Nigeria and globally. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 79-83

  1. Poultry Processing Work and Respiratory Health of Latino Men and Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Mora, Dana C.; Blocker, Jill N.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Schulz, Mark R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between poultry processing work and respiratory health among working Latino men and women in North Carolina. Methods Between May 2009 and November 2010, 402 poultry processing workers and 339 workers in a comparison population completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Of these participants, 279 poultry processing workers and 222 workers in the comparison population also completed spirometry testing to provide measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. Results Nine percent of poultry processing workers and 10% of workers in the comparison population reported current asthma. Relative to the comparison population, adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were lower in the poultry processing population, particularly among men who reported sanitation job activities. Conclusions Despite the low prevalence of respiratory symptoms reported, poultry processing work may affect lung function. PMID:22237034

  2. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  3. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  4. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  5. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  6. The use of poultry waste as a dietary supplement for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Elwan, K.M.; El-Fouly, H.A.; Ibrahim, I.I.; Salama, A.M.; Elashry, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The use of poultry waste as a dietary supplement in ruminant ration could have a considerable effect on reducing costs, insufficiency of protein in diet, and on solving disposal problems. The chemical composition of poultry waste and its safe use in ruminant nutrition were investigated prior to its use as a dietary supplement. No appreciable differences in chemical composition were noted in poultry wastes between oven and sun dried forms. The high content of protein, energy, and minerals in poultry waste indicated its importance as a partial substitute for concentrates in the diet. The numbers of total bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and E. coli detected in poultry waste were within the acceptable limits. Farm testing of rations containing poultry wastes were carried out on sheep (ewes and lambs), Friesian cattle and buffalo heifers. In ewes fed during late pregnancy and lactation, milk yield and performance did not show any significant changes. Lambs suckled from ewes fed on poultry waste did not show any significant difference in weaning weight, average daily weight gain or feed efficiency (kg feed used/kg weaned weight). However, the poultry waste group had shorter age at weaning than the control group. In another feeding trial on growing lambs after weaning, mean daily body weight gain was higher in lambs fed on a ration containing poultry waste than the control ration. In Friesian and buffalo calves, no significant differences in average daily body weight gain were found as a result of inclusion of poultry waste in the ration. In buffalo heifers various estimated reproductive parameters indicated no appreciable differences due to the inclusion of poultry waste in the diet except that the number of ovulations and number of services/conception were both higher in the group fed with poultry waste. (author)

  7. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    communities. In 2009, we conducted 30 observations to observe slaughtering practices and 110 in-depth and short interviews and 36 group discussions to explore reasons behind those practices. The villagers reported slaughtering 103 poultry, including 20 sick poultry during 2 months. During different stages...... poultry, using hot water for defeathering and cleaning, using a bucket to contain slaughtering blood and carcass, burying the offal and encouraging handwashing....

  8. POULTRY INDUSTRY AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TERRITORIES: WHAT LINKS? WHAT CONDITIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaudo , Thierry; Coutinho , Cassia; Poccard-Chapuis , René; Lescoat , Philippe; Lossouarn , Jean; Tourrand , Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; The relations between poultry industry and territories are specific in agriculture. Several reasons can be given: modern poultry farms are considered as off-land, poultry productive chain is driven by major industrial operator, and relocating the production is easy. For a better understanding of the sustainability of agricultural territories, it can be helpful to characterize some interactions between the production chain and the territorie...

  9. Emission of Harmful Gases from Poultry Farms and Possibilities of Their Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Brouček Jan; Čermák Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to methodology that can help to assess emission of gases from poultry housings and could be used to expand the knowledge base of researchers, policymakers and farmers to maintain sustainable environment conditions for farming systems. Concentration and emission of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in poultry barns are discussed in this paper. Surveys of ammonia and greenhouse gases mean concentrations and emission factors in different poultry systems ar...

  10. Poultry Waste Management Techniques in Urban Agriculture and its Implications: A Case of Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vide Adedayo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the existing poultry waste management and utilization technique in urban vegetable farms. It analyses the implications of the management pattern on yield and revenue and further determines the socio-economic differentials of farmers on management pattern. Socio-economic survey was carried out to determine relationship between socio economic characteristics of farmers and poultry waste management while field experiments and estimations were done to determine poultry waste p...

  11. Application of a microbiological screening method for the indication of irradiation of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtanen, G.; Karwoski, M.; Sjoberg, A.-M.; Salo, S.

    1996-01-01

    The FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services, USA) ruling of May 1990 permits the use of irradiation of fresh or frozen poultry and poultry parts, including ground and mechanically separated poultry products, at absorbed doses of 1.5 to 3 kGy to control foodborne pathogens and bacteria. The aim of this study was to apply a microbiological method (DEFT/APC) to assess the possible irradiation treatment of samples of frozen poultry meat. (author)

  12. Direction of the Rational Use of Water at the Facilities for Growing Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.; Porotkova, A. K.; Volovikova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article notes the effect of water use in the technological process of automatic drinking agricultural poultry on the quality and the quantity of outputs. At the same time, the requirements to the quality of the used water, the regimes of its consumption by the poultry and the role of mechanization of the process of automatic drinking in the rational use of the water resource, the processing and the reuse of contaminated wastes are disclosed. Within the framework of this concept, we propose constructively technological solutions of systems and means of automatic drinking agricultural poultry, providing the rational use of water as one of the important products of vital activity of agricultural poultry.

  13. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-12-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other intermediate factors for virus transmission between wild birds and poultry. This review describes current evidence of the potential role of rodents in AIV transmission from wild birds to poultry and between poultry houses. Rodents can be abundant around poultry houses, share their habitat with waterfowl and can readily enter poultry houses. Survival of AIV from waterfowl in poultry house surroundings and on the coat of rodents suggests that rodents are likely to act as mechanical vector. AIVs can replicate in rodents without adaptation, resulting in high viral titres in lungs and nasal turbinates, virus presence in nasal washes and saliva, and transmission to naïve contact animals. Therefore, active AIV shedding by infected rodents may play a role in transmission to poultry. Further field and experimental studies are needed to provide evidence for a role of rodents in AIV epidemiology. Making poultry houses rodent-proof and the immediate surroundings unattractive for rodents are recommended as preventive measures against possible AIV introduction.

  14. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 道夫; 小栗, 克之; BHATTARAI, Til Chandra; スギヤマ, ミチオ; オグリ, カツユキ; SUGIYAMA, Michio; OGURI, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  15. Study of the Effects of Ethanol As an Additive with a Blend of Poultry Litter Biodiesel and Alumina Nanoparticles on a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing population and rise in industrialization, the demand for petroleum reserves is increasing almost daily. This is causing depletion of the non-renewable energy resources. This work aims to find an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The use of poultry litter oil biodiesel obtained from poultry industry waste, which is a non-edible source for biodiesel, is very encouraging as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The aim of this study is to observe and maximize the performance of poultry litter oil biodiesel by adding alumina nanoparticles and ethanol. The biodiesel is prepared with acid and the base catalysed transesterification of poultry litter oil with methanol using concentrated sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts. The experimentation is carried out on a CI engine with three different blends - B20 biodiesel blend, B20 biodiesel blend with 30 mg/L alumina nanoparticles, and B20 biodiesel blend with 30 mg/L alumina nanoparticles and 15 ml/L ethanol. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics of all three blends are compared with neat diesel. The results of the experiment show that ethanol as an additive improves the combustion and performance characteristics. It increases the brake thermal efficiency and peak cylinder pressure. It also reduces CO and UBHC emissions and there is a marginal increase in NOx emissions as compared to neat diesel.

  16. Genotyping of virulent Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soma Sekhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize virulent Escherichia coli isolated from different poultry species and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR genotyping. Materials and Methods: Fecal swabs from different poultry species (n=150 and poultry farm workers (n=15 were analyzed for E. coli and screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA by multiplex PCR. Virulent E. coli was serotyped based on their "O" antigen and then genotyped using ERIC-PCR. Results: A total of 134 E. coli isolates (122/150 from poultry and 12/15 from farm workers were recovered. Virulence genes were detected in a total of 12 isolates. Serological typing of the 12 virulent E. coli revealed nine different serotypes (O2, O49, O60, O63, O83, O101, O120, UT, and Rough. ERIC-PCR genotyping allowed discrimination of 12 virulent E. coli isolates into 11 ERIC-PCR genotypes. The numerical index of discrimination was 0.999. Conclusion: Our findings provide information about the wide genetic diversity and discrimination of virulent E. coli in apparently healthy poultry and poultry farm workers of Andhra Pradesh (India based on their genotype.

  17. New scientific challenges - the possibilities of using selenium in poultry nutrition and impact on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.

  18. SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH TO AWARENESS AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL FARMERS IN SIKKIM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath B.G.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A backyard poultry improvement technology programme based on scientific management practices with high yielding breed of chickens was desired by the rural communities of Sikkim to improve their income. For implementation of this programme, partnership with various line departments and extension agencies were chosen deliberately. Scaling out was realized through participatory approaches, use of trainers from the communities, locally managed feed with diminutive commercial feed, market orientation and credit facilities, collaborating with and influencing Govt and Non Govt Organizations (NGOs. The average profit from improved poultry keeping was US$451.83 per household per annum for a 50 bird enterprise. This programme contributed to increased awareness, development of leadership and entrepreneurial skills, increased status of trainers and investments in other businesses.

  19. Environmental and human health challenges of industrial livestock and poultry farming in China and their mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks. Gaseous pollutants and bioaerosols are emitted directly from CAFOs, which have health implications on animal producers and neighboring communities. A range of pollutants are excreted with the animal waste, including nutrients, pathogens, natural and synthetic hormones, veterinary antimicrobials, and heavy metals, which can enter local farmland soils, surface water, and groundwater, during the storage and disposal of animal waste, and pose direct and indirect human health risks. The extensive use of antimicrobials in CAFOs also contributes to the global public health concern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Efforts on treating the large volumes of manure generated in CAFOs should be enhanced (e.g., by biogas digesters and integrated farm systems) to minimize their impacts on the environment and human health. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs and feed additives in industrial livestock and poultry farming should be controlled, which will not only make the animal food products much safer to the consumers, but also render the manure more benign for treatment and disposal on farmlands. While improving the sustainability of animal farming, China also needs to promote healthy food consumption, which not only improves public health from avoiding high-meat diets, but also slows down the expansion of industrial animal farming, and thus reduces the associated environmental and public health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Rural Poultry Production in Different Agroecological Zones in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Kimani, C.W.; Siamba, D.A.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional was conducted to establish the characteristics of rural poultry production in Nyandarua, Nakuru and Laikipia districts of Kenya. Sites of diverse agroecological zones (AEZ) in the 3 district were selected, thus Ol Kalou in Nyandarua, Njoro in Nakuru and Ng'arua in Laikipia. Each site was divided into 4 clusters according to AEZ and land size. Systematic sampling techniques were applied to select farmers. A checklist was then used to collect the baseline information for every household. The study revealed that the average flock size was 17.3 chicken with Ng'arua region demonstrating the largest flock size of 21 chickens. The purpose of rearing indigenous chicken were stated as home consumption and sale of eggs and meat, hatching eggs, and as gifts.Farmers in Ng'arua region reported the highest sale of eggs and chicken meat. the average number of broodings per year, number of eggs laid before a chicken becomes broody, eggs set for hatching and hatchability was 2.5, 16.5, 11.1 and 84.2%, respectively. The average chick mortality reported by farmers in te first eight weeks was 47.9%. Disease especially Newcastle, were cited as the main cause of mortality. Farmers did not commonly practice selection for genetic improvement, but occasionally they purchased a cock or hen to control inbreeding. In all the 3 regions, 78.4% of the respondents indicated that women took greater responsibility and decision making in the production of indigenous chicken; 54.8% of farmers used different herbs to treat and control diseases. Conventional vaccination,disinfection and deworming rarely practiced. On most farms, chickens were left to scavenge around the homestead, often they were supplemented with kitchen leftovers and a handful of grains. The survey results demonstrated that there was potential for improving rural poultry production through interventions using appropriate technologies that are currently on-shelf