WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving early detection

  1. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  2. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  3. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  4. Detection of Early Ischemic Changes in Noncontrast CT Head Improved with "Stroke Windows".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Shraddha; Wahba, Mervat; Elijovich, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation. NCCT was reviewed with standard window settings and with specialized Stroke Windows. Results. Fifty patients (42% females, 58% males) with a mean NIHSS of 13.4 were identified. EIC was detected in 9 patients with standard windows, while EIC was detected using Stroke Windows in 35 patients (18% versus 70%; P Windows (14% and 36%; P Windows (6% and 46%; P Windows significantly improved detection of EIC.

  5. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  6. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  7. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  8. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Uedo, Noriya; Muto, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    We developed an internet e-learning system in order to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage. The efficacy of this system at expanding knowledge and providing invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer was demonstrated through an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. However, the contents of the system have not yet been fully described in the literature. Accordingly, we herein introduce the contents and their principles, which comprise three main subjects: technique, knowledge, and experience. Since all the e-learning contents and principles are based on conventional white-light endoscopy alone, which is commonly available throughout the world, they should provide a good reference point for any endoscopist who wishes to devise learning materials and guidelines for improving their own clinical practice.

  10. Fluorescence-based endoscopic imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen to improve early detection of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Shinji; Yu, James Y H; Quang, Timothy; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Kao, Stephanie; Holt, Alex; Erskind, Jalysa; McClure, Richard; Siuta, Michael; Kitamura, Tokio; Tobita, Etsuo; Koike, Seiji; Wilson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Liu, Eric; Washington, Kay; Omary, Reed; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  12. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  13. A Tumor-Targeted Nanodelivery System to Improve Early MRI Detection of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F. Pirollo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that would enhance sensitivity, leading to earlier detection of cancer and visualization of metastatic disease, is an area of intense exploration. We have devised a tumor-targeting, liposomal nanodelivery platform for use in gene medicine. This systemically administered nanocomplex has been shown to specifically and efficiently deliver both genes and oligonucleotides to primary and metastatic tumor cells, resulting in significant tumor growth inhibition and even tumor regression. Here we examine the effect on MRI of incorporating conventional MRI contrast agent Magnevist® into our anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody (TfRscFv liposomal complex. Both in vitro and in an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we show increased resolution and image intensity with the complexed Magnevist®. Using advanced microscopy techniques (scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, we also established that the Magnevist® is in fact encapsulated by the liposome in the complex and that the complex still retains its nanodimensional size. These results demonstrate that this TfRscFv-liposome-Magnevist® nanocomplex has the potential to become a useful tool in early cancer detection.

  14. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  15. Computer-aided detection in computed tomography colonography. Current status and problems with detection of early colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakijima, Yasuo; Iinuma, Gen; Arai, Yasuaki; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Beddoe, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-aided detection (CAD) in diagnosing early colorectal cancer using computed tomography colonography (CTC). A total of 30 CTC data sets for 30 early colorectal cancers in 30 patients were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. After primary evaluation, a second reading was performed using CAD findings. The readers evaluated each colorectal segment for the presence or absence of colorectal cancer using five confidence rating levels. To compare the assessment results, the sensitivity and specificity with and without CAD were calculated on the basis of the confidence rating, and differences in these variables were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average sensitivities for the detection without and with CAD for the three readers were 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively. Among the three readers, only one reader improved sensitivity with CAD compared to that without. CAD decreased specificity in all three readers. CAD detected 100% of protruding lesions but only 69.2% of flat lesions. On ROC analysis, the diagnostic performance of all three readers was decreased by use of CAD. Currently available CAD with CTC does not improve diagnostic performance for detecting early colorectal cancer. An improved CAD algorithm is required for detecting fiat lesions and reducing the false-positive rate. (author)

  16. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  17. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study

  18. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  19. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  20. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasetti, Marco, E-mail: m.tomasetti@univpm.it; Santarelli, Lory [Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Occupational Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, via Tronto 10/A Torrette 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-14

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  1. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  2. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  3. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane PA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane,1 Gabriella de Salvo,2 Dawn A Sim,1 Srini Goverdhan,2 Rupesh Agrawal,1 Adnan Tufail1 1NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK Abstract: Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. Keywords: Amsler, detection, choroidal neovascularization, hyperacuity, optical coherence tomography

  4. Framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks: recommendations from the CDC Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Hopkins, Richard S; Overhage, J Marc; Sosin, Daniel M; Tong, Van

    2004-05-07

    The threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks has drawn attention to public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks. State and local health departments are enhancing existing surveillance systems and developing new systems to better detect outbreaks through public health surveillance. However, information is limited about the usefulness of surveillance systems for outbreak detection or the best ways to support this function. This report supplements previous guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Use of this framework is intended to improve decision-making regarding the implementation of surveillance for outbreak detection. Use of a standardized evaluation methodology, including description of system design and operation, also will enhance the exchange of information regarding methods to improve early detection of outbreaks. The framework directs particular attention to the measurement of timeliness and validity for outbreak detection. The evaluation framework is designed to support assessment and description of all surveillance approaches to early detection, whether through traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks, such as syndromic surveillance.

  5. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  6. A combination of circulating miRNAs for the early detection of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Akira; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Niimi, Kaoru; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality, due to the difficulty of early detection. Current screening methods lack sufficient accuracy, and it is still challenging to propose a new early detection method that improves patient outcomes with less-invasiveness. Although many studies have suggested the utility of circulating microRNAs in cancer detection, their potential for early detection remains elusive. Here, we develop novel predictive models using a combination of 8 circulating serum miRNAs. This method was able to successfully distinguish ovarian cancer patients from healthy controls (area under the curve, 0.97; sensitivity, 0.92; and specificity, 0.91) and early-stage ovarian cancer from patients with benign tumors (0.91, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively). This method also enables subtype classification in 4 types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Furthermore, it is found that most of the 8 miRNAs were packaged in extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, derived from ovarian cancer cells, and they were circulating in murine blood stream. The circulating miRNAs described in this study may serve as biomarkers for ovarian cancer patients. Early detection and subtype determination prior to surgery are crucial for clinicians to design an effective treatment strategy for each patient, as is the goal of precision medicine. PMID:29163790

  7. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  8. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  10. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  11. Augmenting Amyloid PET Interpretations With Quantitative Information Improves Consistency of Early Amyloid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harn, Nicholas R; Hunt, Suzanne L; Hill, Jacqueline; Vidoni, Eric; Perry, Mark; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Establishing reliable methods for interpreting elevated cerebral amyloid-β plaque on PET scans is increasingly important for radiologists, as availability of PET imaging in clinical practice increases. We examined a 3-step method to detect plaque in cognitively normal older adults, focusing on the additive value of quantitative information during the PET scan interpretation process. Fifty-five F-florbetapir PET scans were evaluated by 3 experienced raters. Scans were first visually interpreted as having "elevated" or "nonelevated" plaque burden ("Visual Read"). Images were then processed using a standardized quantitative analysis software (MIMneuro) to generate whole brain and region of interest SUV ratios. This "Quantitative Read" was considered elevated if at least 2 of 6 regions of interest had an SUV ratio of more than 1.1. The final interpretation combined both visual and quantitative data together ("VisQ Read"). Cohen kappa values were assessed as a measure of interpretation agreement. Plaque was elevated in 25.5% to 29.1% of the 165 total Visual Reads. Interrater agreement was strong (kappa = 0.73-0.82) and consistent with reported values. Quantitative Reads were elevated in 45.5% of participants. Final VisQ Reads changed from initial Visual Reads in 16 interpretations (9.7%), with most changing from "nonelevated" Visual Reads to "elevated." These changed interpretations demonstrated lower plaque quantification than those initially read as "elevated" that remained unchanged. Interrater variability improved for VisQ Reads with the addition of quantitative information (kappa = 0.88-0.96). Inclusion of quantitative information increases consistency of PET scan interpretations for early detection of cerebral amyloid-β plaque accumulation.

  12. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  14. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Go, Vay Liang W; Chari, Suresh T; Goldberg, Ann E; Rothschild, Laura J

    A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating owing to its poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 9%. Currently, most individuals are diagnosed at a late stage when treatment options are limited. Early detection of pancreatic cancer provides the greatest hope for making substantial improvements in survival. The Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association has sponsored a series of fora to stimulate discussion and collaboration on early detection of pancreatic cancer. At the first forum in 2014, "Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference," a strategic plan was set forth by an international group of interdisciplinary scientific representatives and subsequently The Strategic Map for Innovation was generated. The current conference report is the third forum in the series, "Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers," which was held in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 27, 2016. This report provides an overview of examples of innovative initiatives by industry and confirms the critical need for collaboration among industry, government, research institutions, and advocacy groups in order to make pancreatic cancer more easily detectable in its earlier stages, when it is more treatable.

  15. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  16. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  17. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  18. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  19. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  20. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinsong; Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    2008-01-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI

  1. Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

  2. Public-private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) - a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association's "usual services" between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer's disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25-8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  3. Automated early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, M.D.; Reinhardt, J.M.; Russell, S.R.; Folk, J.C.; Mahajan, V.B.; Niemeijer, M.; Quellec, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, the Challenge2009, against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project.

  4. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  5. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  6. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: how much plankton sampling is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D; Bollens, Stephen M

    2017-03-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  7. Estimation for aerial detection effectiveness with cooperation efficiency factors of early-warning aircraft in early-warning detection SoS under BSC framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Kaiming; Yang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    In the military field, the performance evaluation of early-warning aircraft deployment or construction is always an important problem needing to be explored. As an effective approach of enterprise management and performance evaluation, Balanced Score Card (BSC) attracts more and more attentions and is studied more and more widely all over the world. It can also bring feasible ideas and technical approaches for studying the issue of the performance evaluation of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft which is the important component in early-warning detection system of systems (SoS). Therefore, the deep explored researches are carried out based on the previously research works. On the basis of the characteristics of space exploration and aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS and the cardinal principle of BSC are analyzed simply, and the performance evaluation framework of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft is given, under this framework, aimed at the evaluation issue of aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS with the cooperation efficiency factors of the early-warning aircraft and other land based radars, the evaluation indexes are further designed and the relative evaluation model is further established, especially the evaluation radar chart being also drawn to obtain the evaluation results from a direct sight angle. Finally, some practical computer simulations are launched to prove the validity and feasibility of the research thinking and technologic approaches which are proposed in the paper.

  8. Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Lu, Ning; Taylor, Philip R; Qiao, You-Lin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Murphy, Gwen; Risques, Rosana; Prunkard, Donna; Rabinovitch, Peter; Pan, Qin-Jing; Roth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples

  9. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  10. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  11. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-04-09

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  12. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  13. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  14. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  15. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayındır, Cihan, E-mail: cihan.bayindir@isikun.edu.tr

    2016-01-08

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  16. Early breast cancer detection in the hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, A.; Ortega, E.; Garcia-Valtuille, R.; Erasun, F.; Millan, R.; Garijo, F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits of mammography in general and particularly as a screening method in the early detection of breast cancer in our hospital. All the cases of breast carcinoma registered in our section between 1989 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively. The total number of carcinomas was 775, 168 (22%) of which were diagnosed solely on the basis of mammography. The percentage of carcinomas detected on the basis of mammography alone increased progressively (from 13% in 1989-1990 to 28% in 1994-1995), coinciding with a progressive rise in the volume of screening mammography. Early carcinomas, referring to those in stages O or I, represented 67% of those detected by mammography in general and 17% of those detected by palpation (p<0.001). The proportion was even greater among cases of carcinoma detected exclusively by screening mammography (78 versus 17%; p<0.001). Although mammography has been instrumental in increasing the rate of early detection of breast carcinoma in our center, a large number of patients still present with palpable lesions. Thus, a greater effort should be made to increase the practice of mammography in asymptomatic women. (Author) 13 refs

  17. Detecting COPD exacerbations early using daily telemonitoring of symptoms and k-means clustering: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Antonio León

    2015-05-01

    COPD places an enormous burden on the healthcare systems and causes diminished health-related quality of life. The highest proportion of human and economic cost is associated with admissions for acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms (AECOPD). Since prompt detection and treatment of exacerbations may improve outcomes, early detection of AECOPD is a critical issue. This pilot study was aimed to determine whether a mobile health system could enable early detection of AECOPD on a day-to-day basis. A novel electronic questionnaire for the early detection of COPD exacerbations was evaluated during a 6-months field trial in a group of 16 patients. Pattern recognition techniques were applied. A k-means clustering algorithm was trained and validated, and its accuracy in detecting AECOPD was assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were 74.6 and 89.7 %, respectively, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. 31 out of 33 AECOPD were early identified with an average of 4.5 ± 2.1 days prior to the onset of the exacerbation that was considered the day of medical attendance. Based on the findings of this preliminary pilot study, the proposed electronic questionnaire and the applied methodology could help to early detect COPD exacerbations on a day-to-day basis and therefore could provide support to patients and physicians.

  18. Circulating cell-free nucleosomes as biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Herzog, Marielle

    2018-01-01

    -malignant findings. Predictor models including ccfn containing 5-methylcytosine DNA, CEA, age and gender improved results (AUCROC = 0.736, sensitivity = 0.37 at specificity = 0.90). Further improvement was achieved in discrimination of individuals with CRC from individuals with clean colorectum (AUCROC = 0.......840, sensitivity = 0.57 at specificity = 0.90). The levels of ccfn among patients with CRC appeared to be stage-independent. In conclusion, the performance of the developed predictor models is potentially promising in early detection of CRC....

  19. Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kaufman, Howard L; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under

  20. Endoscopic Tri-Modal Imaging (ETMI With Optical Magnification in the Detection of Barrett's Early Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmed S. Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lesion detection and characterisation is vital to ensure accurate management in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia. Endoscopic Tri-modal Imaging (ETMI technology has been shown to improve the targeted detection of early dysplastic lesions in Barrett's Oesophagus, but these results were not confirmed in non-expert hands [1]. This technology incorporates high resolution while light endoscopy (HRE, Auto Fluorescence Imaging (AFI and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI in one endoscope. The mucosa is first inspected with HRE, and then AFI is switched on to help in highlighting any suspicious areas in the mucosa [2]. These areas can be further examined by switching to NBI mode with magnification which helps to characterise mucosal patterns and identify early neoplasia [3].

  1. Early fault detection and diagnosis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Grini, R.; Masao Yokobayashi

    1988-01-01

    Fault detection based on a number of reference models is demonstrated. This approach is characterized by the possibility of detecting faults before a traditional alarm system is triggered, even in dynamic situations. Further, by a proper decomposition scheme and use of available process measurements, the problem area can be confined to the faulty process parts. A diagnosis system using knowledge engineering techniques is described. Typical faults are classified and described by rules involving alarm patterns and variations of important parameters. By structuring the fault hypotheses in a hierarchy the search space is limited which is important for real time diagnosis. Introduction of certainty factors improve the flexibility and robustness of diagnosis by exploring parallel problems even when some data are missing. A new display proposal should facilitate the operator interface and the integration of fault detection and diagnosis tasks in disturbance handling. The techniques of early fault detection and diagnosis are presently being implemented and tested in the experimental control room of a full-scope PWR simulator in Halden

  2. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  4. The Role of Breast Ultrasound in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huay-Ben Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection and characterization of breast lesions including the evaluation of breast cancer. Yet only few single-center cohort studies analyzing breast US in the framework of screening could be identified. In spite of mammography consider as the primary method for screening especially the noteworthy ability of microcalcifications detection. US is good in mass or mass- like lesion detection, especially in the dense breast population that proved by the study of ACRIN 6666. A lobular hypoechoic area; lesion with ductal extension and dilatation; and a hypoechoic nodular lesion with a dilated lactiferous duct leading to the retroareolar region, that were the common ultrasound findings in Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and probably related to nuclear grade of cancer. Computer programs have been developed and approved for use in clinical practice, the application including CAD (computer aided/assisted detection/diagnosis, ABUS (automated breast US, elastography and microbubbles in contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Furthermore the standardized scanning; improving with computer technology implementation and familiar to the picture of DCIS is necessary for progress the competence of early breast cancer detection.

  5. Evaluating surveillance strategies for the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (R(h)). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas R(h) reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction

  6. Evaluating surveillance strategies for the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Comin

    Full Text Available In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (R(h. The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas R(h reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control. Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier, whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus

  7. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and PET-CT in early detection of cancer recurrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    Early detection of recurrent can improve prognosis and survival of patients with cancer. 18 F- fluorodeoxyglucose( 18 F-FDG) PET can detect metabolic changes before structural changes. The fused imaging provided by PET-CT can precisely localize the foci and demonstrate the complementary roles of functional and anatomic assessments in the diagnosis of cancer recurrence. In addition to the accurate diagnosis and definition of the whole extent of recurrent cancer, 18 F-FDG PET and PET-CT can impact patients management. (authors)

  8. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  9. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  10. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  11. Strategies for Early Outbreak Detection of Malaria in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekorchuk, D.; Gebrehiwot, T.; Mihretie, A.; Awoke, W.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional epidemiological approaches to early detection of disease outbreaks are based on relatively straightforward thresholds (e.g. 75th percentile, standard deviations) estimated from historical case data. For diseases with strong seasonality, these can be modified to create separate thresholds for each seasonal time step. However, for disease processes that are non-stationary, more sophisticated techniques are needed to more accurately estimate outbreak threshold values. Early detection for geohealth-related diseases that also have environmental drivers, such as vector-borne diseases, may also benefit from the integration of time-lagged environmental data and disease ecology models into the threshold calculations. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) project has been integrating malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection, warning, and forecasting of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and has five years of weekly time series data from 47 woredas (districts). Efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in Ethiopia has been met with some notable success in the past two decades with major reduction in cases and deaths. However, malaria remains a significant public health threat as 60% of the population live in malarious areas, and due to the seasonal and unstable transmission patterns with cyclic outbreaks, protective immunity is generally low which could cause high morbidity and mortality during the epidemics. This study compared several approaches for defining outbreak thresholds and for identifying a potential outbreak based on deviations from these thresholds. We found that model-based approaches that accounted for climate-driven seasonality in malaria transmission were most effective, and that incorporating a trend component improved outbreak detection in areas with active malaria elimination efforts. An advantage of these early

  12. Early detection and integrated care for adolescents and young adults with severe psychotic disorders: rationales and design of the Integrated Care in Early Psychosis Study (ACCESS III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Schöttle, Daniel; Sengutta, Mary; Ruppelt, Friederike; Rohenkohl, Anja; Luedecke, Daniel; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Galling, Britta; Falk, Anne-Lena; Wittmann, Linus; Niehaus, Vivien; Sarikaya, Gizem; Handwerk, Ute; Rothländer, Wiebke; Rietschel, Liz; Gagern, Charlotte; Lange, Benjamin; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Naber, Dieter; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Krüger, Helmut; Unger, Hans-Peter; Sippel, Sven; Ott, Sabine; Romer, Georg; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Correll, Christoph U; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Bock, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Karow, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The Integrated Care in Early Psychosis (ACCESS III) Study examined the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of strategies to improve early detection and quality of care (integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment) in adolescents and young adults in the early phase of a severe psychotic disorder from 2011 to 2014. This is a prospective, single-centre, 1-year cohort study comparing an intervention condition (early detection plus integrated care, n = 120) to the historical control condition (standard care, SC, n = 105) for adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years suffering from a severe, early-phase psychotic disorder (i.e. within 2 years of treatment). Primary outcome is the rate of combined symptomatic (i.e. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) criteria) and functional (i.e. Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) ≥ 60 points criterion) remission over at least 6 months at study endpoint. Secondary outcome comprises the comparison of the reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis within the 4-year study duration between integrated care and SC, course of psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care, cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in comparison to a historical control group. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study assessing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of early detection strategies and strategies to improve quality of care in both adolescents and young adults with early-phase psychosis. The results will be published in 2016. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Important first encounter: Service user experience of pathways to care and early detection in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Long duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes. However, few systematic attempts have been made to reduce this delay and little is known of service users' experience of early detection efforts. We explored service users' experience of an early detection service and transition to specialized treatment service, including pathway to care, understanding of illness and barriers to adequate assessment and treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 service users (median age 21, range 18-27, five males and five females) who were diagnosed with a first-episode non-affective psychosis and who were seen by an early detection team (TOP) and currently enrolled in a specialized early intervention service for this disorder (OPUS). Stigma and fear of the 'psychiatric system' were reported as significant barriers to help seeking, while family members were seen as a crucial support. Moreover, the impact of traumatic events on the experience and development of psychosis was highlighted. Finally, participants were relieved by the prospect of receiving help and the early detection team seemed to create a trusting relationship by offering a friendly, 'anti-stigmatized' space, where long-term symptomatology could be disclosed through accurate and validating questioning. Early detection services have two important functions. One is to make accurate assessments and referrals. The other is to instil hope and trust, and to facilitate further treatment by forming an early therapeutic alliance. The findings in this study provide important insights into the way in which early detection efforts and pathways to care are experienced by service users, with direct implications for improving psychiatric services. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Novel Mahalanobis-based feature selection improves one-class classification of early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Ricardo de Lima; Carneiro, Pedro Cunha; Bonin, João Eliton; Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves; Patrocinio, Ana Claudia; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa

    2018-05-01

    Detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for increasing survival rates in up to 40%. One-class classifiers can be used for modeling early HCC in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), but demand the specific knowledge pertaining to the set of features that best describes the target class. Although the literature outlines several features for characterizing liver lesions, it is unclear which is most relevant for describing early HCC. In this paper, we introduce an unconstrained GA feature selection algorithm based on a multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function to improve the classification performance for early HCC. We compared our approach to a constrained Mahalanobis function and two other unconstrained functions using Welch's t-test and Gaussian Data Descriptors. The performance of each fitness function was evaluated by cross-validating a one-class SVM. The results show that the proposed multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function is capable of significantly reducing data dimensionality (96.4%) and improving one-class classification of early HCC (0.84 AUC). Furthermore, the results provide strong evidence that intensity features extracted at the arterial to portal and arterial to equilibrium phases are important for classifying early HCC.

  15. Application of a high throughput method of biomarker discovery to improvement of the EarlyCDT(®-Lung Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial showed that CT screening for lung cancer led to a 20% reduction in mortality. However, CT screening has a number of disadvantages including low specificity. A validated autoantibody assay is available commercially (EarlyCDT®-Lung to aid in the early detection of lung cancer and risk stratification in patients with pulmonary nodules detected by CT. Recent advances in high throughput (HTP cloning and expression methods have been developed into a discovery pipeline to identify biomarkers that detect autoantibodies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the successful clinical application of this strategy to add to the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to improve its sensitivity and specificity (and hence positive predictive value, (PPV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serum from two matched independent cohorts of lung cancer patients were used (n = 100 and n = 165. Sixty nine proteins were initially screened on an abridged HTP version of the autoantibody ELISA using protein prepared on small scale by a HTP expression and purification screen. Promising leads were produced in shake flask culture and tested on the full assay. These results were analyzed in combination with those from the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to provide a set of re-optimized cut-offs. Five proteins that still displayed cancer/normal differentiation were tested for reproducibility and validation on a second batch of protein and a separate patient cohort. Addition of these proteins resulted in an improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of the test from 38% and 86% to 49% and 93% respectively (PPV improvement from 1 in 16 to 1 in 7. CONCLUSION: This is a practical example of the value of investing resources to develop a HTP technology. Such technology may lead to improvement in the clinical utility of the EarlyCDT--Lung test, and so further aid the early detection of lung cancer.

  16. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...

  17. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  18. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, H; Guerin, L; Casey, M E; Conti, M; Eriksson, L; Michel, C; Fanti, S; Pettinato, C; Adler, S; Choyke, P

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%. (paper)

  19. To report or not to report: a psychosocial investigation aimed at improving early detection of Avian Influenza outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.W. Elbers; M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); K. Zarafshani (Kiumars); G. Koch (Guus)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSummary: The aim of this study was to identify difficulties and barriers to reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by avian influenza (AI), and to explore possible incentives to reporting such situations, with the ultimate aim of facilitating early detection of AI

  20. Tumor-associated auto-antibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Hüsing, Anika

    2018-01-01

    .08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all...... invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited...

  1. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas C; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital

  2. To report or not to report: a psychosocial investigation aimed at improving early detection of avian influenza outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Gorgievski, M.J.; Zarafshani, K.; Koch, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations - and solutions for those limitations – with respect to reporting clinically suspect situations on poultry farms, possibly caused by Avian Influenza (AI) with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of AI-outbreaks. Focus group sessions were

  3. Learning representations for the early detection of sepsis with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ha Young

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. Early detection of sepsis is vital because mortality increases as the sepsis stage worsens. This study aimed to develop detection models for the early stage of sepsis using deep learning methodologies, and to compare the feasibility and performance of the new deep learning methodology with those of the regression method with conventional temporal feature extraction. Study group selection adhered to the InSight model. The results of the deep learning-based models and the InSight model were compared. With deep feedforward networks, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the models were 0.887 and 0.915 for the InSight and the new feature sets, respectively. For the model with the combined feature set, the AUC was the same as that of the basic feature set (0.915). For the long short-term memory model, only the basic feature set was applied and the AUC improved to 0.929 compared with the existing 0.887 of the InSight model. The contributions of this paper can be summarized in three ways: (i) improved performance without feature extraction using domain knowledge, (ii) verification of feature extraction capability of deep neural networks through comparison with reference features, and (iii) improved performance with feedforward neural networks using long short-term memory, a neural network architecture that can learn sequential patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis

  5. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  6. Early Detection of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Preschool Children: : The use of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment in preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kruizinga (Ingrid)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Psychosocial problems are already prevalent in very young children. Early detection of such problems is important because it improves the prognosis. One instrument that is developed for the early detection of psychosocial problems and delay in competencies is the

  7. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Neonatal Bowel: Novel, Bedside, Noninvasive, and Radiation-Free Imaging for Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, Suzanne; Hackam, David J; Goldstein, Seth D; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Darge, Kassa; Hwang, Misun

    2018-05-31

    Despite extensive research and improvements in the field of neonatal care, the morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained unchanged over the past three decades. Early detection of ischemia and necrotic bowel is vital in improving morbidity and mortality associated with NEC; however, strategies for predicting and preventing NEC are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are novel techniques in pediatrics that have been proven as safe modalities. CEUS has benefits over conventional ultrasound (US) by its improved real-time evaluation of the micro- and macrovascularities of normally and abnormally perfused tissue. US has been implemented as a useful adjunct to X-ray for earlier evaluation of NEC. NIRS is another noninvasive technique that has shown promise in improving early detection of NEC. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of changes in bowel perfusion in NEC, discuss the accuracy of abdominal US in detecting NEC, and explain how the use of CEUS and NIRS will enhance the precise and early detection of altered/pathological bowel wall perfusion in the initial development and course of NEC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, A; Lopez Torres, E; Cerello, P; Fantacci, M E

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists. (paper)

  10. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  11. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2012-01-01

    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  12. Endoscopic tattooing of early colon carcinoma enhances detection of lymph nodes most prone to harbor tumor burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldecoa, Iban; Montironi, Carla; Planell, Nuria; Pellise, Maria; Fernandez-Esparrach, Gloria; Gines, Angels; Delgado, Salvadora; Momblan, Dulce; Moreira, Leticia; Lopez-Ceron, Maria; Rakislova, Natalia; Martinez-Palli, Graciela; Balust, Jaume; Bombi, Josep Antoni; de Lacy, Antonio; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc; Cuatrecasas, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs result in the detection of early-stage asymptomatic carcinomas suitable to be surgically cured. Lymph nodes (LN) from early CRC are usually small and may be difficult to collect. Still, at least 12 LNs should be analyzed from colectomies, to ensure a reliable pN0 stage. Presurgical endoscopic tattooing improves LN procurement. In addition, molecular detection of occult LN tumor burden in histologically pN0 CRC patients is associated with a decreased survival rate. We aimed to study the impact of presurgical endoscopic tattooing on the molecular detection of LN tumor burden in early colon neoplasms. A prospective cohort study from a CRC screening-based population was performed at a tertiary academic hospital. LNs from colectomies with and without preoperative endoscopic tattooing were assessed by two methods, hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and RT-LAMP, to detect tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA. We compared the amount of tumor burden and LN yields from tattooed and non-tattooed specimens. HE and RT-LAMP analyses of 936 LNs were performed from 71 colectomies containing early carcinomas and endoscopically unresectable adenomas (8 pT0, 17 pTis, 27 pT1, 19 pT2); 47 out of 71 (66.2 %) were tattooed. Molecular positivity correlated with the presence of tattoo in LN [p < 0.001; OR 3.1 (95 % CI 1.7-5.5)]. A significantly higher number of LNs were obtained in tattooed specimens (median 17 LN vs. 14.5 LN; p = 0.019). Endoscopic tattooing enables the analysis of those LNs most prone to harbor tumor cells and improves the number of LN harvested.

  13. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  14. Technological Innovations in Magnetic Resonance for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Maria F; Positano, Vincenzo; Martini, Nicola; Valvano, Giuseppe; Landini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Most recent technical innovations in cardiovascular MR imaging (CMRI) are presented in this review. They include hardware and software developments, and novelties in parametric mapping. All these recent improvements lead to high spatial and temporal resolution and quantitative information on the heart structure and function. They make it achievable ambitious goals in the field of magnetic resonance, such as the early detection of cardiovascular pathologies. In this review article, we present recent innovations in CMRI, emphasizing the progresses performed and the solutions proposed to some yet opened technical problems.

  15. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  16. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  17. Clinical Perspective of 3D Total Body Photography for Early Detection and Screening of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Jenna E; Laino, Antonia M; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Adams, Laura; Raphael, Anthony P; Menzies, Scott W; Soyer, H Peter

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to increase across many populations globally and there is significant mortality associated with advanced disease. However, if detected early, patients have a very promising prognosis. The methods that have been utilized for early detection include clinician and patient skin examinations, dermoscopy (static and sequential imaging), and total body photography via 2D imaging. Total body photography has recently witnessed an evolution from 2D imaging with the ability to now create a 3D representation of the patient linked with dermoscopy images of individual lesions. 3D total body photography is a particularly beneficial screening tool for patients at high risk due to their personal or family history or those with multiple dysplastic naevi-the latter can make monitoring especially difficult without the assistance of technology. In this perspective, we discuss clinical examples utilizing 3D total body photography, associated advantages and limitations, and future directions of the technology. The optimal system for melanoma screening should improve diagnostic accuracy, be time and cost efficient, and accessible to patients across all demographic and socioeconomic groups. 3D total body photography has the potential to address these criteria and, most importantly, optimize crucial early detection.

  18. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  19. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  20. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  1. Improved Data-based Fault Detection Strategy and Application to Distillation Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu

    2017-01-31

    Chemical and petrochemical processes require continuous monitoring to detect abnormal events and to sustain normal operations. Furthermore, process monitoring enhances productivity, efficiency, and safety in process industries. Here, we propose an innovative statistical approach that exploits the advantages of multiscale partial least squares (MSPLS) models and generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) tests for fault detection in processes. Specifically, we combine an MSPLS algorithm with wavelet analysis to create our modeling framework. Then, we use GLR hypothesis testing based on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the MSPLS model to improve fault detection. We use simulated distillation column data to evaluate the MSPLS-based GLR chart. Results show that our MSPLS-based GLR method is more powerful than the PLS-based Q and GLR method and MSPLS-based Q method, especially in early detection of small faults with abrupt or incipient behavior.

  2. Improved Data-based Fault Detection Strategy and Application to Distillation Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Chemical and petrochemical processes require continuous monitoring to detect abnormal events and to sustain normal operations. Furthermore, process monitoring enhances productivity, efficiency, and safety in process industries. Here, we propose an innovative statistical approach that exploits the advantages of multiscale partial least squares (MSPLS) models and generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) tests for fault detection in processes. Specifically, we combine an MSPLS algorithm with wavelet analysis to create our modeling framework. Then, we use GLR hypothesis testing based on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the MSPLS model to improve fault detection. We use simulated distillation column data to evaluate the MSPLS-based GLR chart. Results show that our MSPLS-based GLR method is more powerful than the PLS-based Q and GLR method and MSPLS-based Q method, especially in early detection of small faults with abrupt or incipient behavior.

  3. Dermoscopy, Digital Dermoscopy and Other Diagnostic Tools in the Early Detection of Melanoma and Follow-up of High-risk Skin Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Puig, Susana

    2017-07-05

    Early detection is a key strategy for reducing the mortality and economic burden associated with melanoma. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive and cost-effective tool for melanoma diagnosis, which has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive method for detecting early-stage skin cancer and reducing the number of unnecessary excisions. Patients at high risk of developing melanoma require long-term surveillance. Use of digital dermoscopy follow-up of these patients has led to improved outcomes. Combined follow-up programmes using total-body photography and digital dermoscopy have led to further improvements in early diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy is now widely used by dermatologists, but the public health impact of this tool is yet to be evaluated. Despite the clear advantages of dermoscopy and digital follow-up meth-ods, dermoscopy training and access to digital dermoscopy among dermatologists and general practitioners needs to be improved.

  4. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    only 46% and 47%, respectively. Furthermore, collectively, apoA-I, TTR and TF (excluding CA-125 distinguished i normal samples from samples representing all histopathologic subtypes of LMP, with a sensitivity of 73%, ii normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 84% and iii normal samples from LSOC with a sensitivity of 97%. More strikingly, the sensitivity in distinguishing normal versus mucinous ESOC, utilizing apoA-I, TF and TTR (CA-125 excluded, was 95% (specifi city 86%; AUC 95%.Conclusions: These results suggest that the biomarker panel consisting of apoA-I, TTR and TF may significantly improve early detection of OC.

  5. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  6. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  7. Touchscreen typing-pattern analysis for detecting fine motor skills decline in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovakis, Dimitrios; Hadjidimitriou, Stelios; Charisis, Vasileios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2018-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative movement disorder causing progressive disability that severely affects patients' quality of life. While early treatment can produce significant benefits for patients, the mildness of many early signs combined with the lack of accessible high-frequency monitoring tools may delay clinical diagnosis. To meet this need, user interaction data from consumer technologies have recently been exploited towards unsupervised screening for PD symptoms in daily life. Similarly, this work proposes a method for detecting fine motor skills decline in early PD patients via analysis of patterns emerging from finger interaction with touchscreen smartphones during natural typing. Our approach relies on low-/higher-order statistical features of keystrokes timing and pressure variables, computed from short typing sessions. Features are fed into a two-stage multi-model classification pipeline that reaches a decision on the subject's status (PD patient/control) by gradually fusing prediction probabilities obtained for individual typing sessions and keystroke variables. This method achieved an AUC = 0.92 and 0.82/0.81 sensitivity/specificity (matched groups of 18 early PD patients/15 controls) with discriminant features plausibly correlating with clinical scores of relevant PD motor symptoms. These findings suggest an improvement over similar approaches, thereby constituting a further step towards unobtrusive early PD detection from routine activities.

  8. Efficient Flame Detection and Early Warning Sensors on Combustible Materials Using Hierarchical Graphene Oxide/Silicone Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Gong, Li-Xiu; Li, Yang; Cao, Cheng-Fei; Tang, Long-Cheng; Wu, Lianbin; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Li, Shi-Neng; Gao, Jiefeng; Li, Yongjin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2018-01-23

    Design and development of smart sensors for rapid flame detection in postcombustion and early fire warning in precombustion situations are critically needed to improve the fire safety of combustible materials in many applications. Herein, we describe the fabrication of hierarchical coatings created by assembling a multilayered graphene oxide (GO)/silicone structure onto different combustible substrate materials. The resulting coatings exhibit distinct temperature-responsive electrical resistance change as efficient early warning sensors for detecting abnormal high environmental temperature, thus enabling fire prevention below the ignition temperature of combustible materials. After encountering a flame attack, we demonstrate extremely rapid flame detection response in 2-3 s and excellent flame self-extinguishing retardancy for the multilayered GO/silicone structure that can be synergistically transformed to a multiscale graphene/nanosilica protection layer. The hierarchical coatings developed are promising for fire prevention and protection applications in various critical fire risk and related perilous circumstances.

  9. Powerful qPCR assays for the early detection of latent invaders: interdisciplinary approaches in clinical cancer research and plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Nicola; Capretti, Paolo; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Latent invaders represent the first step of disease before symptoms occur in the host. Based on recent findings, tumors are considered to be ecosystems in which cancer cells act as invasive species that interact with the native host cell species. Analogously, in plants latent fungal pathogens coevolve within symptomless host tissues. For these reasons, similar detection approaches can be used for an early diagnosis of the invasion process in both plants and humans to prevent or reduce the spread of the disease. Molecular tools based on the evaluation of nucleic acids have been developed for the specific, rapid, and early detection of human diseases. During the last decades, these techniques to assess and quantify the proliferation of latent invaders in host cells have been transferred from the medical field to different areas of scientific research, such as plant pathology. An improvement in molecular biology protocols (especially referring to qPCR assays) specifically designed and optimized for detection in host plants is therefore advisable. This work is a cross-disciplinary review discussing the use of a methodological approach that is employed within both medical and plant sciences. It provides an overview of the principal qPCR tools for the detection of latent invaders, focusing on comparisons between clinical cancer research and plant pathology, and recent advances in the early detection of latent invaders to improve prevention and control strategies.

  10. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  11. Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from Whole Blood of Patients with Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoo, Mark W.; Crowder, Christopher C.; Rebman, Alison W.; Rounds, Megan A.; Matthews, Heather E.; Picuri, John M.; Soloski, Mark J.; Ecker, David J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Aucott, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct molecular tests in blood for early Lyme disease can be insensitive due to low amount of circulating Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. To address this challenge, we have developed a sensitive strategy to both detect and genotype B. burgdorferi directly from whole blood collected during the initial patient visit. This strategy improved sensitivity by employing 1.25 mL of whole blood, a novel pre-enrichment of the entire specimen extract for Borrelia DNA prior to a multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection assay. We evaluated the assay on blood collected at the initial presentation from 21 endemic area patients who had both physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) and positive two-tiered serology either at the initial visit or at a follow-up visit after three weeks of antibiotic therapy. Results of this DNA analysis showed detection of B. burgdorferi in 13 of 21 patients (62%). In most cases the new assay also provided the B. burgdorferi genotype. The combined results of our direct detection assay with initial physician visit serology resulted in the detection of early Lyme disease in 19 of 21 (90%) of patients at the initial visit. In 5 of 21 cases we demonstrate the ability to detect B. burgdorferi in early Lyme disease directly from whole blood specimens prior to seroconversion. PMID:22590620

  12. Early tumour detection: a transillumination, time-resolved technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behin-Ain, S.; Van Doorn, T.; Patterson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research into transillumination techniques for the detection of tumours in soft tissue has been ongoing for over 70 years. The resolution and contrast, however, remain severely limited by scatter. Single photon detection techniques, with ideally infinite extinction coefficients, have been proposed to accumulate sub-hertz photon transmitted frequencies in the early part of a transmitted pulse. Computer based simulations have been undertaken to examine the theoretical performance requirements of the detector and the resultant image qualities that may be expected with this imaging technique. This paper reports on the computational techniques required for implementing these simulations in an efficient manner. Controlled Monte Carlo (CMC) and Convolution of Layers (CL) techniques were employed to constrain the photon to those having more chance of detection and hence enhance the detection statistics. Extrapolation techniques are proposed to reconstruct the early part of the temporal profile. Computational methods were implemented to evaluate Path Integrals, which are otherwise overly complex to evaluate. CMC and CL reduce the computational time by more than 10 orders of magnitude by only tracking those photons more likely to reach the detector. In the case of an optically thick medium with high scattering coefficient, extrapolation techniques are used to reconstruct the early part of temporal profile. Analytical solutions were found to be too involved for the simplest geometries. However the CL and implementation of computational techniques make Path integrals a useful analytical tool to compliment full Monte Carlo techniques. Results have shown that these methods collectively enable detection of small inhomogeneites within soft tissues. Reduced computation times and full reconstruction of the temporal profile of transmitted photons through optically thick medium enable fast simulations of single photon detectors to be achieved with the above described

  13. Metabarcoding improves detection of eukaryotes from early biofouling communities: implications for pest monitoring and pathway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Schimanski, Kate; Pochon, Xavier; Hopkins, Grant A; Goldstien, Sharyn; Floerl, Oliver; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-07-01

    In this experimental study the patterns in early marine biofouling communities and possible implications for surveillance and environmental management were explored using metabarcoding, viz. 18S ribosomal RNA gene barcoding in combination with high-throughput sequencing. The community structure of eukaryotic assemblages and the patterns of initial succession were assessed from settlement plates deployed in a busy port for one, five and 15 days. The metabarcoding results were verified with traditional morphological identification of taxa from selected experimental plates. Metabarcoding analysis identified > 400 taxa at a comparatively low taxonomic level and morphological analysis resulted in the detection of 25 taxa at varying levels of resolution. Despite the differences in resolution, data from both methods were consistent at high taxonomic levels and similar patterns in community shifts were observed. A high percentage of sequences belonging to genera known to contain non-indigenous species (NIS) were detected after exposure for only one day.

  14. Annual meeting on nuclear technology 1980. Technical meeting: Early detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The practical methods refer to the neutron noise analysis of BWR-type reactors, the development and implementation of an early detection system for BWR-type reactors and the possibilities of the noise analysis in natrium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The mathematical methods are concerned with the stochastic analysis, high-frequency acoustic monitoring and early detection of damage in PWR-type reactors. (DG) [de

  15. A Forest Early Fire Detection Algorithm Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN adopt GHz as their communication carrier, and it has been found that GHz carrier attenuation model in transmission path is associated with vegetation water content. In this paper, based on RSSI mechanism of WSN nodes we formed vegetation dehydration sensors. Through relationships between vegetation water content and carrier attenuation, we perceived forest vegetation water content variations and early fire gestation process, and established algorithms of early forest fires detection. Experiments confirm that wireless sensor networks can accurately perceive vegetation dehydration events and forest fire events. Simulation results show that, WSN dehydration perception channel (P2P representing 75 % amounts of carrier channel or more, it can meet the detection requirements, which presented a new algorithm of early forest fire detection.

  16. Laser Imaging Facilitates Early Detection of Synchronous Adenocarcinomas in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Iwashita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrett’s adenocarcinoma may occur in multiple sites, and recurrence and metachronous lesions are the major problems with endoscopic resection. Therefore, early detection of such lesions is ideal to achieve complete resection and obtain improved survival rates with minimally invasive treatment. Laser imaging systems allow multiple modalities of endoscopic imaging by using white light laser, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE, blue laser imaging (BLI, and linked color imaging even at a distant view. However, the usefulness of these modalities has not been sufficiently reported regarding Barrett’s adenocarcinoma. Here, we report on a patient with three synchronous lesions followed by one metachronous lesion in a long segment with changes of Barrett’s esophagus, all diagnosed with this new laser endoscopic imaging system and enhanced by using FICE and/or BLI with high contrast compared with the surrounding mucosa. Laser endoscopic imaging may facilitate the detection of malignancies in patients with early Barrett’s adenocarcinoma.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  18. Divide and Conquer: Sub-Grouping of ASD Improves ASD Detection Based on Brain Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Low success (ASD) classification using brain morphometry from the large multi-site ABIDE dataset and inconsistent findings on brain morphometric abnormalities in ASD can be attributed to the ASD heterogeneity. In this study, we show that ASD brain morphometry is highly heterogeneous, and demonstrate that the heterogeneity can be mitigated and classification improved if autism severity (AS), verbal IQ (VIQ) and age are used with morphometric features. Morphometric features from structural MRIs (sMRIs) of 734 males (ASD: 361, controls: 373) of ABIDE were derived using FreeSurfer. Applying the Random Forest classifier, an AUC of 0.61 was achieved. Adding VIQ and age to morphometric features, AUC improved to 0.68. Sub-grouping the subjects by AS, VIQ and age improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.8 in the moderate-AS sub-group (AS = 7–8). Matching subjects on age and/or VIQ in each sub-group further improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.92 in the low AS sub-group (AS = 4–5). AUC decreased with AS and VIQ, and was the lowest in the mid-age sub-group (13–18 years). The important features were mainly from the frontal, temporal, ventricular, right hippocampal and left amygdala regions. However, they highly varied with AS, VIQ and age. The curvature and folding index features from frontal, temporal, lingual and insular regions were dominant in younger subjects suggesting their importance for early detection. When the experiments were repeated using the Gradient Boosting classifier similar results were obtained. Our findings suggest that identifying brain biomarkers in sub-groups of ASD can yield more robust and insightful results than searching across the whole spectrum. Further, it may allow identification of sub-group specific brain biomarkers that are optimized for early detection and monitoring, increasing the utility of sMRI as an important tool for early detection of ASD. PMID:27065101

  19. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  20. Improved Early Detection of Sepsis in the ED With a Novel Monocyte Distribution Width Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouser, Elliott D; Parrillo, Joseph E; Seymour, Christopher; Angus, Derek C; Bicking, Keri; Tejidor, Liliana; Magari, Robert; Careaga, Diana; Williams, JoAnna; Closser, Douglas R; Samoszuk, Michael; Herren, Luke; Robart, Emily; Chaves, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Sepsis most often presents to the ED, and delayed detection is harmful. WBC count is often used to detect sepsis, but changes in WBC count size also correspond to sepsis. We sought to determine if volume increases of circulating immune cells add value to the WBC count for early sepsis detection in the ED. A blinded, prospective cohort study was conducted in two different ED populations within a large academic hospital. Neutrophil and monocyte volume parameters were measured in conjunction with routine CBC testing on a UniCel DxH 800 analyzer at the time of ED admission and were evaluated for the detection of sepsis. There were 1,320 subjects in the ED consecutively enrolled and categorized as control subjects (n = 879) and those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (n = 203), infection (n = 140), or sepsis (n = 98). Compared with other parameters, monocyte distribution width (MDW) best discriminated sepsis from all other conditions (area under the curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73-0.84; sensitivity, 0.77; specificity, 0.73; MDW threshold, 20.50), sepsis from SIRS (AUC, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.84), and severe sepsis from noninfected patients in the ED (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; negative predictive value, 99%). The added value of MDW to WBC count was statistically significant (AUC, 0.89 for MDW + WBC vs 0.81 for WBC alone; P sepsis compared with WBC count alone at the time of admission in the ED. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02232750; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary haemochromatosis. Early detection of commitment myocardium through cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, F.; Rivas, Carlos; Dragonetti, Laura; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Calo, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Primary haemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease of the West (1 in 300 to 400 people). Cardiac involvement during its early stages is not detected by imaging techniques.During this period potentially lethal arrhythmias can occur. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with T2 star sequence it is possible an early detection of cardiac involvement as well as a risk stratification and a monitoring the progress of the therapy. [es

  2. Preventing Poor Vocational Functioning in Psychosis Through Early Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...

  3. Assessing the Clinical Role of Genetic Markers of Early-Onset Prostate Cancer Among High-Risk Men Enrolled in Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lucinda; Zhu, Fang; Ross, Eric; Gross, Laura; Uzzo, Robert G.; Chen, David Y. T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Giri, Veda N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Men with familial prostate cancer (PCA) and African American men are at risk for developing PCA at younger ages. Genetic markers predicting early-onset PCA may provide clinically useful information to guide screening strategies for high-risk men. We evaluated clinical information from six polymorphisms associated with early-onset PCA in a longitudinal cohort of high-risk men enrolled in PCA early detection with significant African American participation. Methods Eligibility criteria include ages 35–69 with a family history of PCA or African American race. Participants undergo screening and biopsy per study criteria. Six markers associated with early-onset PCA (rs2171492 (7q32), rs6983561 (8q24), rs10993994 (10q11), rs4430796 (17q12), rs1799950 (17q21), and rs266849 (19q13)) were genotyped. Cox models were used to evaluate time to PCA diagnosis and PSA prediction for PCA by genotype. Harrell’s concordance index was used to evaluate predictive accuracy for PCA by PSA and genetic markers. Results 460 participants with complete data and ≥1 follow-up visit were included. 56% were African American. Among African American men, rs6983561 genotype was significantly associated with earlier time to PCA diagnosis (p=0.005) and influenced prediction for PCA by the PSA (p<0.001). When combined with PSA, rs6983561 improved predictive accuracy for PCA compared to PSA alone among African American men (PSA= 0.57 vs. PSA+rs6983561=0.75, p=0.03). Conclusions Early-onset marker rs6983561 adds potentially useful clinical information for African American men undergoing PCA risk assessment. Further study is warranted to validate these findings. Impact Genetic markers of early-onset PCA have potential to refine and personalize PCA early detection for high-risk men. PMID:22144497

  4. 'RIG'- surgical gamma probe for early breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinjkar, P.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Kumar, Umesh; Pendharkar, A.S.; Choudhary, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, which if detected in early stage can be effectively treated and cured. Early detection is carried out by collecting a sentinel lymph node (SLN) and testing it for cancer. The surgical gamma probe is a hand-held device used in the localization of SLN. It enables the localization of the active node. Isotope Applications Division, BARC has developed indigenously a RIG Surgical Gamma Probe in consultation with the doctors from Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi. The system consists of microcomputer-based gamma counting system that displays the number of pulses detected by the probe in counts per second and has an audible signal in direct correlation with the count density. The detector probe is based on the scintillation detector housed in a stainless steel housing with lead collimator. The physical parameters are a high sensitivity of 5000 cps/MBq at probe tip with good spatial resolution. The performance of this probe was clinically evaluated on the basis of spatial resolution and accuracy to detect the active node. (author)

  5. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  6. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  7. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  8. Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.

  9. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  10. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  11. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...... radioactive sources need to be detected....

  12. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  13. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  14. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of Detection of Hypoattenuation in Acute Ischemic Stroke in Unenhanced Computed Tomography Using an Adaptive Smoothing Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Lee, Y.; Tsai, D. Y.; Ishii, K.; Kinoshita, T.; Tamura, H.; K imura, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Much attention has been directed toward identifying early signs of cerebral ischemia on computed tomography (CT) images. Hypoattenuation of ischemic brain parenchyma has been found to be the most frequent early sign. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a previously proposed adaptive smoothing filter for improving detection of parenchymal hypoattenuation of acute ischemic stroke on unenhanced CT images. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients with parenchymal hypoattenuation and 49 control subjects without hypoattenuation were retrospectively selected in this study. The adaptive partial median filter (APMF) designed for improving detectability of hypoattenuation areas on unenhanced CT images was applied. Seven radiologists, including four certified radiologists and three radiology residents, indicated their confidence level regarding the presence (or absence) of hypoattenuation on CT images, first without and then with the APMF processed images. Their performances without and with the APMF processed images were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The mean areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for all observers increased from 0.875 to 0.929 (P=0.002) when the radiologists observed with the APMF processed images. The mean sensitivity in the detection of hypoattenuation significantly improved, from 69% (126 of 182 observations) to 89% (151 of 182 observations), when employing the APMF (P=0.012). The specificity, however, was unaffected by the APMF (P=0.41). Conclusion: The APMF has the potential to improve the detection of parenchymal hypoattenuation of acute ischemic stroke on unenhanced CT images

  16. The use of cell cycle arrest biomarkers in the early detection of acute kidney injury. Is this the new renal troponin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis M; Heung, Michael

    2018-04-05

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high prevalence in critical care patients. Early detection might prevent patients from developing chronic kidney disease and requirement for renal replacement therapy. If we compare AKI with acute coronary syndrome, in which an increase in cardiac troponin may trigger early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention, we could extrapolate a similar technique in patients with early AKI without changes in urinary frequency or serum creatinine. The objective is to identify biomarker-positive, creatinine-negative patients that would allow therapeutic interventions to be initiated before finding changes in serum creatinine, preventing kidney damage. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 are cell cycle arrest biomarkers that have demonstrated, in recent clinical trials, to have good sensitivity and specificity for early detection of AKI. Other recent studies have shown that the joint use of these biomarkers with serum creatinine and urine production could improve the prognosis of AKI in critical patients. The application of these biomarkers in clinical practice would enable the early identification of patients at risk of AKI, establishing interventions that would improve the survival of renal function. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of SF 6  decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO 2  is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO 2  is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290–310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO 2  in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO 2  and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO 2  is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice. (paper)

  18. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  19. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  20. Fulfilling the potential of cancer prevention and early detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Susan J; Byers, Tim; Hewitt, Maria Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... The National Cancer Policy Board, part of the Institute of Medicine, outlines a national strategy to realize the promise of cancer prevention and early detection, including specific and wide-ranging recommendations...

  1. [Early detection of autism in children. Review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    1997-01-01

    The difficulties with early detection of autistic disorder in children are discussed. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are presented. Usefulness of clinical interview and clinical experiment in diagnosing autistic disorder are analyzed.

  2. Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of cervical dysplasia: ... glandular cell (AGC), Atypical glandular cell favouring neoplasia (AGC-FN), ... in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was recorded among the patients.

  3. Opportunistic breast cancer early detection in Tyrol, Austria 1996-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frede, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the need for a mammography-screening program for Tyrol, as recently proposed in an OeBIG feasibility study commissioned by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Women, in view of the already existing organized opportunistic screening. Materials and methods: This author has examined the state of breast cancer early detection and diagnosis in Tyrol. A comprehensive review of all available data and results based on 3340 primary biopsy recommendations between 1996 and 2004 at our breast centre was performed. Results: Early detection has been improved by organizing the existing opportunistic screening through a true team approach, incorporating not only the clinic's specialties, but also the private radiologists and referring physicians. In 2004, our centre made the definitive diagnosis in 230 (67.6%) of the about 340 primary breast cancer cases occurring yearly in Tyrol with 62.2% being discovered by routine examination and 74.3% stemming from second opinion examinations. About 92.4% of our primary biopsies are performed minimally invasive with an overall 42.9% (1375 of 3205 cases) malignancy rate. Pathological TNM-staging was obtained in over 95% of women under 70 years of age. On average 55.3% (62.0% in 2004) of all discovered cancers were TNM-stage 1 or better lesions (76.2% in our routine patients). With an overall participation of about 75% of our target group (women over 34 years), it is women under the age of 50 years, who most consistently follow our recommendations, resulting in an above average rate of 58.5% TNM-stage 1 and better lesions for all discovered breast cancers (routine and symptomatic) in this group. Conclusions: Opportunistic screening with a true team approach, combined with minimally invasive diagnosis and a strive for excellence have resulted in improved diagnosis, ever expanding patient and referring physician acceptance and an increase of positive prognostic factors, which eclipses the results of any published international

  4. FabryScan: a screening tool for early detection of Fabry disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arning, Kathrin; Naleschinski, Dennis; Maag, Rainer; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Kropp, Peter; Lorenzen, Jürgen; Hollak, Carla E. M.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Harten, Pontus; Zeuner, Rainald A.; Binder, Andreas; Baron, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lipid storage disorder, is associated early morbidity and mortality. Since enzyme replacement therapy is available, accurate detection of unrecognized cases is important. Characteristic early symptoms are recurrent episodes of burning and lancinating pain in the distal

  5. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  6. Point/Counterpoint: early detection of prostate cancer: do the benefits outweigh the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Peter R; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Few clinical issues have polarized the oncology community as much as screening for prostate cancer, with advocates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing vocal on one side and skeptics just as vocal on the other. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Peter R. Carroll and Dr. Andrew J. Vickers tackled the controversy surrounding early detection of prostate cancer, focusing attention on the randomized trial results at the heart of the matter; over-detection (the Achilles' heel of screening); and the rationale behind the new, streamlined 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection, which emphasize selective early detection and treatment and are tightly aligned with the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  7. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors ap-plying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Ira...

  8. Value of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, J.; Molina, L.; Jimenez, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor in women; the etiopathogenesis is unknown and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the fifties, different screening programs were developed for the early detection of breast cancer in the attempt to reduce the mortality attributed to this disease process. Mammography is one of the cornerstones of these programs because of its efficacy in the detection of subclinical tumors. We carried out a retrospective review of nine campaigns for the early detection of breast cancer, studying 11, 328 case reports; among these patients, there were 43 cases of breast cancer. Mammography was positive in 90.6% of these cases. Only in two patients did the image fail to reveal changes indicative of possible neoplasm; in both cases, the breasts involved were very dense. (Author) 26 refs

  9. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  10. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  11. Improvement of a picking algorithm real-time P-wave detection by kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H.; Yamada, M.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) requires fast and accurate P-wave detection. The current EEW system in Japan uses the STA/LTAalgorithm (Allen, 1978) to detect P-wave arrival.However, some stations did not trigger during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake due to the emergent onset. In addition, accuracy of the P-wave detection is very important: on August 1, 2016, the EEW issued a false alarm with M9 in Tokyo region due to a thunder noise.To solve these problems, we use a P-wave detection method using kurtosis statistics. It detects the change of statistic distribution of the waveform amplitude. This method was recently developed (Saragiotis et al., 2002) and used for off-line analysis such as making seismic catalogs. To apply this method for EEW, we need to remove an acausal calculation and enable a real-time processing. Here, we propose a real-time P-wave detection method using kurtosis statistics with a noise filter.To avoid false triggering by a noise, we incorporated a simple filter to classify seismic signal and noise. Following Kong et al. (2016), we used the interquartilerange and zero cross rate for the classification. The interquartile range is an amplitude measure that is equal to the middle 50% of amplitude in a certain time window. The zero cross rate is a simple frequency measure that counts the number of times that the signal crosses baseline zero. A discriminant function including these measures was constructed by the linear discriminant analysis.To test this kurtosis method, we used strong motion records for 62 earthquakes between April, 2005 and July, 2015, which recorded the seismic intensity greater equal to 6 lower in the JMA intensity scale. The records with hypocentral distance picks. It shows that the median error is 0.13 sec and 0.035 sec for STA/LTA and kurtosis method. The kurtosis method tends to be more sensitive to small changes in amplitude.Our approach will contribute to improve the accuracy of source location determination of

  12. Early clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma (cT1): Utility of CT in regional nodal metastasis detection and can the clinical accuracy be improved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L., E-mail: slbetancourt@mdanderson.org; Sabloff, Bradley, E-mail: bsabloff@mdanderson.org; Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org; Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org; Correa, Arlene M., E-mail: amcorrea@mdanderson.org; Maru, Dipen M., E-mail: dmaru@mdanderson.org; Ajani, Jaffer A., E-mail: jajani@mdanderson.org; Erasmus, Jeremy J., E-mail: jerasmus@mdanderson.org; Hofstetter, Wayne L., E-mail: whofstetter@mdanderson.org

    2017-03-15

    Introduction: Treatment of early esophageal cancer depends on the extent of the primary tumor and presence of regional lymph node metastasis.(RNM). Short axis diameter >10 mm is typically used to detect RNM. However, clinical determination of RNM is inaccurate and can result in inappropriate treatment. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a single linear measurement (short axis > 10 mm) of regional nodes on CT in predicting nodal metastasis, in patients with early esophageal cancer and whether using a mean diameter value (short axis + long axis/2) as well as nodal shape improves cN designation. Methods: CTs of 49 patients with cT1 adenocarcinoma treated with surgical resection alone were reviewed retrospectively. Regional nodes were considered positive for malignancy when round or ovoid and mean size >5 mm adjacent to the primary tumor and >7 mm when not adjacent. Results were compared with pN status after esophagectomy. Results: 18/49 patients had pN+ at resection. Using a single short axis diameter >10 mm on CT, nodal metastasis (cN) was positive in 7/49. Only 1 of these patients was pN+ at resection (sensitivity 5%, specificity 80%, accuracy 53%). Using mean size and morphologic criteria, cN was positive in 28/49. 11 of these patients were pN+ at resection (sensitivity 61%, specificity 45%, accuracy 51%). EUS with limited FNA of regional nodes resulted in 16/49 patients with pN+ being inappropriately designated as cN0. Conclusions: Evaluation of size, shape and location of regional lymph nodes on CT improves the sensitivity of cN determination compared with a short axis measurement alone in patients with cT1 esophageal cancer, although clinical utility is limited.

  13. Early biotic stress detection in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) by BVOC emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasal-Slavik, Tina; Eschweiler, Julia; Kleist, Einhard; Mumm, Roland; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Schouten, Sander; Wildt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated impacts of early and mild biotic stress on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from tomato in order to test their potential for early (biotic) stress detection. Tomato plants were exposed to two common fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopesici and

  14. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  15. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub α/ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage

  16. National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitrečić, Drago; Cvitković, Ante

    2014-09-01

    Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  17. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  18. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  19. A framework for improving early detection of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: A qualitative study of help-seeking behaviors among Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Gopal, Satish; Miller, Anna R; Lee, Clara N; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2017-01-01

    Many women in Africa are diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. We explored Malawian breast cancer patients' perspectives about their diagnosis and ability to access care to identify help-seeking behaviors and to describe factors influencing delay. We purposively sampled 20 Malawian breast cancer patients to conduct in-depth interviews. Transcripts were double coded to identify major themes of breast cancer help-seeking behaviors and what delayed or facilitated access to care. We outlined a breast cancer help-seeking pathway describing decisions, behaviors, and interactions from symptom presentation to receipt of cancer care. Patients were largely unaware of breast cancer and did not immediately notice or interpret symptoms. As symptoms progressed, women inferred illness and sought help from social networks, traditional remedies, and medical care. Economic hardship, distance to the facility, provider knowledge, health system factors, and social norms often delayed reaching the facility, referrals, diagnosis, and receipt of care. Social-contextual factors at the individual, interpersonal, health system, and societal levels delay decisions, behaviors, and access to breast cancer detection and appropriate care. A comprehensive approach to improving breast cancer early detection must address public awareness and misconceptions, provider knowledge and communication, and cancer care delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual responsibility in early detection of prostate gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodal Laugart, Ramon Lemay; Rodriguez Ardi, Maricel; Tamayo Tamayo, Iser

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the point that morbidity and mortality rate due to prostate gland cancer has increased in Santiago de Cuba, the authors of this work decided to analyze the relation to individual responsibility in order to early detect the aforementioned condition. Therefore, 48 men over 50 years old belonging to the health area of Frank Pais Garcia University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba were surveyed during the first months of the year 2011 to determine the factors that influenced on the low risk perception. Results showed the urgent need of carrying out actions of health promotion and disease prevention in order to achieve the individual feels more responsible of his health care. Of the case material, 85,4 % participants admitted they did not have the tests to guarantee the early diagnosis or detect this tumor.(author)

  1. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  2. Statewide Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Early Elective Deliveries and Improve Birth Registry Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Heather C; King, Eileen; White, Beth E; Ford, Susan E; Fuller, Sandra; Krew, Michael A; Marcotte, Michael P; Iams, Jay D; Bailit, Jennifer L; Bouchard, Jo M; Friar, Kelly; Lannon, Carole M

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the success of a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data accuracy rapidly and at scale in Ohio. Between February 2013 and March 2014, participating hospitals were involved in a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data. This initiative was designed as a learning collaborative model (group webinars and a single face-to-face meeting) and included individual quality improvement coaching. It was implemented using a stepped wedge design with hospitals divided into three balanced groups (waves) participating in the initiative sequentially. Birth registry data were used to assess hospital rates of nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation. Comparisons were made between groups participating and those not participating in the initiative at two time points. To measure birth registry accuracy, hospitals conducted monthly audits comparing birth registry data with the medical record. Associations were assessed using generalized linear repeated measures models accounting for time effects. Seventy of 72 (97%) eligible hospitals participated. Based on birth registry data, nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation declined in all groups with implementation (wave 1: 6.2-3.2%, Pinitiative, they saw significant decreases in rates of early elective deliveries as compared with wave 3 (control; P=.018). All waves had significant improvement in birth registry accuracy (wave 1: 80-90%, P=.017; wave 2: 80-100%, P=.002; wave 3: 75-100%, Pinitiative enabled statewide spread of change strategies to decrease early elective deliveries and improve birth registry accuracy over 14 months and could be used for rapid dissemination of other evidence-based obstetric care practices across states or hospital systems.

  3. Couple Therapy with Veterans: Early Improvements and Predictors of Early Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Bhatia, Vickie; Baddeley, Jenna L; Al-Jabari, Rawya; Libet, Julian

    2017-07-28

    Family services within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers fulfill an important role in addressing relationship distress among Veterans, which is highly prevalent and comorbid with psychopathology. However, even for evidence-based couple therapies, effectiveness is weaker compared to controlled studies, maybe because many Veteran couples drop out early and do not reach the "active" treatment stage after the 3-4 session assessment. In order to improve outcomes, it is critical to identify couples at high risk for early dropout, and understand whether couples may benefit from the assessment as an intervention. The current study examined (a) demographics, treatment delivery mode, relationship satisfaction, and psychological symptoms as predictors of dropout during and immediately following the assessment phase, and (b) changes in relationship satisfaction during assessment. 174 couples completed questionnaires during routine intake procedures. The main analyses focused on 140 male Veterans and their female civilian partners; 36.43% dropped out during the assessment phase and 24.74% of the remaining couples immediately following the first treatment session. More severe depressive symptoms in non-Veteran partners were associated with dropout during assessment. Relationship satisfaction improved significantly during the assessment phase for couples who did not drop out, with larger gains for non-Veteran partners. No demographics or treatment delivery mode were associated with dropout. Although more research is needed on engaging couples at risk for early dropout and maximizing early benefits, the findings suggest that clinicians should attend to the civilian partner's and Veteran's depressive symptoms at intake and consider the assessment part of active treatment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  4. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hoon Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods. Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. While some literature describes the challenges and opportunities to overcome the technical issues related to food industry legal guidelines, there is a lack of reviews of the current trials to overcome technological limitations related to sample preparation and microbial detection via nano and micro technologies. In this review, we primarily explore current analytical technologies, including metallic and magnetic nanomaterials, optics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy. These techniques rely on the early detection of pathogens via enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity. In order to introduce the potential combination and comparative analysis of various advanced methods, we also reference a novel sample preparation protocol that uses microbial concentration and recovery technologies. This technology has the potential to expedite the pre-enrichment step that precedes the detection process.

  5. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Ku, Seockmo

    2017-09-30

    The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods). Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. While some literature describes the challenges and opportunities to overcome the technical issues related to food industry legal guidelines, there is a lack of reviews of the current trials to overcome technological limitations related to sample preparation and microbial detection via nano and micro technologies. In this review, we primarily explore current analytical technologies, including metallic and magnetic nanomaterials, optics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy. These techniques rely on the early detection of pathogens via enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity. In order to introduce the potential combination and comparative analysis of various advanced methods, we also reference a novel sample preparation protocol that uses microbial concentration and recovery technologies. This technology has the potential to expedite the pre-enrichment step that precedes the detection process.

  6. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Geraghty, J. A. Seibert, and S. L. Wootton-Gorges, “Dose reduction in pediatric CT : A rational approach,” Radiology 228, 352–360 (2003). Medical...improvement in image quality can be quantified as large as 450 [Fig. 6(c)] and 350 [Fig. 6(d)] Hounsfield units (HUs), where the Hounsfield unit is defined...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  8. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  9. Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Connie E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine. 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N., E-mail: william.rom@nyumc.org [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine. 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, with an overall survival of 15% at five years. Biomarkers that can sensitively and specifically detect lung cancer at early stage are crucial for improving this poor survival rate. Sputum has been the target for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for lung cancer because it contains airway epithelial cells, and molecular alterations identified in sputum are most likely to reflect tumor-associated changes or field cancerization caused by smoking in the lung. Sputum-based molecular biomarkers include morphology, allelic imbalance, promoter hypermethylation, gene mutations and, recently, differential miRNA expression. To improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of sputum-based biomarkers, we recommend standardization of processing protocols, bronchial epithelial cell enrichment, and identification of field cancerization biomarkers.

  10. Improving dementia care: The role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J.; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J. Riley; Morris, John C.; Salmon, David P.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Stefanacci, Richard G.; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J.; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J. Wesson

    2014-01-01

    The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia. PMID:23375564

  11. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  12. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  13. Nanostructured materials with plasmonic nanobiosensors for early cancer detection: A past and future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Schreurs, Dominique

    2018-02-15

    Early cancer detection and treatment is an emerging and fascinating field of plasmonic nanobiosensor research. It paves to enrich a life without affecting living cells leading to a possible survival of the patient. This review describes a past and future prospect of an integrated research field on nanostructured metamaterials, microwave transmission, surface plasmonic resonance, nanoantennas, and their manifested versatile properties with nano-biosensors towards early cancer detection to preserve human health. Interestingly, (i) microwave transmission shows more advantages than other electromagnetic radiation in reacting with biological tissues, (ii) nanostructured metamaterial (Au) with special properties like size and shape can stimulate plasmonic effects, (iii) plasmonic based nanobiosensors are to explore the efficacy for early cancer tumour detection or single molecular detection and (iv) nanoantenna wireless communication by using microwave inverse scattering nanomesh (MISN) technique instead of conventional techniques can be adopted to characterize the microwave scattered signals from the biomarkers. It reveals that the nanostructured material with plasmonic nanobiosensor paves a fascinating platform towards early detection of cancer tumour and is anticipated to be exploited as a magnificent field in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  15. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  16. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum

  17. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  18. Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2001-01-01

    -year inclusion period (1997-2000) are described. It includes targeted information towards the general public, health professionals and schools, and ED teams to recruit appropriate patients into treatment as soon as possible. This plus easy access to psychiatric services via ED teams systematically changed......Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...

  19. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dengue NS1 Antigen - for Early Detection of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Hartalkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of NS1 antigen assay for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in department of Medicine from August to December 2013. Total 100 patients with dengue fever were included. Complete blood count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Dengue NS1 antigen and IgM and IgG antibodies of dengue virus were done in all cases. Results: Of the 100 sera tested, 75% were positive for dengue virus infection based on dengue NS1 antigen, IgM antibody and IgG antibody. Dengue NS1 antigen and IgM, IgG antibody were able to detect dengue virus infection between day 1 to day 8 in 92% of samples, 86.7% of samples and 82.6% of samples respectively. Sixty nine percent (69% were found positive for dengue NS1 antigen, 65% were IgM positive and 62% were IgG positive. Based on the dengue NS1 antigen and IgM antibody combination, 74% were positive for dengue virus infections. Sensitivity of Dengue NS1 antigen was 92.3% and specificity of 74.28% in comparison to IgM antibody. Detection rate increased to 75%, based on the antigen and IgG antibody combination. Sensitivity of dengue NS1 antigen was 90.3% and specificity of 65.8% in comparison to IgG antibody. Conclusion: Dengue NS1 antigen is a useful, sensitive and specific test for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection and it improves diagnostic efficiency in combination with antibody test. Key words: Dengue fever, NS1 antigen. Introduction: Dengue fever (DF is the most common arboviral illness in humans. Each year, an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever and 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever occur worldwide, with 30000 deaths (mainly in children. Globally 2.5-3 billion people in approximately 112 tropical and subtropical countries are at risk of dengue.of samples respectively. Sixty nine percent (69% were found positive for dengue NS1 antigen, 65% were Ig

  1. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  2. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  3. Improving Face Detection with TOE Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Larsen, Rasmus; Lauze, F

    2007-01-01

    A face detection method based on a boosted classifier using images from a time-of-flight sensor is presented. We show that the performance of face detection can be improved when using both depth and gray scale images and that the common use of integration of hypotheses for verification can...... be relaxed. Based on the detected face we employ an active contour method on depth images for full head segmentation....

  4. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  5. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, γ-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author)

  6. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  7. The continuing challenge of early detection of acute otitis media in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study is to highlight the clinical problem of acute otitis media in children as seen in Uyo with particular reference to difficulties of early detection over a 6 year period (1999-2004). Methodology: A six-year retrospective study (1999-2004) was carried out to evaluate the clinical presentation and early ...

  8. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  9. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  10. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  11. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewcz, Sławomir; Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    stage. In the examined men, we observed an almost complete lack of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, hence they did not report to screening tests.The education process influenced the level of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate. The examined men >40, inhabitants of bigger towns with higher education, less with secondary education and still less with elementary education showed interest in improving their health knowledge.Due to increasing knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, patients were undertaking systematic tests - on average once a year. It confirmed the fact that education on prostate cancer influences its early detection.Education on carcinoma of prostate on a large scale may lead to decreasing morbidity and mortality rates.

  12. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  13. Odour discrimination and identification are improved in early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G; Renier, Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies showed that early blind humans develop superior abilities in the use of their remaining senses, hypothetically due to a functional reorganization of the deprived visual brain areas. While auditory and tactile functions have been investigated for long, little is known about the effects of early visual deprivation on olfactory processing. However, blind humans make an extensive use of olfactory information in their daily life. Here we investigated olfactory discrimination and identification abilities in early blind subjects and age-matched sighted controls. Three levels of cuing were used in the identification task, i.e., free-identification (no cue), categorization (semantic cues) and multiple choice (semantic and phonological cues). Early blind subjects significantly outperformed the controls in odour discrimination, free-identification and categorization. In addition, the larger group difference was observed in the free-identification as compared to the categorization and the multiple choice conditions. This indicated that a better access to the semantic information from odour perception accounted for part of the improved olfactory performances in odour identification in the blind. We concluded that early blind subjects have both improved perceptual abilities and a better access to the information stored in semantic memory than sighted subjects.

  14. Importance of early physical rehabilitation in improving functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Odynets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the expediency of early application of physical rehabilitation to improve the functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, analysis of heart rate variability, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 135 women with postmastectomy syndrome who underwent radical mastectomy for Madden. Results: at the end of the research value of high-frequency component of the spectrum was significantly higher in women MG1 compared to MG on 257,72 ms² (p<0,01 and the stress index was lower on 107,01 c. u (p<0,001. Conclusions: the feasibility of early rehabilitation intervention to improve the functional state of the autonomic nervous system is not detected during the year classes on problem-oriented programs.

  15. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P.; Crew, Rebecca M.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Ullmann, Amy J.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Molins, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. PMID:26376927

  16. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  18. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  19. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  20. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.

  1. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  2. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  3. Advance in plasma SEPT9 gene methylation assay for colorectal cancer early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Pei-Min; Liu, Rong-Bin

    2018-01-15

    This review article summarizes the research advances of the plasma-based SEPT9 gene methylation assay for the clinical detection of colorectal cancer and its limitations. Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy with a poor prognosis and a high mortality, for which early detection and diagnosis are particularly crucial for the high-risk groups. Increasing evidence supported that SEPT9 gene methylation is associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and that detecting the level of methylation of SEPT9 in the peripheral blood can be used for screening of colorectal cancer in susceptible populations. In recent years, the data obtained in clinical studies demonstrated that the SEPT9 gene methylation assay has a good diagnostic performance with regard to both sensitivity and specificity with the advantage of better acceptability, convenience and compliance with serological testing compared with fecal occult blood tests and carcinoembryonic antigen for colorectal cancer (CRC). Furthermore, the combination of multiple methods or markers has become a growing trend for CRC detection and screening. Nevertheless, the clinical availability of the methylated SEPT9 assay is still limited because of the large degree of sample heterogeneity caused by demographic characteristics, pathological features, comorbidities and/or technique selection. Another factor is the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening strategies that hinders its large-scale application. In addition, improvements in its accuracy in detecting adenomas and premalignant polyps are required.

  4. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoff, R; Luder, A S; Lorber, A; Dembo, L

    1989-04-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution.

  5. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardoff, R.; Luder, A.S.; Lorber, A.; Dembo, L.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by 67 Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution. (orig.)

  6. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  7. Early detection of tooth wear by en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Eniko; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-02-01

    Excessive dental wear (pathological attrition and/or abfractions) is a frequent complication in bruxing patients. The parafunction causes heavy occlusal loads. The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-face optical coherence tomography was used for investigating and imaging of several extracted tooth, with a normal morphology, derived from patients with active bruxism and from subjects without parafunction. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks in patients with first degree bruxism and with a normal tooth morphology. We conclude that the en-face optical coherence tomography is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for the early detection of occlusal overload, before it becomes clinically evident as tooth wear.

  8. National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Charlyn Harper

    2014-01-01

    The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…

  9. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  10. Multifunctional Dendrimer-templated Antibody Presentation on Biosensor Surfaces for Improved Biomarker Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Jung; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Wang, Sunxi; Mao, Guangzhao; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto

    2010-02-08

    Dendrimers, with their well-defined globular shape and a high density of functional groups, are ideal nanoscale materials for templating sensor surfaces. This work exploits dendrimers as a versatile platform for capturing biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity. Synthesis, characterization, fabrication, and functional validation of the dendrimer-based assay platform are described. Bifunctional hydroxyl/thiol functionalized G4-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer is synthesized and immobilized on to the polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-functionalized assay plate by coupling PEG-maleimide and dendrimer thiol groups. Simultaneously, part of the dendrimer thiol groups are converted to hydrazide functionalities. The resulting dendrimer-modified surface is coupled to the capture antibody in the Fc region of the oxidized antibody. This preserves the orientation flexibility of the antigen binding region (Fv) of the antibody. To validate the approach, the fabricated plates are further used as a solid phase for developing a sandwich type ELISA to detect IL-6 and IL-1β, important biomarkers for early stages of chorioamnionitis. The dendrimer-modified plate provides assays with significantly enhanced sensitivity, lower nonspecific adsorption, and a detection limit of 0.13 pg ml -1 for IL-6 luminol detection and 1.15 pg ml -1 for IL-1β TMB detection, which are significantly better than those for the traditional ELISA. The assays were validated in human serum samples from normal (non-pregnant) woman and pregnant women with pyelonephritis. The specificity and the improved sensitivity of the dendrimer-based capture strategy could have significant implications for the detection of a wide range of cytokines and biomarkers since the capture strategy could be applied to multiplex microbead assays, conductometric immunosensors and field effect biosensors.

  11. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  12. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of coolant boiling in research reactors with MTR-type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.; Turkcan, E.; Verhoef, J.P.

    1992-10-01

    A reactor core monitoring system having the function of early detection of boiling in the coolant channels of research reactors with MTR-type fuel is introduced. The system is based on the on-line analysis of signals of various ex-core and in-core neutron detectors. Early detection of coolant boiling cannot be accomplished by the evaluation of the DC components of these detectors in a number of practically important cases of boiling anomaly. It is shown that the noise component of the available neutron detector signals can be used for the detection of boiling in these cases. Experiments have been carried out at a boiling setup in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands. (author). 8 refs., 11 figs

  14. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic

  15. Assessment of two different types of sample for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta, Saulo; Dolz, Roser; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the optimal method for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broilers at farm level, two types of samples were compared: caecal contents obtained by necropsy and cloacal swabs transported in charcoal Amies medium. The study was conducted in five batches of broilers from five different farms, where weekly samples (caecal contents and cloacal swabs) from 30 birds were obtained. Samples were plated onto selective agar (modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate agar, mCCDA) for Campylobacter isolation. Four out of five batches were positive for Campylobacter. No marked differences in sensitivity of both sample types were observed. However, a higher percentage of positive birds were detected when cloacal swabs were used. The results show that cloacal swab samples are adequate, and in some cases even better than caecal samples for the early detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks at farm level. Also, this sample avoids sacrificing birds to test Campylobacter, which not only allows saving time in sample collection, transportation and processing at the laboratory, but also improves bird welfare and cost of sampling.

  16. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Practitioner-informed improvements to early childhood intervention performance checklists and practice guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from four early childhood practitioner field tests of performance checklists and early intervention practice guides are reported. Findings from the first field test were used to make changes and improvements in the checklists and practice guides evaluated in the second and third field tests, and findings from the latter two field tests were used to improve the checklist and practice guide evaluated in the fourth field test. Results indicated that changes made in response to practitioners’ suggestions and feedback were associated with (1 progressive increases in the practitioners’ social validity judgments of the checklists, practice guides, and checklist-practice guide correspondence, and (2 progressive decreases in the number of practitioner suggestions and feedback for improving the early intervention materials. The field-test research demonstrates the importance of practitioner input, suggestions, and feedback for improving the usefulness of early childhood intervention practices.

  18. The Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Combination With Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Improving Tumor Detection for Early Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Fertility-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulei; Wang, Ling; Li, Yong; Song, Peiji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery because of early cervical carcinoma. Fifty-four patients with stage Ia or Ib1 cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed for these patients using conventional MRI (including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical carcinoma were analyzed quantitatively and compared with that of adjacent epithelium. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 2 sets of MRI sequences were calculated on the basis of histologic results, and the diagnostic ability of conventional MRI/DWI combinations was compared with that of conventional MRI. The mean ADC value from cervical carcinoma (mean, 786 × 10 mm/s ± 100) was significantly lower than that from adjacent epithelium (mean, 1352 × 10 mm/s ± 147) (P = 0.01). When the threshold ADC value set as 1010 × 10 mm/s, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating cervical carcinoma from nontumor epithelium were 78.2% and 67.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI for tumor detection were 76.0% and 70.4%, whereas the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI/DWI combinations were 91.7% and 90.7%, respectively. Conventional MRI/DWI combinations revealed a positive predictive value of 97.8% and only 4 false-negative findings. The addition of DWI to conventional MRI considerably improves the sensitivity and accuracy of tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery, which supports the inclusion quantitative analysis of ADC value in routine MRI protocol before fertility-sparing surgery.

  19. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  20. Early Seizure Detection Based on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Pavei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the regulation of cardiac activity and autonomic nervous system tone. The early detection of epileptic seizures could foster the use of new treatment approaches. This study presents a new methodology for the prediction of epileptic seizures using HRV signals. Eigendecomposition of HRV parameter covariance matrices was used to create an input for a support vector machine (SVM-based classifier. We analyzed clinical data from 12 patients (9 female; 3 male; age 34.5 ± 7.5 years, involving 34 seizures and a total of 55.2 h of interictal electrocardiogram (ECG recordings. Data from 123.6 h of ECG recordings from healthy subjects were used to test false positive rate per hour (FP/h in a completely independent data set. Our methodological approach allowed the detection of impending seizures from 5 min to just before the onset of a clinical/electrical seizure with a sensitivity of 94.1%. The FP rate was 0.49 h−1 in the recordings from patients with epilepsy and 0.19 h−1 in the recordings from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the dynamics of HRV parameters for the early detection and, potentially, the prediction of epileptic seizures.

  1. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  2. A diabetic retinopathy detection method using an improved pillar K-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogula, Susmitha Valli; Divakar, Ch; Satyanarayana, Ch; Rao, Allam Appa

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for medical image segmentation. Exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy that is the major reason of vision loss in patients with diabetes. If the exudates extend into the macular area, blindness may occur. Automated detection of exudates will assist ophthalmologists in early diagnosis. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution images in order to improve precision and reduce computation time. The system applies K-means clustering to the image segmentation after getting optimized by Pillar algorithm; pillars are constructed in such a way that they can withstand the pressure. Improved pillar algorithm can optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in aspects of precision and computation time. This evaluates the proposed approach for image segmentation by comparing with Kmeans and Fuzzy C-means in a medical image. Using this method, identification of dark spot in the retina becomes easier and the proposed algorithm is applied on diabetic retinal images of all stages to identify hard and soft exudates, where the existing pillar K-means is more appropriate for brain MRI images. This proposed system help the doctors to identify the problem in the early stage and can suggest a better drug for preventing further retinal damage.

  3. Assessment of Knowledge and Perception towards Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hadi Alharbi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer was the ninth leading cause of mortality for women in Saudi Arabia, and to reduce the burden of this disease appropriate information about breast cancer and its’ early detection measures are highly needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perception of Northern Saudi Arabia people towards breast cancer prevention and early detection. Methodology: In this cross sectional descriptive study, data about breast cancer were obtained from 566 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Results: When the level of individual’s knowledge about breast cancer was assessed, the majority of the study subjects were found with good knowledge followed by moderate and poor representing 187 (34.3%, 170 (31.2% and 86 (15.8%, respectively. For females, most of them were found with good knowledge followed by moderate and poor constituting 142 (36.1%, 111 (28.2% and 62 (15.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study have delivered evidence that women in Northern Saudi Arabia lack appropriate information about breast cancer and its’ early detection measures.

  4. Improvement of Breast Cancer Detection Using Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform and Super-Resolution Technique in Mammographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most life-threatening conditions among women. Early detection of this disease is the only way to reduce the associated mortality rate. Mammography is a standard method for the early detection of breast cancer. Today, considering the importance of breast cancer detection, computer-aided detection techniques have been employed to increase the quality of mammographic images and help physicians reduce false positive rate (FPR. Materials and Methods In this study, a method was proposed for improving the quality of mammographic images to help radiologists establish a prompt and accurate diagnosis. The proposed approach included three major parts including pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification. In the pre-processing stage, the region of interest was determined and the image quality was improved by non-subsampled contourlet transform and super-resolution algorithm. In the feature extraction stage, some features of image components were extracted and skewness of each feature was calculated. Finally, a support vector machine was utilized to classify the features and determine the probability of benignity or malignancy of the disease. Results Based on the obtained results using Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS database, the mean accuracy was estimated at 87.26% and maximum accuracy was 96.29%. Also, the mean and minimum FPRs were estimated at 9.55% and 2.87%, respectively.     Conclusion The results obtained using MIAS database indicated the superiority of the proposed method to other techniques. The reduced FPR in the proposed method was a significant finding in the present article.

  5. Early fault detection and on-line diagnosis in real-time environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bye

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to fault detection and diagnosis involving the simultaneous employment of quantitative and qualitative reasoning techniques. We show that early identification of process anomalies by means of a separate fault detection module paves the way for a fast and accuratc follow-up diagnosis. The diagnosis task is dramatically simplified because the diagnostic inferences can be performed at the soonest possible time: when the detection module first spots deviations between its calculated reference points and the corresponding measurements from the process.

  6. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  7. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  8. Early Detection and Treatment of Neuroblastic Tumor with Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Improve Neurological Outcome: A Review of Five Cases at a Single Institution in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takama, Yuichi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Higashio, Atsushi; Santo, Kenji; Kuki, Ichiro; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Hara, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    days (range, 271-458 days). The mean interval between onset of OMS and initial therapy for NT in case without neurological sequelae was 88 days (range, 47-145 days), while in case with neurological sequelae it was 389 days (range, 292-486 days). The interval between the onset of OMS and the detection and initial therapy of NT tended to be longer in patients with neurological sequelae than in those without neurological sequelae. This study suggested that early detection and treatment of NT with OMS might improve the neurological outcomes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening.

  10. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  11. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess methods available in clinical practice for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risk, and to set guidelines for their use. To make recommendations regarding cost-effective screening of asymptomatic subjects by physicians. Options. Three methods to predict fracture risk are ...

  12. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...... successfully been tested on experimental data from a medium-scale horizontal flow loop in Sta- vanger, Norway. The flow loop represents a 700 m borehole with emulation of the following downhole contingencies: drillstring washout, drill bit nozzle plugging, gas influx and fluid loss. In the tests...

  13. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Interference Corrections and Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. D.; Pifer, A.; Chowdhury, Z.; Wahman, D.; Zhang, W.; Fairey, J.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events that necessitate extensive flushing, resulting in the loss of billions of gallons of finished water. Biological techniques used to quantify the activity of nitrifying bacteria are impractical for real-time monitoring because they require significant laboratory efforts and/or lengthy incubation times. At present, DWU and CoH regularly rely on physicochemical parameters including total chlorine and monochloramine residual, and free ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate as indicators of nitrification, but these metrics lack specificity to nitrifying bacteria. To improve detection of nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, we seek to develop a real-time fluorescence-based sensor system to detect the early onset of nitrification events by measuring the fluorescence of soluble microbial products (SMPs) specific to nitrifying bacteria. Preliminary data indicates that fluorescence-based metrics have the sensitivity to detect these SMPs in the early stages of nitrification, but several remaining challenges will be explored in this presentation. We will focus on benchtop and sensor results from ongoing batch and annular reactor experiments designed to (1) identify fluorescence wavelength pairs and data processing techniques suitable for measurement of SMPs from nitrification and (2) assess and correct potential interferences, such as those from monochloramine, pH, iron, nitrite, nitrate and humic substances. This work will serve as the basis for developing fluorescence sensor packages for full-scale testing and validation in the DWU and CoH systems. Findings from this research could be leveraged to identify nitrification events in their early stages, facilitating proactive

  14. A study on the detection of misfiring cylinder of the diesel engine in excavation machinery using improved ALM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, M.; Kawamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Engineering; Akhmetov, D.F.; Ito, F.; Aoshima, N. [NTT DoCoMo Inc. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Mechanical problems in large-scale mining equipment can result in serious losses in operational efficiency and profits. A misfiring cylinder in a diesel engine can cause engine failure in a short period of time. Regular maintenance and inspection of machinery is therefore critical for mining and construction operations. For that reason, an innovative method was developed to detect whether a cylinder is misfiring, and if so, which one. This study established a simple, reliable and sure method using the improved aggregative learning method (ALM) analysis for the early diagnosis and repair of misfiring cylinders. A minimum number of sensors were applied on the side of 2 cylinders on a diesel engine in order to set up an abnormal diagnostic system that detects anomalies at an early stage by analyzing the acceleration waveform using the ALM method. The detection method is better than traditional methods that require accelerometers. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  15. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).

  16. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  17. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  18. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  19. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  20. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy A.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  1. Multiparametric MRI of the prostate. Method for early detection of prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Current approaches for the early detection of prostate cancer are controversially discussed because the disease is characterized by a high incidence rate with a relatively low morbidity rate, availability of only limited prognostic markers, and continued therapy-related morbidity. Conventional morphological MRI does not play a role in early detection since small tumor foci cannot be delineated. However, if there is clinical suspicion for prostate cancer, multiparametric MRI is currently the most accurate method for detecting and characterizing suspicious lesions in the prostate. The potential to identify the so-called 'index lesion', i.e., the tumor area that is most aggressive and determines treatment, is particularly important. This information can increase the accuracy of prostate biopsy and serve as a biomarker for follow-up during active surveillance. The method may considerably contribute to the urgently required separation of clinically significant from clinically insignificant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  2. Nanogram per milliliter-level immunologic detection of alpha-fetoprotein with integrated rotating-resonance microcantilevers for early-stage diagnosis of heptocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjing; Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zuo, Guomin; Cheng, Zhenxing; Yu, Haitao

    2009-02-01

    Nanogram per milliliter-level ultra-low concentration detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is an important marker for heptocellular carcinoma, is in favor of early-stage prognosis and disease diagnosis. On-the-spot rapid detection of such antigens as AFP highly requires innovative micro/nano techniques. To meet this requirement, an advanced resonant microcantilever is developed and used for screening the tumor marker at nanogram per milliliter level. The sensing principle of the resonant microcantilever is measuring frequency-shift versus specific-adsorbed mass. With both electromagnetic resonance-exciting and piezoresistive readout elements on-chip integrated, the microcantilever sensor is operated in a rotating resonance mode to improve sensitivity and resolution to specific mass adsorption. Prior to detection of AFP with previously immobilized anti-AFP antibody, the antigen-antibody specific-binding is confirmed with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay experiment. By implementing the specific reaction in liquid and reading out the sensor signal in lab air environment, the micromechanical sensor has achieved the sensitive scale between 2 and 20 ng/ml. To effectively depress cross-talk signal and improve resolution, the insensitive regions of the cantilever surface are pre-modified with 2-[methoxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] trimethoxysilane for nonspecific bio-adsorption minimization. Finally, a better AFP detecting limit than 2 ng/mL is experimentally achieved. The label-free resonant microcantilever sensor is promising in low-cost or even disposable early-stage prognosis and diagnosis of tumors.

  3. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-27

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital sensor was functionalized by immobilizing streptavidin agarose on the sensing area of the sensor to introduce selectivity for the antigen-antibody solution. Different concentrations of CTX-I were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the target molecule. Preliminary results are provided in the paper assisted with the respective equivalent circuit of the working technology on the sensor using Complex Non-linear Least Square (CNLS). The results are encouraging and will be used to develop a complete system for commercialization complementing the existing systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Contribution of scanner to early detection of pleuropulmonary manifestations of asbestosis and silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, J.; Gabrillargues, D.; Caillaud, D.; Catilina, P.; Catilina, M.J.; Chamoux, A.; Pignide, L.; Puvinel, B.

    1989-01-01

    The early detection of pleuropulmonary diseases in workers previously exposed to asbestos fibers or silica dusts is of importance. Current radiology often provides insufficient data. Can the CT-scan contribute to an early diagnosis. This technique was performed on both miners exposed to silicosis hazard and asbestos exposed workers [fr

  5. On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez , Jean-François; Brusseau , Elisabeth; Fromageau , Jérémie; Cloutier , Guy; Basset , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE: Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown induced by a sustained mechanical stress that damages the skin and underlying tissues. They represent a considerable burden to the society in terms of health care and cost. Yet, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article, the authors investigated the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection. Elastography is an imaging tec...

  6. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Bum [RECTUSON, Co., LTD, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seon Man [Samcheonpo Division, Korea South-East Power Co., Samcheonpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB.

  7. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Bum; Roh, Seon Man

    2016-01-01

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB

  8. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  9. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee, Department of Health and Human Services...

  10. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  11. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  12. Detection of Early Faults in Rotating Machinery Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hee Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of wavelet analysis for the detection of early changes in rotor dynamics caused by common machinery faults, namely, rotor unbalance and minor blade rubbing conditions. In this paper, the time synchronised wavelet analysis method was formulated and its effectiveness to detect machinery faults at the early stage was evaluated based on signal simulation and experimental study. The proposed method provides a more standardised approach to visualise the current state of rotor dynamics of a rotating machinery by taking into account the effects of time shift, wavelet edge distortion, and system noise suppression. The experimental results showed that this method is able to reveal subtle changes of the vibration signal characteristics in both the frequency content distribution and the amplitude distortion caused by minor rotor unbalance and blade rubbing conditions. Besides, this method also appeared to be an effective tool to diagnose and to discriminate the different types of machinery faults based on the unique pattern of the wavelet contours. This study shows that the proposed wavelet analysis method is promising to reveal machinery faults at early stage as compared to vibration spectrum analysis.

  13. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  14. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  15. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Gerritsen

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4% had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197. Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  16. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M G; Willemink, M J; Pompe, E; van der Bruggen, T; van Rhenen, A; Lammers, J W J; Wessels, F; Sprengers, R W; de Jong, P A; Minnema, M C

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  17. An Improved Wavelet‐Based Multivariable Fault Detection Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-07-06

    Data observed from environmental and engineering processes are usually noisy and correlated in time, which makes the fault detection more difficult as the presence of noise degrades fault detection quality. Multiscale representation of data using wavelets is a powerful feature extraction tool that is well suited to denoising and decorrelating time series data. In this chapter, we combine the advantages of multiscale partial least squares (MSPLSs) modeling with those of the univariate EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average) monitoring chart, which results in an improved fault detection system, especially for detecting small faults in highly correlated, multivariate data. Toward this end, we applied EWMA chart to the output residuals obtained from MSPLS model. It is shown through simulated distillation column data the significant improvement in fault detection can be obtained by using the proposed methods as compared to the use of the conventional partial least square (PLS)‐based Q and EWMA methods and MSPLS‐based Q method.

  18. Adapting plant measurement data to improve hardware fault detection performance in pressurised water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilliers, A.C.; Mulder, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Attempt was to use available resources at a nuclear plant in a value added fashion. ► Includes plant measurement data and plant training and engineering simulator capabilities. ► Solving the fault masking effect by the distributed control systems in the plant. ► Modelling the effect of inaccuracies in plant models used in the simulators. ► Combination of above resulted in the development of a deterministic fault identifications system. -- Abstract: With the fairly recent adoption of digital control and instrumentation systems in the nuclear industry a lot of research now focus on the development expert fault identification systems. The fault identification systems enable detecting early onset faults of fault causes which allows maintenance planning on the equipment showing signs of deterioration or failure. This includes valve and leaks and small cracks in steam generator tubes usually detected by means of ultrasonic inspection. Detecting faults early during transient operation in NPPs is problematic due to the absence of a reliable reference to compare plant measurements with during transients. The distributed application of control systems operating independently to keep the plant operating within the safe operating boundaries complicates the problem since the control systems would not only operate to reduce the effect of transient disturbances but fault disturbances as well. This paper provides a method to adapt the plant measurements that isolates the control actions on the fault and re-introduces it into the measurement data, thereby improving plant diagnostic performance.

  19. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  20. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivatizations for improved detection of alcohols by gas chromatography and photoionization detection (GC-PID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, I.S.; Swartz, M.; Driscoll, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Pentafluorophenyldimethylsilyl chloride (flophemesyl chloride, Fl) is a well known derivatization reagent for improved electron capture detection (ECD) in gas chromatography (GC)(GC-ECD), but it has never been utilized for improved detectability and sensitivity in GC-photoionization detection (GC-PID). A wide variety of flophemesyl alcohol derivatives have been used in order to show a new approach for realizing greatly reduced minimum detection limits (MDL) of virtually all alcohol derivatives in GC-PID analysis. This particular derivatization approach is inexpensive and easy to apply, leading to quantitative or near 100% conversion of the starting alcohols to the expected flophemesyl ethers (silyl ethers). Detection limits can be lowered by 2-3 orders of magnitude for such derivatives when compared with the starting alcohols, along with calibration plots that are linear over 5-7 orders of magnitude. Specific GC conditions have been developed for many flophemesyl derivatives, in all cases using packed columns. Both ECD and PID relative response factors (RRFs) and normalized RRFs have been determined, and such ratios can now be used for improved analytic identification from complex sample matrices, where appropriate. 28 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Walstra, G.; Lindeboom, J.; Teunisse, S.; Jonker, C.

    2000-01-01

    Dementia screening instruments, such as the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), measure a variety of cognitive functions. However, memory impairment generally is the first sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It seems logical, therefore, to use only memory-related items for the early detection of

  3. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  4. Early stage detection of β→α transition in Sn by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarek, Agata, E-mail: askwarek@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Zachariasz, Piotr [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Żukrowski, Jan [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Synkiewicz, Beata; Witek, Krzysztof [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for the early stage detection of the β→α transition (tin pest) in Sn matrix. The results were compared with the data from X-ray diffraction and a variance in the sensitivity for both methods has been proven. Mössbauer spectroscopy is more responsive method than XRD to tin pest finding and with possible detection level of even 1.8%. Furthermore, in reference sample, suspected to be pure α-Sn, large content of white tin (β-Sn), even after 6 years of exposure at sub-zero temperature, has been identified. 48% of α-Sn phase but also 52% of non-transferred β-Sn has been still detectable. - Highlights: • β→α transition (tin pest) could completely disintegrate Sn-rich material. • Early stage detection of β→α transition still exhibits substantial difficulties. • Mössbauer spectroscopy is very sensitive method in detection of β→α transition in Sn matrix. • Different values of Mössbauer-Lamb factors for β and α-Sn allow to detect tin pest at the level of 1.8%.

  5. Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Sonia A.; Luecke, Linda B.; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Gammon, Seth T.; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  6. Improved flaw detection and characterization with difference thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.

    2011-05-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites is often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, variations in fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These variations result in a noise floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. The paper investigates comparing thermographic responses taken before and after a change in state in a composite to improve the detection of subsurface flaws. A method is presented for registration of the responses before finding the difference. A significant improvement in the detectability is achieved by comparing the differences in response. Examples of changes in state due to application of a load and impact are presented.

  7. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  8. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  9. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  10. Development of early core anomaly detection system by using in-sodium microphone in JOYO. Fundamental characteristics test of in-sodium microphone in water and examination of improvement of detection accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komai, Masafumi

    2001-07-01

    Fast reactor core anomalies can be detected in near real-time with acoustic sensors. An acoustic detection system senses an in-core anomaly immediately from the fast acoustic signals that propagate through the sodium coolant. One example of a detectable anomaly is sodium boiling due to local blockage in a sub-assembly; the slight change in background acoustic signals can be detected. A key advantage of the acoustic detector is that it can be located outside the core. The location of the anomaly in the core can be determined by correlating multiple acoustic signals. This report describes the testing and fundamental characteristics of a microphone suitable for use in the sodium coolant and examines methods to improve the system's S/N ratio. Testing in water confirmed that the in-sodium microphone has good impulse and wide band frequency responses. These tests used impulse and white noise signals that imitate acoustic signals from boiling sodium. Correlation processing of multiple microphone signals to improve S/N ratio is also described. (author)

  11. Early detection of structual changes in random signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yoshiteru; Yokota, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    Early detection of structual changes in observed random signal is very important from the point of system diagnosis. In this paper, the following procedures are applied to this problem and the results are compared. (1) auto-regressive model to random signal to calculate the prediction error, i.e., the defference between observed and predicted values. (2) auto-regressive method to caluculate the sum of the prediction error. (3) a method is based on AIC (Akaike Information Criterion). Simulation is made of these procedures, indicating their merits and demerits as a diagostic tools. (author)

  12. Early detection of the first episode of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in schizophrenia is high, with the risk being highest early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced...... through an early detection program, and that the reduction was associated with lower symptom levels at treatment initiation. Treatment programs that bring first-episode patients into treatment at lower symptom levels can have the potential to reduce risk for suicide attempts....

  13. Early Detection of Fetal Malformation, a Long Distance Yet to Cover! Present Status and Potential of First Trimester Ultrasonography in Detection of Fetal Congenital Malformation in a Developing Country: Experience at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of malformation is tremendously improved with improvement in imaging technology. Yet in a developing country like India majority of pregnant women are not privileged to get timely diagnosis. Aims and Objectives. To assess the present status and potential of first trimester ultrasonography in detection of fetal congenital structural malformations. Methodology. This was a retrospective observational study conducted at Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. All pregnant women had anomaly scan and women with fetal structural malformations were included. Results. Out of 4080 pregnant women undergoing ultrasound, 312 (7.6% had fetal structural malformation. Out of 139 patients who were diagnosed after 20 weeks, 47 (33.8% had fetal structural anomalies which could have been diagnosed before 12 weeks and 92 (66.1% had fetal malformations which could have been diagnosed between 12 and 20 weeks. Conclusion. The first trimester ultrasonography could have identified 50% of major structural defects compared to 1.6% in the present scenario. This focuses on the immense need of the hour to gear up for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the field of prenatal detection of congenital malformation.

  14. DESI-Detection of early-season invasives (software-installation manual and user's guide version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a software system for detecting early-season invasive plant species, such as cheatgrass. The report includes instructions for installing the software and serves as a user's guide in processing Landsat satellite remote sensing data to map the distributions of cheatgrass and other early-season invasive plants. The software was developed for application to the semi-arid regions of southern Utah; however, the detection parameters can be altered by the user for application to other areas.

  15. Protein Biomarkers for Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Progress and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Alex; Allen, Peter; Tempst, Paul; Yu, Kenneth

    2018-03-07

    Approximately 75% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are diagnosed with advanced cancer, which cannot be safely resected. The most commonly used biomarker CA19-9 has inadequate sensitivity and specificity for early detection, which we define as Stage I/II cancers. Therefore, progress in next-generation biomarkers is greatly needed. Recent reports have validated a number of biomarkers, including combination assays of proteins and DNA mutations; however, the history of translating promising biomarkers to clinical utility suggests that several major hurdles require careful consideration by the medical community. The first set of challenges involves nominating and verifying biomarkers. Candidate biomarkers need to discriminate disease from benign controls with high sensitivity and specificity for an intended use, which we describe as a two-tiered strategy of identifying and screening high-risk patients. Community-wide efforts to share samples, data, and analysis methods have been beneficial and progress meeting this challenge has been achieved. The second set of challenges is assay optimization and validating biomarkers. After initial candidate validation, assays need to be refined into accurate, cost-effective, highly reproducible, and multiplexed targeted panels and then validated in large cohorts. To move the most promising candidates forward, ideally, biomarker panels, head-to-head comparisons, meta-analysis, and assessment in independent data sets might mitigate risk of failure. Much more investment is needed to overcome these challenges. The third challenge is achieving clinical translation. To moonshot an early detection test to the clinic requires a large clinical trial and organizational, regulatory, and entrepreneurial know-how. Additional factors, such as imaging technologies, will likely need to improve concomitant with molecular biomarker development. The magnitude of the clinical translational challenge is uncertain, but interdisciplinary

  16. Protein Biomarkers for Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Root

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 75% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are diagnosed with advanced cancer, which cannot be safely resected. The most commonly used biomarker CA19-9 has inadequate sensitivity and specificity for early detection, which we define as Stage I/II cancers. Therefore, progress in next-generation biomarkers is greatly needed. Recent reports have validated a number of biomarkers, including combination assays of proteins and DNA mutations; however, the history of translating promising biomarkers to clinical utility suggests that several major hurdles require careful consideration by the medical community. The first set of challenges involves nominating and verifying biomarkers. Candidate biomarkers need to discriminate disease from benign controls with high sensitivity and specificity for an intended use, which we describe as a two-tiered strategy of identifying and screening high-risk patients. Community-wide efforts to share samples, data, and analysis methods have been beneficial and progress meeting this challenge has been achieved. The second set of challenges is assay optimization and validating biomarkers. After initial candidate validation, assays need to be refined into accurate, cost-effective, highly reproducible, and multiplexed targeted panels and then validated in large cohorts. To move the most promising candidates forward, ideally, biomarker panels, head-to-head comparisons, meta-analysis, and assessment in independent data sets might mitigate risk of failure. Much more investment is needed to overcome these challenges. The third challenge is achieving clinical translation. To moonshot an early detection test to the clinic requires a large clinical trial and organizational, regulatory, and entrepreneurial know-how. Additional factors, such as imaging technologies, will likely need to improve concomitant with molecular biomarker development. The magnitude of the clinical translational challenge is uncertain, but

  17. A nationwide web-based automated system for early outbreak detection and rapid response in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and to transmit that information either in real-time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country.

  18. The Relevance of Employee-Related Ratios for Early Detection of Corporate Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Situm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse whether employee-related ratios derived from accounts have incremental predictive power for the early detection of corporate crises and bankruptcies. Based on the literature reviewed, it can be seen that not much attention has been drawn to this task, indicating that further research is justified. For empirical research purposes, a database of Austrian companies was used for the time period 2003 to 2005 in order to develop multivariate linear discriminant functions for the classification of companies into the two states; bankrupt and non-bankrupt, and to detect the contribution of employee-related ratios in explaining why firms fail. Several ratios from prior research were used as potential predictors. In addition, other separate ratios were analysed, including employee-related figures. The results of the study show that while employee-related ratios cannot contribute to an improvement in the classification performance of prediction models, signs of these ratios within the discriminant functions did show the expected directions. Efficient usage of employees seems to play an important role in decreasing the probability of insolvency. Additionally, two employee-related ratios were found which can be used as proxies for the size of the firm. This had not been identified in prior studies for this factor.

  19. Improving Early Identification and Intervention for Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotholz, David A; Kinsman, Anne M; Lacy, Kathi K; Charles, Jane

    2017-02-01

    To provide an example of a successful, novel statewide effort to increase early identification of young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a 2-tiered screening process with enhanced quality assessment, interagency policy collaboration and coordination. The South Carolina Act Early Team (SCAET) provided focused collaboration among leaders representing state agencies, universities, health care systems, private organizations, and families to improve quality of life for children with ASD. Specific focus was on implementing policy changes and training to result in earlier identification and home-based behavioral intervention for young children at risk for ASD. Policy changes, training, and modified state agency practices were accomplished. Presumptive eligibility, on the basis of a 2-tiered screening process was implemented by BabyNet (South Carolina's Early Intervention Program) in collaboration with the lead agency for developmental disability services. There was a fivefold increase in children eligible for early intensive behavioral intervention without waiting for a diagnosis of ASD, avoiding long waits for diagnostic evaluations. Only 16 children (2.5%) were later found not to have ASD from a comprehensive evaluation. Improvements in early identification and intervention are feasible through collaborative policy change. The South Carolina Act Early Team and its key stakeholders committed to improving outcomes for this population used existing tools and methods in new ways to improve early identification of children with ASD and to make available evidence-based intervention services. This example should be replicable in other states with key stakeholders working collaboratively for the benefit of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  1. Improved immunocytochemical detection of daunomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohara, Koji; Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2007-01-01

    and mitochondria of heart muscle cells may help to improve our understanding of the cardiac toxicity of DM and related anthracyclin antibiotics. A number of ELISA tests were carried out in order to elucidate the mechanisms of H2O2-assisted antigen retrieval. A possible mechanism is that DM is reduced and converted......Improved immunocytochemical (ICC) detection of the anthracycline anticancer antibiotic daunomycin (DM) has been achieved by used of hydrogen peroxide oxidation prior to ICC staining for DM. The new method greatly enhanced the localization of DM accumulation in cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle...... to its semiquinone and/or hydroquinone derivative in vivo. Oxidation by hydrogen peroxide acts to convert these derivatives back to the native antigen. The improved ICC methodology using oxidation to recreated native antigens from reduced metabolites may be helpful also with respect to the localization...

  2. High-Throughput Analysis of Plasma Hybrid Markers for Early Detection of Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-hyun Rho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers for the early detection of cancer in the general population have to perform with high sensitivity and specificity in order to prevent the costs associated with over-diagnosis. There are only a few current tissue or blood markers that are recommended for generalized cancer screening. Despite the recognition that combinations of multiple biomarkers will likely improve their utility, biomarker panels are usually limited to a single class of molecules. Tissues and body fluids including plasma and serum contain not only proteins, DNA and microRNAs that are differentially expressed in cancers but further cancer specific information might be gleaned by comparing different classes of biomolecules. For example, the level of a certain microRNA might be related to the level of a particular protein in a cancer specific manner. Proteins might have cancer-specific post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation or glycosylation or lead to the generation of autoantibodies. Most currently approved biomarkers are glycoproteins. Autoantibodies can be produced as a host’s early surveillance response to cancer-specific proteins in pre-symptomatic and pre-diagnostic stages of cancer. Thus, measurement of the level of a protein, the level of its glycosylation or phosphorylation and whether autoantibodies are produced to it can yield multi-dimensional information on each protein. We consider specific proteins that show consistent cancer-specific changes in two or three of these measurements to be “hybrid markers”. We hypothesize these markers will suffer less variation between different individuals since one component can act to “standardize” the other measurement. As a proof of principle, a 180 plasma sample set consisting of 120 cases (60 colon cancers and 60 adenomas and 60 controls were analyzed using our high-density antibody array for changes in their protein, IgG-complex and sialyl-Lewis A (SLeA modified proteins. At p < 0

  3. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  4. Defect Detectability Improvement for Conventional Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of defect detectability via phased array ultrasound technology in conventional friction stir welds by comparing conventionally prepped post weld surfaces to a machined surface finish. A machined surface is hypothesized to improve defect detectability and increase material strength.

  5. Improved QRD-M Detection Algorithm for Generalized Spatial Modulation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized spatial modulation (GSM is a spectral and energy efficient multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission scheme. It will lead to imperfect detection performance with relatively high computational complexity by directly applying the original QR-decomposition with M algorithm (QRD-M to the GSM scheme. In this paper an improved QRD-M algorithm is proposed for GSM signal detection, which achieves near-optimal performance but with relatively low complexity. Based on the QRD, the improved algorithm firstly transforms the maximum likelihood (ML detection of the GSM signals into searching an inverted tree structure. Then, in the searching process of the M branches, the branches corresponding to the illegitimate transmit antenna combinations (TACs and related to invalid number of active antennas are cut in order to improve the validity of the resultant branches at each level by taking advantage of characteristics of GSM signals. Simulation results show that the improved QRD-M detection algorithm provides similar performance to maximum likelihood (ML with the reduced computational complexity compared to the original QRD-M algorithm, and the optimal value of parameter M of the improved QRD-M algorithm for detection of the GSM scheme is equal to modulation order plus one.

  6. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  7. Barriers to early detection of cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Castro, R; Allen, B; Nájera, P; Alonso de Ruíz, P A; Hernández-Avila, M

    1999-04-01

    In Mexico, a woman dies of cervical-uterine cancer every 2 hours, indicating a low impact by the national program for early detection of this cancer, principally because of problems related to quality and coverage. Through a qualitative study, we identified the principal barriers to use of the detection program from the point of view of actual and potential program users. Four focus groups were organized in standard conditions in Mexico City (urban, developed) and in the southern state of Oaxaca (rural, economically disadvantaged area). Participants were either women with at least one previous Papanicolaou (Pap) test or women who had never had the test. Barriers to Pap test use included (1) lack of knowledge about cervical-uterine cancer etiology, (2) not knowing that the Pap test exists, (3) the conception that cancer is an inevitably fatal disease, (4) problems in doctor/medical institution-patient relationships, (5) giving priority to unmet needs related to extreme poverty, (6) opposition by the male sexual partner, (7) rejection of the pelvic examination, (8) long waits for sample collection and receiving results, and (9) perceived high costs for care. To increase coverage of the early detection program for cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico, the needs, perceptions, and beliefs of women and their partners must be taken into account when developing policy and planning, given the role these factors play in the decision-making process that leads to their participation or nonparticipation in this program.

  8. A global hydrographic array for early detection of floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G.; Nghiem, S.; Caquard, S.

    An array of over 700 20 km-long river gaging reaches, distributed world-wide, is imaged by the SeaWinds radar scatterometer aboard QuikSCAT every 2.5 days. Strongly negative HH/VV polarity ratios indicate large amounts of surface water. We set individual reach thresholds so that the transition from bankfull to overbank river flow can be identified according to changes in this ratio. Similarly, the wide-swath MODIS optical sensors provide frequent repeat coverage of the reaches at much higher spatial resolution (250 m). In this case, several reach water surface area thresholds can be identified: low flow or drought conditions, normal in-channel flow, overbank flow, and extreme flood conditions. Sustained data collection for the reaches by both sensors allows the radar response to changing surface water to be defined, and allows evaluation of the sensitivity of the MODIS data to river discharge changes. New approaches, such as ``unmixing'' analysis of mixed water/land MODIS pixels can extend detection limits to smaller rivers and streams. It is now possible for wide-area, frequent revisit terrestrial remote sensing to provide human society with early warning of both floods and droughts and by direct observation of the runoff component of the Earth's hydrologic cycle. Examples of both radar and optical approaches towards this end are at the web sites below: http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/Modisrapidresponse.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/sensorweb/SensorWebindex.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/Quikscat/Regional2/CurrentTisza.jpg} In particular, early flood detection results are obtained over an extensive region in eastern Europe including the Tisza River basin, Romania, Hungary, and adjacent nations. Flood detection maps are updated weekly at the web site. The combination of QuikSCAT and MODIS takes advantage of the large-area coverage of these sensors together with the high temporal resolution of QuikSCAT and the high spatial resolution of MODIS

  9. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Yaw; Okoro, C A; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.

  10. Improved GLR method to instrument failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hak Yeoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    1985-01-01

    The generalized likehood radio(GLR) method performs statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman-Buchy filter state estimator for system failure detection and its identification. However, the major drawback of the convensional GLR is to hypothesize particular failure type in each case. In this paper, a method to solve this drawback is proposed. The improved GLR method is applied to a PWR pressurizer and gives successful results in detection and identification of any failure. Furthmore, some benefit on the processing time per each cycle of failure detection and its identification can be accompanied. (Author)

  11. Improvement and implementation for Canny edge detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Qiu, Yue-hong

    2015-07-01

    Edge detection is necessary for image segmentation and pattern recognition. In this paper, an improved Canny edge detection approach is proposed due to the defect of traditional algorithm. A modified bilateral filter with a compensation function based on pixel intensity similarity judgment was used to smooth image instead of Gaussian filter, which could preserve edge feature and remove noise effectively. In order to solve the problems of sensitivity to the noise in gradient calculating, the algorithm used 4 directions gradient templates. Finally, Otsu algorithm adaptively obtain the dual-threshold. All of the algorithm simulated with OpenCV 2.4.0 library in the environments of vs2010, and through the experimental analysis, the improved algorithm has been proved to detect edge details more effectively and with more adaptability.

  12. Inclusion of methods for early detection of chronic kidney disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The burden and magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are enormous. The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease are rising all over the world. Thus, there is the urgent and pressing need for methods of early detection of CKD, to be included in guidelines for management of noncommunicable ...

  13. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  14. Rank-Based miRNA Signatures for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lauria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new signature definition and analysis method to be used as biomarker for early cancer detection. Our new approach is based on the construction of a reference map of transcriptional signatures of both healthy and cancer affected individuals using circulating miRNA from a large number of subjects. Once such a map is available, the diagnosis for a new patient can be performed by observing the relative position on the map of his/her transcriptional signature. To demonstrate its efficacy for this specific application we report the results of the application of our method to published datasets of circulating miRNA, and we quantify its performance compared to current state-of-the-art methods. A number of additional features make this method an ideal candidate for large-scale use, for example, as a mass screening tool for early cancer detection or for at-home diagnostics. Specifically, our method is minimally invasive (because it works well with circulating miRNA, it is robust with respect to lab-to-lab protocol variability and batch effects (it requires that only the relative ranking of expression value of miRNA in a profile be accurate not their absolute values, and it is scalable to a large number of subjects. Finally we discuss the need for HPC capability in a widespread application of our or similar methods.

  15. Improving Accuracy of Dempster-Shafer Theory Based Anomaly Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence has been widely used in anomaly detection, there are some issues with them. Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence trusts evidences equally which does not hold in distributed-sensor ADS. Moreover, evidences are dependent with each other sometimes which will lead to false alert. We propose improving by incorporating two algorithms. Features selection algorithm employs Gaussian Graphical Models to discover correlation between some candidate features. A group of suitable ADS were selected to detect and detection result were send to the fusion engine. Information gain is applied to set weight for every feature on Weights estimated algorithm. A weighted Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence combined the detection results to achieve a better accuracy. We evaluate our detection prototype through a set of experiments that were conducted with standard benchmark Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset and real Internet traffic. Evaluations on the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset show that our prototype can find the correlation in nine features and improve the detection rate without affecting the false positive rate. Evaluations on Internet traffic show that Weights estimated algorithm can improve the detection performance significantly.

  16. Organizing the early detection of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdavaa, N.

    1995-01-01

    In early detection and diagnosing cancers: 1. organizing the preventive different examinations among the population in the servicing sphere, involving the family doctors to them. 2.Discharging the patients from hospitals after making the complex analysis to negate cancers and consulting with gynaecologist regardless the diagnosis of female in-patients aged over 20 who were hospitalized. 3.Making the analysis to negate cancers to the in-patients with indefinite diagnosis for the period of 14 days since their hospitalization and also the in-patients, who were shivered indefinitely.4.Making the analysis to negate cancers to all persons, who are first visited at out-patient clinics in the given year, who aged over 40, consulting the female patient, who aged over 25 with gynaecologist and making the USV examination to the persons, who were ill with infectious hepatitis now virus carriers at least 2 times for year

  17. Methodological pitfalls in early detection studies–the NAPE Lecture 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svein, Friis; Tor Ketil, Larsen; Melle, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and discusses methodological pitfalls that may help explain why many questions around early detection (ED) and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) are still unsolved. This paper concentrates on pitfalls in sampling, measurement, and data analyses. The main problems seem to be: (1) Sa...... to identify the pitfalls, and to estimate and discuss their influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)...

  18. Blueprint of quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for early detection of breast cancer through salivary autoantibodies against ATP6AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sania; Qudsia, Syeda; Urooj, Samina; Chaudry, Nazia; Arshad, Aneeqa; Andleeb, Saadia

    2015-03-15

    Breast cancer represents a significant health problem because of its high prevalence. Tests like mammography, which are used abundantly for the detection of breast cancer, suffer from serious limitations. Mammography correctly detects malignancy about 80-90% of the times, failing in places when (1) the tumor is small at early stage, (2) breast tissue is dense or (3) in women of less than 40 years. Serum-based detection of biomarkers involves risk of disease transfer, along with other concerns. These techniques compromise in the early detection of breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer is a crucial factor to enhance the survival rate of patient. Development of regular screening tests for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a challenge. This review highlights the design of a handy and household biosensor device aimed for self-screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. The design makes use of salivary autoantibodies for specificity to develop a noninvasive procedure, breast cancer specific biomarkers for precision for the development of device, and biosensor technology for sensitivity to screen the early cases of breast cancer more efficiently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast cancer early detection via tracking of skin back-scattered secondary speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Aviya; Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer has become a major cause of death among women. The lifetime risk of a woman developing this disease has been established as one in eight. The most useful way to reduce breast cancer death is to treat the disease as early as possible. The existing methods of early diagnostics of breast cancer are mainly based on screening mammography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) periodically conducted at medical facilities. In this paper the authors proposing a new approach for simple breast cancer detection. It is based on skin stimulation by sound waves, illuminating it by laser beam and tracking the reflected secondary speckle patterns. As first approach, plastic balls of different sizes were placed under the skin of chicken breast and detected by the proposed method.

  20. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  1. Health economics evaluation of a gastric cancer early detection and treatment program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Li-Ping; Fang, Xue; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. RESULTS from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. RESULTS from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.

  2. Imaging spectroscopy for early detection of nitrogen deficiency in grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an experimental imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.16–0.28 mm²) ) and spectral resolution (5–13 nm) was explored for early detection of nitrogen (N) stress. From June through October 2000, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with 15 Lolium perenne L. mini-swards and

  3. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been...

  4. Emotion improves and impairs early vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotion enhances early vision, but the generality of this finding remains unknown. Do the benefits of emotion extend to all basic aspects of vision, or are they limited in scope? Our results show that the brief presentation of a fearful face, compared with a neutral face, enhances sensitivity for the orientation of subsequently presented low-spatial-frequency stimuli, but diminishes orientation sensitivity for high-spatial-frequency stimuli. This is the first demonstration that emotion not only improves but also impairs low-level vision. The selective low-spatial-frequency benefits are consistent with the idea that emotion enhances magnocellular processing. Additionally, we suggest that the high-spatial-frequency deficits are due to inhibitory interactions between magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Our results suggest an emotion-induced trade-off in visual processing, rather than a general improvement. This trade-off may benefit perceptual dimensions that are relevant for survival at the expense of those that are less relevant.

  5. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  6. Prospective assessment of early fetal loss using an immunoenzymometric screening assay for detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Overstreet, J W; Samuels, S J; Boyers, S P; Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J F; Hanson, F W; Lasley, B L

    1992-06-01

    To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most nonconceptive cycles with the expensive and labor-intensive IRMA. Two different assays were used to measure hCG in daily early morning urine samples from potential conceptive cycles. Women undergoing donor artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated in a prospective study. Ninety-two women volunteers were selected on the basis of apparent normal reproductive health. Artificial insemination with nonfrozen donor semen was performed by cervical cup twice each menstrual cycle at 48-hour intervals, and daily urine samples were self-collected throughout the menstrual cycle. An IEMA was developed to detect urinary hCG using the same antibodies as in the standard IRMA; a study was designed to determine whether this nonradiometric assay could successfully detect the early fetal loss that was detected by the IRMA. Of 224 menstrual cycles analyzed by both assays, a total of six early fetal losses were detected by the IRMA. When the tentative screening rule was set to allow all six of these losses and 95% of future losses to be detected by the IEMA, an additional 34 false-positive results were detected by the IEMA. The specificity of the IEMA with this rule was calculated to be 84%. An IEMA based on the same antibodies used for the standard IRMA can serve as an efficient screening assay for the detection of early fetal loss. When the IEMA is used in this manner, nearly 80% of screened menstrual cycles can be eliminated without further testing by the IRMA.

  7. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229

  8. Two Early Gamma-ray Bursts Optical Afterglow Detections with TAOS Telescopes--GRB 071010B and GRB 071112C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Urata, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present on two early detections of GRB afterglows with the Taiwanese-American Occltation Sruvey (TAOS) telescopes. The robotic TAOS system has been devised so that the routine Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey is interrupted when a GRB alert is triggered. Our first detection, GRB 071010B was detected by TAOS 62 s after the burst and showed a weak early brightening during the observations. No significant correction with the prompt gamma-ray emission indicated that our optical emission detected is afterglow emission. The second detection of TAOS, GRB 071112C was detected 96 s after the burst, also showed a possible initial raising then followed a steep decay in the R-band light curve.

  9. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    measurements. These studies demonstrate the ability to use two quantitative microscopic imaging techniques, microCT and microMRI, to detect microscopic changes in collagen and GAG from healthy, biochemically degraded, and early OA cartilage. The capability for microscopic imaging to detect alterations at the earliest stages of OA will ultimately improve the understanding of degradation and may help aid in the detection for the prevention of disease and repair of damaged cartilage.

  10. Pulmonary berylliosis. Experimental induction. Early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Stephane

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the biological reactivity of industrial and environmental aerosols, notably beryllium powder aerosols. In order to study beryllium toxicity under its metal form, and the dose-effect relationship and the suspected carcinogen effect, a pulmonary berylliosis has been experimentally induced in rat and monkey. In order to develop means of rapid detection of exposure and sensitisation to beryllium, the author studied early pathological cellular mechanisms occurring during a pulmonary granulomatosis. Quantitative and qualitative modifications have been searched for, more particularly at the level of endo-alveolar cellular populations of macrophages and lymphocytes. The study has also been extended to the sensitisation of lymphocytes with respect to beryllium. After some generalities about beryllium (properties, sources, uses, exposure sources), and an overview of its toxicity (epidemiology, pathologies, experiments, biological mechanisms, detoxification), the author reports the introduction of a chronic pulmonary berylliosis into animals, discusses the various noticed pathologies and their analysis, and reports in situ and in vitro studies [fr

  11. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  12. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2012, Volume 77, Number 214, Page 66469. A teleconference line...

  13. Early Detection of At-Risk Undergraduate Students through Academic Performance Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowtho, Vikash

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate student dropout is gradually becoming a global problem and the 39 Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are no exception to this trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a method that can be used for early detection of students who are at-risk of performing poorly in their undergraduate studies. A sample of 279 students…

  14. Enhancing early detection of exotic pests in agricultural and forest ecosystems using an urban-gradient framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Magarey, Roger A; Haack, Robert A; Gage, Stuart H; Qi, Jiaquo

    2010-03-01

    Urban areas are hubs of international transport and therefore are major gateways for exotic pests. Applying an urban gradient to analyze this pathway could provide insight into the ecological processes involved in human-mediated invasions. We defined an urban gradient for agricultural and forest ecosystems in the contiguous United States to (1) assess whether ecosystems nearer more urbanized areas were at greater risk of invasion, and (2) apply this knowledge to enhance early detection of exotic pests. We defined the gradient using the tonnage of imported products in adjacent urban areas and their distance to nearby agricultural or forest land. County-level detection reports for 39 exotic agricultural and forest pests of major economic importance were used to characterize invasions along the gradient. We found that counties with more exotic pests were nearer the urban end of the gradient. Assuming that the exotic species we analyzed represent typical invaders, then early detection efforts directed at 21-26% of U.S. agricultural and forest land would likely be able to detect 70% of invaded counties and 90% of the selected species. Applying an urban-gradient framework to current monitoring strategies should enhance early detection efforts of exotic pests, facilitating optimization in allocating resources to areas at greater risk of future invasions.

  15. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  16. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  17. An automated approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy using SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElTanboly, Ahmed H; Palacio, Agustina; Shalaby, Ahmed M; Switala, Andrew E; Helmy, Omar; Schaal, Shlomit; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

      This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA. The INL was narrower in diabetes (p = 0.14), while the NFL (p = 0.04) and IZ (p = 0.34) were thicker. Tortuosity of layers NFL through the OPL was greater in diabetes (all p diabetes. In turn, carries the promise to a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of DR.

  18. Big data analytics for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Desislava

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the concept and the modern advances in personalized medicine that rely on technology and review the existing tools for early detection of breast cancer. The breast cancer types and distribution worldwide is discussed. It is spent time to explain the importance of identifying the normality and to specify the main classes in breast cancer, benign or malignant. The main purpose of the paper is to propose a conceptual model for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning for processing and analysis of medical big dataand further knowledge discovery for personalized treatment. The proposed conceptual model is realized by using Naive Bayes classifier. The software is written in python programming language and for the experiments the Wisconsin breast cancer database is used. Finally, the experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. Development of a metabolic biosignature for detection of early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Schriefer, Martin E; Belisle, John T

    2015-06-15

    Early Lyme disease patients often present to the clinic prior to developing a detectable antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent. Thus, existing 2-tier serology-based assays yield low sensitivities (29%-40%) for early infection. The lack of an accurate laboratory test for early Lyme disease contributes to misconceptions about diagnosis and treatment, and underscores the need for new diagnostic approaches. Retrospective serum samples from patients with early Lyme disease, other diseases, and healthy controls were analyzed for small molecule metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A metabolomics data workflow was applied to select a biosignature for classifying early Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patients. A statistical model of the biosignature was trained using the patients' LC-MS data, and subsequently applied as an experimental diagnostic tool with LC-MS data from additional patient sera. The accuracy of this method was compared with standard 2-tier serology. Metabolic biosignature development selected 95 molecular features that distinguished early Lyme disease patients from healthy controls. Statistical modeling reduced the biosignature to 44 molecular features, and correctly classified early Lyme disease patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 88% (84%-95%), and a specificity of 95% (90%-100%). Importantly, the metabolic biosignature correctly classified 77%-95% of the of serology negative Lyme disease patients. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Improving early detection of gastric cancer: a novel systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Fabian; Gralnek, Ian; Baron, Todd H

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive worldwide use of standard esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and ranks as the most common malignant tumor in East Asia, Eastern Europe and parts of Latin America. Current limitations of using non systematic examination during standard EGD could be at least partially responsible for the low incidence of early GC diagnosis in countries with a high prevalence of the disease. Originally proposed by Emura et al., systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy (SACE) is a novel method that facilitates complete examination of the upper GI tract based on sequential systematic overlapping photo-documentation using an endoluminal alphanumeric-coded nomenclature comprised of eight regions and 28 areas covering the entire surface upper GI surface. For precise localization or normal or abnormal areas, SACE incorporates a simple coordinate system based on the identification of certain natural axes, walls, curvatures and anatomical endoluminal landmarks. Efectiveness of SACE was recently demonstrated in a screening study that diagnosed early GC at a frequency of 0.30% (2/650) in healthy, average-risk volunteer subjects. Such a novel approach, if uniformly implemented worldwide, could significantly change the way we practice upper endoscopy in our lifetimes.

  1. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  2. Epigenetic markers for early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryana Sofia M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is strongly related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection, allowing aberrant antibodies against EBV and viral DNA load as screening tools in high risk populations. Methylation analysis in the promoter of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs may serve as a complementary marker for identifying early cases. This study determined methylation status of multiple TSGs and evaluated whether it may improve early detection. Methods Nasopharyngeal brushings were taken from 53 NPC patients, 22 high risk subjects and 25 healthy EBV carriers. Corresponding NPC paraffin tissue was included. DNA was bisulfite-modified preceding analysis by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Ten TSGs were studied. Results NPC paraffin and brushing DNA revealed an 81.8% concordance so that MSP analysis was done using either one of both specimens. NPC samples showed methylation for individual TSGs (DAPK1 79.2%, CDH13 77.4%, DLC1 76.9%, RASSF1A 75.5%, CADM1 69.8%, p16 66.0%, WIF1 61.2%, CHFR 58.5%, RIZ1 56.6% and RASSF2A 29.2%. High risk individuals, having elevated EBV IgA and viral load, showed high frequency of methylation of CDH13, DAPK1, DLC1 and CADM1, but low frequency of methylation of p16 and WIF1 and undetectable methylation of RASSF1A, CHFR, RIZ1 and RASSF2A. Healthy subjects showed similar patterns as high risk individuals. A combination of RASSF1A and p16 gave good discrimination between NPC and non-NPC, but best results were combined analysis of five methylation markers (RASSF1A, p16, WIF1, CHFR and RIZ1 with detection rate of 98%. Conclusion Multiple marker MSP is proposed as a complementary test for NPC risk assessment in combination with EBV-based markers.

  3. Roentgenoendoscopic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Kopytov, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    Some potentialities of the X-ray and endoscopic methods in the recognition of early stomach cancer are analysed. Both methods are provided by a roentgenotogist. Of 396 operated patients with stomach cancer, early forms were detected in 78 which is equal to 8% of the detected number and 19.7% of the operated cancer pasients. Two macroscopic forms of early cancer were detected: cancer with ulceration (erosion-ulcerative form) and polypoidcancer. The first form is interpreted as primary-ulcerative cancer, malignant ulcers and cancer in the form of erosions, the second one as polyps, polypoid and patchlike cancer, malignant polyps. X-ray changes were detected in 80% of the patients, in the rest of 20% by the endoscopic method only. With the help of the roentgenological and endoscopic methods (without cytological examination) one cannot be sure of accurate differential diagnosis between malignant and benign variants of ulcerations and polypoid changes in early cancer. The potentialities of the X-ray method ir the detection of ulcerative and polypoid changes of the stomach make it possible to improve it, though under a strict condition of performing subsequent obligatory endoscopy and getting tissue specimens for biopsy. The organization of the common roentgenoendoscopic centers is found appropriate

  4. Validation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist" in an Italian community help-seeking sample: The "checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Raballo, Andrea; Semrov, Enrico; Chiri, Luigi Rocco; Azzali, Silvia; Scazza, Ilaria; Garlassi, Sara; Paterlini, Federica; Fontana, Francesca; Favazzo, Rosanna; Pensieri, Luana; Fabiani, Michela; Cioncolini, Leonardo; Pupo, Simona

    2017-07-26

    To establish the concordant validity of the "Checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico" (CVEP) in an Italian help-seeking population. The CVEP is the Italian adaptation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist," a 20-item tool specifically designed to assist primary care practitioners in identifying young people in the early stages of psychosis. The checklist was completed by the referring practitioners of 168 young people referred to the "Reggio Emilia At Risk Mental States" Project, an early detection infrastructure developed under the aegis of the Regional Project on Early Detection of Psychosis in the Reggio Emilia Department of Mental Health. The concordant validity of the CVEP was established by comparing screen results with the outcome of the "Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States" (CAARMS), a gold standard assessment for identifying young people who may be at risk of developing psychosis. The simple checklist as originally conceived had excellent sensitivity (98%), but lower specificity (58%). Using only a CVEP total score of 20 or above as cut-off, the tool showed a slightly lower sensitivity (93%) with a substantial improvement in specificity (87%). Simple cross-tabulations of the individual CVEP item scores against CAARMS outcome to identify the more discriminant item in terms of sensitivity and specificity were carried out. In comparison to other, much longer, screening tools, the CVEP performed well to identify young people in the early stages of psychosis. Therefore, the CVEP is well suited to optimize appropriate referrals to specialist services, building on the skills and knowledge already available in primary care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (Pradiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczyński, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  7. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  8. Microchannel electron multiplier: improvement in gain performances and detection dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audier, M.; Delmotte, J.C.; Boutot, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The performances of an MCP are a function of its geometrical characteristics (diameter d and ratio 1/d of a channel, useful area) and of the applied voltage. Gain and mean output current are limited by saturation phenomena. By using a particular cascaded MCP's configuration, it is possible to simultaneously improve the gain, its associated fluctuations and the detection dynamics (detected level, counting rate). For gains 10 6 7 , the fluctuations, can be kept as low as 20% and an improvement by a factor > 10 can be obtained on the detection dynamics [fr

  9. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  10. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

  11. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  12. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Fumio, E-mail: fnomura@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University and Divisions of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Noda, Kenta; Seimiya, Masanori; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Miura, Toshihide [Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University and Divisions of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Genetics and Proteomics, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Tomonaga, Takeshi [Laboratory of Proteome Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshitomi, Hideyuki [Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Imazeki, Fumio [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Hirotaka [Kashiwado Clinic in Port-Square of the Kashiwado Memorial Foundation, Chiba (Japan); Mogushi, Kaoru [Information Center for Medical Sciences, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Masaru [Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Ku86 in human liver cancer was shown by immunohistochemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 was significantly elevated in early hepatocellular carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-Ku86 may be more sensitive than the conventional markers for early detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 significantly decreased after surgical resection of liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevation of serum anti-Ku86 in other non-liver solid tumors was minimal. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Imaging studies including ultrasound and computed tomography are recommended for early detection of HCC, but they are operator dependent, costly and involve radiation. Therefore, there is a need for simple and sensitive serum markers for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our recent proteomic studies, a number of proteins overexpressed in HCC tissues were identified. We thought if the serum autoantibodies to these overexpressed proteins were detectable in HCC patients. Of these proteins, we focused on Ku86, a nuclear protein involved in multiple biological processes and aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serum anti-Ku86 in the early detection of HCC. Serum samples were obtained prior to treatment from 58 consecutive patients with early or relatively early hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC and 137 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis without evidence of HCC. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure serum levels of autoantibodies. Serum levels of anti-Ku86 antibodies were significantly elevated in HCC patients compared to those in liver cirrhosis patients (0.41 {+-} 0.28 vs. 0.18 {+-} 0.08 Abs at 450 nm, P < 0001). Setting the cut-off level to give 90% specificity, anti-Ku86 was positive in 60.7% of

  13. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  14. Effective surveillance for early classical swine fever virus detection will utilize both virus and antibody detection capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasing, Yaowalak; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Ji, Ju; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Early recognition and rapid elimination of infected animals is key to controlling incursions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of 10 CSFV assays were evaluated using individual serum (n = 601) and/or oral fluid (n = 1417) samples collected from -14 to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). Serum samples were assayed by virus isolation (VI), 2 commercial antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), virus neutralization (VN), and 3 antibody ELISAs. Both serum and oral fluid samples were tested with 3 commercial real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. One or more serum samples was positive by VI from DPIs 3 to 21 and by antigen-capture ELISAs from DPIs 6 to 17. VN-positive serum samples were observed at DPIs ≥ 7 and by antibody ELISAs at DPIs ≥ 10. CSFV RNA was detected in serum samples from DPIs 2 to 28 and in oral fluid samples from DPIs 4 to 28. Significant differences in assay performance were detected, but most importantly, no single combination of sample and assay was able to dependably identify CSFV-inoculated pigs throughout the 4-week course of the study. The results show that effective surveillance for CSFV, especially low virulence strains, will require the use of PCR-based assays for the detection of early infections (<14 days) and antibody-based assays, thereafter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spare optimistic based on improved ADMM and the minimum entropy de-convolution for the early weak fault diagnosis of bearings in marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangde; Karimi, Mohammad; Kudreyko, Aleksey A; Song, Wanqing

    2017-12-30

    In the marine systems, engines represent the most important part of ships, the probability of the bearings fault is the highest in the engines, so in the bearing vibration analysis, early weak fault detection is very important for long term monitoring. In this paper, we propose a novel method to solve the early weak fault diagnosis of bearing. Firstly, we should improve the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), structure of the traditional ADMM is changed, and then the improved ADMM is applied to the compressed sensing (CS) theory, which realizes the sparse optimization of bearing signal for a mount of data. After the sparse signal is reconstructed, the calculated signal is restored with the minimum entropy de-convolution (MED) to get clear fault information. Finally we adopt the sample entropy. Morphological mean square amplitude and the root mean square (RMS) to find the early fault diagnosis of bearing respectively, at the same time, we plot the Boxplot comparison chart to find the best of the three indicators. The experimental results prove that the proposed method can effectively identify the early weak fault diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  17. Kinetic examination of the thyroid for an early detection of localized autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Kissel, H.J.; Schnabel, K.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of localised thyroid autonomy can in many cases be of high importance for the patient. By manifesting accelerated radioiodine kinetics in suspicious lobes or regions of the thyroid, autonomies of the thyroid can be detected early and definitely. Examination covered 50 euthyroidic patients showing only an asymmetric thyroidal configuration in the scintiscan. Unilateral determining of the radioiodine kinetics at the Auger-camera helped to find out if, and in how many cases, there is really an accelerated iodine metabolism in the thyroids represented asymmetrically. Fire of the examinated patients showed, compared with the opposite side, both increased iodine uptake and accelerated iodine output in the lobes which are seen more clearly in the scintiscan. This might be an indication of a very early stage of thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  18. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  19. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connection gas or elevated background gas, which can be used for real-time pore pressure detection. The pore pressure detection using the logging-while-drilling, measurement-while-drilling, and mud logging data is also implemented and evaluated. Abnormal pore pressure indicators from the well logs, mud logs, and wellbore instability events are identified and analyzed to interpret abnormal pore pressures for guiding real-time drilling decisions. The principles for identifying abnormal pressure indicators are proposed to improve real-time pore pressure monitoring.

  20. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  1. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiangwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a

  2. Automation of Classical QEEG Trending Methods for Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: More Work to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickering, Ellis; Gaspard, Nicolas; Zafar, Sahar; Moura, Valdery J; Biswal, Siddharth; Bechek, Sophia; OʼConnor, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Eric S; Westover, M Brandon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate automated implementations of continuous EEG monitoring-based detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on methods used in classical retrospective studies. We studied 95 patients with either Fisher 3 or Hunt Hess 4 to 5 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to the Neurosciences ICU and underwent continuous EEG monitoring. We implemented several variations of two classical algorithms for automated detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability. Of 95 patients, 43 (45%) developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Our automated implementation of the classical alpha-delta ratio-based trending method resulted in a sensitivity and specificity (Se,Sp) of (80,27)%, compared with the values of (100,76)% reported in the classic study using similar methods in a nonautomated fashion. Our automated implementation of the classical relative alpha variability-based trending method yielded (Se,Sp) values of (65,43)%, compared with (100,46)% reported in the classic study using nonautomated analysis. Our findings suggest that improved methods to detect decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability are needed before an automated EEG-based early delayed cerebral ischemia detection system is ready for clinical use.

  3. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ming; Lu, Shao-Hong; Tong, Qun-Bo; Lou, Di; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Bin; Kumagai, Takashi; Wen, Li-Yong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-03

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP) to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. The assay was performed with Bst DNA polymerase at 65°C for 1 h. The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was as low as 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 and 1000 fold higher than that of the LAMP targeting B1 gene (B1-LAMP) and nested PCR targeting 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-nested PCR), respectively. The specificity of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was determined using the DNA samples of Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of any parasites was found. The assay was able to detect T. gondii DNA in all mouse blood samples at one day post infection (dpi). We report the following findings: (i) The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay is 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA; (ii) The assay does not involve any cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites; (iii) This is the first report on the application of the LAMP assay for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in blood samples from experimentally infected mice. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness for common use, we suggest that this assay should be used as an early diagnostic tool for health control of toxoplasmosis.

  4. Improvement of native rices for earliness through chemical mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevappa, M.; Kumara Swamy, S.; Ikehashi, H.; Coffman, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dry seeds of the cultivar Intan from Karnataka, India were treated with ethyleneimine at 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations for 1 hour and 3 hours to induce early maturity without affecting resistance to blast and ratoonability. The germination percentage with seeds and spikelet fertility in M 1 plants showed correlation and was useful in identifying optimal treatment for future experiments. Single panicles selected from the treatment 0.4%-3 hours produced progenies for further screening. Screening of M 2 families in natural long day length in the 1979 dry season facilitated selection of early maturing photo-period insensitive types from Intan mutations (IR 29385). The early maturing mutants grown in the wet season as M 3 plant progenies, bred true for earliness, matured about 20 days earlier than the parents, even with short day length. Mutants had reduced plant height with not much change in panicle length, grain features, spikelet number and fertility with panicle. Among the mutants selected, Intan mutant 1 performed very well under subnormal and normal fertilizer application. It yielded 1.10% higher than the checks and parent variety in addition to being itself early by about 20 days. If ethyleneimine is specific in altering culm length, it should be emphasized as a future tool in the improvement of specifically adapted traditional varieties. (author)

  5. Accelerometer and Camera-Based Strategy for Improved Human Fall Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of detecting human falls using anomaly detection. Detection and classification of falls are based on accelerometric data and variations in human silhouette shape. First, we use the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring scheme to detect a potential fall in the accelerometric data. We used an EWMA to identify features that correspond with a particular type of fall allowing us to classify falls. Only features corresponding with detected falls were used in the classification phase. A benefit of using a subset of the original data to design classification models minimizes training time and simplifies models. Based on features corresponding to detected falls, we used the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to distinguish between true falls and fall-like events. We apply this strategy to the publicly available fall detection databases from the university of Rzeszow’s. Results indicated that our strategy accurately detected and classified fall events, suggesting its potential application to early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations and its capability for classification of detected falls. Comparison of the classification results using the EWMA-based SVM classifier method with those achieved using three commonly used machine learning classifiers, neural network, K-nearest neighbor and naïve Bayes, proved our model superior.

  6. Accelerometer and Camera-Based Strategy for Improved Human Fall Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2016-10-29

    In this paper, we address the problem of detecting human falls using anomaly detection. Detection and classification of falls are based on accelerometric data and variations in human silhouette shape. First, we use the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring scheme to detect a potential fall in the accelerometric data. We used an EWMA to identify features that correspond with a particular type of fall allowing us to classify falls. Only features corresponding with detected falls were used in the classification phase. A benefit of using a subset of the original data to design classification models minimizes training time and simplifies models. Based on features corresponding to detected falls, we used the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to distinguish between true falls and fall-like events. We apply this strategy to the publicly available fall detection databases from the university of Rzeszow’s. Results indicated that our strategy accurately detected and classified fall events, suggesting its potential application to early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations and its capability for classification of detected falls. Comparison of the classification results using the EWMA-based SVM classifier method with those achieved using three commonly used machine learning classifiers, neural network, K-nearest neighbor and naïve Bayes, proved our model superior.

  7. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  8. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  9. Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    detection of tumors, we chose to pursue the study of clinical samples in lieu of developing more mouse models since this will yield more meaningful ...D.R. “Ultrasensitive Assays for Early Breast Cancer Detection”. Poster presentation. The Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied...Cancer Detection”. Poster presentation. 250th American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition, 2015 August 16-20, Boston, MA. • Baig, S

  10. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakupciak, John P; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip ® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is

  11. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  12. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goel

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6. Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21% had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413. The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  13. Set-membership fault detection under noisy environment with application to the detection of abnormal aircraft control surface positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houda Thabet, Rihab; Combastel, Christophe; Raïssi, Tarek; Zolghadri, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops a set membership detection methodology which is applied to the detection of abnormal positions of aircraft control surfaces. Robust and early detection of such abnormal positions is an important issue for early system reconfiguration and overall optimisation of aircraft design. In order to improve fault sensitivity while ensuring a high level of robustness, the method combines a data-driven characterisation of noise and a model-driven approach based on interval prediction. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation results obtained based on data recorded in several flight scenarios of a highly representative aircraft benchmark.

  14. Early non-destructive biofouling detection in spiral wound RO Membranes using a mobile earth's field NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, E.O.; Vogt, S.J.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Johns, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Earth's field (EF) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to provide early non-destructive detection of active biofouling of a commercial spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module. The RO membrane module was actively biofouled to different extents, by the addition of biodegradable nutrients to the feed stream, as revealed by a subtle feed-channel pressure drop increase. Easily accessible EF NMR parameters (signal relaxation parameters T1, T2 and the total NMR signal modified to be sensitive to stagnant fluid only) were measured and analysed in terms of their ability to detect the onset of biofouling. The EF NMR showed that fouling near the membrane module entrance significantly distorted the flow field through the whole membrane module. The total NMR signal is shown to be suitable for non-destructive early biofouling detection of spiral wound membrane modules, it was readily deployed at high (operational) flow rates, was particularly sensitive to flow field changes due to biofouling and could be deployed at any position along the membrane module axis. In addition to providing early fouling detection, the mobile EF NMR apparatus could also be used to (i) evaluate the production process of spiral wound membrane modules, and (ii) provide an in-situ determination of module cleaning process efficiency.

  15. Early non-destructive biofouling detection in spiral wound RO Membranes using a mobile earth's field NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, E.O.

    2015-04-20

    We demonstrate the use of Earth\\'s field (EF) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to provide early non-destructive detection of active biofouling of a commercial spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module. The RO membrane module was actively biofouled to different extents, by the addition of biodegradable nutrients to the feed stream, as revealed by a subtle feed-channel pressure drop increase. Easily accessible EF NMR parameters (signal relaxation parameters T1, T2 and the total NMR signal modified to be sensitive to stagnant fluid only) were measured and analysed in terms of their ability to detect the onset of biofouling. The EF NMR showed that fouling near the membrane module entrance significantly distorted the flow field through the whole membrane module. The total NMR signal is shown to be suitable for non-destructive early biofouling detection of spiral wound membrane modules, it was readily deployed at high (operational) flow rates, was particularly sensitive to flow field changes due to biofouling and could be deployed at any position along the membrane module axis. In addition to providing early fouling detection, the mobile EF NMR apparatus could also be used to (i) evaluate the production process of spiral wound membrane modules, and (ii) provide an in-situ determination of module cleaning process efficiency.

  16. Effectiveness of distributed temperature measurements for early detection of piping in river embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersan, Silvia; Koelewijn, André R.; Simonini, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Internal erosion is the cause of a significant percentage of failure and incidents involving both dams and river embankments in many countries. In the past 20 years the use of fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in dams has proved to be an effective tool for the detection of leakages and internal erosion. This work investigates the effectiveness of DTS for dike monitoring, focusing on the early detection of backward erosion piping, a mechanism that affects the foundation layer of structures resting on permeable, sandy soils. The paper presents data from a piping test performed on a large-scale experimental dike equipped with a DTS system together with a large number of accompanying sensors. The effect of seepage and piping on the temperature field is analysed, eventually identifying the processes that cause the onset of thermal anomalies around piping channels and thus enable their early detection. Making use of dimensional analysis, the factors that influence this thermal response of a dike foundation are identified. Finally some tools are provided that can be helpful for the design of monitoring systems and for the interpretation of temperature data.

  17. Early detection of doxorubicin-induced cariotoxocity and its prevention by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, K.; Khan, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    To detect doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury by quantitative estimation of cardiospecific protein, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at early stage and to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Tocopherol. Study Design: Labbased randomized controlled in-vivo study in rabbits. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Pathology department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy male adult rabbits were used. Cardiotoxicity was induced by single intravenous injection of 12 mg /kg of doxorubicin in a group of rabbits, control group was treated with normal saline only and the rabbits of third group were pretreated with Tocopherol 200 mg/kg of body weight for ten days before injection of doxorubicin 12mg/kg. Results: Doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity confirmed by markedly raised serum levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and grade 3 necrosis of the heart issue in rabbits. The pre-treatment with Tocopherol resulted in improved serum levels of cTnI and the histological picture of heart tissue. Conclusions: The quantitative cTnI estimation for detection of cardiotoxicity at subclinical level can lead to significant economic impact in management of cancer patients because the troponin-negative subjects can be excluded from long term cardiac monitoring programs, which require high cost imaging techniques. Furthermore, the outcome of most potent and widely used doxorubicin chemotherapy can be made successful with the concurrent use of alpha-Tocopherol. (author)

  18. Early-career registered nurses' participation in hospital quality improvement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida K; Bernstein, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 2 cohorts of early-career registered nurses from 15 states in the US, 2 years apart, to compare their reported participation in hospital quality improvement (QI) activities. We anticipated differences between the 2 cohorts because of the growth of several initiatives for engaging nurses in QI. There were no differences between the 2 cohorts across 14 measured activities, except for their reported use of appropriate strategies to improve hand-washing compliance to reduce nosocomial infection rates.

  19. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  20. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. © Published by Oxford University Press 2015.

  1. Hybrid light transport model based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for early gastric cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Defu; Chen, Duofang; Zhu, Shouping; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it remains difficult to cure because it has been in late-stage once that is found. Early gastric cancer detection becomes an effective approach to decrease the gastric cancer mortality. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been applied to detect early liver cancer and prostate cancer metastasis. However, the gastric cancer commonly originates from the gastric mucosa and grows outwards. The bioluminescent light will pass through a non-scattering region constructed by gastric pouch when it transports in tissues. Thus, the current BLT reconstruction algorithms based on the approximation model of radiative transfer equation are not optimal to handle this problem. To address the gastric cancer specific problem, this paper presents a novel reconstruction algorithm that uses a hybrid light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. The radiosity theory integrated with the diffusion equation to form the hybrid light transport model is utilized to describe light propagation in the non-scattering region. After the finite element discretization, the hybrid light transport model is converted into a minimization problem which fuses an l1 norm based regularization term to reveal the sparsity of bioluminescent source distribution. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is first demonstrated with a digital mouse based simulation with the reconstruction error less than 1mm. An in situ gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse based experiment is then conducted. The primary result reveals the ability of the novel BLT reconstruction algorithm in early gastric cancer detection.

  2. The Implementation of Traditional Games to Improve the Social Emotional Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Indah Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to improve the social emotional early childhood through the traditional game. This research was conducted on the children of group B TK Pradnyandari III Kerobokan in the academic year 2016 / 2017. This research used Classroom Action Research design with observation method. The subjects of this study were 22 children of group B1 TK Pradnyandari III Kerobokan consisting of 11 sons and 11 daughters. The object of research is the application of traditional children's games to increase social emotional early childhood. The results og this research as in Cycle I, 14 children (63.64% reached the completeness learning mastery, 8 children (36.36% had not reached. In Cycle II, 20 children (90,91% reached the learning mastery, leaving only 2 children (9,09% had not reached. The implementation of traditional games can enhance children's social emotional skill. Based on the research findings there was an improvement of 27.27% learning mastery of the children from Cycle I to Cycle II. This means that the application of traditional games can improve children's social emotional development. Traditional games can be piloted in other areas of development skill in early childhood education.

  3. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deana, A M; Jesus, S H C; Koshoji, N H; Bussadori, S K; Oliveira, M T

    2013-01-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  4. CFD modelling of sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion in long-wall gob areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted to optimize gas sampling locations for the early detection of spontaneous heating in longwall gob areas. Initial simulations were carried out to predict carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at various regulators in the gob using a bleeder ventilation system. Measured CO concentration values at these regulators were then used to calibrate the CFD model. The calibrated CFD model was used to simulate CO concentrations at eight sampling locations in the gob using a bleederless ventilation system to determine the optimal sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion.

  5. Outcome of early detection and radiotherapy for occult spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Barbachano, Yolanda; Dearnaley, David P.; Parker, Christopher C.; Khoo, Vincent; Huddart, Robert A.; Eeles, Rosalind; Horwich, Alan; Aslam Sohaib, S.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective analysis in 150 patients with metastatic prostate cancer was conducted to determine whether early detection with MRI spine and treatment of clinically occult spinal cord compromise (SCC) facilitate preservation of neurologic function. Our results suggest that prophylactic radiotherapy for patients with back pain or radiological SCC without neurologic deficit may facilitate preservation of neurologic function. Thus MRI surveillance for SCC may be important for prostate cancer patients with bone metastases

  6. Anomaly detection through information sharing under different topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Korczynski, M.T.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of traffic anomalies in networks increases the probability of effective intervention/mitigation actions, thereby improving the stability of system function. Centralized methods of anomaly detection are subject to inherent constraints: (1) they create a communication burden on the

  7. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  8. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  9. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  10. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  11. A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dau Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers.

  12. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  13. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, S.L.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out. 32 refs

  14. Improved Conflict Detection for Graph Transformation with Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kulcsár

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In graph transformation, a conflict describes a situation where two alternative transformations cannot be arbitrarily serialized. When enriching graphs with attributes, existing conflict detection techniques typically report a conflict whenever at least one of two transformations manipulates a shared attribute. In this paper, we propose an improved, less conservative condition for static conflict detection of graph transformation with attributes by explicitly taking the semantics of the attribute operations into account. The proposed technique is based on symbolic graphs, which extend the traditional notion of graphs by logic formulas used for attribute handling. The approach is proven complete, i.e., any potential conflict is guaranteed to be detected.

  15. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  16. Detection of early lung cancer lesions in surgical resections and in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, T.; Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.; Erzen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Overall bad prognosis of lung cancer is mostly due to too late detection of early lung cancer, which may be treated with good success. Therefore, different diagnostic methods are developing for more efficient detection of early lung cancer: besides modern radiological, bronchoscopic methods with additional fluorescence techniques, quantitative cytological investigations, also histological and molecular investigations are included. Histology may reveal early preinvasive lung cancer lesions, associated early during multistep lung carcinogenesis with molecular genetic changes. Patients and methods. Preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions we searched in two groups of patients. In the first group of 316 patients from the period March 2003 - August 2006, 498 bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were examined for squamous metaplasia and dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumours. In the second group of 238 patients from the period January 2004 - August 2006, resected primary lung tumours were analysed for preinvasive and invasive neuroendocrine tumours and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Results. The most frequent changes in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were squamous metaplasia (46.5%), simple or goblet cell hyperplasia of the bronchial epithelium (44.3%), malignant tumours (20.66%) and squamous dysplasia (16.1%), but rare carcinoma in situ (0.63%). Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia was found in 15 (6.3%) cases in the vicinity of 238 resected lung cancer specimens, carcinoid in 12 patients (5%), and mostly combined large cell neuroendocrine cancer in 21 patients (8.8%). Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia was found in 2 patients. Conclusions. Classical histological analysis should be focused on detection of early preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions. Additional available molecular investigations may reveal gradual genetic changes characteristic for a series of the preinvasive epithelial histological changes

  17. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  18. Use of sentinel-1 data for vessel detection in South African oceans: Early results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, Waldo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available taking into consideration local incident angles. Early experimental results show promising vessel detection accuracy using the Sentinel-1 data but that polarization and incidence angle are important parameters to take into consideration when working...

  19. Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiling of Five Types of Cancer Patients and Its Application for Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Yohei; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Gochi, Akira; Akaike, Makoto; Ishikawa, Takashi; Miura, Takeshi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Bando, Etsuro; Kimura, Hideki; Imamura, Fumio; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Ichiro; Chiba, Akihiko; Oshita, Fumihiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. Methods and Findings Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer), regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. Conclusions These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a relatively simple

  20. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  1. Detecting intrinsic muscle weakness of the hallux as an addition to early-stage screening of the feet in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahieu, R.; Coenen, M. N. O.; van Bemmel, T.; van der Zaag-Loonen, H. J.; Theuvenet, W. J.

    Aims: Present-day screening of the diabetic foot involves the Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Test for evaluating loss of sensibility, while testing for intrinsic muscle weakness is not implied. Just as with the early detection of sensibility loss, early detection of intrinsic muscle weakness might

  2. Group relationships in early and late sessions and improvement in interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2016-07-01

    Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  4. The radiology of early esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, S.

    1988-01-01

    The radiographic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer is described based on 25 cases in which depth of invasion was limited to not more than the submucosal layer. It is emphasized that double contrast radiography should be designed to delineate the subtle abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa and margins of lesions which are characteristic of early cancer, and that further investigation should be directed to improving the method of examination so that the detection of ep- and mm-cancer which has a better prognosis than sm cancer can be detected more readily. A macroscopic classification of early esophageal cancer (elevated, flat, depressed and mixed type) which is useful for both endoscopic and radiographic diagnosis is proposed. The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer which was limited to the submucosal layer or less (ep-, mm- and sm-cancer) was 50%

  5. IMS2 – An integrated medical software system for early lung cancer detection using ion mobility spectrometry data of human breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumbach Jan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available IMS2 is an Integrated Medical Software system for the analysis of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS data. It assists medical staff with the following IMS data processing steps: acquisition, visualization, classification, and annotation. IMS2 provides data analysis and interpretation features on the one hand, and also helps to improve the classification by increasing the number of the pre-classified datasets on the other hand. It is designed to facilitate early detection of lung cancer, one of the most common cancer types with one million deaths each year around the world.

  6. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  7. Vision-based fall detection system for improving safety of elderly people

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Zerrouki, Nabil; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of human movements is very useful for several applications, such as smart rooms, interactive virtual reality systems, human detection and environment modeling. The objective of this work focuses on the detection and classification of falls based on variations in human silhouette shape, a key challenge in computer vision. Falls are a major health concern, specifically for the elderly. In this study, the detection is achieved with a multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme, which is effective in detecting falls because it is sensitive to small changes. Unfortunately, an MEWMA statistic fails to differentiate real falls from some fall-like gestures. To remedy this limitation, a classification stage based on a support vector machine (SVM) is applied on detected sequences. To validate this methodology, two fall detection datasets have been tested: the University of Rzeszow fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The results of the MEWMA-based SVM are compared with three other classifiers: neural network (NN), naïve Bayes and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). These results show the capability of the developed strategy to distinguish fall events, suggesting that it can raise an early alert in the fall incidents.

  8. Vision-based fall detection system for improving safety of elderly people

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-12-06

    Recognition of human movements is very useful for several applications, such as smart rooms, interactive virtual reality systems, human detection and environment modeling. The objective of this work focuses on the detection and classification of falls based on variations in human silhouette shape, a key challenge in computer vision. Falls are a major health concern, specifically for the elderly. In this study, the detection is achieved with a multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme, which is effective in detecting falls because it is sensitive to small changes. Unfortunately, an MEWMA statistic fails to differentiate real falls from some fall-like gestures. To remedy this limitation, a classification stage based on a support vector machine (SVM) is applied on detected sequences. To validate this methodology, two fall detection datasets have been tested: the University of Rzeszow fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The results of the MEWMA-based SVM are compared with three other classifiers: neural network (NN), naïve Bayes and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). These results show the capability of the developed strategy to distinguish fall events, suggesting that it can raise an early alert in the fall incidents.

  9. The effect of implementation of an early detection team: A nationwide register-based study of characteristics and help-seeking behavior in first-episode schizophrenia in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Nordgaard, Julie; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-26

    In an effort to make people with signs of psychosis seek help as early as possible, Region Zealand launched in 2012 an early detection team project as the first and only in Denmark. The project consisted of a combination of easy access and an information campaign targeting the public. This nation-wide study examined characteristics and help-seeking behavior of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in the early detection region in comparison with other Danish regions. Data from the Danish National Schizophrenia register on all Danish patients diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia during 2012 to 2015 were linked to demographic and health care data drawn from official national registers. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the difference between the early detection region and other regions controlling for demographic characteristics and utilization of mental health care services and contacts to general practitioner (GP). Patients in the early detection region were younger (OR = 0.51; CI: 0.42-0.62; p < 0.000) than in regions without early detection teams. Furthermore, they were more likely to be of Danish origin, and less likely to have contact with mental health services and GPs prior to FES. The study suggests that implementing an early detection team in combination with an information campaign contributed to detecting patients with first-episode schizophrenia earlier than in regions without the early detection team. The study gives an indication of different pathways among patients in the early detection region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Network analysis in detection of early-stage mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Huangjing; Qin, Jiaolong; Zhou, Luping; Zhao, Zhigen; Wang, Jun; Hou, Fengzhen

    2017-07-01

    The detection and intervention for early-stage mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) is of vital importance However, the pathology of EMCI remains largely unknown, making it be challenge to the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data derived from EMCI patients and normal controls are analyzed using the complex network theory. We construct the functional connectivity (FC) networks and employ the local false discovery rate approach to successfully detect the abnormal functional connectivities appeared in the EMCI patients. Our results demonstrate the abnormal functional connectivities have appeared in the EMCI patients, and the affected brain regions are mainly distributed in the frontal and temporal lobes In addition, to quantitatively characterize the statistical properties of FCs in the complex network, we herein employ the entropy of the degree distribution (EDD) index and some other well-established measures, i.e., clustering coefficient (CC) and the efficiency of graph (EG). Eventually, we found that the EDD index, better than the widely used CC and EG measures, may serve as an assistant and potential marker for the detection of EMCI.

  11. Early detection of venous thromboses of the lower limb in traumatology using labelled fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteyer, J.; Lanata, E.; Bonnard, P.; Jean, N.; Kher, A.; Patel, A.

    1975-01-01

    In emergency traumatology, the iodine 125 labelled fibrinogen test is useful in the early detection of phlebitis in patients in whom the routine use of heparin is not possible: fractures of the cervical spine, severe cranial trauma, elderly subjects. It makes possible the institution of appropriate heparin therapy, whithout waiting for clinical signs to become evident. Isotopic venous thromboses occured very frequently and very early and clinical signs, when present (50% of cases) occured 24 to 48 hours after the appearance of isotopic signs [fr

  12. Early detection of fires by means of thermography; Frueherkennung von Braenden mit Thermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matthias; Doeppner, Joerg; Pohl, Gisbert; Mahler, Guido; Dammass, Gunnar; Wendland, Georg [InfraTec GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the physical and technical fundamentals of an early detection of fires by means of thermal imaging. Hereupon, the technical implementation of these fundamentals into a modular automatic monitoring system by thermography is described. The authors report on practical experiences of this monitoring system.

  13. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  14. Nanobarcoding for improved nanoparticle detection in nanomedical biodistribution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha

    Determination of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in a biological system, or NP biodistribution, is critical in evaluating a NP formulation for nanomedicine. Unlike small-molecule drugs, NPs impose unique challenges in the design of appropriate biodistribution studies due to their small size and subsequent detection signal. Current methods to determine NP biodistribution are greatly inadequate due to their limited detection thresholds. There is an overwhelming need for a sensitive and efficient imaging-based method that can (1) detect and measure small numbers of NPs of various types, ideally single NPs, (2) associate preferential NP uptake with histological cell type by preserving spatial information in samples, and (3) allow for relatively quick and accurate NP detection in in vitro (and possibly ex vivo) samples for comprehensive NP biodistribution studies. Herein, a novel method for improved NP detection is proposed, coined "nanobarcoding." Nanobarcoding utilizes a non-endogenous oligonucleotide, or "nanobarcode" (NB), conjugated to the NP surface to amplify the detection signal from a single NP via in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR), and this signal amplification will facilitate rapid and precise detection of single NPs inside cells over large areas of sample such that more sophisticated studies can be performed on the NP-positive subpopulation. Moreover, nanobarcoding has the potential to be applied to the detection of more than one NP type to study the effects of physicochemical properties, targeting mechanisms, and route of entry on NP biodistribution. The nanobarcoding method was validated in vitro using NB-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (NB-SPIONs) as the model NP type for improved NP detection inside HeLa human cervical cancer cells, a cell line commonly used for ISPCR-mediated detection of human papilloma virus (HPV). Nanotoxicity effects of NB-SPIONs were also evaluated at the single-cell level using LEAP (Laser-Enabled Analysis

  15. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity Due to Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-06-01

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  17. Sonar Image Enhancements for Improved Detection of Sea Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karl; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Zerr, Benoit

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, five methods for enhancing sonar images prior to automatic detection of sea mines are investigated. Two of the methods have previously been published in connection with detection systems and serve as reference. The three new enhancement approaches are variance stabilizing log...... transform, nonlinear filtering, and pixel averaging for speckle reduction. The effect of the enhancement step is tested by using the full prcessing chain i.e. enhancement, detection and thresholding to determine the number of detections and false alarms. Substituting different enhancement algorithms...... in the processing chain gives a precise measure of the performance of the enhancement stage. The test is performed using a sonar image database with images ranging from very simple to very complex. The result of the comparison indicates that the new enhancement approaches improve the detection performance....

  18. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  19. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  20. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Colorado and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Disturbances in a forest environment that cause reductions in forest area, timber volume, and timber growth can be detected on ERTS-1 combined color composites. However, detection depends on comparing a conventional aerial photograph taken at some base year with an ERTS-1 image taken in some subsequent year. In a test made on the Atlanta site, 1:63,360 scale aerial photo index sheets made in 1966 were compared with ERTS-1 image 1264-15445 (April 1973). Five factors were found important to detection reliability: (1) the quality of the imagery; (2) the season of the imagery; (3) the size of the disturbed area; (4) the number of years since the disturbances; and (5) the type of cutting treatment. Of 209 disturbances verified on aerial photography, 165 (or approximately 80%) were detected on the ERTS-1 image by one independent interpreter. Improved training and additional experience in using this low resolution imagery should improve detection. Of the two seasons of data studies (fall and early spring), early spring is the best for detecting land use changes. Generally speaking, winter, early spring, and early summer are the best times of year for detecting forest disturbances.

  1. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sayed Ali

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  2. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... 16, 2011. 9 a.m.-12:30 p.m., June 17, 2011. Place: Westin Atlanta Perimeter North, 7 Concourse... program goals and objectives; implementation strategies; and program, priorities including surveillance... Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Marketing Tool kit for increased awareness for the state programs...

  3. Delayed-Phase Cone-Beam CT Improves Detectability of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the detectability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DPCBCT) during conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) compared to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to pre-procedure contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis retrospective study included 17 consecutive patients (10 male, mean age 64) with ICC who underwent pre-procedure CE-MRI of the liver, and DSA and DPCBCT (early-arterial phase (EAP) and delayed-arterial phase (DAP)) just before cTACE. The visibility of each ICC lesion was graded by two radiologists on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, and none) on DPCBCT and DSA images, and then compared to pre-procedure CE-MRI.ResultsOf 61 ICC lesions, only 45.9 % were depicted by DSA, whereas EAP- and DAP-CBCT yielded a significantly higher detectability rate of 73.8 % and 93.4 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Out of the 33 lesions missed on DSA, 18 (54.5 %) and 30 (90.9 %) were revealed on EAP- and DAP-CBCT images, respectively. DSA depicted only one lesion that was missed by DPCBCT due to streak artifacts caused by a prosthetic mitral valve. DAP-CBCT identified significantly more lesions than EAP-CBCT (p < 0.01). Conversely, EAP-CBCT did not detect lesions missed by DAP-CBCT. For complete lesion visibility, DAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher detectability (78.7 %) compared to EAP (31.1 %) and DSA (21.3 %) (p < 0.01).ConclusionDPCBCT, and especially the DAP-CBCT, significantly improved the detectability of ICC lesions during cTACE compared to DSA. We recommend the routine use of DAP-CBCT in patients with ICC for per-procedure detectability and treatment planning in the setting of TACE

  4. Delayed-Phase Cone-Beam CT Improves Detectability of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Lin, MingDe [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound and Interventions (United States); Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-François, E-mail: jfg@jhmi.edu [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the detectability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DPCBCT) during conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) compared to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to pre-procedure contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis retrospective study included 17 consecutive patients (10 male, mean age 64) with ICC who underwent pre-procedure CE-MRI of the liver, and DSA and DPCBCT (early-arterial phase (EAP) and delayed-arterial phase (DAP)) just before cTACE. The visibility of each ICC lesion was graded by two radiologists on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, and none) on DPCBCT and DSA images, and then compared to pre-procedure CE-MRI.ResultsOf 61 ICC lesions, only 45.9 % were depicted by DSA, whereas EAP- and DAP-CBCT yielded a significantly higher detectability rate of 73.8 % and 93.4 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Out of the 33 lesions missed on DSA, 18 (54.5 %) and 30 (90.9 %) were revealed on EAP- and DAP-CBCT images, respectively. DSA depicted only one lesion that was missed by DPCBCT due to streak artifacts caused by a prosthetic mitral valve. DAP-CBCT identified significantly more lesions than EAP-CBCT (p < 0.01). Conversely, EAP-CBCT did not detect lesions missed by DAP-CBCT. For complete lesion visibility, DAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher detectability (78.7 %) compared to EAP (31.1 %) and DSA (21.3 %) (p < 0.01).ConclusionDPCBCT, and especially the DAP-CBCT, significantly improved the detectability of ICC lesions during cTACE compared to DSA. We recommend the routine use of DAP-CBCT in patients with ICC for per-procedure detectability and treatment planning in the setting of TACE.

  5. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (pearly detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  6. Role of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A; Pande, J N; Guleria, J S; Gopinath, P G

    1983-04-01

    The efficacy of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in the early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease was evaluated in 38 subjects. The subjects included 5 non-smokers, 21 smokers with minimal or no respiratory symptoms and 12 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Each subject consented to a respiratory questionaire, detailed physical examination, chest X-ray examinations, detailed pulmonary function tests and sup(99m)Tc-radioaerosol-inhalation lung imaging. Perfusion lung imaging with sup(99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin was performed in 22 subjects. A significant correlation (P<0.001) was observed between the degree of abnormalities on radio-aerosol imaging and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) including forced expiratory volume in 1 s, maximum midexpiratory flow rate and mean transit time analysis. Abnormal radio-aerosol patterns and deranged PFTs were observed in 21 subjects each. Of 21 subjects with abnormal radioaerosol pattern 8 had normal PFTs. Of 21 subjects with abnormal PFTs 8 had normal aerosol images. Aerosol lung images and PFTs were abnormal more frequently than perfusion lung images. The results suggest that radio-aerosol lung imaging is as sensitive an indicator as PFTs for early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease and can be usefully combined with PFTs for early detection of alteration in pulmonary physiology in smokers.

  7. Antibiotic Resistome: Improving Detection and Quantification Accuracy for Comparative Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2016-04-01

    The unprecedented rise of life-threatening antibiotic resistance (AR), combined with the unparalleled advances in DNA sequencing of genomes and metagenomes, has pushed the need for in silico detection of the resistance potential of clinical and environmental metagenomic samples through the quantification of AR genes (i.e., genes conferring antibiotic resistance). Therefore, determining an optimal methodology to quantitatively and accurately assess AR genes in a given environment is pivotal. Here, we optimized and improved existing AR detection methodologies from metagenomic datasets to properly consider AR-generating mutations in antibiotic target genes. Through comparative metagenomic analysis of previously published AR gene abundance in three publicly available metagenomes, we illustrate how mutation-generated resistance genes are either falsely assigned or neglected, which alters the detection and quantitation of the antibiotic resistome. In addition, we inspected factors influencing the outcome of AR gene quantification using metagenome simulation experiments, and identified that genome size, AR gene length, total number of metagenomics reads and selected sequencing platforms had pronounced effects on the level of detected AR. In conclusion, our proposed improvements in the current methodologies for accurate AR detection and resistome assessment show reliable results when tested on real and simulated metagenomic datasets.

  8. Scoring by nonlocal image patch estimator for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the first stages of the pathology is an important task to accelerate the development of new therapies and improve treatment. Compared to AD detection, the prediction of AD using structural MRI at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or pre-MCI stage is more...

  9. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.M.; Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease

  10. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.M. (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York); Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

  11. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  12. Reimagining Instructional Leadership and Organizational Conditions for Improvement: Applied Research Transforming Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiano, Debra; Klein, Rebecca; Hawley, Marsha Shigeyo

    2016-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts to improve children's learning by improving classrooms, results have been lackluster. There is a growing understanding that a sole focus on teachers and classrooms is insufficient. Yet, the field has not systematically explored how to help early childhood education settings become organizations designed for powerful…

  13. [Opinion and Participation in the Regional Early Breast Cancer Detection Program in 2007 on the part of family physicians from a health district in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Elustondo, Sofía; Sánchez Padilla, Elisabeth; Ramírez Alesón, Victoria; González Hernández, Ma José; González Navarro, Andrés; López Gómez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Mammogram screening is the most effective method for the early detection of breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of knowledge, the opinion and the participation in the early breast cancer detection program on the part of the family physicians of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The population studied was comprised of family physicians from Madrid Health District Seven. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire comprised of 30 questions grouped into physicians characteristics and opinion concerning the early breast cancer detection programs. A total of 46% of the physicians replied. A total of 94% of the physicians believed that it is their duty to inform their patients concerning preventive activities, including breast cancer screening, and 95% believed their advice to be useful for convincing women to have a mammogram. A total of 72% believed information to be lacking on this program. During the time when mammograms are being taken at their centres, 24% of the physicians surveyed always or almost always ask the women if they have any doubts or would like further information, 43% having set up appointments for them and 95% advising them to have a mammogram taken. The family physicians have a good opinion of the early breast cancer detection program and feel their advice to be effective for improving the participation in the program. They report lack of information and inform women about the program to only a small degree.

  14. Improvement to defect detection by ultrasonic data processing: the DTVG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1995-10-01

    The cast elbows of the pipes of the principal primary circuit of French PWR, made of austenitic-ferritic stainless steel, pose problems to control. In order to improve the ultrasonic detection of defects in coarse-grained materials, we propose a method (called DTVG) based on the statistic study of the spatial stability of events contained in temporal signals. At the Beginning, the method was developed during a thesis (G. Corneloup, 1998) to improve the detection of cracks in thin thickness austenitic welds. Here, we propose to adapt the DTVG method and estimate its performances in detection of defects in thick materials representative of cast austenitic-ferritic elbows steels. The first objective of the study is adapting the original treatment applied to the thin thickness austenitic welds for the detection of defects in thick thickness austenitic-ferritic cast steels. The second objective consist of improving the algorithm to take in account the difference between thin and thick material and estimating the performances of the DTVG method in detection in specimen block with artificial defects. This work has led to adapt the original DTVG method to control thick cast austenitic-ferritic specimen (80 mm) under normal and oblique incidence. More, the study has allowed to make the the treatment automatic (automatic research of parameters). The results have shown that the DTVG method is fitted to detect artificial defects in thick cast austenitic-ferritic sample steel. All the defects in the specimen block have been detected without revealing false indication. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  15. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  16. Early detection of fatigue cracks by means of nondestructive testing, NDT; Tidig detektering av utmattningssprickor genom ofoerstoerande provning, OFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broddegaard, Mattias [Siemens Industrial Turbines, Finspaang (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    measuring permeability changes using MWM eddy current testing, highly stressed areas can be identified, which could be used for selection of areas for conventional nondestructive testing. None of the measurements carried out in this project could be used to determine the level of fatigue damage in 12% Cr-steel. Nor could they be used for detection of microcracking. The project goal regarding knowledge of possibilities and limitations for early detection of fatigue cracks using nondestructive testing is considered to be fulfilled. The results from measurements on specimens in 12% Cr-steel is however showing that further improvement of the measurement techniques is necessary before using the methods in the field.

  17. The role of men in early detection of their spouses' breast lump(s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aim to determine whether men can be of help in the early detection of lumps in their spouses' breast. 230 questionnaires were administered to married men. The responses were accepted as “yes” or “no. 217 men (94.35%) responded. 195 (89.86%) were aware of breast cancer. 212 ( 97.7%) were either Christians or ...

  18. Autoantibodies to MUC1 glycopeptides cannot be used as a screening assay for early detection of breast, ovarian, lung or pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burford, B; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Graham, R

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been detected in sera before diagnosis of cancer leading to interest in their potential as screening/early detection biomarkers. As we have found autoantibodies to MUC1 glycopeptides to be elevated in early-stage breast cancer patients, in this study we analysed these autoanti...

  19. The early magnetic resonance imaging features of the knee in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Wittkop, Berndt; Haigh, Fiona; Ryder, Clive; Gardner-Medwin, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Early diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) facilitates earlier more aggressive therapy, and improved outcome. Recognition of the features of early, untreated JIA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will improve disease detection and expedite treatment. This study aims to highlight the relevant MRI features. METHODS: MRI examinations of the knee joint were performed on 11 children with clinically confirmed, early, untreated JIA. The MRI images were obtained at a mean of 2 months after symptom onset and independently evaluated by two consultant paediatric radiologists. RESULTS: Abnormalities were found on all MRI examinations. Synovial hypertrophy, joint effusions, popliteal lymph nodes and soft tissue swelling were present in all patients. Gadolinium DTPA enhancement improved the detection of synovial hyperplasia. Metaphyseal splaying and condylar overgrowth were seen in five cases (41%), oedema of the lateral collateral ligament in two cases (18%) and superficial cartilage thinning in one case. Bony erosions and deep cartilage destruction were not demonstrated. CONCLUSION: MRI of the knee joint identifies early joint changes which are distinct from those in later disease. The presence of these features should alert the radiologist to the possible diagnosis of JIA and post gadolinium DTPA sequences should be performed. Gadolinium DPTA enhancement increases the sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory changes in JIA. Johnson, K. et al. (2002)

  20. The improvement of the detection power of a U-shaped DC plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIC

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the operating parameters of U-shpaed DC arc plasma and spectrometer parameters has been undertaken to explore the possibilities of improving its detection power. It is demonstrated, with a U-shaped arc as an example, that the limits of detection, in addition to well-defined parameters as described by Boumans and Winge, depend on the signal integration time. It is shown that with increasing integration time, the limits of detection are decreased within some limits and that the precision and concentration sensitivity are improved as well. A mathematical expression for the dependence of the detection limit on the integration time is presented. To increase the reliability of the measurement of the mentioned parameters, the working conditions were optimized for the following analytes: Ag, Al, Au, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, and V. The obtained limits of detection are comparable or better than those obtained by ICP for the elements studied. Itwas estimed that the possibility exists for their further improvement up to 10 times.

  1. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  2. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zimolzak

    Full Text Available Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold.This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction.Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5 for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value.To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection.

  3. Enhancement of optic cup detection through an improved vessel kink detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Damon W. K.; Liu, Jiang; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Lu, Shijian; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. The presence and extent of progression of glaucoma can be determined if the optic cup can be accurately segmented from retinal images. In this paper, we present a framework which improves the detection of the optic cup. First, a region of interest is obtained from the retinal fundus image, and a pallor-based preliminary cup contour estimate is determined. Patches are then extracted from the ROI along this contour. To improve the usability of the patches, adaptive methods are introduced to ensure the patches are within the optic disc and to minimize redundant information. The patches are then analyzed for vessels by an edge transform which generates pixel segments of likely vessel candidates. Wavelet, color and gradient information are used as input features for a SVM model to classify the candidates as vessel or non-vessel. Subsequently, a rigourous non-parametric method is adopted in which a bi-stage multi-resolution approach is used to probe and localize the location of kinks along the vessels. Finally, contenxtual information is used to fuse pallor and kink information to obtain an enhanced optic cup segmentation. Using a batch of 21 images obtained from the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the new method results in a 12.64% reduction in the average overlap error against a pallor only cup, indicating viable improvements in the segmentation and supporting the use of kinks for optic cup detection.

  4. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  5. cTnT can be a useful marker for early detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, S; Barista, I; Akgul, E; Aytemir, K; Aksoyek, S; Aksoy, S; Celik, I; Kes, S; Tekuzman, G

    2005-05-01

    The level of serum cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) increases with myocardial damage. We sought to assess whether cTnT level could be a useful marker for the early detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Forty-one patients who had been scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing combination chemotherapy were included in the study. Serum cTnT levels were measured before (baseline) and after the first cycle of chemotherapy, and again, after the last cycle of chemotherapy. In all patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), early peak flow/atrial flow velocity (E/A) ratio, and the isovolemic relaxation time (IRT) were measured echocardiographically, both before and after the completion of chemotherapy. LVEF and FS did not change in any patients. In 21 patients (49%), the E/A ratio decreased after therapy as compared to the pre-treatment values. The decrease in E/A ratio was more prominent in patients who were older than the mean age of our study group, which was 44 years. The post-treatment IRT was prolonged compared with the pretreatment IRT (94.0 +/- 2.0 versus 85.6 +/- 10.5 ms, respectively). cTnT levels after completion of therapy were elevated in 14 (34%) patients, and exceeded the upper limit of the normal range (>0.1 ng/ml) in only one patient. cTnT levels measured after completion of therapy were significantly higher, compared with those measured at baseline and after the first cycle of therapy. In the younger age group (< or =44 years old), there was a two-fold decrease in the E/A ratio in those patients whose cTnT levels increased during the therapy, when compared with those whose cTnT levels did not change (21% versus 43%, respectively). Increased serum cTnT level can be detected in the early stages of anthracycline therapy and it is associated with diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Therefore, serum cTnT level could be a useful measure for early detection of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.

  6. Improvements of existing early warning system in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisa, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma radiation early warning system in Croatia was established in 1993. The first configuration contained 3 measuring stations connected to the monitoring center and up today the system is expanded with 5 additional locations. Each location is equipped with the MFM202 gamma-monitor and additional equipment that is not unique for all locations. This difference in remote equipment configuration caused by different communication medium used, is the reason to improve existing system trough equipment unification introducing PLC unit in the standard configuration. Such configuration enables additional functions such as automatic alerting and collecting meteorological data. (author)

  7. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-11-08

    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (ppolarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  8. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyafet Ugurlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9% had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5% and media (24.1%. Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%; smoking and alcohol (38.4%; having fair skin color (34.9%; and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%. Only one-third of them (32.9% are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%. The majority of the responders (77.3% did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5% students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target group.

  9. Angular cheilitis and oral pigmentation as early detection of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS is an inherited autosomal dominant disease determined by a mutation localized at 19p13.3 characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. The manifestation of PJS may first be encountered by a dentist during routine examination due to the presence of pigmented spots in the oral cavity. Purpose: To prevent a high risk of PJS, the dentist must establish its oral manifestation through early detection. Case: A 14-year-old male patient attended complaining of a week-long pain at the corners of the lips. An extra-oral exam revealed fissure lesions, redness, white crust and pain. The patient had experienced bleeding in his bowel movements, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since childhood. A number of black, painless, macular lesions, some 1-3 mm in diameter, were present on the upper lips, lower lips, fingers and palms. Case management: The patient was referred for a complete blood count check. The results obtained confirmed him to be suffering from severe anemia and he was, therefore, referred to an internist for treatment for PJS. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the early detection of PJS is crucial in order that the patient receives prompt treatment.

  10. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M.; Yamauchi, Elaine Y.; Li, Rosamaria W.C.; Esteves, Carlos H.A.; Rehder, Gustavo P.; Gaylarde, Christine C.; Shirakawa, Márcia A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits

  11. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Jonas, E-mail: jogruber@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Henry M. [Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamauchi, Elaine Y. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Li, Rosamaria W.C. [Centro Universitário Estácio Radial São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves, Carlos H.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rehder, Gustavo P. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gaylarde, Christine C. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Shirakawa, Márcia A. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits.

  12. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  13. Improving the Accuracy of Cloud Detection Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. E.; Alliss, R. J.; Mason, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud detection from geostationary satellite imagery has long been accomplished through multi-spectral channel differencing in comparison to the Earth's surface. The distinction of clear/cloud is then determined by comparing these differences to empirical thresholds. Using this methodology, the probability of detecting clouds exceeds 90% but performance varies seasonally, regionally and temporally. The Cloud Mask Generator (CMG) database developed under this effort, consists of 20 years of 4 km, 15minute clear/cloud images based on GOES data over CONUS and Hawaii. The algorithms to determine cloudy pixels in the imagery are based on well-known multi-spectral techniques and defined thresholds. These thresholds were produced by manually studying thousands of images and thousands of man-hours to determine the success and failure of the algorithms to fine tune the thresholds. This study aims to investigate the potential of improving cloud detection by using Random Forest (RF) ensemble classification. RF is the ideal methodology to employ for cloud detection as it runs efficiently on large datasets, is robust to outliers and noise and is able to deal with highly correlated predictors, such as multi-spectral satellite imagery. The RF code was developed using Python in about 4 weeks. The region of focus selected was Hawaii and includes the use of visible and infrared imagery, topography and multi-spectral image products as predictors. The development of the cloud detection technique is realized in three steps. First, tuning of the RF models is completed to identify the optimal values of the number of trees and number of predictors to employ for both day and night scenes. Second, the RF models are trained using the optimal number of trees and a select number of random predictors identified during the tuning phase. Lastly, the model is used to predict clouds for an independent time period than used during training and compared to truth, the CMG cloud mask. Initial results

  14. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D A; Kirk, K J; Sampathkumar, A; Longbottom, C

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system

  15. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs to be ...

  16. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  17. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R Brasier

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides, fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan, and cell wall components (β-D glucan were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients

  18. Early detection of the incidence of malignancy in mammograms using digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espitia, J.; Jacome, J.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    The digital image correlation has proved an effective way for Pattern Recognition, this research to identify the using Findings digitally extracted from a mammographic image, which is the means used by more specialists to determine if a person is a candidate or not, a Suffer Breast Cancer. This shown that early detection of symptom logy 'carcinogenic' is the key . (Author)

  19. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the 'Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index. Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013. Instrument Development. A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively. A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory. The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  2. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  3. Rapid identification and detection of pathogenic Fungi by padlock probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsui, C.K.M.; Wang, B.; Schoen, C.D.; Hamelin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important pathogens of human diseases, as well as to agricultural crop and trees. Molecular diagnostics can detect diseases early, and improve identification accuracy and follow-up disease management. The use of padlock probe is effective to facilitate these detections and pathogen

  4. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  5. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Amand, David C; Hodgins, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    .... The process improvement efforts described in this paper began in the 1990s and early 2000s. Their process improvement tool sets included the Capability Maturity Model, the Capability Maturity Model (CMM...

  7. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Karen E.

    1984-01-01

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  8. Improved cancer detection in automated breast ultrasound by radiologists using Computer Aided Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelst, J.C.M. van; Tan, T.; Platel, B.; Jong, M. de; Steenbakkers, A.; Mourits, M.; Grivegnee, A.; Borelli, C.; Karssemeijer, N.; Mann, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dedicated Computer Aided Detection (CAD) software for automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) on the performance of radiologists screening for breast cancer. Methods: 90 ABUS views of 90 patients were randomly selected from a multi-institutional archive of cases collected between 2010 and 2013. This dataset included normal cases (n = 40) with >1 year of follow up, benign (n = 30) lesions that were either biopsied or remained stable, and malignant lesions (n = 20). Six readers evaluated all cases with and without CAD in two sessions. CAD-software included conventional CAD-marks and an intelligent minimum intensity projection of the breast tissue. Readers reported using a likelihood-of-malignancy scale from 0 to 100. Alternative free-response ROC analysis was used to measure the performance. Results: Without CAD, the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) of the readers was 0.77 and significantly improved with CAD to 0.84 (p = 0.001). Sensitivity of all readers improved (range 5.2–10.6%) by using CAD but specificity decreased in four out of six readers (range 1.4–5.7%). No significant difference was observed in the AUC between experienced radiologists and residents both with and without CAD. Conclusions: Dedicated CAD-software for ABUS has the potential to improve the cancer detection rates of radiologists screening for breast cancer.

  9. Improved cancer detection in automated breast ultrasound by radiologists using Computer Aided Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelst, J.C.M. van, E-mail: Jan.vanZelst@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Tan, T.; Platel, B. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jong, M. de [Jeroen Bosch Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Steenbakkers, A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mourits, M. [Jeroen Bosch Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Grivegnee, A. [Jules Bordet Institute, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Borelli, C. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Karssemeijer, N.; Mann, R.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dedicated Computer Aided Detection (CAD) software for automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) on the performance of radiologists screening for breast cancer. Methods: 90 ABUS views of 90 patients were randomly selected from a multi-institutional archive of cases collected between 2010 and 2013. This dataset included normal cases (n = 40) with >1 year of follow up, benign (n = 30) lesions that were either biopsied or remained stable, and malignant lesions (n = 20). Six readers evaluated all cases with and without CAD in two sessions. CAD-software included conventional CAD-marks and an intelligent minimum intensity projection of the breast tissue. Readers reported using a likelihood-of-malignancy scale from 0 to 100. Alternative free-response ROC analysis was used to measure the performance. Results: Without CAD, the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) of the readers was 0.77 and significantly improved with CAD to 0.84 (p = 0.001). Sensitivity of all readers improved (range 5.2–10.6%) by using CAD but specificity decreased in four out of six readers (range 1.4–5.7%). No significant difference was observed in the AUC between experienced radiologists and residents both with and without CAD. Conclusions: Dedicated CAD-software for ABUS has the potential to improve the cancer detection rates of radiologists screening for breast cancer.

  10. Early diagnostic role of PSA combined miR-155 detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T; Wang, X-X; Fu, H; Tang, Y-C; Meng, B-Q; Chen, C-H

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 86 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. PSA and miR-155 gene expression in tumor tissue were detected by using Real-time PCR. The serum levels of PSA were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of PSA and miR-155 expression with age, body mass index (BMI), tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and other clinicopathological features were analyzed, respectively. Serum PSA expression and PSA gene in tumor tissue were significantly higher compared to that in adjacent tissues (pPSA gene and protein increased significantly with the clinical stage of TNM and decreased following the increase of grade (pPSA and miR-155 expressions were positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor volume, and LNM, and negatively correlated with grade (pPSA and miR-155 were closely related to the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Combined detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  11. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  12. Attention Measures of Accuracy, Variability, and Fatigue Detect Early Response to Donepezil in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Castelar, Clara; Ly, Jenny J; Kaplan, Lillian; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Berger, Jeffrey T; Macina, Lucy O; Stewart, Jennifer L; Foldi, Nancy S

    2018-04-09

    Donepezil is widely used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but detecting early response remains challenging for clinicians. Acetylcholine is known to directly modulate attention, particularly under high cognitive conditions, but no studies to date test whether measures of attention under high load can detect early effects of donepezil. We hypothesized that load-dependent attention tasks are sensitive to short-term treatment effects of donepezil, while global and other domain-specific cognitive measures are not. This longitudinal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03073876) evaluated 23 participants newly diagnosed with AD initiating de novo donepezil treatment (5 mg). After baseline assessment, participants were randomized into Drug (n = 12) or Placebo (n = 11) groups, and retested after approximately 6 weeks. Cognitive assessment included: (a) attention tasks (Foreperiod Effect, Attentional Blink, and Covert Orienting tasks) measuring processing speed, top-down accuracy, orienting, intra-individual variability, and fatigue; (b) global measures (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, Dementia Rating Scale); and (c) domain-specific measures (memory, language, visuospatial, and executive function). The Drug but not the Placebo group showed benefits of treatment at high-load measures by preserving top-down accuracy, improving intra-individual variability, and averting fatigue. In contrast, other global or cognitive domain-specific measures could not detect treatment effects over the same treatment interval. The pilot-study suggests that attention measures targeting accuracy, variability, and fatigue under high-load conditions could be sensitive to short-term cholinergic treatment. Given the central role of acetylcholine in attentional function, load-dependent attentional measures may be valuable cognitive markers of early treatment response.

  13. Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtamo, Eili; Hasu, Essi; Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y; Erra, Elina; Nikkari, Simo; Kantele, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli; Piiparinen, Heli

    2010-01-01

    The increased traveling to dengue endemic regions and the numerous epidemics have led to a rise in imported dengue. The laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue requires several types of tests and often paired samples are needed for obtaining reliable results. Although several diagnostic methods are available, proper comparative data on their performance are lacking. To compare the performance of novel methods including a novel pan-DENV real-time RT-PCR and a commercially available NS1 capture-EIA in regard to IgM detection for optimizing the early diagnosis of DENV in travelers. A panel of 99 selected early phase serum samples of dengue patients was studied by real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen ELISA, IgM-EIA, IgG-IFA and cell culture virus isolation. The novel real-time RT-PCR was shown specific and sensitive for detection of DENV-1-4 RNA and suitable for diagnostic use. The diagnostic rate using combination of RNA and IgM detection was 99% and using NS1 and IgM detection 95.9%. The results of RNA and NS1 antigen detection disagreed in 15.5% of samples that had only RNA or NS1 antigen detected. The diagnostic rates of early samples are higher when either RNA or NS1 antigen detection is combined with IgM detection. Besides the differences in the RNA and NS1 detection assays, the observed discrepancy of results could suggest individual variation or differences in timing of these markers in patient serum. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of Early Detection Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers (Team Project) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of Ovarian Cancer (OC) is one of the key clinical problems in this disease. We propose a team EDRN project to address the issue of early detection of OC by performing a validation study on candidate protein markers already identified in previous EDRN research or in the literature (e.g. protein products of TCGA identified mutations specific to ovarian cancer). (See appendix for full listing) Biospecimen sources have been identified which include samples obtained at diagnosis and matched controls (Urban, Godwin, Marks, Skates), and longitudinal samples obtained prior to diagnosis (Urban, Skates, Godwin). Bioinformatic filters will be applied to rank the candidates (Diamandis). In order of ranking, candidate proteins for which high quality antibodies are available will be measured by development of ELISAs at JHU (Chan/Zhang) or through NAPPA at DFCI (Anderson/LaBaer), while for other candidates mass spectrometry based selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays will be developed at PNNL (Rodland). Three milestones are defined. The first two milestones are to assemble the necessary specimens and to develop the qualifying assay(s). The final milestone is to estimate the markers’ sensitivity one year prior to diagnosis at a given high specificity.

  15. Lock-in thermal imaging for the early-stage detection of cutaneous melanoma: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmarin, Mathias; Le Gal, Frédérique-Anne

    2014-04-01

    This paper theoretically evaluates lock-in thermal imaging for the early-stage detection of cutaneous melanoma. Lock-in thermal imaging is based on the periodic thermal excitation of the specimen under test. Resulting surface temperature oscillations are recorded with an infrared camera and allow the detection of variations of the sample's thermophysical properties under the surface. In this paper, the steady-state and transient skin surface temperatures are numerically derived for a different stage of development of the melanoma lesion using a two-dimensional axisymmetric multilayer heat-transfer model. The transient skin surface temperature signals are demodulated according to the digital lock-in principle to compute both a phase and an amplitude image of the lesions. The phase image can be advantageously used to accurately detect cutaneous melanoma at an early stage of development while the maximal phase shift can give precious information about the lesion invasion depth. The ability of lock-in thermal imaging to suppress disturbing subcutaneous thermal signals is demonstrated. The method is compared with the previously proposed pulse-based approaches, and the influence of the modulation frequency is further discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  18. A Decline in Response Variability Improves Neural Signal Detection during Auditory Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trapp, Gardiner; Buran, Bradley N; Sen, Kamal; Semple, Malcolm N; Sanes, Dan H

    2016-10-26

    The detection of a sensory stimulus arises from a significant change in neural activity, but a sensory neuron's response is rarely identical to successive presentations of the same stimulus. Large trial-to-trial variability would limit the central nervous system's ability to reliably detect a stimulus, presumably affecting perceptual performance. However, if response variability were to decrease while firing rate remained constant, then neural sensitivity could improve. Here, we asked whether engagement in an auditory detection task can modulate response variability, thereby increasing neural sensitivity. We recorded telemetrically from the core auditory cortex of gerbils, both while they engaged in an amplitude-modulation detection task and while they sat quietly listening to the identical stimuli. Using a signal detection theory framework, we found that neural sensitivity was improved during task performance, and this improvement was closely associated with a decrease in response variability. Moreover, units with the greatest change in response variability had absolute neural thresholds most closely aligned with simultaneously measured perceptual thresholds. Our findings suggest that the limitations imposed by response variability diminish during task performance, thereby improving the sensitivity of neural encoding and potentially leading to better perceptual sensitivity. The detection of a sensory stimulus arises from a significant change in neural activity. However, trial-to-trial variability of the neural response may limit perceptual performance. If the neural response to a stimulus is quite variable, then the response on a given trial could be confused with the pattern of neural activity generated when the stimulus is absent. Therefore, a neural mechanism that served to reduce response variability would allow for better stimulus detection. By recording from the cortex of freely moving animals engaged in an auditory detection task, we found that variability

  19. [Use of the S3 guidelines for early detection of prostate cancer in urological practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, D; Quer, O; Breil, B; Schrader, A J; Bothe, C; Kruse, K; Bögemann, M; Donner-Banzhoff, N; Semjonow, A

    2017-07-01

    The German S3 guideline on prostate cancer gives recommendations on early detection of prostate cancer. In this study we analyzed the adherence of urologists in private practice from the administrative district of Münster, Germany to this guideline. Data were collected through a semistructured survey of 22 urologists based on the COREQ checklist (Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research) in four focus groups consisting of five or six urologists in private practice. We developed 23 questions relating to 12 recommendations of the paragraphs of the S3 guidelines dealing with early detection of prostate cancer and prostate biopsy. The recommendations of the guideline are subdivided in nine "strong", one "optional recommendation" and two "statements". The adherence to the guideline was investigated by using frequency and qualitative content analysis (Mayring) based on a mixed methods design. The urologists follow six of the nine "strong recommendations" of the guideline and deviate from three. Reasons for deviations from "strong recommendations" are the following: information about advantages and disadvantages of early detection for prostate cancer, recommendation of a prostate biopsy in case of PSA level ≥4 ng/ml, and indication for repeat biopsy. Most of the "strong recommendations" are followed by the interviewed urologists of the administrative district of Münster. Contextually relevant deviations from "strong recommendations" are justified, e. g., the only limited transferability of the PSA threshold of 4 ng/ml derived from population-based studies of asymptomatic men to men presenting in a urologist's office.

  20. Bayesian image reconstruction for improving detection performance of muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guobao; Schultz, Larry J; Qi, Jinyi

    2009-05-01

    Muon tomography is a novel technology that is being developed for detecting high-Z materials in vehicles or cargo containers. Maximum likelihood methods have been developed for reconstructing the scattering density image from muon measurements. However, the instability of maximum likelihood estimation often results in noisy images and low detectability of high-Z targets. In this paper, we propose using regularization to improve the image quality of muon tomography. We formulate the muon reconstruction problem in a Bayesian framework by introducing a prior distribution on scattering density images. An iterative shrinkage algorithm is derived to maximize the log posterior distribution. At each iteration, the algorithm obtains the maximum a posteriori update by shrinking an unregularized maximum likelihood update. Inverse quadratic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Laplacian priors and inverse cubic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Gaussian priors. Receiver operating characteristic studies using simulated data demonstrate that the Bayesian reconstruction can greatly improve the detection performance of muon tomography.

  1. Improving Polyp Detection Algorithms for CT Colonography: Pareto Front Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M; Petrick, Nicholas; Hara, Amy K

    2010-03-21

    We investigated a Pareto front approach to improving polyp detection algorithms for CT colonography (CTC). A dataset of 56 CTC colon surfaces with 87 proven positive detections of 53 polyps sized 4 to 60 mm was used to evaluate the performance of a one-step and a two-step curvature-based region growing algorithm. The algorithmic performance was statistically evaluated and compared based on the Pareto optimal solutions from 20 experiments by evolutionary algorithms. The false positive rate was lower (pPareto optimization process can effectively help in fine-tuning and redesigning polyp detection algorithms.

  2. Stage 3 recommendations - the early recognition of breast cancer in Germany. Abridged version forr medical practioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.D.; Albert, U.S.; Kreienberg, R.; Fischer, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aim of this level 3 good clinical practice guideline is to help physicians, women and patients in decision making about the appropriate health care for early detection of breast cancer. The principle of early detection of breast cancer comprise the detection and diagnosis of premalignant breast tumors (stage 0, Carcinoma in situ), risk reduction of cancer development as well as the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer at an early stage (stage I), with a 90% chance of cure as shown by a large number of clinical trials. To establish a nation wide, comprehensive quality assuring program for the early detection of breast cancer the guideline summarized in the following paper offers the basis for a timely mortality reduction of breast cancer. The cure of early stage disease will be additionally possible by less invasive treatment allowing patients to maintain quality of life. The guideline leads to a major improvement of women's health care. (orig.) [de

  3. Development of Early Warning System Using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 Data to Detect and Prevent Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M.; Nagatani, I.; Watanabe, T.; Tadono, T.; Miyoshi, H.; Watanabe, M.; Koyama, C.; Shimada, M.; Ogawa, T.; Ishii, K.; Higashiuwatoko, T.; Miura, M.; Okonogi, H.; Adachi, K.; Morita, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite observation is an efficient method for monitoring deforestation, and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is useful especially in cloudy tropical forest regions. In this context, JICA and JAXA cooperate to operate the deforestation monitoring system acquired data by the Phased Array type L-band SAR-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), which is named as "JICA-JAXA Forest Early Warning System in the Tropics" (JJ-FAST), and it have been released on November 2016. JJ-FAST detects deforestation areas, and provides their positional information for 77 countries, which is covering almost all tropical forests. It uses PALSAR-2 ScanSAR observation mode (wide-observation swath width) image, which is 50 m spatial resolution acquired at 1.5 months interval. The dark change areas compared with in two acquisitions by PALSAR-2 HV-polarization images are identified as deforestations in the system. We conducted field surveys to validate detection accuracy of the JJ-FAST in Peru (November and December, 2016), Botswana (April, 2017), and Gabon (July, 2017). As the results, 15 of 18 detected areas were correct deforestation areas, therefore user's accuracy could be confirmed as 83.3 % from limited number of the validation data. Erroneous detection areas were caused by seasonal change in agricultural land and open burning in grass land. For improvement of the accuracy, such areas must be excluded from the analysis by additional algorithms e.g. estimation of accurate masking for non-forested areas. Therefore, we are revising the forest map used for pre-processing step in the system. The JJ-FAST can be expected to contribute to monitor and reduce illegal deforestation activities in tropical forests.

  4. Is MSAFP still a useful test for detecting open neural tube defects and ventral wall defects in the era of first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical ultrasounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Ashley S; Gupta, Simi; Fox, Nathan S; Saltzman, Daniel; Klauser, Chad K; Rebarber, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) improves the detection rate for open neural tube defects (ONTDs) and ventral wall defects (VWD) in patients undergoing first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical survey. A cohort of women undergoing screening between 2005 and 2012 was identified. All patients were offered an ultrasound at between 11 weeks and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for nuchal translucency/fetal anatomy followed by an early second-trimester ultrasound at between 15 weeks and 17 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for fetal anatomy and MSAFP screening. All cases of ONTD and VWD were identified via query of billing and reporting software. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of ONTD/VWD were calculated, and groups were compared using the Fisher exact test, with p met the criteria for inclusion. Overall, 15 cases of ONTD and 17 cases of VWD were identified; 100% of cases were diagnosed by ultrasound prior to 18 weeks' gestation; none were diagnosed via MSAFP screening (p < 0.001). First-trimester and early second-trimester ultrasound had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing ONTD/VWD. Ultrasound for fetal anatomy during the first and early second trimester detected 100% of ONTD/VWD in our population. MSAFP is not useful as a screening tool for ONTD and VWD in the setting of this ultrasound screening protocol. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...

  7. The Development of Prostate Palpation Skills through Simulation Training May Impact Early Detection of Prostate Abnormalities and Early Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    has a high incidence rate (one in six for men in the U.S.), with an estimated 192,280 new cases in 2009. When diagnosed in an early and less...converges in a vector toward the nipple . Study results indicate that use of the vertical strip leads to an increased detection of abnormalities [10], [16...Palpation, Clinical prostate examination. Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of death in American men , with an estimated 189,280 new cases

  8. Improvement of detection limits of PIXE by substrate signal reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, S.; Nejedly, Z.; Campbell, J.L.; Edwards, G.C.; Dias, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Limits of detection (LODs) for aerosol samples collected using PIXE International cascade impactors, were improved approximately 50% after reducing the cross-sectional area of the analytical beam based on results obtained from microscope photographs of aerosol deposits. Improvements in LODs were most noticeable for selected elements collected on the smaller stages of the impactor (stages 1-3)

  9. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  10. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  11. The value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and progesterone in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong

    2011-01-01

    To explore the value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and P in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy and expectant therapeutic efficacy. Serum levels of β-HCG and P of 324 patients with early ectopic pregnancy and 146 normal early pregnant women were determined and compared by RIA, Serum β-HCG and P were compared between before and after treatment. The required time when serum β-HCG and P decreased to the normal rang of the patients treated successfully were observed respectively. The results showed that the serum β-HCG and P value in ectopic pregnancy group were significantly lower than those in intrauterine gestation group (P<0.05). The variation of P was significant between success and failure groups of drug conservative treatment, but β-HCG had no significant difference. The required time when serum P decreased to the normal was significantly less than the serum β-HCG dropped to normal. Combined detection of serum levels of β-HCG and P is an adjunctive method to diagnose early ectopic pregnancy, so it giants opportunity for treatment of early ectopic pregnancy and is of positive clinical application value for observation therapeutic effect and prognosis of the disease. P values may be one of the more important reference index to predict whether conservative treatment is successful or not than β-HCG. (authors)

  12. Early snowmelt events: detection, distribution, and significance in a major sub-arctic watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, Kathryn Alese; Ramage, Joan; Bartsch, Annett; Liston, Glen E

    2013-01-01

    High latitude drainage basins are experiencing higher average temperatures, earlier snowmelt onset in spring, and an increase in rain on snow (ROS) events in winter, trends that climate models project into the future. Snowmelt-dominated basins are most sensitive to winter temperature increases that influence the frequency of ROS events and the timing and duration of snowmelt, resulting in changes to spring runoff. Of specific interest in this study are early melt events that occur in late winter preceding melt onset in the spring. The study focuses on satellite determination and characterization of these early melt events using the Yukon River Basin (Canada/USA) as a test domain. The timing of these events was estimated using data from passive (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—EOS (AMSR-E)) and active (SeaWinds on Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT)) microwave remote sensors, employing detection algorithms for brightness temperature (AMSR-E) and radar backscatter (QuikSCAT). The satellite detected events were validated with ground station meteorological and hydrological data, and the spatial and temporal variability of the events across the entire river basin was characterized. Possible causative factors for the detected events, including ROS, fog, and positive air temperatures, were determined by comparing the timing of the events to parameters from SnowModel and National Centers for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) outputs, and weather station data. All melt events coincided with above freezing temperatures, while a limited number corresponded to ROS (determined from SnowModel and ground data) and a majority to fog occurrence (determined from NARR). The results underscore the significant influence that warm air intrusions have on melt in some areas and demonstrate the large temporal and spatial variability over years and regions. The study provides a method for melt detection and a baseline from which to assess future change

  13. Design of improved detection instrumentation for the annulus gas system for wolsong 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam; Koo, Jun Mo; Chang, Ik Ho; Jung, Ho Chang; Han, Sang Joon

    1996-01-01

    The improved and advanced Annulus Gas System (AGS) has been developed for Wolsong 2 to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required a shorter detection time following a small leak from a pressure tube and/or calandria tube. This paper describes licensing requirements, functional requirements and detail design description for the AGS. The Wolsong unit No. 1 AGS was designed to operate as a stagnant system normally requiring only pressure regulation and having provisions for purging. The improved AGS involves the adoption of gas recirculation in AGS, duplication of dew point indicators with additional instrumentation and sampling provisions to prompt operator action. The improved system operates in the recirculation mode with continuous dew point measurement for leak detection. An AGS with improved detection instrumentation is provided. 8 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  14. Early kidney allograft loss - is there scope for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Paolo

    2018-02-17

    Increased longevity matching using Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) to optimize long-term kidney allograft survival has been central to the effort of appropriate allocation of deceased donor kidneys. The data by Helenterä and co-workers in this issue, who looked at predictors of early allograft loss, should prompt an analysis of whether predictors of short-term graft survival can improve KDPI-based decisions when considering whether to accept or decline a deceased donor kidney offer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  16. Early complication detection after colorectal surgery (CONDOR): study protocol for a prospective clinical diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornmann, Verena; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Dieren, Susan; van Geloven, Nanette; Boermeester, Marja; Boerma, Djamila

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most feared complications following colorectal surgery with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Multiple risk factors have been identified, but leakage still occurs. Early detection is crucial in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to

  17. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  18. Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-02-01

    In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins). Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS 835 ) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  20. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, W. A.; Tawfik, Walid; Rasool, K. G.; Aldawood, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms. (paper)

  1. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  2. Research on Abnormal Detection Based on Improved Combination of K - means and SVDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of network intrusion detection and reduce the false alarm rate, this paper proposes an anomaly detection algorithm based on improved K-means and SVDD. The algorithm first uses the improved K-means algorithm to cluster the training samples of each class, so that each class is independent and compact in class; Then, according to the training samples, the SVDD algorithm is used to construct the minimum superspheres. The subordinate relationship of the samples is determined by calculating the distance of the minimum superspheres constructed by SVDD. If the test sample is less than the center of the hypersphere, the test sample belongs to this class, otherwise it does not belong to this class, after several comparisons, the final test of the effective detection of the test sample.In this paper, we use KDD CUP99 data set to simulate the proposed anomaly detection algorithm. The results show that the algorithm has high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is an effective network security protection method.

  3. An improved algorithm of laser spot center detection in strong noise background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Qianqian; Cui, Xutai; Zhao, Yu; Peng, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Laser spot center detection is demanded in many applications. The common algorithms for laser spot center detection such as centroid and Hough transform method have poor anti-interference ability and low detection accuracy in the condition of strong background noise. In this paper, firstly, the median filtering was used to remove the noise while preserving the edge details of the image. Secondly, the binarization of the laser facula image was carried out to extract target image from background. Then the morphological filtering was performed to eliminate the noise points inside and outside the spot. At last, the edge of pretreated facula image was extracted and the laser spot center was obtained by using the circle fitting method. In the foundation of the circle fitting algorithm, the improved algorithm added median filtering, morphological filtering and other processing methods. This method could effectively filter background noise through theoretical analysis and experimental verification, which enhanced the anti-interference ability of laser spot center detection and also improved the detection accuracy.

  4. Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection with the VIIRS Day-Night Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Thomas N.; Wang, Jun; Ellison, Luke T.; Hyer, Edward J.; Ichoku, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing techniques for satellite remote sensing of fires, this paper takes advantage of the day-night band (DNB) aboard the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to develop the Firelight Detection Algorithm (FILDA), which characterizes fire pixels based on both visible-light and infrared (IR) signatures at night. By adjusting fire pixel selection criteria to include visible-light signatures, FILDA allows for significantly improved detection of pixels with smaller and/or cooler subpixel hotspots than the operational Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) algorithm. VIIRS scenes with near-coincident Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) overpasses are examined after applying the operational VIIRS fire product algorithm and including a modified "candidate fire pixel selection" approach from FILDA that lowers the 4-µm brightness temperature (BT) threshold but includes a minimum DNB radiance. FILDA is shown to be effective in detecting gas flares and characterizing fire lines during large forest fires (such as the Rim Fire in California and High Park fire in Colorado). Compared with the operational VIIRS fire algorithm for the study period, FILDA shows a large increase (up to 90%) in the number of detected fire pixels that can be verified with the finer resolution ASTER data (90 m). Part (30%) of this increase is likely due to a combined use of DNB and lower 4-µm BT thresholds for fire detection in FILDA. Although further studies are needed, quantitative use of the DNB to improve fire detection could lead to reduced response times to wildfires and better estimate of fire characteristics (smoldering and flaming) at night.

  5. Web Based Application for Early Detection of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sevani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of vitamin and mineral as part of micronutrient deficiency may lower human productivity. In general, lack of public understanding about micronutrient, limited number of nutritionist, time and cost, became the reason for people reluctant to meet nutritionist. The use of web-based computer application can be implemented to overcome the difficulty to get nutritionist’s services. Using the application, user can detect and check their micronutrient condition independently. User can submit their physical condition by answering questions from the application. Using forward chaining inference, data from user will be proceed using certainty factor method. The application’s output are the possible type of micronutrient’s deficiency and the weight that shown the level of confidence of the result. The evaluation process shown that the application functioning properly in line with the expectation. Beside helping people to make early detection independenly, the presence of the application is also expected to increase public awareness about the importance of micronutrient in their life.   

  6. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lacombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

  7. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  8. Screening for Circulating Tumour Cells Allows Early Detection of Cancer and Monitoring of Treatment Effectiveness: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Eng, Peter; Sali, Avni

    2017-08-27

    Background: Circulating-Tumour-Cells (CTC) provide a blood biomarker for early carcinogenesis, cancer progression and treatment effectiveness. An increase in CTCs is associated with cancer progression, a CTC decrease with cancer containment or remission. Several technologies have been developed to identify CTC, including the validated Isolation-by-Size-of-Epithelial-Tumour (ISET, Rarecells) technology, combining blood filtration and microscopy using standard histo-pathological criteria. Methods: This observational study compared CTC count to cancer status and cancer risk, by monitoring treatment effectiveness in cancer patients and by screening for CTC in asymptomatic patients with risk factors, including family history of cancer. Results: Between Sept-2014 and Dec-2016 we undertook 600 CTC tests (542 patients), including 50% screening requests of patients without cancer diagnosis but with risk factors. CTC were detected in all cancer patients (n=277, 100%), and in half of the asymptomatic patients screened (50%, 132 out-of 265 patients). Follow-up tests including scans, scheduled within 1-10 months of positive CTC tests, found early cancerous lesions in 20% of screened patients. In 50% of male patients with CTC and normal PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) levels, PSMA-PET scans revealed increased uptake in the prostate, indicative of early prostate cancer. Other types of cancers detected by CTC screening and subsequent scans included early breast, ovarian, lung, or renal cancer. Patients with CTC were advised on integrative approaches including immune-stimulating and anti-carcinogenic nutritional therapies. CTC repeat tests were available in 10% of patients with detected CTC (40 outof 409 patients, n=98 CTC tests) to assess treatment effectiveness, suggesting nutritional therapies to be beneficial in reducing CTC count. Conclusions: CTC screening provided a highly sensitive biomarker for the early detection of cancer, with higher CTC counts being associated with

  9. Stories about breast cancer in Australian women's magazines: information sources for risk, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L; Withnall, J; Harris, R; White, K; Beale, B; Hobson, J; Durham, M; Kristjanson, L

    2001-06-01

    Sixty articles in five Australian women's magazines were analyzed for journalistic qualities, metaphors, narrative features and accuracy of clinical facts related to risk, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The stories were features, news features or soft news stories. The stories reflected the 'good news' editorial style of women's magazines. A dominant theme in the stories was that early detection of breast cancer is crucial and equals survival. While there were few inaccuracies in the stories, there was little detail of treatment modalities, an emphasis on lifestyle as a risk factor and a prevailing message that a genetic history of breast cancer means you will get it. A major implication of the findings is that nurses, who provide information to women, must be aware of the goals of journalists and the educational power of narrative logic of stories in women's magazines.

  10. Early biotic stress detection in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by BVOC emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasal-Slavik, Tina; Eschweiler, Julia; Kleist, Einhard; Mumm, Roland; Goldbach, Heiner E; Schouten, Alexander; Wildt, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    We investigated impacts of early and mild biotic stress on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from tomato in order to test their potential for early (biotic) stress detection. Tomato plants were exposed to two common fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopesici and the sap-sucking aphid Myzus persicae. Furthermore, plants were exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in order to identify BVOC emissions related to activation of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. These emissions where then used as a reference for identifying active JA signalling pathway in plants at early stages of biotic stress. After infection by the necrotrophic fungus B. cinerea, changes in BVOC emissions indicated that tomato plants had predominantly activated the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. The plants were able to modify their defence pathways in order to overcome fungal infection. When tomato plants were infected with the biotrophic fungus O. neolycopersici, only minor changes in BVOC emissions were observed with additional emissions of the sesquiterpene α-copaene. α-copaene emissions allowed the identification of general biotic stress in the plants, without pinpointing the actual triggered defence pathway. BVOC emissions during M. persicae attack had changed before the occurrence of visual symptoms. Despite low infestation rates, plants emitted methyl salicylate indicating activation of the SA-mediated defence pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for detection of early gastric cancer: Initial assessment of “wall-carving image”, a novel volume rendering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masahiro; Kawanami, Satoshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Matsuura, Shuji; Hiraka, Kiyohisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new volume rendering technique, the CT gastrography wall carving image (WC) technique, which provides a clear visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the WC as an adjunct to conventional images in detecting early gastric cancer (EGC). Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with 43 EGCs underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for preoperative examination. Two observers independently reviewed the images under three different conditions: term 1, Axial CT; term 2, Axial CT, MPR and VE; and term 3, Axial CT, MPR, VE and WC for the detection of EGC. The accuracy of each condition as reviewed by each of the two observers was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was calculated using weighted-κ statistics. Results: The best diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement were obtained in term 3. The AUCs of the two observers for terms 1, 2, and 3 were 0.63, 0.73, and 0.84, and 0.57, 0.73, and 0.76, respectively. The interobserver agreement improved from fair at term 1 to substantial at term 3. Conclusions: The addition of WC to conventional MDCT display improved the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reproducibility for the detection of ECG. WC represents a suitable alternative for the visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall.

  12. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María-Luisa; Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria; Luna-Oliva, Laura

    2016-03-26

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children's oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  13. NDRG4, an early detection marker for colorectal cancer, is specifically expressed in enteric neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, N.; Lentjes, M. H. F. M.; Gijbels, M. J.; Rademakers, G.; Daenen, K. L.; Boesmans, W.; Wouters, K. A. D.; Geuzens, A.; Qu, X.; Steinbusch, H. P. J.; Rutten, B. P. F.; Baldwin, S. H.; Sharkey, K. A.; Hofstra, R. M. W.; van Engeland, M.; Vanden Berghe, P.; Melotte, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role

  14. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  15. Development of advanced methods for early detection of lung cancer in the uranium miner/worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profio, A.E.; Balchum, O.J.; Saccomanno, G.; Huth, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage. 14 references, 6 figures

  16. Evaluation of anatomical and visual function for early detection of ethambutol toxicity among tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate if early ethambutol toxicity can be detected by comparing pre-and post-treatment anatomical and visual function using retinal nerve fiber thickness, pattern visual evoked potentials and conventio