WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving farmyard poultry

  1. Vermicompost and farmyard manure improves food quality, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of Cajanus cajan (L. Mill sp.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasish; Hussain, Nazneen; Gogoi, Bhaskarjyoti; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2017-02-01

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Recently, a 2-year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to understand the role of various organic and inorganic fertilisers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. cajan under vermicompost treatments. Notable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C. cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments resulted in a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertiliser in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and antibacterial properties of C. cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico-chemical health of the soil. The present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  3. Approaches to improve poultry vaccination using novel poultry adjuvants against coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this review, various new approaches to improve poultry adaptive immunity against coccidiosis through vaccination will be addressed using the recently published data. To improve poultry production and to meet the demands for the ever-increasing world human population, we need to develop new stra...

  4. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  5. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue...

  6. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Pathak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20 in free range conditions if plenty of natural feed resources are available. Chicks need brooding during initial 6 weeks of age to maintain the required body temperature and to protect from predators. In nursery rearing, feeding of broiler starter up to 28 days is better option but it can also be formulated with locally available materials. At 42 days of age, the birds can be let out under backyard free-range conditions. Birds should be vaccinated specifically against the Newcastle disease and fowl pox. The backyard poultry farming with improved birds provide a solution to food security to the needy villagers paving a way for sustainable agriculture in rural areas of India.

  7. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  8. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  9. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 41st Biennial Conference. DATES: The..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094-5173,...

  10. 77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... to renew the charter of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094;...

  11. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 40th Biennial Conference. DATES: The.... Andrew R. Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike...

  12. 78 FR 33799 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    .... APHIS-2013-0032] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting AGENCY: Animal... a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Denise L. Brinson, Acting Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS...

  13. 76 FR 65935 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 56 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan... avian influenza to simplify the list of types of poultry eligible for 100 percent indemnity, among other... National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by providing new or...

  14. 76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference.... SUMMARY: We are giving notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry..., Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101,...

  15. An ecohealth assessment of poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood and biosecurity improvement of small poultry producers in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Basuno, Edi; Nguyen, Tuan; Aengwanich, Worapol; Ilham, Nyak; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Poultry production cluster (PPC) programs are key strategies in many Asian countries to engage small commercial poultry producers in high-value production chains and to control infectious poultry diseases. This study assessed the multiple impacts of PPCs through a transdisciplinary ecohealth approach in four Asian countries, and drew the implications for small producers to improve their livelihoods and reduce the risk of spreading infectious diseases in the poultry sector. The data collection combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. It comprised: formal structured household survey questionnaires, measuring the biosecurity level of poultry farms with a biosecurity score card; and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to process the quantitative data and a content analysis was used to process the qualitative data. This research found that poultry farms in clusters do not necessarily have better economic performance than those outside PPCs. Many farmers in PPCs only consider them to be an advantage for expanding the scale of their poultry operations and improving household incomes, and they are less concerned about-and have limited capacities to-enhancing biosecurity and environmental management. We measured the biosecurity level of farms in PPCs through a 14-item checklist and found that biosecurity is generally very low across all sample sites. The increased flies, mosquitoes, rats, and smells in and around PPCs not only pollute the environment, but also cause social conflicts with the surrounding communities. This research concluded that a poultry cluster, mainly driven by economic objectives, is not necessarily a superior model for the control of infectious diseases. The level of biosecurity in PPCs was found to be low. Given the intensity of poultry operations in PPCs (farms are densely packed into clusters), and the close proximity to residential areas of some PPCs, the risk of spreading infectious diseases, in fact, increases

  16. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...... of technologies – poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed – disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests...

  17. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  18. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-02-14

    Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

  19. Biochar lowers ammonia emission and improves nitrogen retention in poultry litter composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyarko-Mintah, Eunice; Cowie, Annette; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Smillie, Robert; Harden, Steven; Fornasier, Flavio

    2017-03-01

    The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins. Ammonia emissions accounted for 17% of the total N (TN) lost from the control and 12-14% from the biochar-amended compost. The TN emitted as NH3, as a percentage of initial TN, was significantly lower (Plitter: decrease of NH3 volatilisation, decrease in NH3 toxicity towards microorganisms, and improved N retention, thus enhancing the fertiliser value of the composted litter. It is suggested that the latter benefit is linked to a beneficial modification of the microbial environment.

  20. Improving nutrient values of solid heavy phase for corn substitute in poultry diet

    OpenAIRE

    A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; I.A.K Bintang; T Pasaribu

    2007-01-01

    Solid heavy phase (SHP), a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be produced approximately 2 million tons/year. The by product has a potential for substituting corn in poultry feed. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP in order to obtain a feedstuff that can substitute corn in poultry feed. The SHP was processed by either fermentation or enzymatic process. The product was then dried and analysed fo...

  1. Improved microbial screning assay for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry and eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Cocq, A.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2007-01-01

    An improved microbiological screening assay is reported for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry muscle and eggs. The method was validated using fortified tissue samples and is the first microbial assay to effectively detect enrofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, as well as flumequine and

  2. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (≥1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p valuebiosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (pbiosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time.

  3. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  4. Development of a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Improved Campylobacter Detection from Poultry Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-09-01

    The presence of expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is a common problem in the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples using conventional cefoperazone-based selective media. A novel chromogenic medium (CM-HT), based on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA), has been developed as a solution for improved Campylobacter detection from poultry samples. Although the basic components of CM-HT are the same as mCCDA, CM-HT uses both granular charcoal and sodium cefoxitin to enhance viewability and inhibit ESBL-producing bacteria. All tested Campylobacter jejuni (n = 31) and Campylobacter coli (n = 6) strains grew and formed purple-colored colonies on CM-HT. In contrast, the growth of all other tested microorganisms, including ESBL-producing E. coli strains, was suppressed by this medium. Additionally, 84 poultry samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter using the ISO 10272-1 method (enrichment with Bolton broth) and the NIHSJ-02 method (enrichment with Preston broth) with mCCDA and CM-HT media for the isolation. The numbers of samples from which Camplylobacter was detected on CM-HT using Preston and Bolton broth were 22 and 18, whereas the numbers on mCCDA were 22 and 13, respectively. Only Campylobacter was detected on CM-HT using both enrichment broths; however, there were 5 and 19 samples from which ESBL-producing E. coli was detected on mCCDA using Preston and Bolton broth, respectively. Thus, there was a significant difference between CM-HT and mCCDA in selectivity for ESBL-producing E. coli regardless of which enrichment broth was used. The results obtained demonstrated that CM-HT is a possible solution for the improved isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples.

  5. The use of marination to improve poultry meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of marination on turkey breast meat qual- ity traits. Breast meat samples were marinated with two types of solution (containing sodium tripolyphos- phate, STPP or a commercial mix with sodium carbonate and citrate, COM and three solution/meat ratios (14, 18, and 22%. Marination with STPP determined a higher increase of meat pH in comparison with COM (∆pH measured before and after marination: +0.20 vs. +0.14; P≤0.05. The marinade uptake and AK- shear values did not differ between solutions, whereas STPP determined a higher marinade retention (98.2 vs. 97.9%; P≤0.05 and a strong decrease of cooking loss (21.8 vs. 28.1%; P≤0.01 compared with COM. The increase of solution/meat ratio from 14 to 22% significantly raised meat pH, marinade uptake, and cooking loss of the meat. Taking into account both marinade uptake and cooking losses, the use of a 14% solution/ meat ratio allowed to maximise processing yield. Overall, compared to non-marinated meat, marinated meat exhibited a higher lightness and yellowness, and a lower AK-shear value after cooking, confirming that this technique can be successfully employed to improve meat texture.

  6. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nmangium in eucalypt plantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and C< 0.9 in the pure Eucalyptus stand).

  7. Effects of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutritional status of the loquat trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, I; Kaya, Z; Caglar, S

    2003-07-01

    The nutritional status of the loquat trees was investigated using cattle manure and commercial fertilizers for three years. The farmyard manure increased N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the leaves. No significant difference was found between the fertilizer types for trunk growth. Yield efficiency was nearly doubled by application of farmyard manure. Fertilizers did not affect the weight and shape of the fruits; however, commercial fertilizers led the lower total acidity in fruits. It was concluded that the loquat trees grown in sandy soils could fulfill their principal nutrient requirements for growth and commercial yield with application of farmyard manure.

  8. Study on cow urine and Linn seed in farmyard: A natural, cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on cow urine and Linn seed in farmyard: A natural, cost effective, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Though chemicals and bactericides control BLB, they also cause several health and environmental hazards.

  9. Improving nutrient values of solid heavy phase for corn substitute in poultry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid heavy phase (SHP, a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be produced approximately 2 million tons/year. The by product has a potential for substituting corn in poultry feed. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP in order to obtain a feedstuff that can substitute corn in poultry feed. The SHP was processed by either fermentation or enzymatic process. The product was then dried and analysed for its nutrient values. Fermentation process was carried out by altering the dry matter of the substrate (40 or 50%, while enzymatic process was carried out by altering the dose and kind of enzymes used. The process that produced best nutrient values was considered for producing materials for a feeding trial. In this trial, the products were used in diet formulation to substitute 25 or 50% of the corn included in the control diet. The results showed that the fermentation processed could be conducted with dry matter of substrate at either 40 or 50%. The fermentation process significantly improved the nutrient values of the SHP as shown by decreasing the crude fibre and increasing the crude protein, amino acids and the ME value. The results also showed that the Balitnak enzyme (BS4 was optimum when added at 10 ml/kg dry matter SHP, while the commercial enzyme (EK was optimum at level of 2 g /kg dry matter SHP. Results of feeding trial showed that 25% of corn in layer diet could be substituted with dried SHP or SHP + enzymes. This substitution tended to improve performances (egg production, egg weight and FCR of the laying hens. Substitution of 25 or 50% corn with the fermented SHP tends to reduce the performance of the layinghens. Similar trend also occurred when 50% of the corn was substituted with the enzymaticly processed SHP.

  10. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Elbers, Armin R W; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions. LPAIV isolated from Dutch poultry were genetically most closely related to LPAIV isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands or occasionally elsewhere in Western Europe. However, a relatively long time interval was observed between the isolations of related viruses from wild birds and poultry. Spatial analyses provided evidence for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) being more abundant near primary infected poultry farms. Detailed year-round investigation of virus prevalence and wild bird species distribution and behavior near poultry farms should be used to improve risk assessment in relation to avian influenza virus introduction and retarget avian influenza surveillance programs.

  11. Adaptive Image Processing Methods for Improving Contaminant Detection Accuracy on Poultry Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract A real-time multispectral imaging system has demonstrated a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. In order to implement this imaging system at commercial poultry processing industry, the false positives must be removed. For doi...

  12. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  13. Dietary strategies to improve nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Codony, Rafael; Tres, Alba; Decker, Eric A; Guardiola, Francesc

    2009-10-01

    Consumers demand both safer and more nutritious food products exempt of non-natural origin preservatives or other food additives. In this frame, products with lower fat content and/or a higher ratio in unsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acids, are desired because these lipids can help prevent the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory pathologies. The intake of meat products is of interest because they are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the shelf-life of meat products can be extended by the presence of natural antioxidants coming from different sources such as plant extracts. Therefore, different strategies have been studied to improve the nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory characteristics of meat products and eggs through different mineral and natural dietary supplements. In comparison to other strategies, dietary supplements present the advantage that first the living animals may efficiently distribute the compounds throughout the tissues and second, the dietary supplementation is safer because the resulting enriched meat products and eggs ensure tolerable amounts in humans. Poultry meats and eggs are widely consumed and their fatty acid profile and tocopherol content can be easily modified through different dietary strategies thus being excellent models to improve their nutritional value and oxidative stability.

  14. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  15. Improved anaerobic digestion performance and biogas production from poultry litter after lowering its nitrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos

    2015-11-01

    Poultry litter (PL) was pre-treated in order to reduce its nitrogen content and to increase the C/N ratio. The pre-treatment consisted of a first anaerobiosis phase of about 60days in order to accumulate ammonia nitrogen, followed by an ammonia stripping phase by heating the substrate at 80°C for 24h. The digestion was performed with PL and pre-treated PL (TPL) after ammonia stripping as mono-substrate under four total solids loads, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The TPL after ammonia stripping displayed lower ammonia (62-73%) and VFA (41-65%) concentrations compared to digesters with raw PL, while bio-methane yield increased about 8-124%. Bio-methane yields in the series with TPL after ammonia stripping were about 193, 196, 215 and 147 [Formula: see text] /kgCOD, based on the COD added, for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% TS load, respectively. The results indicate that lowering nitrogen content using the suggested process improves bio-methane yields significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  17. A model for promoting poultry industry development in Togo: feeding improvement, capacity building and extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Kamers, B.; Teteh, A.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Janssen, G.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although being the main bottlenecks for commercial poultry development in Togo, feeding and management practices retain little attention. Indeed, there is no proficient feed miller unit which can provide high quality feed according to the needs of the farmers. This is due to a lack of information on

  18. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  19. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-09-25

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  20. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Maurer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB, the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vat

  1. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A.; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L.; Zedek, Andrea S.; Kwan, Tiffany W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L.; Oakley, Brian B.; Collett, Stephen R.; Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.

    2013-01-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no

  2. Thymol as natural antioxidant additive for poultry feed: oxidative stability improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, A; Lema-Alba, R C; Dambolena, J S; Zygadlo, J A; Labaque, M C; Marin, R H

    2017-09-01

    Antioxidant are regularly included in poultry feed as protection from deterioration during storage. Recently the interest for the use of natural phytochemicals in animal diets has been increased. Thymol (THY) has been proven to be an effective antioxidant for extending broiler meat quality during storage with similar action to the widely used butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). This study evaluates whether THY can also have a protective effect on the feed mash by assessing its antioxidant potential and related changes in fatty acid (FA) balance. Feed mash was assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, control (CON, no additive), vehicle (VEH, ethanol 96%), BHT (400 mg BHT /kg feed) and THY (400 mg THY /kg feed). Three replicates of each treatment were taken after 0, 30, and 60 d of storage at room temperature (23 ± 3°C) and relative humidity (40 ± 5%). Peroxide value (PV), titratable acidity (TA) and FA relative composition were determined. As expected, there were no treatment effects on those variables at 0 d of storage. However, higher PV values were detected in the CON and VEH groups after 30 and 60 d of storage in comparison to the THY and BHT treated samples (CON = VEH > THY = BHT). While a slight increase was also observed in TA through storage time, no particular treatment effects were detected. Relative FA composition changed with storage time only in the CON and VEH group which had a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in saturated FA. No changes were detected in the Thy and BHT treated feeds. The results suggest a similar THY and BHT protective effect on feed mash lipid oxidation. Thus, THY could be considered as a useful natural alternative to help sustain quality of poultry feed. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. An effective method for improving the fertility of glycerol-exposed poultry semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J A; Kulkarni, G

    2004-09-01

    Semen cryopreservation is necessary for banking germplasm from critical poultry stocks. To date, glycerol is the most effective cryoprotectant for poultry sperm; however, the contraceptive effects of glycerol require a significant reduction of the cryoprotectant from thawed semen before artificial insemination (AI). The effectiveness of glycerol reduction by dialysis, Percoll density gradient centrifugation, or washing through 12% (wt/vol) Accudenz was evaluated by fertility trials with highly inbred chicken research lines and commercial turkey lines. Semen was extended 1:1 and then diluted with glycerolized extender to yield a final 11% (vol/vol) glycerol concentration. Glycerolized rooster semen was aliquoted for control, Accudenz centrifugation, and dialysis treatments. A total of 90 pure line and 85 F1 hybrid chicken hens were each inseminated with 100 x 10(6) sperm at 7-d intervals for 4 to 6 wk. All eggs from the glycerolized control semen treatments were infertile, and fertility rates from dialyzed semen decreased steadily from 26.4 to 0% within the first 4 wk for the pure lines. In contrast, fertility rates for Accudenz-processed semen increased from 17.9 to 37.17% during the first 4 wk. Similar fertility rates occurred with the F1 hybrid cross lines. For turkey fertility trials, the dialysis treatment was not used; glycerolized turkey semen was processed by Accudenz or Percoll centrifugation to reduce glycerol. A total of 36 hens were inseminated with 150 x 10(6) sperm at 7-d intervals for 6 wk. Similar to the chicken trials, fertility rates of Accudenz-processed semen steadily increased to 49.4% by the sixth week of insemination. The average fertility of Percoll-processed semen was only 19.1%. These data demonstrate that Accudenz centrifugation is an acceptable glycerol reduction method for nonfrozen poultry semen.

  4. Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Girasole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal killing for food production and the related operations are events that may induce pain, stress, fear and other forms of suffering to the animals. To face this problem and guarantee the animal welfare, the EU has adopted the Regulation (EC N. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Electrical water bath stunning is one of the methods used in commercial slaughterhouses to protect poultry welfare. In particular, this method induces unconsciousness into the birds due to run of electrical current through the head and body. The aim of the present work was to find an optimal setting of electrical parameters to obtain an effective water bath stunning in a commercial poultry slaughterhouse. Moreover, the influence of the tested electrical parameters on meat quality was evaluated. All the experiments confirmed that high stunning frequencies induce a lower occurrence of lesions on carcasses but, on the other hand, require greater current intensities to be effective. A frequency of 750 Hz and an average current intensity of 200 mA for each bird in the water bath resulted as the best combination of electrical parameters to obtain a proper stunning without any consequence on the meat quality.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  6. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  7. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance.

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  9. Egg shell membrane improves immunity of post hatch poultry: A aparadigm for nutritional immunomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving natural immunity can reduce susceptibility to infection, improving animal health and eliminating prophylactic use of antibiotics. However, there are very few affective means to enhance natural immunity to a wide range of infections. Considering the natural diets of most birds and mammals,...

  10. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  11. Poultry power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loram, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article gives details of the world's largest power plant fired by poultry litter and forestry waste fired in Thetford, UK. The processing of the waste, the injection of the waste by air, the plant operation, and the cleaning of the flue gas are described. The low levels of odour and noise, and the environmental benefits of the plant which produces no methane or carbon dioxide emissions are noted. (uk)

  12. Improving digestive utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pigs and poultry by processing and enzyme technologies: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Pustjens, A.M.; Schols, H.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing technologies, whether or not combined with cell wall degrading enzymes, on the physicochemical properties of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and the resulting effects on NSP degradation in both pigs and poultry were reviewed. Evaluation of the effects of processing technol

  13. Comparison of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of Kjeldahl and ammoniacal nitrogen content of farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsley, E K; Tapp, H S; Scarlett, A J; Miles, S J; Hammond, R; Wilson, R H

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of determining the nitrogen content of farmyard manure using infrared spectroscopy was investigated. Fifteen samples each of cattle, pig, and turkey manure were analyzed by three infrared techniques: Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR), using attenuated total reflection (ATR); near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R); and near-infrared optothermal photoacoustic (NIR-OT). The near-infrared measurements were made at wavelengths determined respectively by four (NIR-OT) and five (NIR-R) band-pass filters. The total nitrogen (using the Kjeldahl method) and volatile (ammoniacal) nitrogen contents of all samples were measured by wet chemistry. Internally cross-validated (ICV) partial least-squares (PLS) regression was then used to obtain calibrations for the nitrogen content. The data sets obtained by each technique were treated separately. Within these sets, data from each manure type were treated both separately and combined: the best predictive ability was obtained by combining data from all three manure types. From the combined data set, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients for the ICV-predicted versus actual Kjeldahl nitrogen content were, respectively, 6772 mg/kg dry wt, 0.862 (MIR); 9434 mg/kg dry wt, 0.771 (NIR-OT); and 8943 mg/kg dry wt, 0.865 (NIR-R). For the ammoniacal nitrogen content, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients were 3869 mg/kg dry wt, 0.899 (MIR); 6079 mg/kg dry wt, 0.820 (NIR-OT); and 3498 mg/kg dry wt, 0.961 (NIR-R).

  14. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  15. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Van Boeckel

    Full Text Available Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide

  16. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.

  17. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Sakar, Suleyman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 ({+-}0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 ({+-}910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 {+-} 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} dosages, and the ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 1200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a

  18. Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala.

  19. Use of Poultry Collagen Coating and Antioxidants as Flavor Protection for Cat Foods Made with Rendered Poultry Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Donna Mechelle

    2003-01-01

    Poultry skins and rendered poultry fat are by-products produced in excess at rendering plants. The use of low value by-products such as poultry collagen, from poultry skins, and fat to improve flavor and quality in dry pet food could be economically attractive. This study examined a poultry collagen coating as a protective barrier against oxidation in dry cat food made with rendered poultry fat. Collagen was extracted from chicken skins, dissolved in an acidic solution, applied to dry cat foo...

  20. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  1. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review.

  2. Village poultry production system

    OpenAIRE

    Wondmeneh, E.; Waaij, van der, Liesbeth; Udo, H.M.J.; Tadelle, D.; van Arendonk,

    2016-01-01

    This study identified perception of poultry farmers’ on impact of interventions in village poultry production and quantified the impacts of interventions on flock and economic performance using modelling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on perceptions of poultry keeping and performances from 240 randomly selected households in two districts of Ethiopia. Crop was the major source of income, and poultry generated supplementary income. Farmers perceived that demand and price ...

  3. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  4. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  5. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  6. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael;

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framework...... of smallholder poultry productionhave been given little attention in research and or in development projects. Poultry has played, and still plays, important social and cultural roles in the life of rural people, not least for building social relations with other villagers. While income and consumption have been...... poultry keeping to the income and internal household position of women. Institutional structures are not favourable to smallholder poultry production. The interventions that could enhance productivity are well recognized, but the animal health services needed to promote these interventions are, in general...

  7. Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M L; Roberts, V

    2014-10-01

    In law, backyard poultry are "food-producing animals" and "farmed animals" and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple "flock-health plan". This article reviews these topics.

  8. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  9. Influence of Long—Term Fertilization with Different Minceral Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Some Soil Chemical Properties and Crop Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDEHUI; J.LABETOWICZ; 等

    1998-01-01

    A long-term fertiliztion experiment was carried out in an experimental field in Lyczyn near Warsaw,Poland.Application ofmineral fertilizers ,especially Nfertilizer with and without farmyard manure accel-erated the eacidification process of the soil.Application of 1.6 t CaO ha-1 every four years was essential to maintenance of the soil pHKCl at 5.5-6.6 and base saturation degree above 60% Application of 50 t farmyard manur ha-1 every 4 years,whih contained 46 kg P and 240 kg K,was sufficient to maintain boh the K and P fertility of the soil.Besides,it was beneficial to alleviating soil acidifcation. As a result of long-term unbalanced fertilization,yield responses to N,P and K fertilizers incereased significantly with time.the efficiency of N from farmyard manure was found to be comparable to that of N fertilizer during 1988-1991.

  10. Knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and husbandry practices among stakeholders in poultry production in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ON Ameji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial poultry production is low in Kogi State even before the advent of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Nigeria. The low level of poultry production has persisted long after the socio-economic impacts of HPAI had improved. A study was conducted among 94 poultry stakeholders in the state with the use of questionnaire to assess their knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and poultry husbandry practices in six Local Government Areas of Kogi State. The findings showed that 60.0% of poultry production was rural while the rest were backyard (semi commercial poultry. About 64.7% of poultry kept were under extensive management with the commonest diseases seen under this management system being Newcastle disease (62.9%, Coccidiosis (52.3%, Fowl pox (46.9%, Gumboro disease (39.1% and Fowl typhoid (36.1%. Biosecurity was poor as 92.9% of respondents did not have footbath or hand wash disinfection; 70% would throw away poultry litter in the refuse dump; 12% would use the poultry litter as manure while 11% would sell out the litter. In addition, 64.7% of the poultry farmers obtained their rearing stock from the live bird market and other unknown sources while only 35.3% obtained theirs from the hatchery. The findings of this study showed that the low level of commercial poultry production in Kogi State might be due to the impacts of diseases and poor husbandry practices undertaken by the farmers. It is recommended that government should train poultry farmers on biosecurity, disease prevention and the adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for the traditional poultry production system.

  11. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  12. The Effects of Farmyard Manure and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties in a Reclaimed Coastal Tidal Flat Salt-Affected Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-bing; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; YU Shi-peng; LI Fu-rong; HOU Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Careful soil management is important for the soil quality and productivity improvement of the reclaimed coastal tidal lfat saline land in northern Jiangsu Province, China. Farmyard manure (FYM) and mulch applications, which affect soil characteristics and plant signiifcantly, are regard as an effective pattern of saline land improvement. As a conventional management in the study region, FYM and mulch are used for the amendment of the new reclaimed tidal lfat regularly, but little is known about their effects on soil physical properties functioning. A study was conducted on a typical coastal tidal lfat saline land, which was reclaimed in 2005, to evaluate the effects of FYM, polyethylene iflm mulch (PM), straw mulch (SM), FYM combined with PM (FYM+PM), FYM combined with SM (FYM+SM), on soil hydraulic properties and soil mechanical impedance. CK represented conventional cultivation in study area without FYM and mulch application and served as a control. The experiment, laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications, was studied in Huanghaiyuan Farm, which specialized in the agricultural utilization for coastal tidal lfat. Result showed that capillary water holding capacity (CHC), saturated water content (SWC), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and bulk density (BD), cone index (CI) were affected signiifcantly by the FYM and mulch application, especially in the 0-10 cm soil layer. FYM and mulch management increased CHC, SWC and Ks over all soil depth in the order of FYM+SM>FYM+PM>FYM>SM>PM>CK. With the contrary sequence, BD and CI decreased signiifcantly;however, FYM and mulch application affected BD and CI only in the upper soil layers. CHC, SWC and Ks decreased signiifcantly with the increasing of soil depth, BD and CI, and a signiifcant liner equation was found between CHC, SWC, Ks and BD, CI. With the highest CHC (38.15%), SWC (39.55%), Ks (6.00 mm h-1) and the lowest BD (1.26 g cm-3) and CI (2.71 MPa), the combined management of FYM

  13. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  14. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  15. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while <1% covered their nose and mouth with a cloth when handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of

  16. 禽用DNA疫苗免疫效果增强的策略%Strategies to improve DNA vaccine efficacy of poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣伟萌; 殷光文; 黄驹辉; 江和基; 黄志坚

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising alternative strategy for developing new human and animal vaccines. The massive efforts made these past 25 years to increase the immunizing potential of this kind of vaccine are still ongoing. A relatively small number of studies concerning poultry have been published. In this review, strategies designed to improve DNA vaccine efficacy will be described:influence of the route of administration, plasmid dose and age of birds on their first inoculation, increasing plasmid uptake by host cells, addition of immunomodulators; optimization of plasmid backbones and codon usage, association of vaccine antigens and finally, heterologous prime-boost regimens.%对于人和动物的传染病来说,DNA疫苗免疫是一种很有希望的免疫方式。经过25年的发展,已经上市的核酸疫苗仍屈指可数。禽用核酸疫苗一直是禽类疫苗的研究热点,文中描述提高核酸疫苗免疫效果的方式:接种途径,疫苗剂量及首免时间,增加宿主细胞对质粒的摄入,添加免疫增强分子,优化质粒骨架和密码子,疫苗抗原的选择,异源性的首免-加强免疫策略。

  17. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted...... in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein with a desirable amino acid composition to substitute other valuable but limited protein sources of animal origin...

  18. 明清江南地区农家肥的商品化研究%THE STUDY ON THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF FARMYARD MANURE IN JIANGNAN REGION DURING THE MING AND QING DYNASTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过慈明

    2016-01-01

    明清时期,江南商品性农业发展迅速,农业产出较高,在人多地少的矛盾中,集约化经营和种植面积的扩大导致了对肥料的需求逐渐增加。在本地肥源短缺与经济需求的推动下,江南地区出现了农家肥的买卖活动,其中饼肥和粪肥是最为重要的商品肥料。随着外地输入江南饼肥数量的增加与本地粪肥买卖活动日益频繁,江南农业缺肥的矛盾得到了一定程度的缓解,江南的农作物产量有了较大的提升。尽管受制于自然经济和农民有限的购买力,江南农家肥的商品化在深度和广度上都是有限的,但其仍是中国农业发展史上的巨大进步。%During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, with the rapid development of the commodity agriculture and the high agricul­ tural output in Jiangnan region, the contradiction between a large population and the relatively little land, the intensive man­ agement and the expansion of cultivated area led to the gradual increasing demand for fertilizer. Under the drive of the local re - sources shortage and the economic demand, the trading activities of farmyard manure started up in Jiangnan region, including cake fertilizer and manure as the most important commercial fertilizer. Because of the increasing quantity of cake fertilizer en­ tering Jiangnan region and the increasingly frequent local manure business activities, the lack of fertilizer in Jiangnan agricul­ ture had been relieved to a certain degree and the crop yields had greatly improved. Although enslaved to the natural economy and the purchasing power of farmers is limited, the commercialization of Jiangnan farmyard manure was limited both in depth and in breadth. However, it was still a great progress in Chinese agriculture history.

  19. 膨润土改善鸡粪厌氧消化产酸产甲烷特性%Improving production characteristics of methane and organic acid during anaerobic batch digestion of poultry manure by adding bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘君廷; 马俊怡; 郜天磊; 邱凌; 刘宏斌

    2016-01-01

    treatment with 19.91 g VS (volatile solid) poultry manure, 3.0% bentonite addition and 20% inoculum concentration, the highest methane production was observed with methane production 301.92 mL/g, very significantly higher (P<0.05) than control group (87.8% more) and its variable cost was also the lowest with 2.43 Yuan per m3 methane among all treatments. Variable costs of methane production from anaerobic digestion of poultry manure with betonite were 0.40 to 1.68 Yuan per m3 lower than from anaerobic digestion of poultry manure only. Peak values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) appeared five days earlier and were lower than the control group under low OLR condition. Variance of DOC, pH value and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in control group was higher than treatment groups with betonite showed stability of poultry manure anaerobic digestion could be improved by bentonite addition through increasing consistent of DOC degradation. Interestingly, formic acid and propionic acid were not found during the whole anaerobic digestion process of poultry manure with betonite. Variance of acetate, lactate and n-butyrate of treatment groups with betonite were lower than the control group showing that betonite addition could enhance the stability of anaerobic digestion process of poultry manure. Organic loading rate was the key factor of anaerobic digestion of poultry manure with bentonite under low OLR condition. Amount of betonite was the key factor of poultry manure anaerobic digestion with bentonite under high OLR condition. Inoculum concentration and OLR had significant interaction on acetate concentration. Organic loading rate had significant effect on lactate concentration. No interactions of these three factors were found on lactate concentration.%为探究膨润土对鸡粪厌氧消化过程中产甲烷特性和可溶性有机酸代谢特性的影响,采用L8(23)正交试验设计,以鸡粪添加量(有机负荷率)、膨润土添加量和接

  20. Effects of farmyard manure and phosphorus on zinc transformations and phyto-availability in two alfisols of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, T R; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Subba Rao, A; Singh, Muneshwar

    2003-05-01

    Laboratory pot experiments were run to study the effects of added zinc (Zn) with and without farmyard manure (FYM) and phosphorus (P) on Zn transformations in two Alfisols, together with Zn uptake by wheat plants grown up to 60 days. In the first experiment the treatments included four levels of Zn (0, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mgkg(-1) soil) and two levels of FYM (0 and 10 tha(-1)), and in the second experiment five levels of P (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mgkg(-1) soil) and one level of Zn (7.5 mgkg(-1) soil). The soils were sequentially fractionated into water-soluble plus exchangeable (CA-Zn), inorganically bound (AAC-Zn), organically bound (PYR-Zn), oxide bound (OX-Zn) and residual (RES-Zn) forms. The effect of added FYM was more evident on the OX-Zn fraction and the percentage utilization of Zn by wheat was the greatest with the addition of FYM alone at the rate of 10 tha(-1) (1.95-2.38%) in comparison to other treatment combinations. Among the levels, application of 7.5 mg Zn kg(-1) soil showed the maximum increase in different fractions of soil Zn and significantly increased the Zn utilization by wheat (0.87-1.17%) as compared to other Zn levels (0.58-0.88%). On an average, about 85% of the added Zn was recovered in different fractions in Zn treated pots. However, the recovery per cent of the added Zn was significantly higher at Zn level 7.5 (95%) mgkg(-1) soil than at 3.75 (87%) and 15 (73%) mg Zn kg(-1) soil levels. Phosphorus additions up to 40 mgkg(-1) soil increased the plant-available Zn in soils whereas at higher P levels plant-available forms decreased with a concominant increase in the inert forms. At 160 mg P kg(-1) soil, the P effect was more pronounced in the shoot than in the root, suggesting that a higher P level inhibits Zn translocation from root to upper plant parts. Path analysis showed that the organically (PYR-Zn) and inorganically bound (AAC-Zn) Zn fractions were the predominant fractions that influenced the Zn availability to plants.

  1. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  2. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  3. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  4. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  6. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  7. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  8. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  9. Dutch notes on BAT (Best Available Techniques) for pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.J.M.; Van de Weerdhof, A.M. [Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, National Reference Centre Agriculture, Ede (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    This document describes available environmental control techniques for the pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms. The purpose of this document is to support the identification of BAT for the European pig- and poultry housing, following the requirements of article 16 of the Council Directive 96/61, concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Directive), which has been adopted on 24 September 1996. In this document, an attempt is made to include all relevant environmental aspects of the presented techniques. In this way, the integral weighing of available techniques is facilitated. Economical aspects of presented techniques are given as well. This document comprises the following elements: Process description; Emissions, economics and energy demand; and Candidate Best Available Techniques The rules concerning covered manure storage and low emission housing are based on the Environmental Management Act. This act sees to the activities in the 'appliance', which is in fact the farmyard and the animal-housing. The permit based on the Environmental Management Act regulates the nuisance and the environmental effects in relation to the housing. Manure application does not take place in the appliance but the application techniques are also added in this document as extra information. Those measures which are based on the Manure Act and the Manure Relocation Act are not taken into account. The Netherlands will deliver separate information on these subjects.

  10. Nutritional modulation of the immune response in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic efficiency demanded by the poultry industry has pushed selection towards high production with improved feed conversion ratios (FCR) and high yield; however, selection based heavily on growth characteristics and other phenotypic traits has adversely affected immune competence. Despite incre...

  11. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION TRAITS OF IMPROVED POULTRY BREEDS UNDER BACKYARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SOUTH 24 PARGANAS DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbaswarup Ghosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Four chicken genotypes (Rhode Island Red, Vanaraja, Haringhata Black and Divyayan Red were evaluated for their suitability under backyard farming in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India. The experiment was carried out in a randomized design with seven replications. Body weight gain and adult body weight (2008.3 gm were significantly (P<0.05 higher in Divyayan Red. This breed was also proved to be superior to other three breeds in terms of age at sexual maturity (168 days, egg production (155 numbers and egg weight (55.5 gm. It can be concluded that Divyayan Red breed could be considered for poultry breeding programs in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.

  13. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  14. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  15. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  16. ISSUES AND ECONOMICS OF POULTRY PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABEDULLAH, A. MAQBOOL1 AND K. BAKHSH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The major contribution of poultry consumption in improving per capita nutrients level is well documented. Further improvement would be possible by lowering the prices at the consumer level and by improving the profitability of producers. First we highlighted the major problems in poultry production and then focused to estimate the percentage share of different stake holders in total profitability from poultry industry because inequitable distribution of profit share was assumed to be one of the major obstacle in the expansion of poultry industry. Our results demonstrated that commission agents were earning 47% of the total profit in poultry industry, followed by retailers (28% and producers (25%. This indicates that it would be impossible to improve the contribution of poultry in total nutrients uptake of human beings in the country without reversing the trends in profit share.

  17. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  18. The role of poultry industry in indian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SC Vetrivel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry farming in India, in spite of several constraints, has progressed considerably during the last decade. The present study has been undertaken to examine various aspects related to the growth and development of poultry production in the country. Poultry production in India was confined to backyards till recently. Local breed of birds were reared for the supply of eggs and meat. The increasing demand for poultry products necessitates augmenting the supply by importing improved breeds of poultry. In 1961, the proportion of hybrid populations in the total population of poultry was about 2 percent. Within a couple of decades, these birds have dominated the market sidelining the indigenous birds. The technological advances have revolutionized the role and the structure of poultry industry in India. It became one of the most specialized enterprises in many parts of the country. A general confidence has been created among the people that green revolution has ushered an era of self-reliance in the food grain production. The rapidly growing population has created some doubts in the said hypothesis. In fact, crop production alone may not solve the food problem of the country. The advances in cereal technology, of course, can fill the empty stomach, but it may not help in the balanced growth of the human body. The chief ingredients of balanced diet also comprise proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for growth. The supply of these items can easily be increased through increased production of livestock products.

  19. Decontamination techniques of pathogen bacteria in meat and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, A Handan; Baysal, Taner

    2004-01-01

    Means of controlling or even improving the safety of food products is to decontaminate the carcasses or products during or at the end of the production line. The decontamination of meat and poultry can help to reduce human foodborne infections. However, process hygiene to prevent contamination should never be neglected. Some techniques of decontaminating raw meat and poultry meat products are discussed in this review.

  20. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  2. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  3. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum requirements for organic fertilizers. It seems that recycling of organic waste from the poultry industry should be the primary method of nutrient recovery for plants and organic matter contained in them, however on condition that the health safety is preserved.

  4. Incorporating Smart Sensing Technologies into the Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Corkery

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in production input costs are driving innovation in the poultry industry in Ireland and worldwide. Integration of so called ‘Precision Livestock Farming’ techniques into the poultry industry supply chain will help producers to optimize management systems. This manuscript provides an overview of monitoring and performance sensor technologies within poultry production. It outlines traditional sensing methods and looks at the potential of novel performance related systems that could be incorporated into production facilities. Critical environmental parameters which are relevant to poultry production include inter alia air temperature, relative humidity, light, air speed and air quality (in particular CO2 and NH3 concentrations. Current industry practice with regard to the measurement of these parameters in addition of the effect of these parameters on bird welfare is reviewed, and improvements underpinned by novel technologies and processes are also investigated. Finally, the integration of such systems is also discussed.

  5. Improving the lipid nutritive value of poultry meat through the incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-08-01

    Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) were housed in 20 battery brooders. During the 28-d growth period, the animals were fed ad libitum with a typical maize-soybean high-energy feed having access or not to a dehydrated leguminous-based forage provided in a separate feeder. The results revealed that dehydrated forage intake (which was 11.1% of the total intake) had no impact in broiler performance (P > 0.05). The capacity of ingested forage to modulate broiler meat fatty acid profile and the meat content in total cholesterol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and beta-carotene was investigated in broiler chicks slaughtered at d 28. Dehydrated forage consumption had no effect on the lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds and cholesterol contents of broiler meat but had a significant effect on meat fatty acid profile. Although forage intake did not affect the linoleic acid and ALA contents in poultry meat, the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic (P = 0.004), docosapentaenoic (P = 0.010), and docosahexaenoic (P = 0.007)] in breast meat were significantly higher in animals consuming leguminous biomass, which suggest a higher conversion of ALA into its derivatives in these birds. Overall, the data confirms that incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks results in more favorable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 nutritional ratios for animals slaughtered at earlier stages of grow.

  6. Techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality

    OpenAIRE

    David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J. K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.-H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2012-01-01

    Agronomical ways for better quality and safety Choice of cultivar is an efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Intercropping legumes (grain or forage) improves weed competition and N availability for wheat crop or succeeding crop. Green manure can be an effective alternative to farmyard manure. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen improves yield and quality when water is available. Reduced tillage affects soil fertility and wheat yield but has little effects on grain qualit...

  7. Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take

  8. Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001. In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004. In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019, and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040. In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming

  9. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Bisgaard, Magne; Löhren, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    and with a potential for zoonotic transfer to human beings, ESBL-producing E. coli represents a major risk both to poultry production and to human health. This review presents some of the current problems with ESBL-producing E. coli in relation to poultry production, with a focus on chickens. To illustrate issues...... occasionally of sequence types often associated with human infections, such as ST131. With improved tools to trace and screen for ESBL-producing E. coli at farm level, strategies can be selected that aim to reduce or eliminate the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in poultry and poultry products meant...

  10. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regulations enacted in 2004 to protect consumers against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, mechanically separated beef is considered inedible ... in raising the animals. [ Top of Page ] NO ANTIBIOTICS (red meat and poultry): The terms "no antibiotics ...

  11. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or freezer, color changes are normal for fresh meat and poultry. 2. Does a change in color indicate spoilage? Change in color alone does not mean the product is spoiled. Color changes are normal for fresh ...

  12. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Campylobacter isolates were serotyped, using a modificati

  13. Extension Strategy Development and Training Needs for Small Scale Commercial Poultry Farmers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Olawale Farayola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study ascertained Small Scale Commercial poultry farmers’ needs on improved production techniques in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. A purposive sampling technique was used to select sixty (60 poultry farmers. Findings revealed that the percentages of poultry farmers that need training on various poultry production techniques are as follows: housing system (83.3%, feeds and feeding strategies (87%, disease/parasites prevention and control (80%; handling skills (80% and marketing strategies (88.3%. Findings also showed that (13.3% of the poultry farmers hired labour for the business, (53.3% are making use of family/relatives for the business while (28.3% of the respondents employed both labour and family together. Marital status, level of education and awareness of improved poultry production techniques were significant (X2 = 6.136, P<0.05 and X2 =19.679, P<0.05. Also there was no significant relationship between farmers’ awareness of poultry production techniques and training needs (X2 =1.016, P<0.05. It is recommended that seminar/workshops should be regularly organized for the poultry farmers’ on the best practices that will save the cost of feeds and reduce mortality in their poultry production techniques.

  14. Modelling the impact of interventions on the dynamics in village poultry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Asgedom, A.H.; Viets, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    There are many technical possibilities to improve free-range and backyard poultry keeping. Rural households, however, are not adopting these technologies widely. This paper presents a model approach for ex ante evaluation of interventions in village poultry systems. The dynamic deterministic compute

  15. Village poultry in Ethiopia : socio-technical analysis and learning with farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgedom, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries village poultry keeping is regarded an important livelihood opportunity for the poor. To improve poultry systems, it is necessary to keep in mind a large number of local complexities. This study aimed to integrate participatory-, survey- and model-based approaches to socio-te

  16. Combustion of poultry litter in a fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; J. Seabra Barros; I. Cabrita; J. Leahy; B. Kelleher; M. Leahy [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-04-01

    Combustion studies of poultry litter alone or mixed with peat by 50% on weight basis were undertaken in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed. Because of high moisture content of poultry litter, there was some uncertainty whether the combustion could be sustained on 100% poultry litter and as peat is very available in Ireland, its presence was considered to help to improve the combustion. However, the results showed that, as long as the moisture content of poultry litter was kept below 25%, the combustion did not need the addition of peat. The main parameters that were investigated are (i) moisture content, (ii) air staging, and (iii) variations in excess air levels along the freeboard. The main conclusions of the results are (i) combustion was influenced very much by the conditions of the fuel supply, (ii) the steady fuel supply was strongly dependent on the moisture content of the poultry litter, (iii) temperature appeared to be still very influential in reducing the levels of unburned carbon and hydrocarbons released from residues, (iv) the air staging in the freeboard improved combustion efficiency by enhancing the combustion of volatiles released from residues in the riser and (vi) NOx emissions were influenced by air staging in the freeboard. Particles collected from the bed and the two cyclones were analysed to determine the levels of heavy metals and the leachability tests were carried out with ashes collected to verify whether or not they could safely be used in agricultural lands. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  17. Crianza Practica de Aves (Practical Poultry Raising). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series [No.] M-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country…

  18. Elevage Pratique de la Volaille (Practical Poultry Raising). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    Written in French, this manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country…

  19. Changes in poultry handling behavior and poultry mortality reporting among rural Cambodians in areas affected by HPAI/H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Van Kerkhove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2004, 21 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and eight human cases have been confirmed in Cambodia. As a result, a large number of avian influenza education campaigns have been ongoing in provinces in which H5N1outbreaks have occurred in humans and/or domestic poultry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from 1,252 adults >15 years old living in two southern provinces in Cambodia where H5N1 has been confirmed in domestic poultry and human populations using two cross-sectional surveys conducted in January 2006 and in November/December 2007. Poultry handling behaviors, poultry mortality occurrence and self-reported notification of suspect H5N1 poultry cases to animal health officials in these two surveys were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that although some at risk practices have declined since the first study, risky contact with poultry is still frequent. Improved rates of reporting poultry mortality were observed overall, but reporting to trained village animal health workers decreased by approximately 50%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although some improvements in human behavior have occurred, there are still areas--particularly with respect to the handling of poultry among children and the proper treatment of poultry and the surrounding household environment--that need to be addressed in public health campaigns. Though there were some differences in the sampling methods of the 2006 and 2007 surveys, our results illustrate the potential to induce considerable, potentially very relevant, behavioral changes over a short period of time.

  20. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and poultry products, Reporting and..., infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does not meet the criteria in paragraph (1) of...

  1. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  2. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  3. Modeling as a research tool in poultry science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, R M

    2014-01-01

    The World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) is a long-established and unique organization that strives to advance knowledge and understanding of all aspects of poultry science and the poultry industry. Its 3 main aims are education, organization, and research. The WPSA Keynote Lecture, titled "Modeling as a research tool in poultry science," addresses 2 of these aims, namely, the value of modeling in research and education. The role of scientists is to put forward and then to test theories. These theories, or models, may be simple or highly complex, but they are aimed at improving our understanding of a system or the interaction between systems. In developing a model, the scientist must take into account existing knowledge, and in this process gaps in our knowledge of a system are identified. Useful ideas for research are generated in this way, and experiments may be designed specifically to address these issues. The resultant models become more accurate and more useful, and can be used in education and extension as a means of explaining many of the complex issues that arise in poultry science.

  4. Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. Methodology/Principal Findings During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China. PMID:23166751

  5. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir...

  6. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.23 Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from... under the following conditions: (a) The poultry meat or other poultry products are derived from poultry...

  7. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  9. Modeling the burden of poultry disease on the rural poor in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L. Rist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock represent a fundamental economic and nutritional resource for many households in the developing world; however, a high burden of infectious disease limits their production potential. Here we present an ecological framework for estimating the burden of poultry disease based on coupled models of infectious disease and economics. The framework is novel, as it values humans and livestock as co-contributors to household wellbeing, incorporating feedbacks between poultry production and human capital in disease burden estimates. We parameterize this coupled ecological–economic model with household-level data to provide an estimate of the overall burden of poultry disease for the Ifanadiana District in Madagascar, where over 72% of households rely on poultry for economic and food security. Our models indicate that households may lose 10–25% of their monthly income under current disease conditions. Results suggest that advancements in poultry health may serve to support income generation through improvements in both human and animal health.

  10. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  11. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  12. Diary of a poultry intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, William

    2015-05-16

    In his post as poultry intern, William Garton is finding that CPD takes up a large proportion of his time. This, he says, can be quite enjoyable, particularly when events are sponsored by international pharmaceutical companies. This month, he has been on two training courses, one in Spain and the other in Belgium. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Four multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with live poultry contact, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loharikar, A; Briere, E; Schwensohn, C; Weninger, S; Wagendorf, J; Scheftel, J; Garvey, A; Warren, K; Villamil, E; Rudroff, J A; Kurkjian, K; Levine, S; Colby, K; Morrison, B; May, A; Anderson, S; Daly, E; Marsden-Haug, N; Erdman, M M; Gomez, T; Rhorer, A; Castleman, J; Adams, J K; Theobald, L; Lafon, P; Trees, E; Mitchell, J; Sotir, M J; Behravesh, C B

    2012-08-01

    Outbreaks of human salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been reported since 1955. Multiple Salmonella serotypes have been associated with these outbreaks, and specific outbreak strains have been repeatedly linked to single hatcheries over multiple years. During 2009, four multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with direct and indirect exposure to live poultry purchased from mail-order hatcheries and agricultural feed stores were identified, resulting in 165 culture-confirmed cases in 30 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental and laboratory investigations conducted by state and local health departments, state departments of agriculture, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Case-patients were identified through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, and interviewed using the CDC standard live poultry contact questionnaire that asks about poultry-related exposures during the 7 days before illness onset. These outbreaks highlight the need to focus efforts on strategies to decrease and prevent human illness associated with live poultry contact through comprehensive interventions at the mail-order hatchery, agricultural feed store and consumer levels. Additional consumer education and interventions at mail-order hatcheries and venues where live poultry are sold, including agricultural feed stores, are necessary to prevent transmission of Salmonella from poultry to humans.

  14. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI. Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1 egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2 egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3 poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  16. 77 FR 31292 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the National Poultry Improvement Plan.

  17. Biosecurity survey in relation to the risk of HPAI outbreaks in backyard poultry holdings in Thimphu city area, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Wangdi, Chador; Rai, Purna Bdr

    2017-04-21

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the biosecurity and other practices of backyard poultry holdings and knowledge and practices of poultry keepers following an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in poultry in Thimphu city area, Bhutan. The study identified 62 backyard poultry holdings in 12 settlement areas, and the owners were subsequently interviewed. The birds are kept in a low-input low-output system, fed locally available scavenging feed base, and supplemented with food scraps and some grain. Although the birds are housed at night in a small coop to protect them against theft and predators, they are let loose during the day to scavenge in the homestead surroundings. This invariably results in mixing with other poultry birds within the settlement and wild birds, creating favorable conditions for disease spread within and between flocks. Moreover, the poultry keepers have a low level of knowledge and awareness related to the importance of biosecurity measures, as well as veterinary care of the birds and reporting systems. Of particular concern is that sick birds within backyard holdings may not be detected rapidly, resulting in silent spread of disease and increased risk of humans contacting the virus (e.g. HPAI) from infected poultry. Nevertheless, all the respondents have indicated that they know and practice hand washing using soap and water after handling poultry and poultry products, but rarely use face-masks and hand gloves while handling poultry or cleaning poultry house. This study highlights the importance of educating poultry keepers to improve the housing and management systems of poultry farming within the backyard holdings in the Thimphu city area in order to prevent future disease outbreaks.

  18. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdar, S.N. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: snjam2@yahoo.com; Harikumar, P. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log{sub 10} cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 deg. C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 {sup o}C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  19. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  20. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir....../carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...

  1. Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, L J

    2011-01-01

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is still found on raw poultry. Expert committees have repeatedly emphasized the importance of controlling risk, but information about Salmonella in poultry is often limited to prevalence, with inadequate information about testing methods or strains of Salmonella that are detected by these methods and no information about any impact on the degree of risk. This review examines some assumptions behind the discussion of Salmonella in poultry: the relationships between sampling and cultural methodology, prevalence and numbers of cells, and the implications of serotype and subtype issues. Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically.

  2. Environmental Salmonella in agricultural fair poultry exhibits in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilonia, K L; Cadmus, K J; Lingus, T M; Bolte, D S; Russell, M M; Van Metre, D C; Erdman, M M

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica is a common zoonotic pathogen in humans. Transmission typically occurs through consumption of contaminated food products or contact with infected animals, including poultry or their environment. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of Salmonella contamination in the environment in poultry exhibits at agricultural fairs. Samples were collected from cages, feed, floors and tables in the exhibit and cultured for Salmonella. At least one environmental sample was positive for Salmonella in 10 of 11 fairs (91%), and Salmonella was isolated from 28 of 55 environmental samples (50.9%). Eleven different serotypes were detected. Results of this study demonstrate that environmental surfaces at agricultural fairs can be contaminated with Salmonella and could potentially serve as a route of transmission to bird owners and the general public. Poultry owners and the general public should be educated about the risks of Salmonella infection from the poultry exhibit environment. Agricultural fairs should consider instituting policies and practices to improve hygiene and mitigate the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis.

  3. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  4. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has created the necessity of replacement of antibiotic with other products like prebiotics, probiotics, organic acid botanicals, and herbal essential oils. Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices, and are used as natural alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry feed as these have antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Beside, other beneficial effects of EOs include appetite stimulation, improvement of enzyme secretion related to food digestion, and immune response activation. Recently, use of EOs in broiler chickens has drawn attentions. EOs are generally used as blend with a carrier oil or combination with other plant oils in the feed to enhance the productive performance of birds. Conclusively, EOs can be used in poultry feed, but there are still questions concerning their action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage in poultry, which are to be explored in detail. This mini-review describes the expanding horizons in the research on EOs in poultry nutrition.

  5. The European perspective on pale, soft, exudative conditions in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C

    2009-07-01

    Over the past 15 yr, the European poultry processing industry has gradually increased the availability of poultry meat in a large variety of processed ready meals following what occurred a few years before in North America. This shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. In parallel to this market change, the consciousness of the pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like meat issue has extensively grown. In poultry, PSE-like meat can be generally considered meat having low ultimate pH, pale color, and poor functional properties (i.e., low water-holding capacity). In the last 10 yr, some studies have been undertaken in Europe to both characterize and evaluate the overall incidence of PSE-like chicken and turkey breast meat. According to these studies, the occurrence of PSE-like meat can be up to 40% within a flock during hot climate. Several key factors have been identified and their effects have been analyzed, including genetics, season, antemortem factors, and slaughtering conditions.

  6. Case study the poultry industry in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "As developing countries open their economies further to trade, their food industries are striving to raise safety and quality standards in order to compete in new markets. Such is the case with the Colombian poultry industry... Critical questions face the Colombian poultry industry: Is it ready to compete with foreign poultry producers on price, quality, and safety? Can industry efforts to produce better quality products assure an increased share of domestic and regional markets? This brief ...

  7. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  8. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  9. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  10. Conservation of Poultry Germplasm Through Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Setioko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundantly available genetic potential of local poultry that needs to be conserved for future use of poultry development. Live conservation of poultry, both in-situ and ex-situ, would be very expensive and has a risk of mortality due to diseases such as avian influenza. Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs, which are progenitor of eggs and spermatozoa, provides an alternative way to preserve both male and female genetic materials in poultry. PGCs in poultry can be specifically harvested from blatoderm or blood embryo, and preserved in a liquid nitrogen similar to sperm, ovum and embryo in large ruminant. Technique for producing germline chimeric chicken has been established by transferring PGCs into the circulated blood embryo where the original PGCs have been removed or inactivated. Mating of germline chimeras yields offsprings that are derived entirely from the donor stock. Conservation of genetic materials of Indonesian indigenous poultry through preservation of PGCs could be used for future poultry improvement.

  11. The performance of poultry egg farms after the 2006 avian influenza outbreak in north central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Y. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the performance of the poultry egg farms after the outbreak of avian influenza in 2006 in the north central part of Nigeria. Seventeen poultry (17 farms were purposefully sampled for the study. The net farm income model, simple descriptive statistics and data envelopment analysis were used as analytical tools. The result shows that the poultry farms are making profits after the losses obtained due to the outbreak of avian influenza (AVI. The revenue from eggs and spent layers constitutes 52.3 % and 47.7 % of the total revenue respectively. The medium size farms are however making higher profits and are more technically efficient than the small size poultry farms. The technical efficiency scores for the small scale farms range from 0.23-1 with a mean of 0.51, while that for the medium size farms range from 0.38-1 with a mean of 0.73. The major constraints affecting poultry egg production include; fluctuations in egg production and high cost of feeds as well as vaccines. The study concluded that the performance of poultry egg farms in Nigeria can be enhanced through improvements in technical efficiency or an increase in scale of operation. The provision of subsidies to poultry farmers by the government was however recommended to ease the high production cost.

  12. KINETICS OF THIN LAYER DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure has become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a soil conditioner to improve soil tilth and reduce the problems associated with soil compaction and as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of thin layer drying of poultry manure and evaluate the effects of drying with heated air on the chemical and biological properties of manure. The effects of temperature and depth of manure layer were evaluated. The profile of the moisture content of poultry manure followed an exponential decay curve. The moisture decay constant was affected by the drying temperature and the depth of the manure layer. At the three temperature levels studied, the time required to dry poultry manure in 1 cm-deep layer was the least, followed by 2 and 3 cm-deep layers, respectively. The diffusion coefficient increased with both temperature and depth of drying layer, but did not show a linear increase with either variable. The optimum depth for drying manure (at which the highest drying effectiveness occurred was 3 cm. Drying manure at 40-60°C resulted in the loss of 44-55% of the total Kjeldahl nitrogen, with losses increasing with both the temperature and depth of manure. The pH of the manure decreased from the initial value of 8.4 before drying to about 6.6 after drying. The odor analysis indicated that dried poultry manure did not have an offensive odor. Drying achieved 65.3 and 69.3% reductions in odor intensity and

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  14. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  16. THE USE OF MARINATION TECHNIQUE IN POULTRY MEAT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk ERGEZER

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Marination is the widespread meat processing technique to improve quality, stability and yield of the poultry meats that submitted to raw consumption in the present time. In marination technique, immersion, tumbling and different injection methods may be applied, and the main ingredients are salt, acidic or basic phosphates, seasonings and some aroma materials. The important factors on final product quality are the raw meat composition, the use of electrical stimulation and composition of ingredients.

  17. Animal welfare concepts and strategy for poultry production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Well being of animals had been historically a public concern, since the beginning of human kind history. As world's population grows there is a need for food including meat. In the last decades there has been a great improvement in poultry production based on the careful control of several aspects, among which nutrition and management (environment, health and rearing systems). Nowadays, the search for good welfare conditions is a global tendency in animal production; however issues surroundin...

  18. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  19. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM AND CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a)...

  20. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  1. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricu

  2. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain.

  3. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  4. Effects of blending alcohols with poultry fat methyl esters on cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Hem; Walker, Terry [Biosystems Engineering, 114 Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States); Toler, Joe [Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Smith, William F. [Southeast Biodiesel, North Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols to poultry fat methyl esters. The alcohol type did not result in a statistically significant difference in low temperature performance at similar blend ratios in poultry fat methyl esters. In addition, blends of ethanol in poultry fat methyl esters afforded the least viscous mixtures, whereas isopropanol and butanol blends were progressively more viscous, but still within specifications contained in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in failure of the flash point specifications found in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Flash points of butanol blends were superior to those of isopropanol and ethanol blends, with the 5 vol.% butanol blend exhibiting a flash point (57 C) superior to that of No. 2 diesel fuel (52 C). Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in an improvement in acid value with increasing content of alcohol. An increase in moisture content of biodiesel was observed with increasing alcohol content, with the effect being more pronounced in ethanol blends versus isopropanol and butanol blends. Finally, none of the alcohol-methyl ester samples exhibited a phase separation at sub-ambient temperatures. (author)

  5. Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Pinto de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the egg farm is determined by the quality of the shell, resistant to handling, age, genetic origin and health condition of chickens, as well as the duration and conditions of storage. This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens supplemented with organic minerals. Used in 2400 Dekalb hens with 42 weeks of age. Throughout the period of the experiment was given the supplement. The animals were divided, at random into 2 groups, each ...

  6. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  7. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Lara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  8. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  9. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  11. Determination of Arsenic Species in Poultry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. P.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Two benzenearsenic compounds, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and roxarsone (ROX), are commonly used feed additives in the poultry industry for disease prevention and increased weight gain. Because these compounds are not readily adsorbed by poultry, As in poultry litter can reach concentrations >41 mg/kg, which, for comparison, is the maximum allowable concentration for land application of sewage sludge according to USEPA 503 regulations. In contrast to land application of sewage sludge or industrial by-products such as fly ash, the potential for As loading of soil from poultry litter application has received little attention, despite the more prevalent use of poultry litter as a soil amendment. Furthermore, little is known concerning the biogeochemistry of these organo-arsenic compounds in soils. In incubation studies, we found that soil solution As concentrations were higher for poultry litter amendments when compared with fly ash amendments despite much higher As loading rates for the fly ashes. Further work has shown that >90% of total As can be solubilized from poultry litter through simple water extractions. In order to identify the two benzenearsenic feed additives we have developed ion chromatography methodology to separate As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, p-ASA and ROX with element specific detection by ICP-MS. All species are well separated and detection limits are <50 ng/L for all species. Analysis of a water extraction of a poultry litter sample showed that the majority of soluble As was present as ROX but trace concentrations of As(V) and DMA were also identified along with an number of unknown As compounds. This methodology will prove useful in future studies of the fate and transport of p-ASA and ROX, and in identifying these compounds in watersheds where poultry litter has been extensively applied.

  12. Poultry Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet in the 2011, outbreaks of poultry diseases especially Avian Influenza in poultry may raise global public health concerns due to their effect on poultry populations, their potential to cause serious disease in people, and their pandemic potential. In this research, we built a Poultry Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory. In this Poultry Diseases Expert System We describe five symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. The result of the research is that Poultry Diseases Expert System has been successfully identifying poultry diseases.

  13. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  14. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  15. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... requirements. 9 CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and... 1:10 dilution of a bacteria-free, infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does...

  16. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production.

  17. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  18. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  19. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Additives in Meat and Poultry Products People have been using food additives for thousands ... may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products. HUMECTANT - substance added to foods to help retain ...

  20. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Moreki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Given the high feed costs in Botswana it is suggested that the use of poultry manure and/or litter as livestock feed should be considered in areas where foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic such as Chobe and North West Districts, as meat from these districts does not enter the European Union market.

  1. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  2. Genetic progress in the poultry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different and changing demands of poultry producers around the world. .... is an increased appetite and increased fat deposition (Sorensen,. 1980). It would not ... fat content and increasing lean tissue gain simultaneously, would be to select.

  3. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ is multi-dimensional, encompassing economic, environmental, social, and institutional governance aspects. The theoretical framework for this article on sustainability in poultry production is built on this multi-dimensional understanding...... or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...

  4. Significance and control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O A E; George, D R; Harrington, D W J; Giangaspero, A

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, poses a significant threat to poultry production and hen health in many parts of the world. With D. gallinae increasingly suspected of being a disease vector, and reports indicating that attacks on alternative hosts, including humans, are becoming more common, the economic importance of this pest has increased greatly. As poultry production moves away from conventional cage systems in many parts of the world, D. gallinae is likely to become more abundant and difficult to control. Control remains dominated by the use of synthetic acaricides, although resistance and treatment failure are widely reported. Alternative control measures are emerging from research devoted to D. gallinae and its management. These alternative control measures are beginning to penetrate the market, although many remain at the precommercial stage. This review compiles the expanding body of research on D. gallinae and assesses options for its current and future control. We conclude that significant advances in D. gallinae control are most likely to come through an integrated approach adopting recent research into existing and novel control strategies; this is being combined with improved monitoring and modeling to better inform treatment interventions.

  5. Analysis of Urban Household Demand for Poultry Production in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AdelomoBosedeSekumade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the urban household demand for poultry products in Ado Local Government areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Ten wards were randomly selected in Ado local government area and this was followed by a random selection of twelve households from each selected ward, making a total number of 120 respondents used for the survey with the aid of structured questionnaires. The analytical techniques used include descriptive statistics like mean, minimum value, maximum value; standard deviation and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between the household’s socio-economic characteristics and the amount spent on poultry products. The results obtained revealed that majority of the household (45.4 percent believed that taste of the poultry product determine the demand for poultry products, the mean amount spent on poultry product monthly is ₦4,918.61(24.59USD which is very low, it may be due to the high price of poultry products or easy accessibility to a close substitute which made respondents demand for more substitutes than poultry products and the regression analysis for the determinant of households demand for poultry products reveals that variables such as “years spent in formal education, household size and average monthly income” had positive effect on amount spent on poultry products. There should be a policy measure that will ensure increase in purchasing power of the people’s income which will invariably contribute positively to the improvement of nutritional status of the people and government price intervention program should be introduced in order to stabilize the fluctuation of poultry products prices.

  6. Microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jelena; Borović, Branka; Velebit, Branko; Lakićević, Brankica; Baltić, Tatjana; Mitrović, Radmila; Milijašević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanically separated meat is often contaminated with microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat samples from June 2011 to December 2012. Microbiological testing included Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and the number of aerobic bacteria. In 5.26% of the samples the presence of Salmonella species was revealed, whereas 22.95% and 4.92% of the mechanically separated poultry meat samples were incompliant in reg...

  7. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  8. Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that oc

  9. Application of Probiotics in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years probiotics have constantly increased in importance and aroused growing interest in animal nutrition. Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. The bacteria of the probiotic attach to the intestinal mucosa, thereby forming a physical barrier that blocks the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. The mode of action of probiotics in poultry includes maintaining normal intestinal microflora by competitive exclusion and antagonism, altering metabolism by increasing digestive enzyme activity and decreasing bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia production, improving feed intake and digestion and neutralizing enterotoxins and stimulating the immune system. In experiment we research effect of probiotic on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group with probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight and GIT pH were recorded. Average body weight on the end of experiment in experimental group was 1493.6 g and 1689.6 g in control group. Average pH in experimental group was 2.79 in stomach, 6.28 in small intestine, 6.81 and 6.89 in caecum. In control group was average pH 3.54 in stomach, 6.41 in small intestine, 6.74 and 6.80 in caecum.

  10. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  11. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chicke...

  12. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  13. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparagano, O.; Pavlicevic, A.; Murano, T.; Camarda, A.; Sahibi, H.; Kilpinen, O.; Mul, M.F.; Emous, van R.A.; Bouquin, Le S.; Hoel, K.; Cafiero, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as

  14. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or...

  15. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is very costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable heating poultry houses may provide a way to efficiently disinfect houses. The objective of this work was ...

  16. Antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli, isolated from freshly slaughtered poultry and from chilled poultry at retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensink, J C; Botham, F P

    1983-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from poultry was investigated. Poultry carcases were examined immediately after slaughter or at retail outlets; the carcases were from the same processing plant and 100 were examined from each source. Approximately 85% of the total of 13,858 isolates examined were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Highly significant differences were found in the levels of antibiotic resistance from the 2 sources; ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulphonamide resistance was found more frequently in isolates from poultry at retail, while resistance against streptomycin and neomycin occurred more frequently in isolates from poultry examined at slaughter. The data were insufficient to explain these changes. Transfer of resistance occurred less frequently in isolates from poultry at retail; in particular the transfer of resistance from coliforms other than Escherichia coli was found to be greatly reduced.

  17. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-08-25

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established.

  18. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the Ontario meat and poultry sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Means by which the Ontario meat and poultry industries can reduce their consumption of energy, water and other resources, and reduce environmental discharges are discussed. In turn, improvements in resource and environmental efficiency by Ontario meat and poultry plants could help alleviate the load on Ontario's municipal infrastructure, reducing the need for new construction, as well as helping to minimize greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. By implementing the measures recommended in this guide the industry can also significantly reduce its operating cost at little or no capital expense. This revised edition improves the visual appearance and versatility of the Guide, in addition to including suggestions by the Canadian Meat Council, the Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency , and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, as amplification of the views of the authorities consulted in the preparation of the 1994 first edition. 22 refs., 26 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. A Review of Different Stunning Methods for Poultry—Animal Welfare Aspects (Stunning Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical water bath stunning is the most commonly used method for poultry stunning prior to slaughter, but has been questioned on animal welfare and product quality grounds. Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS methods, involving a variety of gas mixtures, have become increasingly common, at least in Europe. CAS methods have been perceived as an improvement from an animal welfare perspective, partly because birds can be stunned without prior shackling, and are generally considered to result in improved product quality compared to water bath stunning. However, there would still be an interest in alternative stunning methods especially for small to medium size poultry slaughterhouses. This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods, including novel and emerging stunning technologies.

  20. Influenza A Virus in Backyard Pigs and Poultry in Rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, K; Berg, M; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Magnusson, U; Olsen, B; Zohari, S

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    risks are considered to be similar for layer and broiler farms. Our results, including those on farmer opinions, are relevant for the communication with farmers and poultry-related businesses about practices and risks. We conclude by providing recommendations for improvement of control strategies.

  2. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions.

  3. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  4. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase,...

  5. Small Holder Poultry Management Practices and Constraints among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all these sources, poultry has the highest contribution to animal protein intake ... to the types of animals' being kept, type of production and other economic and ... practices and associated problems faced by women poultry farmers in Kano.

  6. Formulating poultry processing sanitizers from alkaline salts of fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though some poultry processing operations remove microorganisms from carcasses; other processing operations cause cross-contamination that spreads microorganisms between carcasses, processing water, and processing equipment. One method used by commercial poultry processors to reduce microbial contam...

  7. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  8. Quantitative detection of fecal contamination with domestic poultry feces in environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fang-Fang; Li, Hu; Zhou, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Su, Jian-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Poultry are an important source of fecal contamination in environments. However, tools for detecting and tracking this fecal contamination are in the early stages of development. In practice, we have found that source tracking methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of poultry-specific microbiota are not sufficiently sensitive. We therefore developed two quantitative PCR assays for detection of poultry fecal contamination, by targeting chicken and duck mitochondrial genes: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) and cytochrome b (cytb). The sensitivity of both assays was 100% when tested on 50 chicken and duck fecal samples from 10 provinces of China. These assays were also tested in field samples, including soil and water collected adjacent to duck farms, and soils fertilized with chicken manure. Poultry mitochondrial DNA was detected in most of these samples, indicating that the assays are a robust method for monitoring environmental contamination with poultry feces. Complemented with existing indicators of fecal contamination, these markers should improve the efficiency and accuracy of microbial source tracking.

  9. Application of Molecular Approaches for Understanding Foodborne Salmonella Establishment in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis in the United States is one of the most costly foodborne diseases. Given that Salmonella can originate from a wide variety of environments, reduction of this organism at all stages of poultry production is critical. Salmonella species can encounter various environmental stress conditions which can dramatically influence their survival and colonization. Current knowledge of Salmonella species metabolism and physiology in relation to colonization is traditionally based on studies conducted primarily with tissue culture and animal infection models. Consequently, while there is some information about environmental signals that control Salmonella growth and colonization, much still remains unknown. Genetic tools for comprehensive functional genomic analysis of Salmonella offer new opportunities for not only achieving a better understanding of Salmonella pathogens but also designing more effective intervention strategies. Now the function(s of each single gene in the Salmonella genome can be directly assessed and previously unknown genetic factors that are required for Salmonella growth and survival in the poultry production cycle can be elucidated. In particular, delineating the host-pathogen relationships involving Salmonella is becoming very helpful for identifying optimal targeted gene mutagenesis strategies to generate improved vaccine strains. This represents an opportunity for development of novel vaccine approaches for limiting Salmonella establishment in early phases of poultry production. In this review, an overview of Salmonella issues in poultry, a general description of functional genomic technologies, and their specific application to poultry vaccine developments are discussed.

  10. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM, the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively. The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits.

  11. Power generation from poultry litter biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaier, T.A.; Morrow, R.S. [Detroit Stoker Co., Detroit (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The following paper presents the experiences of power plants utilizing poultry litter as a boiler fuel. The combustion of poultry litter provides an innovative solution to problems such as ground water run-off contamination while producing electric power with this renewable fuel. The ash from the combustion process can be utilized for resale as a fertilizer, thereby helping to provide a closed-loop environmental cycle. As with all biomass fuels, the power generated results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions and thus contributes to the solution of current greenhouse gas problems. (author)

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  13. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  14. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY,...

  15. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219 Section 93.219 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  16. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205 Section 93.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  17. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73 Section 381.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  18. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide. Epidemiolog

  19. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  20. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  1. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400...

  2. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  3. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  4. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide. Epidemiolog

  5. Arsenic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R; Price, Lance B; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2006-04-01

    Organoarsenicals are commonly used for growth promotion in U.S. poultry production. Susceptibilities to arsenite, arsenate, and the organoarsenical roxarsone were measured in 251 Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antimicrobial-free retail poultry products. Isolates from conventional poultry products had significantly higher roxarsone MICs (z = 8.22; P < 0.0001).

  6. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease prevalence

  7. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  8. Salmonella prevalence in poultry varies greatly in emerging markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry meat continues to be a significant source for human salmonellosis worldwide. Retail establishments serve as an end point sale for raw and processed poultry products. Food safety surveillance systems for raw poultry have been carried out mainly at the processing plants. That being said, it is...

  9. The use of Yucca schidigera and microbial preparation for poultry manure deodorization and hygienization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Magdalena; Borowski, Sebastian; Nowak, Adriana; Korczyński, Mariusz; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of microbial preparation and Yucca schidigera in the removal of odorous volatile compounds from poultry manure as well as to evaluate antimicrobial properties of these amendments. It was demonstrated that the combined treatment of poultry manure (PM) with the microbial preparation and Y. schidigera extract can reduce the concentration of odorants by 58%-73%, depending on the tested compound. When Y. schidigera extract and the microbial preparation were applied at a time interval of 48 h, the deodorization efficiency was improved by 6-24%. Furthermore, Y. schidigera extract has antimicrobial properties, which affect poultry manure hygienization. It was found that when the microbial preparation was enriched with Lactobacillus plantarum, it became insensitive to the antimicrobial properties of Y. schidigera.

  10. The role of vaccination in risk mitigation and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jo; Mansfield, Karen L; Brown, Ian H

    2017-09-23

    Newcastle disease is regarded as one of the most important avian diseases throughout the world and continues to be a threat and economic burden to the poultry industry. With no effective treatment, poultry producers rely primarily on stringent biosecurity and vaccination regimens to control the spread of this devastating disease. This concise review provides an historical perspective of Newcastle disease vaccination and how fundamental research has paved the way for the development of instrumental techniques which are still in use today. Although vaccination programmes have reduced the impact of clinical disease, they have historically been ineffective in controlling the spread of virulent viruses and therefore do not always offer an adequate solution to the world's food security problems. However, the continued development of novel vaccine technology and improved biosecurity measures through education may offer a solution to help reduce the global threat of Newcastle disease on the poultry industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Development of research paper writing skills of poultry science undergraduate students studying food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C

    2006-02-01

    Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.

  12. Cluster randomised trial of the impact of biosecurity measures on poultry health in backyard flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Holl, Davun; Ra, Sok; Ponsich, Aurélia; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-12-01

    In Cambodia, most poultry are raised in backyard flocks with a low level of biosecurity, which increases the risk of spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a practical biosecurity intervention based on affordable basic measures. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in 18 villages in Cambodia from November 2009 to February 2011. Generalised estimating equations were used to test the association between the intervention and mortality rates in flocks of chickens and ducks. Mortality rates in chicken flocks in intervention villages (mean 6.3%, range 3.5-13.8%, per month) were significantly higher than in control villages (mean 4.5%, range 2.0-9.7%, per month; Pbiosecurity intervention implemented in this study was not associated with improvements in poultry mortality rates. These findings suggest that basic biosecurity measures may not suffice to limit the spread of infectious diseases in backyard poultry flocks in Cambodia.

  13. Fiber fermentation in pigs and poultry : sense and nonsense of its manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.

    2014-01-01

        The increased use of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pig and poultry diets requires an optimal utilization of these feed ingredients. Hence, the animal feed industry explores opportunities to improve degradability of these feedstuffs and maximize their inclusion levels in

  14. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from definition of âpoultry productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  16. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  17. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako; Camarda, Antonio; Sahibi, Hamid; Kilpinen, Ole; Mul, Monique; van Emous, Rick; le Bouquin, Sophie; Hoel, Kristian; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2009-06-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have confirmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and efficacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as free-range, barns or backyards and more often in laying hens than in broiler birds. The lack of knowledge from producers and the utilisation of inadequate, ineffective or illegal chemicals in many countries have been responsible for the increase in infestation rates due to the spread of acaricide resistance. The costs for control methods and treatment are showing the tremendous economic impact of this ectoparasite on poultry meat and egg industries. This paper reviews the prevalence rates of this poultry pest in different countries and for different farming systems and the production parameters which could be linked to this pest proliferation.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad A. Akond; S. M.R. Hassan; Saidul Alam; Momena Shirin

    2009-01-01

    .... Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains...

  19. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry.

  20. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  1. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  2. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  3. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  4. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Risk assessment of poultry sloughterhouses in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROVENA JAHELEZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the risk of poultry slaughterhouses in order to achieve a better official inspection. Study is taking place in 5 poultry slaughterhouses in Albania. The study was conducted through two tasks: poultry slaughterhouses classification related to the risk assessment based on the characteristics of the plant, product characteristics, production, hygiene processes, HACCP, and on the identification of presence of Salmonella spp in the slaughterhouse environment and in the final product. In every slaughterhouse, inspections are performed every 3 months, by completing the appropriate checklist using point’s evaluation. The results show that 5 slaughterhouses resulted in high risk (over 42 points. The detection of Salmonella spp in poultry carcasses is based on ISO 6579: 2002 method. 25 meat samples were analyzed in total where, out of which only one sample resulted with the presence of Salmonella spp in 25 gr. These results are due to an inappropriate Hygienic Practice, Manufacturing Practice and show that HACCP isnotimplementedrigorously.

  6. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Ferrer, I; Rutherford, D W; Wershaw, R L; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2003-01-20

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species.

  7. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  8. Retroviral infections of poultry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) are the most common naturally occurring retroviruses associated with neoplastic diseases in domesticated poultry (16,48). In addition to causing tumors and other production problems, both ALV and REV are potential contaminants of live-...

  9. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  10. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  11. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... evidence shows that price elasticity for chicken in the United States is quite inelastic.\\3\\ Because the... may bring about price changes that may benefit the industry and retailers but may not result in... change in the market price of poultry because the rule will not have much effect on consumer...

  12. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  13. Organic Poultry Farming in India- issues and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Dodamani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades poultry industry has transformed from mere back yard poultry to commercial farm, but the issues of food safety and quality remains unaddressed. Hence, organic poultry farming has become as an approach to address these issues. This paper attempts to discuss the various issues of organic farming along with necessary interventions required in poultry breeding, feeding, housing and health care management under Indian Scenario. Further, necessary policy interventions were also suggested in order to promote organic poultry farming. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 273-277

  14. The methane production of poultry slaughtering residues and effects of pre-treatments on the methane production of poultry feather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, E.; Einola, J.; Rintala, J. [University of Jyvaskyla (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    2003-09-01

    The biological methane production rate and yield of different poultry slaughtering residues were studied. Poultry offal, blood, and bonemeal were rich in proteins and lipids and showed high methane yields, 0.7-0.9, 0.5, and 0.6-0.7 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile solids{sub added}, respectively (270-340, 100, and 150-170 m{sup 3} ton {sup -1}wet weight). Blood and bonemeal produced methane rapidly, whereas the methane production of offal was more delayed probably due to long-chain fatty acid inhibition. The length of delay depended on the source and concentration of inoculum and incubation temperature, sewage sludge at 35{sup o}C having the shortest delay of a few days, while granular sludge did not produce methane within 94 days of incubation. Feather showed a somewhat lower methane yield. 0.21 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile solids {sub added} (50 m{sup 3} ton{sup -1} wet weight). Combined thermal (120{sup o}C, 5 min) and enzymatic (commercial alkaline endopeptidase, 2-10 g 1{sup -1}, 2-24 h), and enzymatic pre-treatments were less effective, with methane yield increasing by 5 to 32%. Based on the present results, anaerobic digestion of the studied poultry slaughtering residues appears a promising possibility because of the high methane yield and nitrogen content of these residues (8 to 14% N of total solids), whereas pre-treatments were shown to improve the methane production of feather. (author)

  15. The methane production of poultry slaughtering residues and effects of pre-treatments on the methane production of poultry feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, E; Einola, J; Rintala, J

    2003-09-01

    The biological methane production rate and yield of different poultry slaughtering residues were studied. Poultry offal, blood, and bonemeal were rich in proteins and lipids and showed high methane yields, 0.7-0.9, 0.5, and 0.6-0.7 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids(added), respectively (270-340, 100, and 150-170 m3 ton(-1) wet weight). Blood and bonemeal produced methane rapidly, whereas the methane production of offal was more delayed probably due to long-chain fatty acid inhibition. The length of delay depended on the source and concentration of inoculum and incubation temperature, sewage sludge at 35 degrees C having the shortest delay of a few days, while granular sludge did not produce methane within 94 days of incubation. Feather showed a somewhat lower methane yield, 0.21 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids(added) (50 m3 ton(-1) wet weight). Combined thermal (120 degrees C, 5 min) and enzymatic (commercial alkaline endopeptidase, 2-10 g l(-1)) pre-treatments increased its methane yield by 37 to 51%. Thermal (70-120 degrees C, 5-60 min), chemical (NaOH 2-10 g l(-1), 2-24 h), and enzymatic pre-treatments were less effective, with methane yield increasing by 5 to 32%. Based on the present results, anaerobic digestion of the studied poultry slaughtering residues appears a promising possibility because of the high methane yield and nitrogen content of these residues (8 to 14% N of total solids), whereas pre-treatments were shown to improve the methane production of feather.

  16. Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction.

  17. Method-dependent variability in determination of prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Canadian retail poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Plante, Daniel; Iugovaz, Irène; Kenwell, Robyn; Bélanger, Ghislaine; Boucher, Francine; Poulin, Nathalie; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Canada, and the illness is commonly associated with poultry consumption. Whereas Canadian retail poultry is often contaminated with campylobacters, studies on the prevalence of this organism are inconsistent due to variability in sampling and microbiological methodology. To determine the current microbiological status of Canadian poultry, and to evaluate two commonly used microbiological methods, 348 raw poultry samples were collected at retail across Canada over a period of 3 years (2007 to 2010) and were analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 42.8% by a combination of the two testing methods, with 33.9% of the samples positive for C. jejuni, 3.7% of the samples positive for C. coli, and 5.2% of the samples positive for both. Variability in Campylobacter spp. prevalence was observed in samples obtained from different regions across Canada and from poultry with or without skin, but this was not statistically significant. In co-contaminated samples, C. jejuni was preferentially recovered from Preston agar compared with mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar, with an increase in recovery of C. coli on all selective media after 48 h of enrichment. A subset of 214 of the poultry rinses were analyzed by both Health Canada's standard method, MFLP-46 (enrichment in Park and Sanders broth), and a second method requiring enrichment in Bolton broth. Significantly more positive samples were obtained with the MFLP-46 method (40.6%) than with the alternate method (35.0%). This improved recovery with MFLP-46 may be due to the omission of cycloheximide from this method. These results demonstrate that determination of prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on poultry products may be significantly impacted by the choice of microbiological methods used. Canadian poultry continues to be a source of exposure to Campylobacter spp.

  18. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming.

  19. Studies on the utilization of ensiled poultry excreta as a ration for replacement stock of cross-bred dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayal, M.M.; Jain, V.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1981-04-01

    Four silages, of green maize (silage A) and poultry excreta + green maize (silage B) in experiment (1), poultry excreta + Johnson grass (silage C) in experiment (2), and poultry excreta + green maize (silage D) in experiment (3), were studied. In silages (C) and (D) 8% molasses was added before ensiling. The pH ranged between 4.3 and 4.6 in the different silages. In experiment (1a) green maize silage was fed alone: the poultry excreta + green maize silage was fed along in experiment (1b) and with 1 kg molasses in experiment (1c); the silages were fed with 0.5 kg wheat bran in experiment (2) and with 0.5 kg crushed maize in experiment (3). The voluntary dry matter intake was lowest in experiment (2) and highest in experiment (3). The digestibility of proximate principles, except that of crude protein, improved on supplementation with molasses (1c). Supplementation with maize resulted in increased digestibility of proximate principles except crude fibre. The digestible crude protein content increased with the incorporation of poultry excreta and was proportional to the poultry excreta content of the silages. The balances of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were positive. The mean daily gain was 121, 91, 151, 194 and 218 g in experiments (1a), (1b), (1c), (2) and (3) respectively. Inadequate energy intake adversely affected the body weight gain. Such silages, being deficient in energy content, warrant supplementation with higher quantities of energy-rich feeds for supporting production functions.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Akond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased emergence in microbial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in Bangladesh, a tropical country with a large agrarian population having limited medical facilities. Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains. Attempt was made to assess drug susceptibility in Escherichia coli from poultry sources of Bangladesh. Approach: Eighty selected strains isolated from poultry sources were thoroughly characterized by standard cultural and biochemical tests followed by final identification using latex agglutination test of polyvalent anti-sera, from which 50 were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics following disk diffusion method. Results: 145 (58%, out of total 250, were found positive for E. coli. 52-88% of tested E. coli strains from poultry sources were found resistant to Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Riphampicin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Cefixine, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline, and 20% strains showed resistance to both Chloramphenicol and Neomycin. No strains showed resistance to Norfloxacin and Gentamicin. Sensitivity was recorded in case of 60-86% strains to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, and Neomycin; and 26-36% strains against Tetracycline, Streptomycin, and Ampicillin. Intermediate resistance/ susceptibility to various antibiotics were observed for 12-36% Escherichia coli strains. Both, resistance and susceptibility were exhibited against Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Norfloxacin. Multi drug resistance was found in case of 6-10 antibiotics for all strains tested. Conclusion: Further study is required on the role of poultry borne bacteria as vectors in transmitting drug resistance. Attention is to be paid for personnel hygiene in processing and handling of poultry and

  1. Energy analysis of the poultry rising located at the Sertao do Pajeu, Pernambuco, Brazil; Analise energetica de aviarios localizados no Sertao do Pajeu pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Lopes, Tiago Pessoa de Melo Queiroz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias]. E-mail: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    The activity of poultry raising is today an alternative for income generation in the backlands of Pajeu, State of Pernambuco. In the City of Sao Jose do Egito, distant 402 km from the State Capital Recife, there is a large poultry plant with 284 integrated poultry farms owned by small rural producers. Those poultry farms are built in masonry and lateral woven wire fencing within the standard size of 9 m X 125 m. Their capacity is 10,000 birds and they are equipped with drinking and feed boxes, silos, fans, nebuliser, motor-pumps, lights and heaters. In their first 18 days of the bird's life, called 'baby chick phase', it needs a warm environment temperature of about 34 deg C, which is fundamental for its survival. In that phase the energy consumption is mainly related to water pumping and lighting. From the 19th day up to the 45th day - the period called 'poultry phase' - the birds need lower temperatures. The feeders are automatic, fans and nebulizers are used to ease the air circulation and to improve the poultry comfort. This phase is the one, which requires more electric energy consumption. After 45 days the poultry is slaughtered with about 2.8 kg and the poultry farm comes into a time period of cleaning and resting called 'cleaning and resting phase', which takes from 15 to 28 days. This is the phase with the lowest energy consumption. Then the poultry farm cycle is completed, which takes about 70 days, that is, the time span of one year accounts for 5.5 cycles. In this work an energy consumption analysis for all phases of poultry raising is performed and alternative proposals for the energy conservation and energy consumption reduction is presented. (author)

  2. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  3. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhibin; Wu, Peng; Ge, Li; Fielding, Richard; Cheng, Xiaowen; Su, Weike; Ye, Min; Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection.

  4. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Peng

    Full Text Available Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51% in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78% free-range. Around half of those households (40% allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9 and A(H5N1 virus infection.

  5. Impacts of poultry house environment on poultry litter bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael D; Polson, Shawn W; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.

  6. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  7. Impacts of poultry house environment on poultry litter bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Dumas

    Full Text Available Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD. Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.

  8. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  9. Evaluating two systems of poultry production: conventional and free-range

    OpenAIRE

    AMC Lima; IA Nääs

    2005-01-01

    The improvement in production technology was the major factor that lead Brazil to become the third largest poultry producer. The improvement was world´s based on the careful control of several aspects, including which nutrition and management (environment, health and rearing systems). Nowadays, the search for good welfare conditions is a global tendency in animal production. Concomitantly, an extensive production system of free-range broilers has been increasing in Brazil. This study ev...

  10. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...... positive samples to produce isolates for further characterization. The choice of a rapid method will always depend on the requested information and be influenced by the relevant matrix and the expected level of contamination....

  11. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Zlata Kralik; Manuela Grčević; Zoran Škrtić

    2012-01-01

    Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as f...

  12. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  13. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C W

    1991-05-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  14. Heat Stress on Poultry: Metabolism, Effects and Efforts to Overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industries in the tropics are challenged by high ambient temperatures and humidities which cause poultry suffer from heat stress. Heat stress contributes to the instability of certain compounds, such as enzymes. Consequently the enzymes function reduces. Affecting the physiological and hormonal conditions of the poultry. In such condition, the body will attempt to restore homeostasis to the state before it happened. When physiological failed to meet the condition, the body will use the genetic pathway by activating Heat Shock Protein (HSP genes to protect proteins which are sensitive to high temperatures. Heat stress in poultry triggers the emergence of various diseases and affects the growth of poultry and egg production. These negative effects on poultry can be minimized by selecting the type of chickens which are tolerant to high ambient temperature, modifying microclimates of cages and adding anti-stress compounds through feed and or drink.

  15. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  16. Economics of reducing Campylobacter at different levels within the Belgian poultry meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Messens, Winy; Halet, Dirk; Grijspeerdt, Koen; Hartnett, Emma; Viaene, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    Campylobacter infections pose a serious public health problem in Belgium. Poultry meat is most likely responsible for 40% of human campylobacteriosis cases in Belgium. On a yearly basis, consumption of poultry meat causes at least 22,000 campylobacteriosis cases, with a cost of illness of Euro 10.9 million. Several intervention measures have been proposed in literature, aiming to reduce the contamination of poultry meat and thus lead to significant reductions of human campylobacteriosis cases. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio, i.e., the ratio of reduced costs of illness on intervention costs of various intervention measures. These measures were selected by representatives from the poultry meat sector and experts in the field of poultry science. The selection comprised measures at the farm level (phage therapy), at the processing plant (spraying of carcasses with lactic acid or electrolyzed oxidizing water, crust freezing, or irradiation), and at the consumer level (improving kitchen hygiene and application of home freezing). Among these measures, the decontamination of carcasses with electrolyzed oxidizing water applied in the processing plant was the most efficient (17.66), followed by the use of lactic acid (4.06). In addition, phage therapy generated a positive cost-benefit ratio (2.54). Irradiation indicated the highest efficacy, but its cost-benefit ratio was rather low (0.31). There seems to be less gain by trying to improve food handling in the kitchen. The cost to reach consumers is large, while only a very limited fraction of the consumers is willing to change its behavior. The outcome of this study poses valuable information for future risk-management decisions in Belgium.

  17. Immunomodulatory role of probiotics in poultry and potential in ovo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C M; Dalloul, R A

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing debate regarding the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feed. This stems from worries that this practice may result in microbial resistance to human antibiotics employed in treating infections, thus causing a human health concern. Due to this tension, the poultry industry is under mounting pressure to reduce the use of these agents as feed additives and alternative control methods have taken the forefront in the research community. Investigators are searching for the latest alternative that will protect flocks from disease, while not hindering performance or negatively impacting profit margins. Probiotic supplementation is one option currently being explored as a means of improving performance and reducing the amount and severity of enteric diseases in poultry, and subsequent contamination of poultry products for human consumption. Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms known to have a positive effect on the host by beneficially modifying gut microbiota and modulating the immune system. This review will discuss the role of probiotics in poultry, including their effects on performance, immune response and host defence against disease. Also addressed will be the recent applications of supplementing probiotics in ovo as an innovative means to administer such additives to promote early colonisation of beneficial bacteria.

  18. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn. Supplementation as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used in non-therapeutic fashion as growth promoter for about 50 years in many parts of the world. It has been proven that supplementation of antibiotics in the diets reduces morbidity and mortality, as well as improve feed efficiency and overall growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the routine use of these antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs is being curtailed in view of threat to public health occurring through microflora that are developing resistance to antibiotics. This risk has driven European Union and other countries to withdraw authorization of in-feed antibiotics since 1997. Removal of AGPs resulted in substantial increase infections in poultry. As a consequence, the poultry industry needs to find alternatives to antibiotics in order to stem the effects of infection. One comparable alternative is natural sources of herbs and medicinal plants, which later known as phytobiotics. For the last 15 years, these alternatives have been increasingly claimed to increase enteric health, stimulate digestive system, and enhance growth performance. It was reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. belongs to such class of medicinal plant and may be an alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. In this review, the responses of poultry to diets supplemented with turmeric on growth performance, egg production, health status, and carcass characteristic were briefly discussed.

  19. Incorporating Smart Sensing Technologies into the Poultry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Increases in production input costs are driving innovation in the poultry industry in Ireland and worldwide. Integration of so called ‘Precision Livestock Farming’ techniques into the poultry industry supply chain will help producers to optimize management systems. This manuscript provides an overview of monitoring and performance sensor technologies within poultry production. It outlines traditional sensing methods and looks at the potential of novel performance related systems that could be...

  20. Listeria monocytogenes in poultry and poultry products: Epidemiological investigations in seven Danish abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojeniyi, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    abattoirs including poultry processing line samples, and final products were also examined for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 0 . 3% to 18 . 7% of the samples collected in the different abattoirs. Epidemiological typing of 247 L. monocytogenes isolates, including serotyping, phage...... typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping revealed 62 different clones. Based upon typability and discriminatory power, DNA typing methods used were found equally suitable as epidemiological markers. Serotyping and phage typing were not found useful as epidemiological markers for poultry...

  1. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...... rather than petrochemical diesel. Given that it is the production of the substitute for the poultry fat which mainly eliminates the benefit from using poultry fat for biodiesel, it is argued that whenever assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel made from by-products (such as rendered animal...

  2. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.

  3. Effect of Substrate on Identification of Microbial Communities in Poultry Carcass Composting and Microorganisms Associated with Poultry Carcass Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Du, Xueqing; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Ting; Liao, Xindi

    2016-09-14

    Three composting systems, which consisted of different ratios of chicken manure, sawdust, and poultry carcasses, were used to investigate the effect of substrate on the identification of microbial communities and microorganisms associated with poultry carcass decomposition by characterizing the microbial communities and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical and Miseq Illumina sequencing results showed the composition of substrate had a significant effect on the identification and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in decomposting process. Poultry carcasses might be the potential driver for the identification of bacterial communities in poultry carcass composting, whereas the initial C/N ratio may mainly contribute to the diversity of fungal communities and the similar dominant microbial communities in treatments. Poultry carcasses and initial C/N ratio could respectively affect the composition and abundance of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of poultry carcasses. Understanding the potential composting driver could allow development of an efficient carcass degradation system.

  4. Nutritive value of linseed oil in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roveda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy content of the diets is the major factor that affect feed intake in poultry. Fats and oils are the most concentrated sources of energy, but also those from which the availability and, therefore, the metabolizable energy content show the greatest variation (Blanch et al., 1996. This variation is influenced by several factors as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (Vilà et al., 1996a, Castrovilli et al., 1994 and percentage of free fatty acids (Vilà et al., 1996b. Another source of variation is the animal’s age:Wiseman and Salvador (1989 reported an improvement in the utilisation of dietary fats by broilers to adult birds...

  5. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  8. Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu; Ejikeugwu Chika; Anioketta Ogonna; Iroha Chidinma; Ajah Monique; Moses Ikechukwu; Eluu Stanley; Nwakaeze Emmanuel; Afiukwa Ngozi; Nwuzo Agabus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from various poultry products including chicken meat, poultry eggs, poultry bird's drinking water, and poultry feed. Materials and methods: A total of 79 samples comprising of chicken meat (n=20), egg shell (n=15), poultry egg contents (n=18), drinking water (n=14), and poultry feed (n=12) were bacteriologically and microscopically analyzed for the isolation of Salmonell...

  9. Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of co...

  10. Evaluating the risk of avian influenza introduction and spread among poultry exhibition flocks in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schemann, K; East, I J; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity analysis indicates that the prevalence of LPAI in wild waterfowl and the probability of contact of domestic birds with wild waterfowl are the most influential parameters on the probability of exposure; while the probability of spread is mostly influenced by the probability of movement of birds and the probability of the exhibitor detecting and reporting LPAI. To minimize the potential risk of AI introduction and spread, poultry exhibitors should prevent contact of domestic birds with wild birds, and implement appropriate biosecurity practices. In addition, adequate extension services are required to improve exhibitors' abilities to recognize diseases and reporting behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodologies for modelling energy and amino acid responses in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mervyn Gous

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present some of the issues faced by those whose interest is to predict responses in poultry, concentrating mainly on those related to the prediction of voluntary food intake, as this should be the basis of models designed to optimise both performance and feeding programmes. The value of models designed to predict growth or reproductive performance has been improved inestimably by making food intake an output from, as opposed to an input to, such models. Predicting voluntary food intake requires the potential of the bird to be known, be this the growth of body protein or lipid, the growth of feather protein, or the rate at which yolk and albumen may be deposited daily in the form of an egg, and some of the issues relating to the description of potentials are discussed. This potential defines the nutrients that would be required by the bird on the day, which can be converted to a desired food intake by dividing each requirement by the content of that nutrient in the feed. There will be occasions when the bird will be unable to consume what is required, and predicting the magnitude of these constraints on intake and performance provides the greatest challenge for modellers. This paper concentrates on some issues raised in defining the nutrient requirements of an individual, on constraints such as high temperatures and the social and infectious environment on voluntary food intake, on some recent differences in the response to dietary protein that have been observed between the major broiler strains, and on the methodologies used to deal with populations of birds, and finally with broiler breeder hens, whose food intake is constrained by management, not by the environment. These issues suggest that there are still challenges that lie ahead for those wishing to predict responses to nutrients in poultry. It is imperative, however, that the methods used to measure the numbers that make theories work, and that the

  12. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  13. Avanços metodológicos na avaliação de alimentos e de exigências nutricionais para aves e suínos Methodological improvements in feedstuffs evaluation and nutritional requirements for poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio S. Rostagno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção industrial de aves e suínos mostrou enormes avanços nos últimos anos, principalmente devido ao aumento dos conhecimentos na área de genética e de nutrição. Na área de avaliação dos alimentos e das exigências nutricionais de animais monogástricos, as melhoras se dão a passos largos, devido á seriedade com que os profissionais encaram a responsabilidade de fazer pesquisa de qualidade dentro e fora do país. Neste trabalho serão abordadas as metodologias que permitem melhorar a utilização dos alimentos de maneira mais eficiente e econômica. Serão citados alguns cuidados e procedimentos essenciais para executar adequadamente experimentos de desempenho com aves e suínos. Na atualidade, para a realização de experimentos com monogástricos, é necessário: definir claramente os objetivos, utilizar animais com peso inicial uniforme, usar número adequado de repetições e de animais por unidade experimental. Testes de médias devem ser usados para as variáveis qualitativas e quando a variável independente for quantitativa aplicar análise de regressão. O nível de significância utilizado (5, 7, 10% pode variar conforme a importância econômica da característica estudada. A adequada condução dos ensaios, sejam de crescimento ou de digestibilidade, é fundamental para que as ferramentas apresentadas possam ter efetividade, resultando na melhora da produtividade e na redução dos custos e da excreção de nutrientes.Swine and Poultry production showed enormous progress in the last few years, mainly due to the increased knowledge in genetics and nutrition. In the area of feedstuffs evaluation and nutritional requirements the improvement also was big due to the seriousness of the professionals to make high quality research in Brazil and abroad. This paper shows methodologies that can improve feedstuffs utilization more efficiently with lower costs. Procedures are described for adequate execution of growth

  14. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  15. O Comportamento das Aves Poultry Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Campos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre o comportamento das aves, principalmente as galinhas, datam de 1912, quando o gênero Gallus passou a ser estudado com mais intensidade na área da Genética. Tais estudos eram simplesmente filosóficos até o início da década de 80, quando uma nova era da produção industrial avícola surgiu, objetivando um maior volume de produção econômica em todas as áreas de exploração. Esse objetivo reativou de maneira científica os estudos de comportamento das aves face à tecnologia de produção empregada nos sistemas de exploração, tornando-os mais acentuados já na década de 90, culminando com um simpósio internacional realizado nos Estados Unidos onde foram traçados os objetivos ou linhas de pesquisas na exploração avícola. O intuito era evitar problemas com os movimentos ambientalistas, traçando novos rumos para uma produção eficiente sem interferir no comportamento das aves já no início do novo milênio. Esta revisão, tem como objetivo principal uma análise científica e filosófica sobre o comportamento das aves em diversos métodos de exploração.Studies on poultry behavior initiated in 1972, at that time, fowls from Gallus domesticus species were the most important animal for the initial studies of Genetic. Since then, just the philosophical concepts where involved in those studies. However, at the beginning of 80 decade, these studies were intensified taking into account technological approaches for an economical industrial poultry production. Meanwhile, the reactions from activists involved in the behavior of the animal subjected to production became more strong at the beginning of 90's as well as those studies on chicken behavior. Finally, in 1998, an international symposium, promoted by chicken behavior scientists were held in the United States, in order to establish new methods of exploitation of poultry without interfering in its normal behavior, at the beginning of new millenium. The main

  16. [Ulnar neuropathy in a poultry worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Juhl, Anne Haase

    2008-09-29

    Three months after he was employed as a poultry worker, a 48-year-old man developed involuntary jerks of his right first, fourth, and fifth fingers, paraesthesiae, weakness, and eventually wasting of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. His job entailed repetitive lifting of boxes weighing 10-25 kg with flexion of the elbow, pronation of the forearm, and ulnar deviation of the wrist. A nerve conduction study indicated ulnar neuropathy just distal to the elbow. Surgery at this level alleviated the symptoms, but shortly after his return to work, he changed jobs because of aggravation.

  17. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  18. Description of 44 biosecurity errors while entering and exiting poultry barns based on video surveillance in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Manon; Venne, Daniel; Durivage, André; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of biosecurity measures depends largely on the consistency of their applications by all those involved in poultry production. Unfortunately, poor biosecurity compliance has been reported repeatedly in poultry, as well in all other major animal productions. As part of a larger study, we conducted an investigation on eight poultry farms in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate compliance of existing biosecurity measures using hidden cameras. The objectives were to evaluate and describe the application of biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. A total of 44 different mistakes were observed from 883 visits done by 102 different individuals. On average, four errors were recorded per visit. The maximum number of errors made by one individual during one visit was 14. People observed over several visits made on average six different errors. Twenty-seven out of the 44 errors (61.4%) were related to area delimitation (clean versus contaminated), six to boots (13.6%), five to hand washing (11.4%), three to coveralls (6.8%) and three to logbooks (6.8%). The nature and frequency of errors suggest a lack of understanding of biosecurity principles. There is thus a need to improve biosecurity training by making educational material available to all poultry personnel demonstrating why and how to apply biosecurity measures.

  19. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  20. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  1. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  2. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93.212 Section 93.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTR...

  3. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.

    a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  4. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15 Section 82.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic...

  5. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...

  6. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F; Galvani, Alison P; Wickelgren, Abraham L; Malani, Anup

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers.

  7. Trends in microbial control techniques for poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-07-20

    Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety management system certification together with technological steps, such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality, and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with nonthermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and natural alternatives, such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this article, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.

  8. Efficacy of natural cranberry extracts against campylobacter colonization in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causative agents of food borne diarrheal illness. Epi-demiological evidence has shown that poultry is the main source for human infection. Currently there are no consistently effective treatments to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry flo...

  9. Coccidiosis in poultry – new trends for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    By 2050, the population is expected to increase to more than nine billion people; as a result of this anticipated growth, the demand for high protein poultry meat products is expected to increase anywhere from 70 to 100%. Therefore, poultry sectors including industry, government, and academia are c...

  10. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  11. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... used for research. (a) No poultry used in any research investigation involving an experimental... Inspection Service, or the Veterinary Biologics unit of Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health...

  12. Poultry Manure Effect on Growth and Yield of Maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Eight treatments of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 tons of poultry manure (pm) per hectare, ... The chemical fertilizer, as 20-20-20 NPK and sulphate of ammonia, was applied by ... the poultry manure, using standard laboratory methods: soil pH (soil: water ratio.

  13. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  14. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Maria José; Martinez, E Judith; Moreno, Rubén; Gonzalez, Rubén; Otero, Marta; Gomez, Xiomar

    2017-05-01

    The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6-8 g/L). The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  15. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  16. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, K E; Raber, G; Francesconi, K A; Navas-Acien, A; Love, D C

    2012-02-15

    Organoarsenical drugs are widely used in the production of broiler chickens in the United States. Feathers from these chickens are processed into a meal product that is used as an animal feed additive and as an organic fertilizer. Research conducted to date suggests that arsenical drugs, specifically roxarsone, used in poultry production result in the accumulation of arsenic in the keratinous material of poultry feathers. The use of feather meal product in the human food system and in other settings may result in human exposures to arsenic. Consequently, the presence and nature of arsenic in twelve samples of feather meal product from six US states and China were examined. Since arsenic toxicity is highly species-dependent, speciation analysis using HPLC/ICPMS was performed to determine the biological relevance of detected arsenic. Arsenic was detected in all samples (44-4100 μg kg(-1)) and speciation analyses revealed that inorganic forms of arsenic dominated, representing 37 - 83% of total arsenic. Roxarsone was not detected in the samples (arsenic in the food system, and may pose additional risks to humans as a result of its use as an organic fertilizer and when animal waste is managed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Poultry Intake and Chronic Diseases:a Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CUI; Yan MA; Hua-qi ZHANG; Jing CAI; Ai-guo MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively review the relationship between poultry intake and chronic diseases.MethodsThe literatures were limited to human studies and written in English during 2002 to 2014 and in Chinese during 1997 to 2014. A total of 35 studies were included in this study. Among all the included studies, five studies were related to colorectal cancer (CRC), six to prostate cancer (PCA) and five to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationships between poultry intake and CRC, PCA and T2DM were evaluated with the method recommended by WHO.Results First, the poultry intake was not associated with CRC. Five studies were included in this analysis, in which three (including one systematic review, one cohort study and one case-control study) were not associated between the poultry intake with CRC, while two (including one case-control study and one cohort study) were negatively associated. Second, the poultry intake was not associated with PCA. Six studies were included in this analysis, in which two (including one case-control study and one cohort study) were not associated between the poulty intake with PCA, while two case-control studies were positively associated with fried chichen, and another two case-control studies negatively associated. Third, the poultry intake was not associated with T2DM. Five studies were included in this analysis, in which three (including one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies) were not associated between the poultry intake and T2DM, while one cohort study not associated, but the processed poultry intake was positively associated. In another cohort study, the fried chicken intake was positively associated with T2DM. Finally, there were no enough data on the relationship between the poultry intake and the cardiovascular diseases (CVD), breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, blood pressure, obesity and anemia.Conclusion Poultry intake is not associated with CRC PCA or T2DM.

  18. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this pou...

  20. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using

  1. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Fate of rapeseed meal polysaccharides during digestion in pigs and poultry : effect of processing and enzyme addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pustjens, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the fate of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from rapeseed meal (RSM) during fermentation in vitro and in vivo was studied. The aim was to understand and improve the fermentation of NSP from RSM in poultry and pigs, by processing and enzyme addition. First, the NSP-structures in RSM

  3. Fate of rapeseed meal polysaccharides during digestion in pigs and poultry : effect of processing and enzyme addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pustjens, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the fate of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from rapeseed meal (RSM) during fermentation in vitro and in vivo was studied. The aim was to understand and improve the fermentation of NSP from RSM in poultry and pigs, by processing and enzyme addition. First, the NSP-structures in RSM

  4. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  5. Recent advances in role of chromium and its antioxidant combinations in poultry nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is reared in open side houses in most of the tropical countries, which results in huge temperature variation in shed causing stress resulting in increased demand of antioxidant supplementation. Since cooling of poultry houses or environment control is very expensive, thus methods focused on nutritional modifications appears to be the much logical approach. Stress increases mineral and vitamin mobilization from tissues and their excretion. Effect of some minerals and vitamin supplements such as chromium (Cr and ascorbic acid to elevate the negative effects of environmental stress is well documented. Cr functions as an antioxidant and its deficiency are said to disrupt carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Cr has been utilized for weight gain, to improve feed conversion ratio, increase relative organ weight, muscle development, decrease cholesterol, increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and improve nutrient digestion. Therefore, the present review discusses the beneficial aspects of Cr with its effect in different doses and antioxidant combinations to explore and promote its optimum utilization in poultry nutrition and production.

  6. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  7. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  8. Salmonellosis in poultry breeding in view of introducing vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased demand of consumers for safe poultry products, efficient control of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans is becoming the chief challenge in contemporary poultry production. Poultry meat, eggs and related products present the main source of salmonellosis in humans that occurs as a result of the consumption of contaminated food. Any serotype of Salmonella spp. that is not strictly linked to the host is capable of causing gastrointestinal disorders of various degrees in humans. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis has been the leading cause of salmonellosis in humans over the past 10 years. One of the available prophylactic measures is resorting to the vaccination of poultry against salmonellosis. Several vaccines against poultry salmonellosis, produced by different manufacturers, have been registered in Serbia. In order for these vaccines to become widely used in our country, it is necessary that the factors in primary poultry production are aquainted with the mechanisms of action of these vaccines, the effects achieved by their implementation, the economic feasibility, and the possibilities for monitoring in keeping with the valid legal regulations. Certainly, vaccination should not be taken as the only method in the prophylaxis of salmonellosis, but as one of the very important methods in a series of biosafety and other measures that should be applied on poultry farms for the successful curbing of salmonellosis infections.

  9. Predicting the distribution of intensive poultry farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; D'Aietti, Laura; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-03-01

    Intensification of animal production can be an important factor in the emergence of infectious diseases because changes in production structure influence disease transmission patterns. In 2004 and 2005, Thailand was subject to two highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic waves and large surveys were conducted of the poultry sector, providing detailed spatial data on various poultry types. This study analysed these data with the aim of establishing the distributions of extensive and intensive poultry farms, based on the number of birds per holder. Once poultry data were disaggregated into these two production systems, they were analysed in relation to anthropogenic factors using simultaneous autoregressive models. Intensive chicken production was clustered around the capital city of Bangkok and close to the main consumption and export centres. Intensively-raised ducks, mainly free-grazing, showed a distinct pattern with the highest densities distributed in a large area located in the floodplain of the Chao Phraya River. Accessibility to Bangkok, the percentage of irrigated areas and human population density were the most important predictors explaining the geographical distribution of intensively-raised poultry. The distribution of extensive poultry showed a higher predictability. Extensive poultry farms were distributed more homogeneously across the country and their distribution was best predicted by human population density.

  10. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  11. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  12. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  13. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ..., as listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6), are: Egg-type breeding chickens from a flock that... Clean program of the Plan in Sec. 145.23(h); Meat-type breeding chickens from a flock that participates..., and culture procedures. Changes to AI Clean Programs for Egg-Type and Meat-Type Chicken Breeding...

  14. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test,\\3\\ a polymerase chain ] reaction (PCR)-based test, or a...) H7L4S3. (3) DuPont Qualicon BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based assay for Salmonella, DuPont.... In addition, our proposed changes to paragraph (b) of Sec. 145.14 indicated that the polymerase chain...

  15. The use of marination to improve poultry meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Maurizio Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of marination on turkey breast meat qual- ity traits. Breast meat samples were marinated with two types of solution (containing sodium tripolyphos- phate, STPP or a commercial mix with sodium carbonate and citrate, COM) and three solution/meat ratios (14, 18, and 22%). Marination with STPP determined a higher increase of meat pH in comparison with COM (∆pH measured before and after marination: +0.20 vs. +0.14; P≤0.05). The marinade uptake and A...

  16. Consumers' preferences toward techniques for improving manual catching of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Verbeke, W; De Tavernier, J; Decuypere, E

    2006-11-01

    Growing interest in ameliorating animal welfare has prompted numerous studies that compare various aspects of manual and mechanical catching. In general, mechanical catching has been adopted as a realistic alternative for manual catching. The success of a catching machine as an alternative for manual catching does not only depend on its practical applicability, but also on its acceptance by "the general public." In the history of technological change, public perception of new technologies has often been ambivalent. Against this background, it is important to know how consumers perceive the production methods. This paper provides an evaluation of the preferences for catching methods by "society" to investigate whether there is a shift in preference due to the confrontation with video segments and the potential effect of awareness and importance attached to animal welfare on preference. Data were gathered through a questionnaire-based survey, including 450 respondents, performed in Belgium. For this study, the data indicated that when subjects were provided information concerning catching methods of broilers, they liked the technology much more. However, for those respondents without prior awareness of both catching methods or with high importance attached to animal welfare, giving information could not convince them of the advantage of using a mechanical catching machine. It is obvious that preference varies with the awareness and experience of the respondents. Future research should move forward from simple assessments of consumer concerns about the technologies and focus more directly on questions and issues related to the consumer's expected bottlenecks of these technologies. In this way, working at a better understanding can directly influence the acceptance of these technologies.

  17. Seroepidemiological Studies on Poultry Salmonellosis and its Public Health Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars remain a potential threat to human health, and poultry species are possible sources of these organisms. In this study, trials for Salmonella isolation from poultry and humans were conducted in the period April 2009 through March 2010 in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cloacal swabs were collected from different live poultry species including 150 broilers, 50 breeders, 50 layers, 50 turkeys, and 50 ducks, beside 30 litter samples from various poultry farms. Regarding the humans, stool samples as well as hand swabs were collected from 90 workers and poultry contacts of the examined farms. All poultry and human samples were subjected to bacteriological examination and serological identification for Salmonella spp. The recovered Salmonella strains were found belonging to S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium and S. SaintPaul. The obtained results demonstrated that the occurrence of Salmonella spp. accounted for 16.66, 10.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 2.0% in broilers, breeders, layers, ducks and turkeys respectively. Investigation of litter samples revealed that the occurrence of S. Kentucky was 53.33, 66.66 and 28.57% in broiler's, breeder's and duck's litters respectively. Examination of human samples declared that 8 out of 90 hand swabs were found positive for S. Kentucky whereas all stool samples reacted negatively to all Salmonella spp. In the present study, conclusively Salmonella serovars (S. Kentucky isolated from chickens were frequently isolated from hand swabs of the examined poultry contacts, this provided evidence that direct contact with poultry or poultry environment may pose health hazards for humans.

  18. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus by swine and poultry farm workers in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, R; Faísca, V M; Carolino, E; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus is among a growing list of allergens that aggravate asthmatic responses. Significant pulmonary pathology is associated with Aspergillus-induced allergic and asthmatic lung disease. Environments with high levels of exposure to fungi are found in animal production facilities such as for swine and poultry, and farmers working with these are at increased risk for occupational respiratory diseases. Seven Portuguese poultry and seven swine farms were analyzed in order to estimate the prevalence, amount, and distribution of Aspergillus species, as well as to determine the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases in these highly contaminated settings. From the collected fungal isolates (699), an average incidence of 22% Aspergillus was detected in poultry farms, while the prevalence at swine farms was 14%. The most frequently isolated Aspergillus species were A. versicolor, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus. In poultry farms, A. flavus presented the highest level of airborne spores (>2000 CFU/m³), whereas in swine farms the highest was A. versicolor, with an incidence fourfold greater higher than the other mentioned species. Eighty workers in these settings were analyzed, ranging in age from 17 to 93 yr. The potentially hazardous exposure of poultry workers to mold allergens using sensitization markers was evaluated. Although no significant positive association was found between fungal contamination and sensitization to fungal antigens, a high incidence of respiratory symptoms in professionals without asthma was observed, namely, wheezing associated with dyspnea (23.8%) and dyspnea after strenuous activities (12.3%), suggesting underdiagnosed respiratory disturbances. Further, 32.5% of all exposed workers noted an improvement of respiratory ability during resting and holidays. From all the analyzed workers, seven were previously diagnosed with asthma and four reported the first attack after the age of 40 yr, which may be

  19. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  20. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rеsаnоvić Rаdmilа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity is ability to stop an infection. Immunosupression is a status where the immunity is reduced. Humoral (antibodies and/or cell immunity may be depressed. Immunosupression can be caused by infectious agents, improper feeding balance (deficiencies, lack of biosecurity, management failures, stress or by a combination of these factors. Each of these possible causes must be seriously worked out to prevent the consequences of immunosupression on profitability. Environmental factors and numerous infectious pathogens have been identified as a multi-factorial cause of various degrees of immunosupression. Mainly subclinical character and coinfections make the diagnosis of the primary immunosuppressive agents difficult. On the other hand, early diagnosis and identification of contributing factors are important to develop strategies to fight immunosupression in birds successfully. A combination of biosecurity measures, optimized housing condition and stress reduction together with appropriate vaccination strategies is necessary for the successful control of immunosupression in commercial poultry.

  1. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P. (Dept. of Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural Univ. (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  2. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in field digestors by incorporating in-line pre-digestor assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Barooah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation inside the digestor is the continuous process which results in the formation of useful biogas fuel. All feedstocks are not easily decomposable thereby necessitating the design of an “optional in-line pre-digestor assembly”. Initially a 2 m3 modified fixed dome ‘Deenbandhu’ type biogas plant was commissioned with cattle dung, bypassing the pre-digestor assembly. In a phased manner, cattle dung was substituted with poultry litter as feedstock. Gradually increasing the substitution @ of 10% per fortnight, complete substitution of cattle dung could be attained in 18 week time. Poultry droppings assorted with paddy husk from deep litter system of poultry housings were used as feedstock. As paddy husk were indecomposable inside the digestor, an in-line pre-digestor assembly was used to remove the unwanted paddy husk by water dissolution technique. Enzymatic hydrolysis initiated in the pre-digestion tank in the 24 hours residence time improved the digestibility of the feedstock for generating biogas. The process of cattle dung substitution with poultry litter was complete in 18 weeks duration. Daily gas production was recorded with the help of wet type gas flow meter. The gas produced was continuously used for domestic cooking. The total solid (TS content of the poultry litter based feedstock slurry was maintained at around the same TS (9 - 10% as that of cattle dung (dung to water at 1:1 ratio slurry. With 100% use of poultry droppings at 10.3 % TS, average gas production level was 208.5 lit per kg of TS.

  3. Risk of Introduction in Northern Vietnam of HPAI Viruses from China: Description, Patterns and Drivers of Illegal Poultry Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvaux, S; Nguyen, C O; Vu, D T; Henriquez, C; Ky, V D; Roger, F; Fenwick, S; Goutard, F

    2016-08-01

    Poultry movement is known to contribute to the dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In Northern Vietnam, the illegal trade of poultry from China is a source of concern and is considered as responsible for the regular introduction of new H5N1 viruses. The general objective of this study was to get a better understanding of this illegal trade (organization, volume, actors involved and drivers) to propose adequate preventive and control options. The information was also used to qualitatively evaluate the risk of exposure of susceptible poultry to HPAI H5N1 virus introduced from China by illegally traded poultry. We found that the main products imported from China are spent hens, day-old chicks (DOCs) and ducklings; spent hens being introduced in very large number. The drivers of this trade are multiple: economic (especially for spent hens) but also technical (demand for improved genetic potential for DOC and ducklings). Furthermore, these introductions also meet a high consumer demand at certain periods of the year. We also found that spatial dispersion of a batch of poultry illegally introduced from China is extensive and rapid, making any prediction of possible new outbreaks very hazardous. Finally, a risk mitigation plan should include measures to tackle the drivers of this trade or to legally organize it, to limit the threat to the local poultry sector. It is also essential for traders to be progressively better organized and biosecure and for hygienic practices to be enforced, as our study confirmed that at-risk behaviours are still very common among this profession.

  4. Metapopulation dynamics and determinants of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Indonesian poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Matthew L; Fitchett, Stephanie; Hidayat, Muhammad Muharram; Lockhart, Caryl; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Brum, Eric; Angus, Stephen; Poermadjaja, Bagoes; Pinto, Julio

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, the Indonesian Government implemented a revised village-level Participatory Disease Surveillance and Response (PDSR) program to gain a better understanding of both the magnitude and spatial distribution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in backyard poultry. To date, there has been considerable collection of data, but limited publically available analysis. This study utilizes data collected by the PDSR program between April 2008 and September 2010 for Java, Bali and the Lampung Province of Sumatra. The analysis employs hierarchical Bayesian occurrence models to quantify spatial and temporal dynamics in backyard HPAI infection reports at the District level in 90 day time periods, and relates the probability of HPAI occurrence to PDSR-reported village HPAI infection status and human and poultry density. The probability of infection in a District was assumed to be dependent on the status of the District in the previous 90 day time period, and described by either a colonization probability (the probability of HPAI infection in a District given there had not been infection in the previous 90 day time period) or a persistence probability (the probability of HPAI infection being maintained in the District from the previous to current 90 day period). Results suggest that the number of surveillance activities in a district had little relationship to outbreak occurrence probabilities, but human and poultry densities were found to have non-linear relationships to outbreak occurrence probabilities. We found significant spatial dependency among neighboring districts, indicating that there are latent spatial processes that are not captured by the covariates available for this study, but which nonetheless impact outbreak dynamics. The results of this work may help improve understanding of the seasonal nature of H5N1 in poultry and the potential role of poultry density in enabling endemicity to occur, as well as to assist the Government of

  5. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  6. Phytate in pig and poultry nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Schwarz, C; Schedle, K

    2015-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) is primarily stored in the form of phytates in plant seeds, thus being poorly available for monogastric livestock, such as pigs and poultry. As phytate is a polyanionic molecule, it has the capacity to chelate positively charged cations, especially calcium, iron and zinc. Furthermore, it probably compromises the utilization of other dietary nutrients, including protein, starch and lipids. Reduced efficiency of utilization implies both higher levels of supplementation and increased discharge of the undigested nutrients to the environment. The enzyme phytase catalyses the stepwise hydrolysis of phytate. In respect to livestock nutrition, there are four possible sources of this enzyme available for the animals: endogenous mucosal phytase, gut microfloral phytase, plant phytase and exogenous microbial phytase. As the endogenous mucosal phytase in monogastric organisms appears incapable of hydrolysing sufficient amounts of phytate-bound P, supplementation of exogenous microbial phytase in diets is a common method to increase mineral and nutrient absorption. Plant phytase activity varies greatly among species of plants, resulting in differing gastrointestinal phytate hydrolysis in monogastric animals. Besides the supplementation of microbial phytase, processing techniques are alternative approaches to reduce phytate contents. Thus, techniques such as germination, soaking and fermentation enable activation of naturally occurring plant phytase among others. However, further research is needed to tap the potential of these technologies. The main focus herein is to review the available literature on the role of phytate in pig and poultry nutrition, its degradation throughout the gut and opportunities to enhance the utilization of P as well as other minerals and nutrients which might be complexed by phytates.

  7. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  9. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Hill, Rick E; Clifford, John

    2017-04-01

    The 2014-2015 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out programme that cost the US government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all US-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, and allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the US not affected by HPAI. Disease response and control activities in addition to the use of comprehensive surveillance and regionalization (zoning) as prescribed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code are a scientifically valid and effective means to maintain safe trade in poultry and poultry products. This was further realized during the 2016 H7N8 HPAI outbreak in Dubois County, Indiana, with greater acceptance of regionalization and continuity in trade with a more limited cost of $30 million for eradication.

  10. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Use of thermography to screen for subclinical bumblefoot in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C S; Patterson, J; Cheng, H W

    2009-06-01

    Thermographic imaging is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to document the inflammatory process in many species and may be useful in the detection of subclinical bumblefoot and other inflammatory diseases. Bumblefoot is a chronic inflammation of the plantar metatarsal or digital pads of the foot (pododermatitis), or both. It is one of the major health problems in birds including chickens and is responsible for significant economic losses in commercial poultry operations. Early diagnosis of bumblefoot is essential for the prevention of economical loss and the improvement of animal well-being. The object of this study was to determine the suitability of thermography for the identification of subclinical bumblefoot in chickens. Experiment 1 was designed to validate thermography as a tool for screening avian populations for bumblefoot. The plantar surface of the feet of 150 randomly selected hens was imaged using a thermal camera. The thermal images were identified as suspect, positive, or negative for bumblefoot based on thermal patterns of the plantar surface. Visual inspection of the feet identified as suspect followed 14 d later. A visual score of clinical, mildly clinical, or negative for bumblefoot was assigned, based on gross pathological changes in the plantar surface. A correlation between initial thermal images identified as suspect for bumblefoot and a visual score of positive 14 d later was 83% (P bumblefoot was 86.7% (P bumblefoot, early in the course of the disease, which will improve recovery percentages and bird well-being.

  12. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, PMB 2240 Abeokuta, ... the antibiotics used in poultry is for treatment of ..... Compendium of veterinary ... technologies in microbial ecology aid in.

  13. Technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in Ika South Local Government Area, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Gross margin analysis and stochastic frontier production function were used to analyze the data.

  14. Protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kathleen L; Delaney, Lisa J; Kullman, Greg; Gibbins, John D; Decker, John; Kiefer, Max J

    2008-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases are of increasing regional and global importance. Preventing occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases protects workers as well as their families, communities, and the public health. Workers can be protected from zoonotic diseases most effectively by preventing and controlling diseases in animals, reducing workplace exposures, and educating workers. Certain avian influenza viruses are potential zoonotic disease agents that may be transmitted from infected birds to humans. Poultry workers are at risk of becoming infected with these viruses if they are exposed to infected birds or virus-contaminated materials or environments. Critical components of worker protection include educating employers and training poultry workers about occupational exposure to avian influenza viruses. Other recommendations for protecting poultry workers include the use of good hygiene and work practices, personal protective clothing and equipment, vaccination for seasonal influenza viruses, antiviral medication, and medical surveillance. Current recommendations for protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses are summarized in this article.

  15. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  16. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. M.B. Adewole

    This study investigated soil physicochemical properties and nutrient uptake of a ... with consequent deterioration of soil physical and ... fertilizer depends majorly on soil organic matter. ... specific type of the poultry manure that could give the.

  18. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... gaps that could compromise quality and safety of poultry products in Nigeria. ... Animal Disease Control Edict and Meat Hygiene Act should be passed into law, Nigerian live ... 2010). The role of modern organized slaughtering.

  19. evaluation of a modified passive solar housing system for poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A modified passive solar poultry brooding system was tested for its performance at full capacity ... use electricity as heat source often suffer power .... roof top. The brooding room deep litter floor was provided with cement screen (smooth fin-.

  20. Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fouad, A M; El-Senousey, H K

    2014-01-01

    ... exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains...

  1. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  2. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. (Univ. of Maryland, Princess Anne (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Intensive Poultry Farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result may indicate the challenge that the poultry industry of the country may face .... they were inoculated immediately on appropriate culture media. Postmortem ... on blood agar (Green Star Impex Pvt. Ltd., Secunderabad, India) and XLD.

  4. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On Productivity Of ... The findings showed that age, rearing experience, Total Variable cost, ... Intensification of farmer education and training (extension) and family planning ...

  5. Poultry Houses, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Poultry Houses dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable projection; The...

  6. Effect of Dietary Fat on Gene Expression in Poultry, A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recent reports suggest that not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat is an important factor to prevent these metabolic diseases in human populations. It has been reported that some dietary fats are able to reduce lipid synthesis and increase fatty acid oxidation and diet-mediated thermogenesis. The outcome of this change is a superior animal product with lower fat content. There is evidence of dissimilar mechanisms of action of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of gene expression. This review will focus on the control of body fat by gene expression in avians.

  7. PECULIARITIES OF NON-INFECTIONAL ARTHRITIS IN GROWING POULTRY IN AN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of industrial poultry farming is the emergence of a growing birds’ arthritis. Inflamed joints are usually seen in poultry and accompanied by the inability to take food and water. The most characteristic of this problem in broiler chickens, young chickens of egg cross, i.e. birds of a short period of use. This is the reason for their rejection of the herd. Culling chickens are 10%, which furthermore reduces the total amount of livestock and leads to a reduction in the cost-effectiveness of growing birds. The analysis of our data gives a reason to believe that the main reason for culling poultry is acute inflammation of the joints or arthri-tis. According to the authors to ensure optimal rearing program, which should include the prevention of premature retirement of birds not only due to infectious diseases, but also the prevention of metabolic disorders and the exclusion of factors that could cause disruption of immunological reactivity. Currently, this program needs to be improved, which is particularly important in relation to vaccine pre-vention

  8. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  9. The Trends and Tides of Poultry Farm Building in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D Chia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adequate poultry housing is needed to protect birds from rain, direct sunlight, heat, cold, turbulent winds, dust etc. Birds are unlikely to perform satisfactorily if the housing is poor, therefore correct housing must be provided to meet the optimum environmental requirements for birds’ performance either through growth or egg production. Moreso, poultry houses cannot function satisfactorily unless they are properly equipped and supplied with the needed appliances. In the light of this, nine farms where chosen from different parts of Makurdi (Wurukum, Welfare Quarters, Judges Quarters, Achusa and Lobi Quarters and visited. Their housing structures and equipment were evaluated. Different aspects of their designs were compared with those found in the relevant literature. All the building accessed were naturally ventilated, opensided houses. However, some aspects such as the stock density, orientation of buildings, space between buildings, roof designs needed improvement, while other aspects were almost non-existent such as bio-security and environment control. Typical house dimensions ranged from lengths ( 11m - 22m, widths (6m - 12m and heights (3.0m - 4.7m. In Makurdi, there is need for an ideal poultry house which should be well ventilated, dry, clean and spacious.

  10. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent studies of gene expression and transcriptome responses to exposure, and mitigation strategies to reduce toxicity are discussed. Exposure to AFB1 primarily occurs by consumption of contaminated corn, grain or other feed components. Low levels of residual AFB1 in poultry feeds can cause reduction in growth, feed conversion, egg production, and compromised immune functions, resulting in significant economic costs to producers. Thus, AFB1 acts as a “force multiplier” synergizing the adverse effects of microbial pathogens and other agents, and factors detrimental to poultry health. Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1 due, in large part, to a combination of efficient hepatic bioactivation by cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37, and deficient hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST-mediated detoxification. Because of their sensitivity, turkeys are a good model to investigate chemopreventive treatments and feed additives for their ability to reduce AFB1 toxicity. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq of turkey poults (liver and spleen has identified AFB1-induced gene expression changes in pathways of apoptosis, carcinogenesis, lipid regulation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Current research focuses on further identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying AFB1 toxicity with the goal of reducing aflatoxicosis and improving poultry health.

  11. RESEARCH OF THE DEHYDRATION PROCESSES OF BIOPOLYMER SYSTEMS IN POULTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glotova I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the ratio of the water fractions, which differ on binding energy with the biomaterial in the composition of poultry products having various fabric and polymeric structure. The authors used the method of differential scanning calorimetry. The objects for the research were experimental and industrial samples of poultry products. We prepared the experimental samples by wet thermal treatment of broilers heads and feet at the pressure of 0.24 MPa. The objects for comparison were the products of industrial production of poultry meat: the paste of chicken meat with multicomponent composition (minced chicken, pork fat, water, pork liver, onions, wheat flour, soy protein, emulsifying, the taste and flavor food additives, color correction supplements; natural canned meat "Chicken in the own juice" (GOST 28589-90. The analysis showed that the investigated samples (broiles heads, broilers feet, multicomponent paste were characterized by the similar values of the mass ratio of the water fractions at three stages of dehydration, the relevant sections of the curves based on the degree of conversion of the substance α from the heating temperature in logarithmic coordinates. The results can be use in the development of formulations of food modules for the production of emulsified meat products from raw materials, subjected to preliminary heat treatment. We expect that the positive effect will be to increase the degree of utilization of secondary raw materials in the processing of poultry in primary production, expanding the range of foods enriched composition due to the natural raw material sources, improving sustainability of raw material base of processing companies

  12. Characterization, prevalence and antibiogram study of Staphylococcus aureus in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Yeasmeen Ali; Md. Ashraful Islam; Nazmul Hasan Muzahid; Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder; Md. Amzad Hossain; Lolo Wal Marzan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the presence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) in poultry samples and to determine the antibiogram pattern against five antibiotics. Methods: Samples from different poultry farm of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were examined for S. aureus by different biochemical tests and confirmed as MRSA by identifying the presence of mecA gene using PCR. Antibiotic resistance pattern in S. aureus was determined by antibiotic disk diffusion method. R...

  13. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  14. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gerolamo Xiccato; Angela Trocino; Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing) is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe...

  15. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  16. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  17. TRENDS IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors, which influence the formation of the market of poultry production. Agricultrual producers have developed diversified business channels, which depend on the nature of the economic interests of the owners of farms, local market conjuncture, the level of development of its own product processing and logistics structures. The growing share of imports has created a tangible threat to food security and the increasing dependence of megalopolises and big cities on import, in addition long-term relationaships have been destroyed within the existing socialist system, increased prices disparity. Only at the beginning of the 21st century Russian poultry industry started to get rid of the consequences of liberal market reforms. In many ways, the development of industry were contributed by the realization of the priority national project «Development of agriculture» and by the State program of development of agriculture and regulation of markets for agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2008-2012. However, the modernization of poultry subcomplex was mainly catching and accompanied by increasing dependence on imports cross, equipment, premixes and feed. Poultry organizations have high debt on loans, subsidies for reimbursement of the cost of interest com unevenly, putting poultry farms in a disastrous situation. In 2014, Russia has 21 region – poultry donor (where the volume of domestic production exceeds consumption and 61 recipient regions (where the volume of domestic production is less than consumption

  18. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMuir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with confined rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory and offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGE, have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level and multi-trait selection have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Also, multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by l greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being . Because social effects are improved with such programs, it might be possible to increase stocking density, increase light levels, and use larger groups in floor pens. However, such changes raise ethical concerns that may constrain making these choices.

  19. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  20. 9 CFR 71.17 - Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or other animals. 71.17 Section 71.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY)...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sudhir Kumar; Naveen Ramesh; Srinand Sreevatsan; Bobby Joseph; Prashanth Alle; Kumar Belani; Michael Osterholm

    2013-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data...

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad A. Akond; S. M.R. Hassan; Saidul Alam; Momena Shirin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Increased emergence in microbial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in Bangladesh, a tropical country with a large agrarian population having limited medical facilities. Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains. Attempt was made to assess drug susceptibility in Escherichia coli from poultry s...

  3. Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which, in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the aetiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that lead to over-proliferation of C. perfringens and the subsequent progression to disease are poorly understood. Any factor that causes stress in broiler chicks could suppress the immune system and disturb the balance of the intestinal ecosystem, in such a way that the risk of a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak increases. Poultry management could significantly affect the pathogenesis of NE. In particular, feed restriction and coccidiosis vaccination can protect against NE, while extreme house temperature, feed mycotoxins and high stocking density predispose to NE. It becomes really important to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to clarify the interactions between husbandry, nutritional and infectious factors and the outbreak of necrotic enteritis. This is necessary and extremely important in order to develop managerial strategies at the farm level to control the incidence and severity of the disease in the post-antibiotic era.

  4. Alternatives to antibiotics in poultry feed: molecular perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gayatri; Das, Ratul Kumar; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Rouissi, Tarek; Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Chorfi, Younes; Godbout, Stephane

    2017-09-11

    The discovery of the growth promoting property of antibiotics led to their use as antibiotic feed additives (AFAs) in animal feed at sub-therapeutic doses. Although this has been beneficial for animal health and productivity, it has been, essentially, a double-edged sword. The continued and non-judicious use of AFAs has led to the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of poultry pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. The rapid spread of drug-resistant pathogens as well as emergence of antibiotic-related environmental pollutants is of global concern. Hence, the identification and development of new and effective alternatives to antibiotics that do not hinder productivity is imperative. For this, it is essential to understand not only the molecular basis of development of resistance to AFAs but also the mechanisms of action of AFA alternatives and how they differ from AFAs. This review provides a molecular perspective on the alternatives to antibiotics that have been proposed till date and their current trends, as well as novel approaches such as development of improved delivery systems.

  5. Animal welfare concepts and strategy for poultry production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Moura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Well being of animals had been historically a public concern, since the beginning of human kind history. As world's population grows there is a need for food including meat. In the last decades there has been a great improvement in poultry production based on the careful control of several aspects, among which nutrition and management (environment, health and rearing systems. Nowadays, the search for good welfare conditions is a global tendency in animal production; however issues surrounding farm animal welfare or well-being, such as definitions, measurements, interpretation, and perception, continue to be controversial. It is known that the result of a broiler not adequately housed is a direct loss in production which leads towards a thought that health, welfare and productivity are intimately connected. In the other hand hints are found in the observation of behavioral responses as well as vocalization, which may provide more precise assessment to welfare. This has been possible due to the use of information technology applied to the field of ethology as well as the multidisciplinary view of the problem. This text provides a review on broiler's welfare issues since its definition to several way of trying to assess it adequately.

  6. Methods for assessment of keel bone damage in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey-Trott, T; Heerkens, J L T; Petrik, M; Regmi, P; Schrader, L; Toscano, M J; Widowski, T

    2015-10-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the laying hen industry today as a result of the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and the potential for reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that damage, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all systems (including battery cages, furnished cages, and non-cage systems), genetic lines, and management styles. Despite the extent of the problem, the research community remains uncertain as to the causes and influencing factors of KBD. Although progress has been made investigating these factors, the overall effort is hindered by several issues related to the assessment of KBD, including quality and variation in the methods used between research groups. These issues prevent effective comparison of studies, as well as difficulties in identifying the presence of damage leading to poor accuracy and reliability. The current manuscript seeks to resolve these issues by offering precise definitions for types of KBD, reviewing methods for assessment, and providing recommendations that can improve the accuracy and reliability of those assessments. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, John; Raven, Geoff; Givney, Rod

    2004-04-15

    During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full effect, rates of salmonellosis have not decreased (surveillance and reporting systems have remained unchanged). Using statistics gathered by the National Enteric Pathogens Surveillance Scheme, an attempt was made to link Salmonella serovars isolated from meat and poultry with those causing salmonellosis. Two periods were studied, 1993/1994, before regulations were introduced, and 2000/2001, when regulations should be having an effect. For red meat, the same serovars were prominent among the top 10 isolates both before and after regulation, and there was little linkage with salmonelloses. For poultry, frequently isolated serovars differed pre- and post-regulation, however, in both periods there was some linkage between serovars isolated from poultry and those causing salmonelloses. Using published and unpublished survey data, it was concluded that there had been improvements in microbiological quality of red meat and poultry over the same timeframe as regulatory changes. That these improvements apparently have not carried through to reduced case-rates for salmonellosis may be due to numerous causes, including lack of control in the food processing, food service and home sectors. The present paper illustrates difficulties faced by governments in measuring public health outcomes of changes to food hygiene regulation.

  8. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  9. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  10. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  11. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  12. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.

  13. Effects of labor motivation in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Broiler production is a significant economic activity in Brazil, and employs a large number of stockpeople in the integration process. Considering that the stockperson's perception may lead to better performance of his/her tasks and flock handling, this study aimed at verifying possible interactions between poultry productivity and stockperson's perception, emotions, and motivation. The study methodology considered two aspects: qualitative analysis, using Ergonomic Work Analysis, with observational method, and by applying a questionnaire and interview, and classification of the answers into positive relationship and "affection" to the job or negative relationship and "disaffection" to the job; and quantitative analysis, applying the Test of Hypothesis for Comparison of Means both for total flock mortality and Weight Equivalent Index data. Qualitative results showed that the stockpeople were aware that the housing environment causes specific health symptoms, as well as they presented different responses as to flock handling. Quantitative data showed a correlation between reduction of total flock mortality and positive relationship towards the broilers and "affection" to the job, whereas no statistical evidence that the same individuals influenced broiler Weight Equivalent Index was detected.

  14. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nowak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma, in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-10-26

    Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues.

  16. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  17. Review of Nonfoodborne Zoonotic and Potentially Zoonotic Poultry Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Pierson, F William; Lungu, Bwalya; Dunn, Patricia A; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2016-09-01

    Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks). This review builds on current knowledge on poultry zoonoses/potentially zoonotic agents transmitted via the nonfoodborne route. It also identifies research gaps and potential intervention points within the poultry industry to reduce zoonotic transmission by using various knowledge synthesis tools such as systematic review (SR) and qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative synthesis methods (i.e., meta-analysis). Overall, 1663 abstracts were screened and 156 relevant articles were selected for further review. Full articles (in English) were retrieved and critically appraised using routine SR methods. In total, eight known zoonotic diseases were reviewed: avian influenza (AI) virus (n = 85 articles), Newcastle disease virus (n = 8), West Nile virus (WNV, n = 2), avian Chlamydia (n = 24), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (n = 3), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 15), Ornithonyssus sylvarium (n = 4), and Microsporum gallinae (n = 3). In addition, articles on other viral poultry pathogens (n = 5) and poultry respiratory allergens derived from mites and fungi (n = 7) were reviewed. The level of investigations (e.g., exposure history, risk factor, clinical disease in epidemiologically linked poultry, molecular studies) to establish zoonotic linkages varied across disease agents and across studies. Based on the multiple outcome measures captured in this review, AI virus seems to be the poultry zoonotic pathogen that may have considerable and

  18. The role of volatiles in aggregation and host-seeking of the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Infestations with ectoparasitic poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) pose an increasing threat to poultry health and welfare. Because of resistance to acaricides and higher scrutiny of poultry products, alternative and environmentally safe management strategies are warranted. Therefore, we inves

  19. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  20. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  1. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  2. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  3. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes and hemolytic Listeria innocua in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, S R; Stout, J C; Hanning, I B; Clement, A; Fortes, E D; den Bakker, H C; Wiedmann, M; Ricke, S C

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, saprophytic, Gram-positive bacterium and occasional food-borne pathogen, often associated with ready-to-eat meat products. Because of the increased consumer interest in organic, all natural, and free range poultry products, it is important to understand L. monocytogenes in the context of such systems. Pasture-reared poultry were surveyed over the course of two 8-wk rearing periods. Cecal, soil, and grass samples were collected for Listeria isolation and characterization. Seven of 399 cecal samples (or 1.75%) were Listeria-positive. All positive cecal samples were obtained from broilers sampled at 2 wk of age. Grass and soil samples were collected from the pasture both before and after introduction of the poultry. Environmental samples collected after introduction of poultry were significantly more likely to contain Listeria (P Listeria, sigB allelic typing, and hlyA PCR tests found that both L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, including hemolytic L. innocua, were recovered from the cecal and environmental (grass/soil) samples. The sigB allelic typing also revealed that (1) positive samples could be composed of 2 or more allelic types; (2) allelic types found in cecal samples could also be found in the environment; and (3) allelic types could persist through the 2 rearing periods. Our data indicate that both pasture-reared poultry and their environment can be contaminated with L. monocytogenes and hemolytic L. innocua.

  5. Predominant enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere packaged meat and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Murros, Anna; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-06-01

    Enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere (MA) packaged meat (n = 54) and poultry (n = 32) products were enumerated, and 899 isolates were picked and ribotyped. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of representative strains were sequenced and analyzed. Altogether 54 (60%) of the samples contained enterobacteria >10(4) CFU/g. In 34% of the poultry samples, enterobacteria counts were >10(6) CFU/g suggesting that enterobacteria may contribute to spoilage of MA packaged poultry. The enterobacteria identified were predominantly Hafnia spp. (40%) and Serratia spp. (42%) with Hafnia alvei, Hafnia paralvei, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia quinivorans being the species identified. In addition, 6% of the isolates were identified as Rahnella spp., 3% as Yersinia spp., and 1% as Buttiauxella spp. Percentage distributions of the predominant genera in different products showed that 89% of the Serratia spp. were from products packaged under a high-O2 MA containing CO2 (25-35%), whereas most (76%) isolates of Hafnia originated from anaerobically packaged red meat and poultry. These findings suggest that the gas mixture used for MA packaging influence the selection of enterobacteria growing on meat and poultry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Egg residue considerations during the treatment of backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulak, Tara; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette; Baynes, Ronald E; Vickroy, Thomas W; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this digest was to provide US veterinarians guidance on the responsible treatment of backyard poultry flocks. The treatment of backyard poultry can be a daunting task for veterinarians because only limited resources are available; however, it is likely to become an increasingly common task owing to the increasing popularity of backyard poultry throughout the United States, especially in urban and suburban areas. Although backyard poultry flock owners may consider their birds pets, the FDA considers them food-producing animals, and veterinarians should follow all regulations that pertain to food-producing animals when administering or prescribing drugs to those birds. The lack of FDA-approved drugs for use in laying hens frequently necessitates the use of drugs in an extralabel manner in backyard poultry. Unfortunately, information regarding the depletion of drug residues in eggs from hens treated with various drugs in an extralabel manner is sparse or lacking, and veterinarians need to be cognizant of this issue, especially when the eggs from treated hens are intended for human consumption.

  7. Quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in Poultry Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricová, Kristýna; Röderová, Magdaléna; Pudová, Vendula; Hanulík, Vojtěch; Halová, Dana; Julínková, Pavla; Dolejská, Monika; Papoušek, Ivo; Bardoň, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Increasing bacterial resistance to quinolone antibiotics is apparent in both humans and animals. For humans, a potential source of resistant bacteria may be animals or their products entering the human food chain, for example poultry. Between July 2013 and September 2014, samples were collected and analyzed in the Moravian regions of the Czech Republic to isolate the bacterium Escherichia coli. As a result, 212 E. coli isolates were obtained comprising 126 environmental isolates from poultry houses and 86 isolates from cloacal swabs from market-weight turkeys. Subsequently, the E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to selected antibiotics. Resistance of the poultry isolates to quinolones ranged from 53% to 73%. Additionally, the presence of plasmid-mediated resistance genes was studied. The genes were confirmed in 58% of the tested strains. The data on resistance of isolates from poultry were compared with results of resistance tests in human isolates obtained in the same regions. The high levels of resistance determined by both phenotyping and genotyping methods and reported in the present study confirm the fact that the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry should be closely monitored. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  8. Partial equilibrium model – Case study of the poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Šobrová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with identifying the main determinants in the poultry agri-food chain in the Czech Republic and examines their relationships. The partial equilibrium model, defined as a seven-equation model in power form, is employed for this purpose. The analysis is based on both time-series and panel data of the main factors in the poultry market. The time-series as well as panel data contain annual data of selected variables for the period from 1995 to 2009. The analysis is focused on supply and demand of poultry meat, specifically on production, consumption and foreign trade in poultry meat in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the main factors influencing the poultry market are determined, then, an appropriate model is employed. The parameters of the model are estimated using the ordinary least squares method in statistical and econometric software. Estimated parameters confirm assumed relationships among the selected variables. Moreover, the long-term tendencies of the selected indicators are proven. Among other, the analysis proves an inertial consumption, the price level as the main factor influencing the consumption and one-way or mutual relationship among the selected variables. The statistical features of the model are satisfied as well – the estimated parameters are statistically significant, the model does not contain, neither the problem of autocorrelation of residuals nor the problem of heteroskedasticity.

  9. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain - From culture to genes and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Bhunia, Arun; Engvall, Eva Olsson

    2015-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large...... numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors...

  10. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidarou, C; Vassos, D; Rozos, G; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Tsinas, A; Skoufou, M; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. but, from the commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a role as potential threats. Regarding food safety, the primary target should be the production of pathogen-free live animals, thus allowing slaughter plants to keep the processing line free of those microorganisms. Consumers believe that quality of foods from organic production is superior to foods from conventional production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the bacterial quality of chicken meat from organic and conventional production on the basis of traditional meat quality criteria. Fresh free grazing broiler carcasses were purchased directly from rural households (n = 80) and fresh retail chicken parts from conventional broiler carcasses from the local supermarkets in the region of Epirus (Poultry Producers Association. Arta) (n = 200). The samples were microbiologically tested for the presence of bacteria such as: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and C. perfringens. Total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was also determined. Bacteriological tests were performed by means of standard methods of isolation and identification of individual species of bacteria according to ISO requirements. API-tests (bioMerieux) and Vitek 2 Identification System (bioMerieux) were used for biochemical determination. High levels of microbial contamination and occurrence of pathogenic bacteria at then fresh free grazing broiler carcasses reflect the poor hygienic quality of the slaughter conditions in the rural households.

  11. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  12. Gram-Positive Bacteria Are a Major Reservoir of Class 1 Antibiotic Resistance Integrons in Poultry Litter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobhan Nandi; John J. Maurer; Charles Hofacre; Anne O. Summers; James M. Tiedje

    2004-01-01

    .... Using traditional cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques, we quantified antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements called integrons in poultry house litter from commercial poultry farms...

  13. A Review on Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Performance and Cholesterol Levels of Egg and Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn Getachew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microbial food/feed ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health that stimulates the growth of beneficial microorganisms and reduces the amount of pathogens, thus improving the intestinal microbial balance of the host and lowering the risk of gastro-intestinal diseases. Probiotics can be harmful to debilitated and immuno-compromised populations. An accurate dosage of administration has yet to be established despite the wide-use of probiotics. Probiotics have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, and immunomodulatory effects. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Pediococcus species are most commonly used probiotics in poultry production. When supplemented to chicken probiotics improve feed-intake, growth performance, meat quality, egg production, egg quality and have cholesterol lowering potential in poultry products. However, some studies reported no significant effect of probiotics on feed-intake, production traits, products’ quality and cholesterol level.

  14. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C

    2012-08-07

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004-2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain 'in house', may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection.

  15. Poultry production constraints: the case of Esan West LGA of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry production constraints: the case of Esan West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria. ... and problems were collected' from 22 poultry farmers in the study area. ... They also identified the lack of good quality water, and proper marketing outlets.

  16. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  17. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  18. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B P; Leahy, J J; Henihan, A M; O'Dwyer, T F; Sutton, D; Leahy, M J

    2002-05-01

    The land disposal of waste from the poultry industry and subsequent environmental implications has stimulated interest into cleaner and more useful disposal options. The review presented here details advances in the three main alternative disposal routes for poultry litter, specifically in the last decade. Results of experimental investigations into the optimisation of composting, anaerobic digestion and direct combustion are summarised. These technologies open up increased opportunities to market the energy and nutrients in poultry litter to agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Common problems experienced by the current technologies are the existence and fate of nitrogen as ammonia, pH and temperature levels, moisture content and the economics of alternative disposal methods. Further advancement of these technologies is currently receiving increased interest, both academically and commercially. However, significant financial incentives are required to attract the agricultural industry.

  19. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifou, Sahidou; Offoumon, Oyéniran Thierry La Fronde; Gouissi, Fadéby Modeste; Pangui, Louis-Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin). It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p < 0.05) used in remedies against external parasites in poultry. Other traditional recipes such as palm oil and ash have been reported.

  20. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  1. FARM SUCCESSION PLANS AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasina O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of farmers in Nigeria and especially in capitalized sectors of agriculture requires attention to enhance sustainability and food security. The study thus examined the farm succession plans of 60 long established poultry farmers purposively selected from the Poultry Association of Nigeria in Ogun State Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and the Chi square analysis were used to present the findings of the study. Mean age of respondents was 61years. Their children were mostly over 18years (65%. Poultry farms were solely owned (76.7% with mean age of 17.9 years. Succession rate i.e. identification of a successor was eighty percent and were mostly respondents children (63.3%. This choice was based on their level of involvement in the business (63.6%. Majority (60% were not willing to fully retire from farming until death. Chi square analysis revealed age of farmer was significantly related to succession rate.

  2. Research on Consumer Behaviour in Bucharest Poultry Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pirvutoiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study consumer behaviour for poultry meat. In this purpose 100 individuals participated to a questionnaire based survey  in a supermarket of  Bucharest. Specific methods of marketing research in such a case assured the statistical processing of the respondents’ answers. The results pointed out an increased consumption of poultry meat,  a preference for fresh chicken meat which is daily bought  or 2-3 times a week in a varied amount ranging between 1-1.5 kg depending on consumer’s income for covering the family need. The main factors influencing consumer buying decision are the sensorial meat characteristics, meat quality, origin, price, prepaking grade. As a conclusion producers have to pay more attention to these aspects in their future strategy for producing and commercialising poultry meat.

  3. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Leandro M; Chacana, Pablo A; Dominguez, Johana E; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been rising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the associated increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy, and concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for animal nutrition, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in poultry feed to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additives must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantity to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolysable) and Quebracho (condensed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.

  4. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable to select antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been arising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves a tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the related increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy and, concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and also avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for food animal production, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in feed poultry to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additive must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantities to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolizable and Quebracho (condennsed tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.

  5. Effect of doses of poultry compost on chorophyll and flavonoids of Brachiaria brizantha brs Piatã

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Brazil produced 12.6 million metric tons of chicken meat, generating 10.3 tons of poultry litter. Compost made from such organic waste can be used as a low-cost bio fertilizer, especially as nitrogen and phosphorus source. The compost can increase pastures quality by giving photosynthetic improvement and altering amounts of chlorophyll and flavonoids.  There is little information about the relationship between chlorophyll a or b and flavonoids in Brachiaria brizantha Piata. The flavo...

  6. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Mullens, James A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  8. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  10. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  11. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  12. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.;

    This study analyses consumers' willingness to try innovative products and investigates to what extent food industry innovations are aligned to consumers' demand. We realized a quantitative study with consumers to measure their willingness to innovate and we carried out a case study within...... a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  13. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify poten

  14. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being convened to review two topics for FSIS. The first... committee to fully explore enhancing the safe food handling label on meat and poultry packages. With...

  15. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  16. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  17. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY.... App. 2, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th & Independence Avenue, SW., Room 1180,...

  18. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Advisory Committee Act, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will... of Poultry Slaughter Inspection published January 27, 2012. FSIS will provide an overview of...

  20. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being..., poultry, and processed egg products, inspection, safety, and other matters that fall within the scope...

  1. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.444 Section 381.444 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition...

  2. 9 CFR 381.214 - Movement of poultry or other article detained; removal of official marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of poultry or other article... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  3. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ..., and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Product; Final Rule... Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to establish a new...

  4. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension... Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain, and Their Related Products Used as Market News Information AGENCY... collection. AMS recently merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market...

  5. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  6. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  7. 9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry or other articles subject to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  9. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... Products Inspection Act (PPIA) (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.) prohibit the importation of meat and poultry... (U.S.C. 1046). FSIS meat, poultry, and egg products import regulations require importers to apply for...

  10. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... small State-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate..., ``Cooperative Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final...

  11. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  12. 76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry..., 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will..., including floppy disks or CD-ROMs: Send to National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA...

  13. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  14. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growers and sellers. 201.100 Section 201.100 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry growers and sellers. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 63277, Dec. 3, 2009. (a) Contracts... forth as follows: § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry...

  15. Influence of Tillage and Poultry Manure on the Physical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the amount of 5 Mg ha-1 ... fertilizers on the maize grain physical ... 210 and 162 kg ha-1 in the form of urea, di- ..... conditions-decomposition and nutrient release.

  16. Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional p...

  17. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX to differentiate AI virus-infected poultry from AI-vaccinated poultry (DIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Talazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination programs for the control of avian influenza (AI in poultry have limitations due to the problem of differentiating between vaccinated and virus-infected birds. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater worldwide acceptance if reliable tests that clearly discriminated between naturally infected and vaccinated-only animals (DIVA were available. In this study, to differentiate avian influenza virus (AIV-infected chickens vs. chickens immunized with inactivated avian influenza virus, a commercial ELISA Kit (IDEXX was used. Using HI as the reference method, the sensitivity of the commercial ELISA kit was 100% and its specificity was 100%. In the present study, we demonstrated that, 3 weeks after infection or vaccination, sera from both infected and vaccinated groups were tested positive and the difference in mean optical density between vaccinated and challenged birds, as detected by a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX, was very small. Therefore, this assay cannot distinguish infected from vaccinated poultry.

  18. The European experience in poultry welfare--a decade ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, C; Lebihan-Duval, E; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Leterrier, C

    2010-04-01

    Farm animal welfare is a major issue in Europe, which resulted in regulations and development of research dedicated to animal welfare, especially on standard poultry production, which is often considered as resulting in very poor welfare. The effect of selection is also often questioned. Indeed, capacities of adaptation have been very little considered during the first years of commercial selection and thus have been reduced. Nowadays, a much greater importance is given to welfare-related traits and genomic selection should alleviate the need for their measurements in the short-term. However, the choice of the fittest selection criteria is still to be made. Because behavioral traits are highly dependent on environment, general reactivity may be more efficient. For example, selection against undesirable behavior such as feather pecking has been proven to be efficient, but selection for reduced mortality rates in collective cages proved to be preferable. Most often, selection should not exacerbate extreme values, which are most often detrimental, as in the case of social motivation, which, when increased to too large of an extent, results in increased aggressivity. Moreover, a general propensity will not result in overall improvement; for example, reducing fearfulness has positive effects but does not modify response to social stress. Detrimental effects on other traits may also be observed: although genetic resistance to diseases should increase animal welfare, it may also result in increased frequency of silent carriers and in turn to human transmission. Indeed, an optimum must be found. Studying lines selected for or against these traits will be of great help to choose the best strategy of selection. Another and longer term concern should be on links with other production traits but also on sustainability, which will probably be of greater importance in the coming years.

  19. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  20. Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from various poultry products including chicken meat, poultry eggs, poultry bird's drinking water, and poultry feed. Materials and methods: A total of 79 samples comprising of chicken meat (n=20, egg shell (n=15, poultry egg contents (n=18, drinking water (n=14, and poultry feed (n=12 were bacteriologically and microscopically analyzed for the isolation of Salmonella species. Results: Overall, this study reported a high prevalence of Salmonella species (62% from various poultry products especially in poultry (chicken meat and poultry egg contents where the percentage occurrence of Salmonella species was 100% and 20.4% respectively. The antibiogram conducted on the Salmonella species isolated from the various poultry samples reveal that all the isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 50% of the tested antibiotics especially to tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin and imipenem. However, most of the Salmonella species were also found to be highly susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ertapenem and ceftazidime. It was also observed in this study that the highest level of resistance to the tested antibiotics was recorded in Salmonella species isolated from poultry meat samples. Conclusion: Salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated or infected poultry products could pose serious public health problem to the general public if allowed. Thus, poultry farms and other poultry product outlets should be operated under sanitized conditions that ward-off the incidence of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella. The use of antibiotics as growth promoting agents and prophylaxis in the production of poultry birds in this region should be discouraged and ndash; since such practices allowed drug-resistant bacteria to emerge and spread in the community. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 353-359

  1. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.; Wartelle, L.H. [USDA, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce.

  2. Manganese amendment and Pleurotus ostreatus treatment to convert tomato pomace for inclusion in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, J A; King, A J

    2008-09-01

    If freshly dried tomato pomace could be fed to poultry, its naturally occurring alpha-tocopherol would retard lipid oxidation during further processing, long-term frozen storage, and heating of poultry meat; however, the high fiber content in this agricultural by-product adversely affects its use. Experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro true digestibility of amended (without and with 487 micromol of manganese/g) tomato pomace substrate after treatment with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. In treated pomace without manganese, protein content was improved by 3.1%, cellulose and hemicellulose decreased over time, but lignin degradation was not detected. In addition, treated pomace without manganese showed a significant reduction of in vitro true digestibility. Manganese in pomace inhibited fungal growth and did not enhance lignin degradation. Under the conditions of the experiment, P. ostreatus improved the nutritional composition of tomato pomace; however, it did not reduce lignin. It is possible that manganese amendment at the level used affected gaseous conditions (O(2) consumption and CO(2) evolution rates), important factors that must be considered when attempting to enhance accelerated lignin degradation by P. ostreatus.

  3. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  4. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  5. Fungal contamination of poultry litter: a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on microbial contaminants associated with various stages related to poultry and meat products processing, only a few reported on fungal contamination of poultry litter. The goals of this study were to (1) characterize litter fungal contamination and (2) report the incidence of keratinophilic and toxigenic fungi presence. Seven fresh and 14 aged litter samples were collected from 7 poultry farms. In addition, 27 air samples of 25 litters were also collected through impaction method, and after laboratory processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU/m³) and qualitative results were obtained. Twelve different fungal species were detected in fresh litter and Penicillium was the most frequent genus found (59.9%), followed by Alternaria (17.8%), Cladosporium (7.1%), and Aspergillus (5.7%). With respect to aged litter, 19 different fungal species were detected, with Penicillium sp. the most frequently isolated (42.3%), followed by Scopulariopsis sp. (38.3%), Trichosporon sp. (8.8%), and Aspergillus sp. (5.5%). A significant positive correlation was found between litter fungal contamination (CFU/g) and air fungal contamination (CFU/m³). Litter fungal quantification and species identification have important implications in the evaluation of potential adverse health risks to exposed workers and animals. Spreading of poultry litter in agricultural fields is a potential public health concern, since keratinophilic (Scopulariopsis and Fusarium genus) as well as toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genus) were isolated.

  6. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  7. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...

  8. Parameters for quantity calculations of poultry by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant group of inedible by-products from industrial slaughterhouses that can be used as a raw material for processing into quality feed for pigs and pets are byproducts of slaughtered poultry. The poultry industry yields a large amount of inedible byproducts of which the removal or processing requires hygienic and economic solutions. These activities primarily include the protection of the environmental from degradation processes and biological pollution, as well as securing high-protein animal feed. The incorporation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products into food for animals involves the application of various technological processes. These processes should be simple and feasible for investments where it is necessary to obtain a quality product. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the production process does not create new secondary products or waste gases that could contaminate the environment. Scientific knowledge in the field of exploitation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products provides the necessary basis for calculating the amount of certain types of raw materials.

  9. Water chemistry and antimicrobial treatment in poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influence of calcium and magnesium ions in process water on the solubility of trisodium phosphate. Water used in poultry processing operations may be treated with sanitizers such as trisodium phosphate to reduce microbial activity and the risk of contamination. This occurs wh...

  10. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that

  11. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  12. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni survival in a poultry processing plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero, Beatriz; Jaime, Isabel; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko; Rovira, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of poultry, especially chicken's meat is considered the most common route for human infection. The aim of this study was to determine if Campylobacter spp. might persist in the poultry plant environment before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures and the distribution and their genetic relatedness. During one month from a poultry plant were analyzed a total of 494 samples -defeathering machine, evisceration machine, floor, sink, conveyor belt, shackles and broiler meat- in order to isolate C. jejuni and C. coli. Results showed that C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence was 94.5% and 5.5% respectively. Different typing techniques as PFGE, MLST established seven C. jejuni genotypes. Whole genome MLST strongly suggest that highly clonal populations of C. jejuni can survive in adverse environmental conditions, even after cleaning and disinfection, and persist for longer periods than previous thought (at least 21 days) in the poultry plant environment. Even so, it might act as a source of contamination independently of the contamination level of the flock entering the slaughter line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elson, H.A.; Jong, de I.C.; Kjaer, J.B.; Sossidou, E.; Tauson, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of

  15. The disposition of oxytetracycline to feathers after poultry treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Bor, G.; Gerritsen, H.W.; Jansen, L.J.M.; Zuidema, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the combat against bacterial resistance, there is a clear need to check the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, including poultry breeding. The use of chicken feathers as a tool for the detection of use of antibiotics was investigated. An extraction method for the analysis of oxytetracycline

  16. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  17. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja J Olsen; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Pattanasin, Sarika; Prapasiri, Prabda; Scott F Dowell

    2005-01-01

    With poultry outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 continuing in Thailand, preventing human infection remains a priority. We surveyed residents of rural Thailand regarding avian influenza knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results suggest that public education campaigns have been effective in reaching those at greatest risk, although some high-risk behavior continues.

  18. The influence of prices on market participation decisions of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Interestingly, a negative correlation exists between the number of chicken sold and distance to the market. .... Review of Agricultural Economics 31 (1): 103-121. Akinola, L.A.F. and .... symposium Sunset Hotel, Kisumu 22-23 April, 2009. Muthee, A.M ... Indigenous Poultry in Kenya – a Market Approach [Available online.

  19. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  20. Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee = Literature study mutilations poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiks-van Niekerk, T.G.C.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Veldkamp, T.; Emous, van R.A.; Middelkoop, van J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this report the state of the art with regards to mutilations in poultry in the year 2005 is given. A restriction has been made for only those mutilations that are of importance for the Netherlands. These are beak treatments, toe clipping, despurring and dubbing. Also only the most common species

  1. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that unde

  3. Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elson, H.A.; Jong, de I.C.; Kjaer, J.B.; Sossidou, E.; Tauson, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of

  4. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the part

  5. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared under free range. Poultry diseases were mainly prevalent in Gaborone, Mochudi, Francistown and Molepolole districts with 225, 168, 148 and 135 cases, respectively. Newcastle disease was sporadic throughout the study period. In the present study, the common parasites of poultry were mites, fleas, lice, ticks and helminths, and helminths were the most prevalent followed by mites. Of all species, chickens were affected most by parasites followed by guinea fowl. These results suggest inadequacies in health management, indicating that strict biosecurity measures should be put in place in order to reduce mortalities. There is also a need for extension service to train farmers on health management.

  6. spatial statistics of poultry production in anambra state of nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    spatial features, it has become expedient that proper ... helps to determine if features are random, clustered, or evenly dispersed ... of Agriculture and Rural Development Awka. ... geographical co-ordinate of these poultry farms for ..... Table 1: Yearly bio-waste production capacity of towns and geographical coordinate point.

  7. Genetic regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M P

    2003-06-01

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate and meat production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for rapid growth and enhanced muscle mass, does not adequately regulate voluntary feed intake to achieve energy balance. When given unrestricted access to feed, broilers exhibit hyperphagia leading to an excessive accumulation of energy (fat) stores, making these birds prone to obesity and other health-related problems. Humoral and neural pathways have been identified and studied in mammals that link appetite and energy balance. A series of highly integrated regulatory mechanisms exists for both of these processes involving complex interactions between peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Within the central nervous system, the brainstem and the hypothalamus play critical roles in the regulation of feed intake and energy balance. Genes encoding key regulatory factors such as hormones, neuropeptides, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors, and binding/transport proteins constitute the molecular basis for regulatory systems that derive from integrated sensing, signaling, and metabolic pathways. However, we do not yet have a complete understanding of the genetic basis for this regulation in poultry. This review examines what is currently known about the regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry. A better understanding of the genes associated with controlling feed intake and energy balance and how their expression is regulated by nutritional and hormonal stimuli will offer new insights into current poultry breeding and management practices.

  8. Particle size distributions in and exhausted from a poultry house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe a study looking at the full particulate size range of particles in a poultry house. Agricultural particulates are typically thought of as coarse mode dust. But recent emphasis of PM2.5 regulations on pre-cursors such as ammonia and volatile organic compounds increasingly makes it ne...

  9. Microbiological Assessment of Poultry Feeds within Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olawale SULE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The poultry feeds were obtained from 20 different poultry pens and their microbial contents were assessed. The antibiotics resistance patterns of the bacterial isolates were also determined. The bacterial count ranged from 5.0 × 103 to 1.76 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal count ranged from 3.5 × 104 to 1.9 × 105 cfu/g. The bacterial species isolated were Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus hominis, while the fungal species isolated were Saccharomyces cerevisisae, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp., Humicola grisea, Aspergillus fumigatus, Hansenula sp. and Humicola fuscoatra. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and cefuroxime and all the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Ofloxacin produced the highest zone of inhibition, followed by gentamicin, and then erythromycin. The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in the poultry feeds revealed high level of contaminations. It is recommended that poultry feeds should be made from good quality grains and it should be prevented from environmental or other contamination.

  10. [Evaluation of the quality of poultry meat and its processing for vacuum packaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, F; Russel, S; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B; Cholewińska, E

    1997-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the quality of poultry meat, roasted and smoked chicken and poultry pie packing under low and high vacuum. All investigated products were stored at +4 degrees C and evaluated by microbiological analysis. It was showed that packing under low and high vacuum inhibited development of aerobic microorganisms, proteolytic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Vacuum-packaged storage of poultry meat and its products stimulated activity of anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria. The fast spoilage of fresh poultry meat was observed both under vacuum and conventional storage. The microbiology quality of poultry products depended on technology of production and microbiological quality of raw material.

  11. Preventing introduction and spread of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry facilities using the HACCP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2009-06-01

    Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of experts identified hazards and associated risks concerning the introduction and spread of this mite in poultry facilities. Together we provide an overview of possible corrective actions that can be taken to prevent population establishment. Additionally, a checklist of the most critical control points has been devised as management tool for poultry farmers. This list was evaluated by Dutch and British poultry farmers. They found the checklist feasible and useful.

  12. Backyard poultry flocks and salmonellosis: a recurring, yet preventable public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravesh, Casey Barton; Brinson, Denise; Hopkins, Brett A; Gomez, Thomas M

    2014-05-01

    Poultry are well recognized as possible carriers of Salmonella species. As part of the local foods movement, backyard poultry flocks have increased in popularity in recent years. Between 1996 and 2012, 45 outbreaks of human Salmonella infections linked to live poultry from mail-order hatcheries were documented. This review examines the history of live poultry-associated salmonellosis in humans in the United States, the current status of the issue, and what can be done to help prevent these illnesses. An integrated One Health approach involving the mail-order hatchery industry, feed stores, healthcare providers, veterinarians, and backyard flock owners is needed to help prevent live poultry-associated salmonellosis.

  13. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  14. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  15. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter of poultry or other animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.14 Slaughter of poultry... to slaughter any diseased or exposed animals, including poultry, and the purchase of such...

  16. 7 CFR 70.77 - Charges for continuous poultry or rabbit grading performed on a resident basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for continuous poultry or rabbit grading... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Fees and Charges § 70.77 Charges for continuous poultry or...

  17. An Empirical Estimation of the Factors Affecting Demand and Supply of Poultry Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafoor*, Hammad Badar, Maqsood Hussain and Naeem Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry sector is one of the most important segments in agriculture sector of Pakistan. Despite growth in poultry sector, many new challenges including bird flu, fluctuating prices and higher cost of production have affected pace of development of this sector. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of various variables affecting supply of poultry birds and demand of poultry meat in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Cross sectional data were collected from 40 poultry farmers and 40 consumers selected randomly from Faisalabad city. Simple linear form of regression analysis was employed to estimate effect of major variables. Sale price of poultry birds, average cost of production and experience of the poultry farmers significantly (P<0.05 affected supply of poultry birds, whereas education of farmers and distance from markets had non-significant effect. Income of the consumers, family size and retail price of poultry meat were found significant variables, whereas age and education of consumers were non-significant variables affecting demand. A qualitative variable was used to capture effect of bird flu on supply and demand of poultry meat, which was found significant in both models. This finding establishes the serious implications of bird flu epidemic for poultry industry in Pakistan.

  18. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir C Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The recent pandemics caused by highly pathogenic AIA (H5N1 in domestic poultry is currently rated phase 3 by the World Health Organization on the pandemic alert scale. Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Results: The mean age was similar among both population groups (31.5 years. There was a higher level of biosecurity practices adopted in poultry farms compared with those adopted in live bird market. Knowledge regarding AI was acceptable but poorly correlated with actual biosecurity practices. Discussion: Live bird market and poultry farm workers have been identified as the weakest link in the prevention and control of the spread of AI in the two most populous cities studied in Karnataka. Conclusion: Risk reduction models of behavior change targeting these groups are important toward the control and prevention of AI spread.

  20. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.