Sample records for improving demographic components

  1. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Brian C. O' Neill


    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  2. Demographic potential as a component of life quality

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova


    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical reasons for allocation of components of life quality with the particular importance of population quality, including demographic (reproduction potential are provided in the article. The integrated indicators of population quality in Ural federal district regions were calculated and analyzed in dynamics, basing on an author’s technique of integrated index estimation of population quality. Advantages of use the integrated index of population quality (IIKN before the human development index (HDI caused by inclusion in it the major demographic indicators in regional estimates are proved. Peculiarities of HDI and IIKN dynamics in Russia regions for the last decade are demonstrated; their value for efficiency evaluation of realizing state programs in the social and demographic sphere is shown.

  3. Demographic Component-Support of Regional Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Iulian Sorcaru


    Full Text Available Regional economic development is strongly conditioned by the demographic component,the analysis of demographic trends and demographicprojections serving to substantiate properdevelopment plans and strategies. This study aims to determine the demographic trend of humansettlements in the Tecuci Plain, a space that can get the future status of micro-region, to identify thefavorability and/or restriction factors, to draw upuseful demographic projections for policy makers atlocal and regional level.

  4. Modern Russian Demographic Policy in the Field of Fertility: Results and Areas for Improvement

    Larisa Alekseevna Popova


    Full Text Available During last years in Russia the active state demographic policy, directed on the support of second and subsequent births, is leading. The article describes its evolution, evaluates efficiency and recommends directions of its improvement. It was detected, that increment of measures of demographic policy by introduction in 2011 the regional maternity capitals to a third child in addition to the federal capital to a second child gave a perceptible positive results. It allowed continuing the positive trend of fertility already in the condition of the beginning deterioration the age structure of the women in the childbearing age; maximally realize the births, which were postponed by the older generations; to increase number of children on account of additional births; to enhance the family component of fertility. Despite of concerns, the growth of reproductive attitudes happened not only in the older cohorts of the population. Conducted in 2013 sociological research gives grounds to expect, that minorities generations 1990 years of birth, which will be determine prospects of fertility, will reach the level of slightly expanded reproduction of population. In the conditions of deterioration the age structure of fertile contingents the demographic policy must be elongated and improved. All components of economic demographic measures must be saved, including child allowances to needy families, but with increasing the horizon of its assignment to adulthood of child. The directions of maternity capitals realizations must be expanded. During the develop of new measures of demographic policy need to focus on psychological measures of formation the value orientations of the population in area of number of children, on improvement of qualitative structure of fertility and strengthening of the family institute. The economic measures need to redirect on the second births, which are more family. The general line of family demographic policy is the increasing of

  5. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Christoph A. Rohner


    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  6. [Cities and towns of Perigord and Pays de Brive: functional and demographic approach (third quarter of the twentieth century). Part 3. Demographic growth and its components].

    Genty, M


    This is the third in a series of articles based on the author's thesis. In the present article, demographic growth and its components are examined for the cities and towns in the French regions of Perigord and Pays de Brive over the period 1954-1975. Particular attention is given to the impact of migration, and trends in age structure and socio-occupational composition are discussed.

  7. The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Iaşi



    Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Iaşi an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Iaşi has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Iaşi integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

  8. Improving Demographic Diversity in the U.S. Air Force Officer Corps


    research quality and objectivity. Improving Demographic Diversity in the U.S. Air Force Officer Corps Nelson Lim, Louis T. Mariano, Amy G. Cox, David ...Louis T. Mariano, Amy G. Cox, David Schulker, Lawrence M. Hanser Prepared for the United States Air Force Approved for public fields, 6 See Karen R. Humes , Nicholas A. Jones, and Roberto R. Ramirez, Overview of Race and

  9. Openness to change: experiential and demographic components of change in in Local Health Department leaders

    Emmanuel D Jadhav


    Full Text Available Background: During the 2008-10 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknown. The objectives of this study are to identify variation in openness to change by leaders’ demographic and organizational characteristics and to characterize the underlying relationships. Material and Methods: The study utilized Spearman rank correlations test to determine relationships between leader openness to change (ACQ and leader and LHD characteristics. To identify differences in the distribution of ACQ scores, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests were used, and to adjust for potential confounding linear regression analysis was performed.Data: LHD leaders in the Commonwealth of Kentucky were the unit of analysis. Expenditure and revenue data were available from the state health department. National census data was utilized for county level population estimates. A cross-sectional survey was performed of KY LHD leaders’ observable attributes relating to age, gender, race, educational background, leadership experience and openness to change. Results: Leaders had relatively high openness to change scores. Spearman correlations between leader ACQ and departmental 2012-13 revenue and expenditures were statistically significant, as were the differences observed in ACQ by gender and the educational level of the leader. Differences in ACQ score by education level and agency revenue were significant even after adjusting for potential confounders. The analyses imply there are underlying relationships between leader and LHD characteristics

  10. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.

    Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah


    The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and

  11. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Tatem Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  12. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.


    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data

    Biggar, S. F.; Gellman, D. I.; Slater, P. N.


    A simple, iterative procedure to determine the optical depth components of the extinction optical depth measured by a solar radiometer is presented. Simulated data show that the iterative procedure improves the determination of the exponent of a Junge law particle size distribution. The determination of the optical depth due to aerosol scattering is improved as compared to a method which uses only two points from the extinction data. The iterative method was used to determine spectral optical depth components for June 11-13, 1988 during the MAC III experiment.

  14. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others


    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  15. Formal and substantial Internet information skills: The role of socio–demographic differences on the possession of different components of digital literacy

    Gui, M


    The literature about digital inequality has pointed out the role of so–called “digital skills” in contributing to a full exploitation of the opportunities of the Web for individuals. Research has started to measure the differences in online skills on a socio–demographic base, finding relevant disparities. Since different components of digital skills have been described in theory, it is not clear which of them are influenced by specific social variables and which are not. This study goes a ste...

  16. Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty.

    Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Alekseyenko, Alexander V


    Recent developments in marginal likelihood estimation for model selection in the field of Bayesian phylogenetics and molecular evolution have emphasized the poor performance of the harmonic mean estimator (HME). Although these studies have shown the merits of new approaches applied to standard normally distributed examples and small real-world data sets, not much is currently known concerning the performance and computational issues of these methods when fitting complex evolutionary and population genetic models to empirical real-world data sets. Further, these approaches have not yet seen widespread application in the field due to the lack of implementations of these computationally demanding techniques in commonly used phylogenetic packages. We here investigate the performance of some of these new marginal likelihood estimators, specifically, path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone (SS) sampling for comparing models of demographic change and relaxed molecular clocks, using synthetic data and real-world examples for which unexpected inferences were made using the HME. Given the drastically increased computational demands of PS and SS sampling, we also investigate a posterior simulation-based analogue of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), a model comparison approach that shares with the HME the appealing feature of having a low computational overhead over the original MCMC analysis. We confirm that the HME systematically overestimates the marginal likelihood and fails to yield reliable model classification and show that the AICM performs better and may be a useful initial evaluation of model choice but that it is also, to a lesser degree, unreliable. We show that PS and SS sampling substantially outperform these estimators and adjust the conclusions made concerning previous analyses for the three real-world data sets that we reanalyzed. The methods used in this article are now available in BEAST, a powerful user

  17. Testing to Support Improvements to PV Components and Systems



    The National Photovoltaic (PV) Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy and includes a PV Manufacturing Research and Development (R and D) project conducted with industry. This project includes advancements in PV components to improve reliability, reduce costs, and develop integrated PV systems. Participants submit prototypes, pre-production hardware products, and examples of the resulting final products for a range of tests conducted at several national laboratories, independent testing laboratories, and recognized listing agencies. The purpose of this testing is to use the results to assist industry in determining a product's performance and reliability, and to identify areas for potential improvement. This paper briefly describes the PV Manufacturing R and D project, participants in the area of PV systems, balance of systems, and components, and several examples of the different types of product and performance testing used to support and confirm product performance.

  18. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    Kumar, S


    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  19. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg


    if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were...... to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was not a useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general......Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine...

  20. Multi-component, rigidly rotating polytropes: improved and extended theory

    Caimmi, R


    With respect to earlier investigations, the theory of multi-component, concentric, copolar, axisymmetric, rigidly rotating polytropes is improved and extended, including subsystems with nonzero density on the boundary and subsystems with intersecting boundaries. The formulation is restricted to two subsystems for simplicity but, in principle, can be extended to $N$ subsystems. Equilibrium configurations are independent of the nature of the fluid i.e. collisional or collisionless, provided the polytropic index lies within the range, $1/2\\le n\\le5$, as in one-component systems. The solution of the equilibrium equations is expanded in power series, which can be continued up to the boundary and outside via starting points placed at increasingly larger distance from the centre of mass. A detailed analysis is devoted to special cases where the solution of the equilibrium equations can be expressed analytically. Finally a guidance example is shown, involving homogeneous subsystems with intersecting boundaries, where...

  1. Performance improvement of software component with partial evaluation

    MAO Hong-yan; HUANG Lin-peng; LI Ming-lu


    To avoid the complexity and inefficiency for specific applications of the current software architecture, a novel approach using partial evaluation is proposed to improve the running performance of components. The generic program was specialized into domain-specific realization for the known knowledge and environments. The syntax and semantic(adj.) were analyzed based on byte code instruction sequences, and partial evaluation rules depicted how to perform the specialization. The partial evaluation for object-oriented programs was imple-mented. The experimental results show that partial evaluation is effective to speed up the running efficiency. The more generality and scalability can be obtained by the integration of partial evaluation with the favorable de-sign mechanisms and compiler optimization technology.

  2. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth


    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  3. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng


    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  4. The JT8D and JT9D engine component improvement: Performance improvement program

    Gaffin, W. O.


    The NASA sponsored Engine Component Improvement - Performance Improvement Program at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft advanced the state of the art of thermal barrier coatings and ceramic seal systems, demonstrated the practicality of an advanced turbine clearance control system and an advanced fan design in the JT9D engine, and demonstrated the advantages of modern cooling, sealing, and aerodynamic designs in the high pressure turbine and compressor of the JT8D engine. Several of these improvements are already in airline service in JT8D and JT9D engines, and others will enter service soon in advanced models of these engines. In addition, the technology advances are being transferred to completely new engine configurations, the PW2037 engine and the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient Engine.

  5. Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components

    Vreugd, J. de; Voert, M.J.A. te; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Tabak, E.


    Adhesives are widely used in optomechanical structures for bonding optical components to their mounts. The main advantage of using adhesives is the excellent strength to weight ratio. Adhesive bonding is seen as a desirable joining technique as it allows for greater flexibility in design. A disadvan

  6. Improve Survival Prediction Using Principal Components of Gene Expression Data

    Yi-Jing Shen; Shu-Guang Huang


    The purpose of many microarray studies is to find the association between gene expression and sample characteristics such as treatment type or sample phenotype.There has been a surge of efforts developing different methods for delineating the association. Aside from the high dimensionality of microarray data, one well recognized challenge is the fact that genes could be complicatedly inter-related, thus making many statistical methods inappropriate to use directly on the expression data. Multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering are often used as a part of the effort to capture the gene correlation, and the derived components or clusters are used to describe the association between gene expression and sample phenotype. We propose a method for patient population dichotomization using maximally selected test statistics in combination with the PCA method, which shows favorable results. The proposed method is compared with a currently well-recognized method.

  7. Demographic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Correlates of Using the Website Component of a Worksite Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Promotion Program: A Longitudinal Study

    Robroek, Suzan JW; Brouwer, Wendy; Lindeboom, Dennis; Oenema, Anke


    Background Internet-delivered behavior change programs have the potential to reach a large population. However, low participation levels and high levels of attrition are often observed. The worksite could be a setting suitable for reaching and retaining large numbers of people, but little is known about reach and use of Internet-delivered health promotion programs in the worksite setting. Objective This study aimed (1) to gain more insight in the use of the website component of a worksite behavior change intervention and (2) to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with website use. Methods The study was an observational study among participants from 5 workplaces in a cluster randomized controlled trial. At baseline, all participants visited a study website to fill out the baseline questionnaire. Then a physical health check was done followed by face-to-face advice. After this contact, all participants received an email to promote visiting the website to view their health check results and the personal advice based on the baseline questionnaire. In the subsequent period, only participants in the intervention group received monthly email messages to promote website visits and were offered additional Web-based tools (self-monitors and a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] assessing saturated fat intake) to support their behavior change. Website use was monitored by website statistics registering website access. Complete data were available for 726 employees. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics of employees who visited and used the website. Results In total, 43% of the participants visited the website after the email to promote website visits. Participants who were insufficiently physically active were less likely to visit the website (odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.88), whereas individuals with an elevated total cholesterol level visited the website more often (OR 1.44, 95

  8. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.


    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.


    Waleed Bul’ajoul


    Full Text Available Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPSs are used to detect, prevent and report evidence of attacks and malicious traffic. Our paper presents a study where we used open source NIDPS software. We show that NIDPS detection performance can be weak in the face of high-speed and high-load traffic in terms of missed alerts and missed logs. To counteract this problem, we have proposed and evaluated a solution that utilizes QoS, queues and parallel technologies in a multi-layer Cisco Catalyst Switch to increase NIDPSs detection performance. Our approach designs a novel QoS architecture to organise and improve throughput-forwardplan traffic in a layer 3 switch in order to improve NIDPS performance.

  10. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.


    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  11. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  12. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Jill R. Williams


    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  13. Component

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  14. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Pietersz RNI


    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  15. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao; Sørensen, Torben


    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this...

  16. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.


    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings...

  17. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    Bondarenco, M V


    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at large scattering angles. Detailed properties of those components, and their interplay at intermediate deflection angles are discussed. Comparison with the Moli\\`{e}re theory is given.


    Martin Riedler


    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  19. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Pietersz RNI; van der Meer PF


    Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should d...

  20. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig

    Zachary Morison


    Full Text Available Background:The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Materials and Methods:Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1 and the last 9 (Cohort 2 hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. Results:All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 ( P = 0.01. Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Conclusions: Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.



    When talking about the roles of an EFL teacher trainee,Edge identifies three major roles:as alanguage user,a language analyst,and a language teacher.With reference to these three roles,Edgegoes on to suggest three major course components for an EFL teacher training programme:languagecomponents for an EFL teacher training programme:language improvement,language studies,andteaching methodology(1988).The present ESP programme in Zhejiang University,a post-graduatecertificate level teacher training programme,basically comprises these three components.Forlanguage improvement,such courses as"Advanced General English"."Academic Listening & Note-taking"."Academic Writing"are offered.

  2. An analysis of the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP) : a life cycle cost approach

    Borer, Chris Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Increasing budgetary constraints have prompted actions to reduce the maintenance cost of current naval aircraft. This thesis examines the Aircraft Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP), its impact on these cost at the organizational and intermediate levels of maintenance, and savings from these improvements. The objectives of the research were to identify current life cycle cost (LCC) models used by the Navy andor the other services...

  3. Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components

    Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.


    In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components...

  4. Improved swimming pool achieves higher reproducibility and sensitivity to effect of food components as ergogenic AIDS.

    Ishihara, Kengo; Yamada, Ayumi; Mita, Yukiko; Goto, Ayako; Ishimi, Tomoe; Mabuchi, Haruko; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yasumoto, Kyoden


    A previously developed current swimming pool for mice has been used to evaluate many food components that enhance endurance exercise performance. In this article, to improve reproducibility, reliability and sensitivity of this assay system, we improved the spout part to generate a uniform current and divided the pool into six lanes to avoid physical interference between swimming mice. The stability of the current flow was assessed by measuring the surface current speed and water volume from the spout part. Maximum swimming times of ddY and BALB/c mice were measured to assess the reproducibility of the maximum swimming time. The improvement in sensitivity compared to the original equipment was estimated under three physiological conditions: low carbohydrate diet feeding, low blood hemoglobin level, and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The new spout part improved uniformity and quick adjustment of surface current, yielding an increase of workload in a stepwise manner during swimming. Exercise workload was increased in proportion to surface current speed, as evidenced by cadence of kicks and serum lactic acid levels. The improved swimming pool showed higher reproducibility of swimming time until fatigue (pswimming time was improved in the swimming pool. The improved swimming pool yielded higher sensitivity for low carbohydrate diet feeding (pswimming pool. The improvement of the swimming pool achieved higher sensitivity and reproducibility in assessing various diet and food components compared to the original swimming pool.

  5. On-line Batch Process Monitoring with Improved Multi-way Independent Component Analysis

    GUO Hui; LI Hongguang


    In the past decades,on-line monitoring of batch processes using multi-way independent component analysis (MICA) has received considerable attention in both academia and industry.This paper focuses on two troublesome issues concerning selecting dominant independent components without a standard criterion and determining the control limits of monitoring statistics in the presence of non-Gaussian distribution.To optimize the number of key independent components,we introduce a novel concept of system deviation,which is able to evaluate the reconstructed observations with different independent components.The monitored statistics are transformed to Gaussian distribution data by means of Box-Cox transformation,which helps readily determine the control limits.The proposed method is applied to on-line monitoring of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation simulator,and the experimental results indicate the advantages of the improved MICA monitoring compared to the conventional methods.

  6. Improvements in Block-Krylov Ritz Vectors and the Boundary Flexibility Method of Component Synthesis

    Carney, Kelly Scott


    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, proposed by Wilson, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based upon the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. Improvements have been made in the formulation of the initial seed to the Krylov sequence, through the use of block-filtering. A method to shift the Krylov sequence to create Ritz vectors that will represent the dynamic behavior of the component at target frequencies, the target frequency being determined by the applied forcing functions, has been developed. A method to terminate the Krylov sequence has also been developed. Various orthonormalization schemes have been developed and evaluated, including the Cholesky/QR method. Several auxiliary theorems and proofs which illustrate issues in component mode synthesis and loss of orthogonality in the Krylov sequence have also been presented. The resulting methodology is applicable to both fixed and free- interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes, using fewer generalized coordinates. In addition, the block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem. The requirement for less vectors to form the component, coupled with the lower computational expense of calculating these Ritz vectors, combine to create a method more efficient than traditional component mode synthesis.

  7. Soft Sensor of Vehicle State Estimation Based on the Kernel Principal Component and Improved Neural Network

    Haorui Liu


    Full Text Available In the car control systems, it is hard to measure some key vehicle states directly and accurately when running on the road and the cost of the measurement is high as well. To address these problems, a vehicle state estimation method based on the kernel principal component analysis and the improved Elman neural network is proposed. Combining with nonlinear vehicle model of three degrees of freedom (3 DOF, longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motion, this paper applies the method to the soft sensor of the vehicle states. The simulation results of the double lane change tested by Matlab/SIMULINK cosimulation prove the KPCA-IENN algorithm (kernel principal component algorithm and improved Elman neural network to be quick and precise when tracking the vehicle states within the nonlinear area. This algorithm method can meet the software performance requirements of the vehicle states estimation in precision, tracking speed, noise suppression, and other aspects.

  8. Wave-shaping of pulse tube cryocooler components for improved performance

    Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier


    The method of wave-shaping acoustic resonators is applied to an inertance type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) to improve its performance. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric experimentally validated computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PTR is used to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the PTR. An improved representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. The wave-shaped regenerator and pulse tube studied have cone geometries and the effects of different cone angles and the orientation (nozzle v/s diffuser mode) on the system performance are investigated. The resultant spatio-temporal pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube components are evaluated. The performance of these wave-shaped PTRs is compared to the performance of a non wave-shaped system with cylindrical components. Better cooling is predicted for the cryocooler using wave-shaped components oriented in the diffuser mode.

  9. Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation


    In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

  10. Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component

    Manish Kumar


    Full Text Available In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into simple and threshold jumps and continuous variation yields a substantial improvement in volatility forecasting or not. The results provide the evidence that inclusion of realized bipower variance in the HAR models helps in predicting future volatility.

  11. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  12. Improving land cover classification using input variables derived from a geographically weighted principal components analysis

    Comber, Alexis J.; Harris, Paul; Tsutsumida, Narumasa


    This study demonstrates the use of a geographically weighted principal components analysis (GWPCA) of remote sensing imagery to improve land cover classification accuracy. A principal components analysis (PCA) is commonly applied in remote sensing but generates global, spatially-invariant results. GWPCA is a local adaptation of PCA that locally transforms the image data, and in doing so, can describe spatial change in the structure of the multi-band imagery, thus directly reflecting that many landscape processes are spatially heterogenic. In this research the GWPCA localised loadings of MODIS data are used as textural inputs, along with GWPCA localised ranked scores and the image bands themselves to three supervised classification algorithms. Using a reference data set for land cover to the west of Jakarta, Indonesia the classification procedure was assessed via training and validation data splits of 80/20, repeated 100 times. For each classification algorithm, the inclusion of the GWPCA loadings data was found to significantly improve classification accuracy. Further, but more moderate improvements in accuracy were found by additionally including GWPCA ranked scores as textural inputs, data that provide information on spatial anomalies in the imagery. The critical importance of considering both spatial structure and spatial anomalies of the imagery in the classification is discussed, together with the transferability of the new method to other studies. Research topics for method refinement are also suggested.

  13. Improving power output of inertial energy harvesters by employing principal component analysis of input acceleration

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek


    In this paper we propose the use of principal component analysis to process the measured acceleration data in order to determine the direction of acceleration with the highest variance on given frequency of interest. This method can be used for improving the power generated by inertial energy harvesters. Their power output is highly dependent on the excitation acceleration magnitude and frequency, but the axes of acceleration measurements might not always be perfectly aligned with the directions of movement, and therefore the generated power output might be severely underestimated in simulations, possibly leading to false conclusions about the feasibility of using the inertial energy harvester for the examined application.

  14. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  15. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L


    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  16. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Whitlow, Lynsie J [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL


    The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

  17. [The analysis for improving the SNR of blood components noninvasive measurement with DS method].

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhao, Zhe; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong


    In order to increase the accuracy of blood components measurement and enhance the stability of prediction model, the quantitative signal-noise-ratio (SNR) analysis of measuring instruments based on dynamic spectrum (DS) and preprocessing method was conducted. The SNR of DS is increased after adding boxcar integrator, decreasing wavelength revolution, balancing the DS's SNR and excluding gross errors in preprocessing according to experiment results. Two volunteers were tested continuously for many times using the DS data acquiring system. The correlation coefficients of the each volunteer's DS data was increased from 0.934 and 0.953 to 0.991 and 0.987, respectively. Moreover, the gap between the correlation coefficient of the same volunteer's DS and different volunteers' DS is increased too, which shows that the SNR can be improved by these methods. The quantitative SNR analysis can guide the way of choosing preprocessing method efficiently, which will create the condition for clinical application of the blood components noninvasive measurement.


    Mikhail V. Karmanov


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  19. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness model being developed for the component improvement programs of the Air Force and the Navy

    Crowder, Gerald L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) model used by the Air Force to assist with the decision making process of their Component Improvement Program (CIP). The emphasis was on studying the model for its use in the Naval Component Improvement Program. With an example provided by General Electric, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the cost drivers of the model. For the example, the major cost driver...

  20. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Quintero, I


    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  1. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Vishnevskii, A G


    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  2. Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia

    Islam, M. F.


    This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

  3. Improvement in the surface quality of structural components produced by the RTM-process

    Michaeli, W.; Dyckhoff, J. [Institute of Plastics Processing, Aachen (Germany)


    During the production of long or continuous fiber reinforced structural components in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), surface defects like voids, pinholes or unevenness frequently occur. These have to be repaired by manual labor before final painting. The conditions for the formation of voids in the laminate as well as surface defects are investigated by model experiments, making use of a window mould. Generally the resin is assumed to flow through the fiber reinforcement in a plug flow. The investigations indicate that advance either in the nonwovens of the surface or in the center of the laminate depends on the flow front velocity. This can be attributed to a superposition of capillary and flow effects. In order to obtain a high surface quality, the flow front velocity has to be kept within a material-related band width. Otherwise, areas of air enclosure in the laminate or surface defects like pinholes will result. With the aid of a steel mould with a large area, procedural variants are investigated to reduce surface faults and to decrease the air content in the laminate. The analysis indicates that the air content can be significantly reduced by injecting the resin into a cavity filled with gaseous acetone and increasing the cavity pressure during the time of curing. Furthermore the long and short-term waviness of the surface is improved by these process modifications.

  4. Combination of principal component analysis and optical-flow motion compensation for improved cardiac MR thermometry

    Toupin, S.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Ozenne, V.; Bour, P.; Lepetit-Coiffe, M.; Boissenin, M.; Jais, P.; Quesson, B.


    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry for the monitoring of thermal ablation is rapidly expanding. However, this technique remains challenging for the monitoring of the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia by radiofrequency ablation due to the heart displacement with respiration and contraction. Recent studies have addressed this problem by compensating in-plane motion in real-time with optical-flow based tracking technique. However, these algorithms are sensitive to local variation of signal intensity on magnitude images associated with tissue heating. In this study, an optical-flow algorithm was combined with a principal component analysis method to reduce the impact of such effects. The proposed method was integrated to a fully automatic cardiac MR thermometry pipeline, compatible with a future clinical workflow. It was evaluated on nine healthy volunteers under free breathing conditions, on a phantom and in vivo on the left ventricle of a sheep. The results showed that local intensity changes in magnitude images had lower impact on motion estimation with the proposed method. Using this strategy, the temperature mapping accuracy was significantly improved.

  5. Surgery for Parkinson's disease improves disability but not impairment components of the UPDRS-II.

    Haffenden, A; Khan, U; Kiss, Z H T; Suchowersky, O


    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) activities of daily living (ADL) items have been described as reflecting both disability (true ADL items) and impairment (rather than ADLs). As a result of combining these scores, UPDRS part II scores may not accurately reflect the impact of surgery on ADLs [Hariz G.M., Lindberg M., Hariz M.I., Bergenheim A.T. Does the ADL part of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale measure ADL? An evaluation in patients after pallidotomy and thalamic deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord 2003;18:373-81.]. The goal of the present study was to assess the metric properties of the ADL section of the UPDRS in terms of its ability to measure surgical change. We tested the effects of unilateral pallidotomy (N=14) and bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS (N=11) on both disability and impairment components of the UPDRS-II at uniform follow-up assessment periods of 6 months and 1 year, with a subset of pallidotomy patients (N=9) re-assessed at 2 years. Across the follow-up periods in both patient groups, items identified as best reflecting disability showed significant improvement from pre-surgical levels, whereas items representing impairment showed no overall change. Consistent with this, change in total ADL scores was tempered by the inclusion of the impairment items. Because the measurement of a patient's functional status is important in determining the effectiveness of an intervention, analysis of appropriate items from the UPDRS ADL section is imperative.

  6. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process

    何宁; 王树青; 谢磊


    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA, especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  7. Demographic Change and Transport

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth;

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...




    The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

  9. Synthesis of multiple data structures for improved accuracy of abundance and demographic estimates form white-tailed at Savannah River Site.

    Conroy, Michael J. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)


    The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

  10. Monthly Extended Predicting Experiments with Nonlinear Regional Prediction. Part Ⅱ: Improvement of Wave Component Prediction

    CHEN Bomin; JI Liren; YANG Peicai; ZHANG Daomin


    Based on Chen et al. (2006), the scheme of the combination of the pentad-mean zonal height departure nonlinear prediction with the T42L9 model prediction was designed, in which the pentad zonal heights at all the 12-initial-value-input isobar levels from 50 hPa to 1000 hPa except 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa were derived from nonlinear forecasts of the four levels by means of a good correlation between neighboring levels.Then the above pentad zonal heights at 12 isobar-levels were transformed to the spectrum coefficients of the temperature at each integration step of T42L9 model. At last, the nudging was made. On account of a variety of error accumulation, the pentad zonal components of the monthly height at isobar levels output by T42L9 model were replaced by the corresponding nonlinear results once more when integration was over.Multiple case experiments showed that such combination of two kinds of prediction made an improvement in the wave component as a result of wave-flow nonlinear interaction while reducing the systematical forecast errors. Namely the monthly-mean height anomaly correlation coefficients over the high- and mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, over the Southern Hemisphere and over the globe increased respectively from 0.249 to 0.347, from 0.286 to 0.387, and from 0.343 to 0.414 (relative changes of 31.5%, 41.0%, and 18.3%).The monthly-mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of T42L9 model over the three areas was considerably decreased, the relative change over the globe reached 44.2%. The monthly-mean anomaly correlation coefficients of wave 4-9 over the areas were up to 0.392, 0.200, and 0.295, with the relative change of 53.8%, 94.1%,and 61.2%, and correspondingly their RMSEs were decreased respectively with the rate of 8.5%, 6.3%, and 8.1%. At the same time the monthly-mean pattern of parts of cases were presented better.

  11. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA


    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  12. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Zhe Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  13. Improved treatments for evaluating horizontal magnetic components through the 3-D FDM in E-polarization induction problems



    To improve the accuracy of the numerical evaluation through the 3-D finite difference method, the surface boundary conditions are added to modify the old program. The author has tested the new program by making calculations for the model constructed by Wanamaker, et al (1984). The comparison between the numerical results obtained from this paper and those by Wannamaker, et al (1984) indicates that a pronounced improvement is realized in the evaluation of the horizontal magnetic components. Moreover, better calculations for the vertical magnetic components are also obtainable by using the new program.

  14. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OKUDA, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa


    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  15. Integrating Essential Components of Quality Improvement into a New Paradigm for Continuing Education

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Meehan, Thomas P.


    Continuing education (CE) that strives to improve patient care in a complex health care system requires a different paradigm than CE that seeks to improve clinician knowledge and competence in an educational setting. A new paradigm for CE is necessary in order to change clinician behavior and to improve patient outcomes in an increasingly…

  16. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  17. Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?

    Mo Hassaballa


    Full Text Available Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate. Retrospective study of 150 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR had their pre and post-operative x-rays reviewed. Seventy-five patients (group A had their TKR using the older instrumentation kit (Gobot and 75 (group B had the newer version (Xcelerate. The positioning of the prosthesis components were assessed using the American Knee society radiographic evaluation method and the joint line position using the Figgie’s method. The results from the two groups were statistically compared. There was a significantly greater elevation of the joint line position in TKRs done with the Gobot instrumentation (mean 4.49 mm vs. 2.71 mm in group B, P=0.03, and significant differences in the mean tibial component angle cTCA (group A 88.6º, group B 90.1º, P=0.04 and the mean Q angle (group A 6.28º valgus, group B 8.45º valgus, P=0.04. Use of the newer Xcelerate instrumentation was associated with better restoration of joint line position, however the femoral component flexion and posterior slope of the tibial component ere found to be above the desired level. Hence the overall differences between the two groups were found to be small.

  18. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression

    Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)] Brewer, William E. [Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, 4416 Broad River Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States)


    The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  19. The Use of a Cognitive Tutoring System in the Improvement of the Abstract Reasoning Component of Word Problem Solving.

    Wheeler, J. L.; Regian, J. W.


    Describes a study of ninth-grade students that evaluated the ability of the Word Problem Solving Tutor, a cognitive tutoring system, to improve the abstract-reasoning component of word-problem solving. Compares combinations of traditional instruction, computer-assisted instruction, and the tutoring program and discusses implications for math…

  20. Building demographic literacy.

    Crews, K


    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  1. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability


    medical availability to deploy. All Army Medical Army Training Requirements and Resources System (ATRRS) The management information system of...record for managing soldier training information. All Army Training Total Army Personnel Data Base- Reserve (TAPDB-R) The data system of record for...soldiers. Army National Guard Training, administrative, other Reserve Component Manpower System (RCMS) The data warehouse that provides decision

  2. Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O


    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up.

  3. Improved gene prediction by principal component analysis based autoregressive Yule-Walker method.

    Roy, Manidipa; Barman, Soma


    Spectral analysis using Fourier techniques is popular with gene prediction because of its simplicity. Model-based autoregressive (AR) spectral estimation gives better resolution even for small DNA segments but selection of appropriate model order is a critical issue. In this article a technique has been proposed where Yule-Walker autoregressive (YW-AR) process is combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for reduction in dimensionality. The spectral peaks of DNA signal are used to detect protein-coding regions based on the 1/3 frequency component. Here optimal model order selection is no more critical as noise is removed by PCA prior to power spectral density (PSD) estimation. Eigenvalue-ratio is used to find the threshold between signal and noise subspaces for data reduction. Superiority of proposed method over fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and autoregressive method combined with wavelet packet transform (WPT) is established with the help of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and discrimination measure (DM) respectively.

  4. Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian


    We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories...... of two-class problems. For each possible pair of classes we further apply a transformation to the calculated principal components in order to increase the separation between the classes. Finally we apply the so-called n-tuple neural network to the transformed data in order to give the classification...... system non-linear capabilities, and all derived two-class models are combined to facilitate multiclass classification. Validation results show that the combined scheme is superior to the individual methods. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  5. Improved methods for enrichment of organic ultra trace components for analysis by gas chromatography

    Kloskowski, Adam


    This thesis describes some new methods for analysis oforganic trace components from air and water by gaschromatography. The work is particularly focused on thedevelopment of new technologies for analyte enrichment, usingsorbent-based concepts. Short lengths of open tubular columnswere examined for their potential use as denuders.Polydimethylsiloxane-based stationary phases as well as anadsorbent-based column were evaluated in an equilibrium mode oftrapping. For the analytes selected, detectio...

  6. Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis

    Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Moseley, S. H.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.


    The traditional method of applying a digital optimal filter to measure X-ray pulses from transition-edge sensor (TES) devices does not achieve the best energy resolution when the signals have a highly non-linear response to energy, or the noise is non-stationary during the pulse. We present an implementation of a method to analyze X-ray data from TESs, which is based upon principal component analysis (PCA). Our method separates the X-ray signal pulse into orthogonal components that have the largest variance. We typically recover pulse height, arrival time, differences in pulse shape, and the variation of pulse height with detector temperature. These components can then be combined to form a representation of pulse energy. An added value of this method is that by reporting information on more descriptive parameters (as opposed to a single number representing energy), we generate a much more complete picture of the pulse received. Here we report on progress in developing this technique for future implementation on X-ray telescopes. We used an ^{55}Fe source to characterize Mo/Au TESs. On the same dataset, the PCA method recovers a spectral resolution that is better by a factor of two than achievable with digital optimal filters.

  7. Demographic trends in Sweden


    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  8. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva


    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  9. Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.


    The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

  10. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan


    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  11. Improving the Disaster-Related Component of Secondary School Geography Education in England

    Sharpe, Justin; Kelman, Ilan


    Can disaster risk reduction and dealing with disasters be taught in the classroom at the secondary school level? This paper seeks to answer this research question in order to apply and critique pedagogical theories for improving how teachers are trained to teach disaster-related topics and how these topics could be introduced into the classroom.…

  12. Planarity and multiple components promote organic photovoltaic efficiency by improving electronic transport.

    Goldey, Matthew B; Reid, Daniel; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia


    Establishing how the conformation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers affects their electronic and transport properties is critical in order to determine design rules for new OPV materials and in particular to understand the performance enhancements recently reported for ternary blends. We report coupled classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that polymer linkage twisting significantly reduces optical absorption efficiency, as well as hole transport rates in donor polymers. We predict that blends with components favoring planar geometries contribute to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of ternary OPVs. Furthermore, our electronic structure calculations for the PTB7-PID2-PC71BM system show that hole transfer rates are enhanced in ternary blends with respect to their binary counterpart. Finally, our results point at thermal disorder in the blend as a key reason responsible for device voltage losses and at the need to carry out electronic structure calculations at finite temperature to reliably compare with experiments.

  13. Studies on selective adsorption of biogas components on pillared clays: approach for biogas improvement.

    Pires, João; Saini, Vipin K; Pinto, Moisés L


    Comparative adsorptions of four gases (natural gas and landfill gas components), viz., CO2, CH4, C2H6, and N2, were studied on four different pillared clays (PILCs) to develop a selective material. Such material could be useful forthe separation/purification process of waste gases. These materials (PILCs) were prepared from two different natural montmorillonite clays, by pillaring with Al2O3 and ZrO2, separately and were characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption and XRD. The adsorption isotherms for pure component gases were determined for each PILC, up to 10(3) kPa. The isotherms data were explored to calculate the selectivity of PILCs for either gas in any binary mixture. It was observed that the surface area of the clays pillared with Al2O3 was higher than that of the clays pillared with ZrO2. At the highest studied equilibrium pressure, the order of maximum adsorption was found to be CO2 > C2H6 > CH4 > N2 for each material. With the help of adsorption modeling, the selective adsorption from binary mixtures was predicted at different equilibrium pressures and compositions. Among the four PILCs, a ZrO2 PILC was found to be the most suitable material, in terms of separation possibility. To further assess the efficiency of these materials in commercial processes, the adsorption capacity in terms of working capacity was also calculated at two different regeneration pressures, i.e., at 1.0 atm and 1.0 Torr.

  14. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John


    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  15. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  16. National Swine Genetic Improvement: An overview of essential program components and organizational structure needed for success

    John; MABRY


    The swine industry in China is a thrivingand evolving industry that has shown phenome-nal growth over the past10years.Newand mod-ern swine farms have been started in locationsacross the country.Genetics has been importedfrom many different countries in an effort to up-grade the quality and efficiency of the traditionalbreeds of swine.But to insure long term successand viability in a worldwide competitive industrysuch as pork,there is need for a National SwineGenetic Improvement Program.This programneeds to ...

  17. Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis

    Kolarits, Francis M.


    Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

  18. Improvements in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using principle components analysis (PCA) in combination with Raman spectroscopy

    Archer, John K. J.; Sudworth, Caroline D.; Williams, Rachel; How, Thien; Stone, Nicholas; Mann, David; Black, Richard A.


    The significant achievements of medical science over the last century are evident in the increasing age of the global population, however this now brings new problems, the most prominent being the growth in the number of people suffering from dementia. Over half the people with dementia in the UK are sufferers of Alzheimer's disease, a condition in which intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and extraneuronal senile tangles take over neurons prompting their death. A definitive diagnosis is still only currently available post-mortem, whilst current symptom based processes of elimination are far from perfect, especially when the only treatments available are symptom inhibiting drugs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra taken from brain tissue has proved to be a potential tool in the diagnosis. However, this work now has to be refined in order to progress to tissue less associated with the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The first step of this has already been taken in progressing from frontal tissue to occipital tissue point spectra taken at random positions from bulk tissue. Now we present initial work into acquiring Raman spectral maps from across a tissue area, in pursuit of identifying unique plaque and tangle spectra. These spectra are presented alongside synthetic β-Amyloid spectra, in a study of the role that the peptide plays in the biomarker spectra, and how this information can aid the PCA of bulk tissue, and point towards a Raman spectroscopic test on less sensitive tissue, such as blood.

  19. Acute improvement of endothelial functions after oral ingestion of isohumulones, bitter components of beer.

    Tomita, Junko; Mochizuki, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Sohachi; Kashihara, Naoki; Akasaka, Takashi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yoshida, Kiyoshi


    Isohumulones, principal components of the bitter taste of beers, have antioxidant capacity. We studied i) the effects of oral ingestion of isomerized hop extract (IHE) on the endothelial functions in smokers as well as non-smokers and ii) the effects of IHE on cultured endothelial cells in high oxidative stress state. Twelve cigarette smokers and eleven non-smokers ingested IHE and placebo in a randomized crossover design. Flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) was measured using ultrasonography. We also studied the effects of isohumulones on i) the cell viability under hypoxia and ii) the levels of angiotensin II (AT-II)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). At baseline, the FMDs of the smokers were significantly lower than those of the non-smokers. The FMDs increased significantly after 30 min and 120 min of IHE ingestion in both the smokers and the non-smokers. IHE protected the HAECs from hypoxia-induced cell death as assessed by cell viability. IHE also reduced the AT-II-induced intracellular ROS level. Oral ingestion of IHE appears to exert acute beneficial effects on the endothelial functions in both the smokers and non-smokers, and the in vitro experiments using HAECs suggested that the effect be through reducing intracellular oxidative stress.

  20. Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)


    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Nanoscaled Components for Improved Efficiency in a Multiplanel Photocatalytic Water-Splitting System

    Fox, Marye Anne [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Whitesell, James [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program was to construct a multicell photochemical device for the direct conversion of solar energy directly to hydrogen by water splitting. We have fabricated a practical photolytic system for quantum efficient production of hydrogen. Our approach is based on the assembly of a multi-component integrated system for direct photocatalytic splitting of water for the efficient production of hydrogen. We propose to produce hydrogen as an energy source that is cost competitive with fossil fuels and without the concomitant production of greenhouse gases. The concept is quite straightforward. In order to achieve the over potential required for direct water splitting, the device is composed of multiple dye-sensitized cells directly linked in series, as illustrated in the figure below. The advantage of this concept is that each cell need contribute only a fraction of the overall potential required for water splitting, thus permitting device engineering to maximized efficiently without regard to electric potential. Progress and barriers to practical application will be described.

  2. Improved Principal Component Analysis for Anomaly Detection: Application to an Emergency Department

    Harrou, Fouzi


    Monitoring of production systems, such as those in hospitals, is primordial for ensuring the best management and maintenance desired product quality. Detection of emergent abnormalities allows preemptive actions that can prevent more serious consequences. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based anomaly-detection approach has been used successfully for monitoring systems with highly correlated variables. However, conventional PCA-based detection indices, such as the Hotelling’s T2T2 and the Q statistics, are ill suited to detect small abnormalities because they use only information from the most recent observations. Other multivariate statistical metrics, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control scheme, are more suitable for detection small anomalies. In this paper, a generic anomaly detection scheme based on PCA is proposed to monitor demands to an emergency department. In such a framework, the MCUSUM control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the PCA model. The proposed PCA-based MCUSUM anomaly detection strategy is successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department in the Lille Regional Hospital Centre, France. The detection results evidence that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods.

  3. Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment

    Gundis Grumbt


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

  4. Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.

    Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N


    As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention

  5. Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?

    He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming


    Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil.

  6. Improved Visualization of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae—Part II: Alimentary Canal Components and Measurements

    Tawni L. Crippen


    Full Text Available Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit disease is critical to improving management of A. diaperinus on poultry facilities and providing a safe food supply for human consumption. However, a deficiency exists in the literature reporting measurements of the gut and its defined segments. Previous reports include line drawing depictions, which aid little in the determination of the pathogen reservoir potential of these insects. Advances in technology allowed more accurate visualization and precise measurement of gross anatomical features of the alimentary canal. A photographic depiction to aid the researcher in the visualization of anatomical features and accurate measurements of the alimentary canal for these insects is presented here.

  7. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun


    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  8. Identification of Emotional Components to Improve the Motivation for Science Among School Teachers

    E. M. Barros


    Full Text Available Science education has been searching for new strategies to involve students in scientific investigation processes. These strategies should stimulate questioning, predicting results by means of experimentation as well as developing abilities for discussing results. They should also provi de the students with the capacity of understanding how the scientific knowledge is continuously produced rather than transmitting scientific facts  to  them .   Since 1985, the Instituto de BioquímicaMédica,UFRJ , has offered  a  science education   program  consisting in  v acation coursesdirected to students and teachersof  basic education . During the years, the  program  grew and spread through the country becoming a network involving 23 different research group s.   In  the courses ,  the participantsdevelop  practicalactivitiesand  are encouraged to think about a biological topic, to raise question sabout it and propose experiments to answer the ir questions. The course iscoordinated by a  staff  and by graduated students that  act as  instructo rs,  helpingthe participants  to  do  the experiments idealized by them .   In this work weinvestigate dthe  factors that raise the interest and the motivation for science in the participants. For this,  fieldworkand   questionnaire  analyses were performed. The questionnaires were  filled up b y the teachersin the beginning and in the end of the course, and the method of  contentanalysis was used  to  readthe  answers.  The results   show ed  that the motivation for science was raised by a strong emotional component generated by different factors, as  the interaction with the instructors; the availability of resources; and  the fact that they  become more autonomous in the process of reconstruction of their knowledge.

  9. Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls

    Bogard, David G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Thole, Karen A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)


    The experimental and computational studies of the turbine endwall and vane models completed in this research program have provided a comprehensive understanding of turbine cooling with combined film cooling and TBC. To correctly simulate the cooling effects of TBC requires the use of matched Biot number models, a technique developed in our laboratories. This technique allows for the measurement of the overall cooling effectiveness which is a measure of the combined internal and external cooling for a turbine component. The overall cooling effectiveness provides an indication of the actual metal temperature that would occur at engine conditions, and is hence a more powerful performance indicator than the film effectiveness parameter that is commonly used for film cooling studies. Furthermore these studies include the effects of contaminant depositions which are expected to occur when gas turbines are operated with syngas fuels. Results from the endwall studies performed at Penn State University and the vane model studies performed at the University of Texas are the first direct measurements of the combined effects of film cooling and TBC. These results show that TBC has a dominating effect on the overall cooling effectiveness, which enhances the importance of the internal cooling mechanisms, and downplays the importance of the film cooling of the external surface. The TBC was found to increase overall cooling effectiveness by a factor of two to four. When combined with TBC, the primary cooling from film cooling holes was found to be due to the convective cooling within the holes, not from the film effectiveness on the surface of the TBC. Simulations of the deposition of contaminants on the endwall and vane surfaces showed that these depositions caused a large increase in surface roughness and significant degradation of film effectiveness. However, despite these negative factors, the depositions caused only a slight decrease in the overall cooling effectiveness on

  10. Use of independent component analysis to improve signal-to-noise ratio in multi-probe fluorescence microscopy.

    Dao, L; Lucotte, B; Glancy, B; Chang, L-C; Hsu, L-Y; Balaban, R S


    In conventional multi-probe fluorescence microscopy, narrow bandwidth filters on detectors are used to avoid bleed-through artefacts between probes. The limited bandwidth reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection, often severely compromising one or more channels. Herein, we describe a process of using independent component analysis to discriminate the position of different probes using only a dichroic mirror to differentiate the signals directed to the detectors. Independent component analysis was particularly effective in samples where the spatial overlap between the probes is minimal, a very common case in cellular microscopy. This imaging scheme collects nearly all of the emitted light, significantly improving the image signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we focused on the detection of two fluorescence probes used in vivo, NAD(P)H and ANEPPS. The optimal dichroic mirror cutoff frequency was determined with simulations using the probes spectral emissions. A quality factor, defined as the cross-channel contrast-to-noise ratio, was optimized to maximize signals while maintaining spatial discrimination between the probes after independent component analysis post-processing. Simulations indicate that a ∼3 fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio using the independent component analysis approach can be achieved over the conventional narrow-band filtering approach without loss of spatial discrimination. We confirmed this predicted performance from experimental imaging of NAD(P)H and ANEPPS in mouse skeletal muscle, in vivo. For many multi-probe studies, the increased sensitivity of this 'full bandwidth' approach will lead to improved image quality and/or reduced excitation power requirements.

  11. Assessment of Seed Priming on Germination Improvement of Lathyrus sativus under Allelopathic Components of Juglans regia

    Mojtaba Akhavan Armaki


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of seed priming in improving seed germination and seedling vigor ofLathyrus sativusunder laboratory conditions. Growth stimulators included: gibberellic acid (125,250 and 500 ppm and salicylic acid (100,200 and 300 mg/lit. Extract of Juglans regia as allelopathic compounds consist of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentages. This experiment was carried out as factorial experiment based on a randomized completely design with four replications. The results showed that Juglans regiaextract had inhibitive effect on germination and early seedling growth of Lathyrus sativus. Early seedling growth of Lathyrus sativusincreased by pretreatment of seeds in growth stimulators so that the highest effect was observed in 250 ppm level of gibberellic acid. The growth stimulators don’t have any effect on germination speed. Interaction effects of allelopathic and pretreatment with chemical stimulators were significance on germination percentage, root, shoot and plant length and seed vigour index.

  12. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  13. Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Ten Kate, Antoon


    The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify.......g. prediction errors in terms of 95% confidence intervals) in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on product-process design, simulation and optimization calculations, contributing to better-informed and more reliable engineering solutions. (C...

  14. Application of Improved Hybrid Interface Substructural Component Modal Synthesis Method inVibration Characteristics of Mistuned Blisk

    BAI Bin,BAI Guangchen,; LI Chao


    The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by23.86%–31.56%and the modal deviation is 0.002%–0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%–10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape’s the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

  15. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha


    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  16. On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification

    Stamatopoulos, V. G.; Karras, D. A.; Mertzios, B. G.


    An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising.

  17. Estimation of Variance Components for Litter Size in the First and Later Parities in Improved Jezersko-Solcava Sheep

    Dubravko Škorput


    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate variance components for litter size in Improved Jezersko-Solcava sheep. Analysis involved 66,082 records from 12,969 animals, for the number of lambs born in all parities (BA, the first parity (B1, and later parities (B2+. Fixed part of model contained the effects of season and age at lambing within parity. Random part of model contained the effects of herd, permanent effect (for repeatability models, and additive genetic effect. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The average number of lambs born was 1.36 in the first parity, while the average in later parities was 1.59 leading also to about 20% higher variance. Several models were tested in order to accommodate markedly different variability in litter size between the first and later parities: single trait model (for BA, B1, and B2+, two-trait model (for B1 and B2+, and single trait model with heterogeneous residual variance (for BA. Comparison of variance components between models showed largest differences for the residual variance, resulting in parsimonious fit for a single trait model for BA with heterogeneous residual variance. Correlations among breeding values from different models were high and showed remarkable performance of the standard single trait repeatability model for BA.

  18. Standard object recognition memory and "what" and "where" components: Improvement by post-training epinephrine in highly habituated rats.

    Jurado-Berbel, Patricia; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel


    The present work examined whether post-training systemic epinephrine (EPI) is able to modulate short-term (3h) and long-term (24 h and 48 h) memory of standard object recognition, as well as long-term (24 h) memory of separate "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition. Although object recognition training is associated to low arousal levels, all the animals received habituation to the training box in order to further reduce emotional arousal. Post-training EPI improved long-term (24 h and 48 h), but not short-term (3 h), memory in the standard object recognition task, as well as 24 h memory for both object identity and object location. These data indicate that post-training epinephrine: (1) facilitates long-term memory for standard object recognition; (2) exerts separate facilitatory effects on "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition; and (3) is capable of improving memory for a low arousing task even in highly habituated rats.

  19. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann


    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  20. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm


    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  1. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  2. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  3. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...


    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU


    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  5. Improving the Prompt Electromagnetic Energy Component of Jet Energy Resolution with pi0 Fitting in High Granularity Electromagnetic Calorimeters

    van Doren, Brian


    We investigate improving the hadronic jet energy resolution using mass-constrained fits of pi0 decays using high granularity electromagnetic calorimeters. Single pi0 studies have indicated a large potential for improvement in the energy resolution of pi0's, typically reducing the average energy resolution by a factor of two for 4 GeV pi0's. We apply this method to fully simulated multi-hadronic events with multiple pi0's with widely varying energies using the ILD00 detector model. Several methods for identifying the correct pairings of photons with parent pi0's were explored. The combinatorics become challenging as the number of pi0's increases and we employ the Blossom V implementation of Edmonds' matching algorithm for handling this. For events where both photons of the pi0 are detected, the resulting solutions lead to an improvement in the pi0 component of the event energy resolution for 91.2 GeV Z0 events from 18.0%/sqrt(E) to 13.9%/sqrt(E) using the ILD00 detector and its reconstruction algorithms. This ...

  6. An Empirical Correction Method for Improving off-Axes Response Prediction in Component Type Flight Mechanics Helicopter Models

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.


    Historically, component-type flight mechanics simulation models of helicopters have been unable to satisfactorily predict the roll response to pitch stick input and the pitch response to roll stick input off-axes responses. In the study presented here, simple first-order low-pass filtering of the elemental lift and drag forces was considered as a means of improving the correlation. The method was applied to a blade-element model of the AH-64 APache, and responses of the modified model were compared with flight data in hover and forward flight. Results indicate that significant improvement in the off-axes responses can be achieved in hover. In forward flight, however, the best correlation in the longitudinal and lateral off-axes responses required different values of the filter time constant for each axis. A compromise value was selected and was shown to result in good overall improvement in the off-axes responses. The paper describes both the method and the model used for its implementation, and presents results obtained at hover and in forward flight.

  7. Potential improvements in horizontal very broadband seismic data in the IRIS/USGS component of the Global Seismic Network

    Ringler, Adam; Steim, J.M.; Zandt, T; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler


    The Streckeisen STS‐1 has been the primary vault‐type seismometer used in the over‐150‐station Global Seismographic Network (GSN). This sensor has long been known for its outstanding vertical, very long‐period (e.g., >100  s period), and low‐noise performance, although the horizontal long‐period noise performance is less well known. The STS‐1 is a limited, important resource, because it is no longer made or supported by the original manufacturer. We investigate the incoherent noise of horizontal‐component sensors, where coherent signals among sensors have been removed, giving an upper bound on the self‐noise of both the STS‐1 and STS‐2 horizontal components. Our findings suggest that a well‐installed STS‐2 could potentially produce data with similar or better incoherent noise levels to that of a horizontal‐component STS‐1. Along with our experimental investigation, we compare background noise levels for a calendar year at Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology/U.S. Geological Survey network stations, which comprise approximately two‐thirds of the GSN, with collocated STS‐1 and STS‐2 seismometers. The use of an STS‐2‐class of sensor (flat to velocity to 120 s period) to acquire low‐frequency data in surface‐vault installations would allow network operators to focus more attention on improving vertical data. In order to deal with the difference in instrument response shapes between the two instruments, we detail two different time‐domain filters that would allow users to convert broadband STS‐2 data into very broadband data with a response similar to that of an STS‐1 (flat to velocity to 360 s period). We conclude that the complexity of the current primary horizontal vault sensors in the GSN may not be necessary until we are better able to isolate surface horizontal sensors from various noise sources.

  8. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  9. Improved silencing suppression and enhanced heterologous protein expression are achieved using an engineered viral helper component proteinase.

    Haikonen, T; Rajamäki, M-L; Valkonen, J P T


    RNA silencing limits transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Co-expression of viral silencing suppressor proteins can increase and prolong protein expression, but highly efficient silencing suppressors may stress plant tissue and be detrimental to protein yields. Little is known whether silencing suppression could be improved without harm to plant tissues. This study reports development of enhanced silencing suppressors by engineering the helper component proteinase (HCpro) of Potato virus A (PVA). Mutations were introduced to a short region of HCpro (positions 330-335 in PVA HCpro), which is hypervariable among potyviruses. Three out of the four HCpro mutants suppressed RNA silencing more efficiently and sustained expression of co-expressed jellyfish green fluorescent protein for a longer time than wild-type HCpro in agroinfiltrated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf tissues remained healthy-looking without any visible signs of stress.

  10. Improving the crash behavior of structural components made of advanced high strength steel by local heat treatment

    Conrads, L.; Daamen, M.; Hirt, G.; Bambach, M.


    High manganese TWIP steel belongs to the second generation of advanced high strength steels. During the production of strip material, the microstructure and hence the mechanical properties of TWIP steel can be adapted to the specific needs of crash relevant structures. Whereas typically the whole steel strip is heat-treated after cold rolling, a local heat treatment can be applied to tailor the properties accordingly. In this work, a method is presented to identify a suitable process window for the local laser heat treatment of TWIP steel. The material is strain hardened and afterwards heat-treated at various temperatures for a short time. The influence of the respective heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties is evaluated and the most appropriate heat treatment is then reproduced using laser heating. To verify the effect of a local laser heat treatment at a structural component, crash boxes with different heat treatment patterns were produced and tested. The dynamic crash tests show that the local heat treatment can be used to improve the crash behavior of structural components. In addition, their deformation path can be influenced by using adapted heat treatment patterns and the crash behavior can be controlled.

  11. Pension Reform and Demographic Uncertainty : The Case of Germany


    The present paper compares the distributional and risk-sharing consequences of two pension reform proposals in Germany which both aim to improve the sustainability of the current system by introducing demographic variables to the benefit calculation. While the first reform proposes a so-called "sustainability factor" which measures the changes in the dependency ratio, the second reform proposes a so-called "demographic factor" which takes into account the changes in life expectancy. Our simul...

  12. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina


    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  13. Improved Reliability Models for Mechanical and Electrical Components at Navigation Lock and Dam and Flood Risk Management Facilities


    Brake Electromechanical 45 60 Clutch Slip 30 — Jaw — 70 Wire ropes ERDC/CERL TR-13-4 104 Type Component Navigation Components CL (years...navigation facilities. Current USACE ME reliability methods use generic component failure rate data from US Department of Defense (DoD) Military Standard...MIL-STD) 756B, in which failure rate data is processed for components that function in operating environments, failure modes, and maintenance

  14. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  15. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Grigsby, J S


    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  16. An analysis of the costs and benefit in improving the T56-A-427 interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector under the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP)

    Murphy, Thomas Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis is a study validating the cost effectiveness of the Component Improvement Program for aircraft engines. It determines the costs and benefits derived from the Navy incorporating Power Plant Change 111 which improved the interconnector harness end and mating thermocouple end connector of the T56-A-427 engine. Useful maintenance data pertaining to this component was extracted from the Naval Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) sys...

  17. Demographic change and the supply of physicians, hospitals, and hospital beds: marketing implications.

    Pol, L G; Tymkiw, D R


    Demographic conditions are a major component of the business environment in which health care marketers must compete. The following study assesses the impact of demographic factors on health care supply and finds that population size, population change, age structure, and income are important predictors of physician, hospital, and hospital bed supply. The results are discussed in the context of marketing implications.

  18. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Frans J. Willekens


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  19. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.


    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  20. Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Improving Quality of Design in Femoral Component of Knee Prostheses: Influence of Interface Geometry and Material

    Ali Jahan


    Full Text Available Knee prostheses as medical products require careful application of quality and design tool to ensure the best performance. Therefore, quality function deployment (QFD was proposed as a quality tool to systematically integrate consumer’s expectation to perceived needs by medical and design team and to explicitly address the translation of customer needs into engineering characteristics. In this study, full factorial design of experiment (DOE method was accompanied by finite element analysis (FEA to evaluate the effect of inner contours of femoral component on mechanical stability of the implant and biomechanical stresses within the implant components and adjacent bone areas with preservation of the outer contours for standard Co-Cr alloy and a promising functionally graded material (FGM. The ANOVA revealed that the inner shape of femoral component influenced the performance measures in which the angle between the distal and anterior cuts and the angle between the distal and posterior cuts were greatly influential. In the final ranking of alternatives, using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, the designs with FGM was ranked first over the Co-Cr femoral component, but the original design with Co-Cr material was not the best choice femoral component, among the top ranked design with the same material.

  1. Evaluating (and Improving) Estimates of the Solar Radial Magnetic Field Component from Line-of-Sight Magnetograms

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Wagner, E. L.


    Although for many solar physics problems the desirable or meaningful boundary is the radial component of the magnetic field Br, the most readily available measurement is the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight to the observer, B_{los}. As this component is only equal to the radial component where the viewing angle is exactly zero, some approximation is required to estimate Br at all other observed locations. In this study, a common approximation known as the "μ-correction", which assumes all photospheric field to be radial, is compared to a method that invokes computing a potential field that matches the observed B_{los}, from which the potential field radial component, Br^{pot} is recovered. We demonstrate that in regions that are truly dominated by a radially oriented field at the resolution of the data employed, the μ-correction performs acceptably if not better than the potential-field approach. However, it is also shown that for any solar structure that includes horizontal fields, i.e. active regions, the potential-field method better recovers both the strength of the radial field and the location of magnetic neutral line.


    Macri Aura


    Full Text Available The cognitive activities support an obvious intellectual development, also influenced by a special plasticity of the cognitive system – a functional advantage that offers a great receptivity to the child in comparison with the adults. The purpose of choosing the theme By the chosen theme we want to contribute at the highlighting of the importance of the exercises as a game in order to achieve the purposes of the physical education and sports and to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Starting from the idea that the game is an efficient and pleasant way to solve many objectives of the physical education and sports, we suppose that the didactic strategies based on the game help to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Ways of research: the analysis of the specialized literature, the complementary fields, the interdisciplinary, the pedagogical observation, investigation, the way of somatic measures, the movement measures. Results: The psychomotor components measure a normal psychomotor behavior of the child and of the teenager that is why the objectives of the physical education have to aim the education of these components at a high level. Conclusion: The selection of the most efficient ways of the dynamic games by the contribution brought to the education of the main psychomotricity components, but also by their structure and their degree of accessibility for the age of research represents the steps of the didactic strategy of development of the psychomotricity at little scholar age, 6-8 years old and also the personal contribution to solve this problem.



    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  4. Wheat signature modeling and analysis for improved training statistics: Supplement. Simulated LANDSAT wheat radiances and radiance components

    Malila, W. A.; Cicone, R. C.; Gleason, J. M.


    Simulated scanner system data values generated in support of LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) research and development efforts are presented. Synthetic inband (LANDSAT) wheat radiances and radiance components were computed and are presented for various wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions and scanner view geometries. Values include: (1) inband bidirectional reflectances for seven stages of wheat crop growth; (2) inband atmospheric features; and (3) inband radiances corresponding to the various combinations of wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions. Analyses of these data values are presented in the main report.

  5. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman


    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  6. Demographic changes and international factor mobility


    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  7. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Cherie Mastronardi


    Full Text Available The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC, and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (P=0.03, but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality.

  8. Improved source parameter constraints for five undersea earthquakes from north component of GRACE gravity and gravity gradient change measurements

    Dai, Chunli; Shum, C. K.; Guo, Junyi; Shang, Kun; Tapley, Byron; Wang, Rongjiang


    The innovative processing of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using only the north component of gravity change and its corresponding gravity gradient changes allows the enhancement of the spatial resolution for coseismic deformation signals. Here, we report the study of five undersea earthquakes using this technique: the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake, the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. By using the high spherical harmonic degree (up to degree 96) data products and the associated GRACE data processing techniques, the retrieved north component of gravity change is up to - 34 ± 1.4 μGal for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, which illustrates by far the highest amplitude of the coseismic signal retrieved from satellite gravimetry among previous studies. We creatively apply the localized spectral analysis as an efficient method to empirically determine the practical spherical harmonic truncation degree. By combining least squares adjustment with the simulated annealing algorithm, point source parameters are estimated, which demonstrates the unique constraint on source model from GRACE data compared to other data sources. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, GRACE data produce a shallower centroid depth (9.1 km), as compared to the depth (28.3 km) from GPS data. For the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the GRACE-estimated centroid location is southwest of the GPS/seismic solutions, and the slip orientation is about 10° clockwise from the published GPS/seismic slip models. We concluded that these differences demonstrate the additional and critical offshore constraint by GRACE on source parameters, as compared to GPS/seismic data.




    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  10. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Billari, Francesco C.


    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  11. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.


    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  12. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    Salah Alden Ghasimi


    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

  13. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  14. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Seth Owusu-Agyei


    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  15. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  16. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  17. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.


    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  18. [Application of wavelet transform on improving detecting precision of the non-invasive blood components measurement based on dynamic spectrum method].

    Li, Gang; Men, Jian-Long; Sun, Zhao-Min; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Bao-Ju


    Time-varying noises in spectra collection process have influence on the prediction accuracy of quantitative calibration in the non-invasive blood components measurement which is based on dynamic spectrum (DS) method. By wavelet transform, we focused on the absorbance wave of fingertip transmission spectrum in pulse frequency band. Then we increased the signal to noise ratio of DS data, and improved the detecting precision of quantitative calibration. After carrying out spectrum data continuous acquisition of the same subject for 10 times, we used wavelet transform de-noising to increase the average correlation coefficient of DS data from 0.979 6 to 0.990 3. BP neural network was used to establish the calibration model of subjects' blood components concentration values against dynamic spectrum data of 110 volunteers. After wavelet transform de-noising, the correlation coefficient of prediction set increased from 0.677 4 to 0.846 8, and the average relative error was decreased from 15.8% to 5.3%. Experimental results showed that the introduction of wavelet transform can effectively remove the noise in DS data, improve the detecting precision, and accelerate the development of non-invasive blood components measurement based on DS method.

  19. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: a foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    Joana M Dantas


    Full Text Available Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs extracellular electron transfer (EET. These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by Gs. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Over the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of Gs multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of Gs by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E. These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell’s outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of Gs. For the first time Gs strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve

  20. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: a foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies.

    Dantas, Joana M; Morgado, Leonor; Aklujkar, Muktak; Bruix, Marta; Londer, Yuri Y; Schiffer, Marianne; Pokkuluri, P Raj; Salgueiro, Carlos A


    Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens extracellular electron transfer (EET). These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by G. sulfurreducens. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Over the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of G. sulfurreducens multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of G. sulfurreducens by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E). These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell's outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e(-)/H(+) transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e(-)/H(+) transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of G. sulfurreducens. For the first time G. sulfurreducens strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential

  1. Macroergonomic intervention for work design improvement and raw materials waste reduction in a small footwear components company in Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil.

    Cornelli, Renata; Guimarães, Lia Buarque de Macedo


    This article presents a macroergonomic intervention carried out in a small footwear components company located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The company's demand was related to the waste of the expensive raw-material (thermoplastic polyurethane or TPU) used to manufacture the components (high heels pegs). According to the managerial staff, the waste was workers responsibility due to the craft characteristic of the process. A participative method was used to evaluate the problems, propose and implement solutions, as well as evaluate their impact on the workers and the Company. Improvements in the work conditions resulted in increase of workers' satisfaction with the work and in 31.5% waste reduction.

  2. Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective

    Min-Ren Yan


    Full Text Available The impacts of high technology industries have been growing increasingly to technological innovations and global economic developments, while the concerns in sustainability are calling for facilitating green materials and cleaner production in the industrial value chains. Today’s manufacturing companies are not striving for individual capacities but for the effective working with green supply chains. However, in addition to environmental and social objectives, cost and economic feasibility has become one of the most critical success factors for improving supply chain management with green component procurement collaboration, especially for the electronics OEM (original equipment manufacturing companies whose procurement costs often make up a very high proportion of final product prices. This paper presents a case study from the systems perspective by using System Dynamics simulation analysis and statistical validations with empirical data. Empirical data were collected from Taiwanese manufacturing chains—among the world’s largest manufacturing clusters of high technology components and products—and their global green suppliers to examine the benefits of green component procurement collaborations in terms of shared costs and improved shipping time performance. Two different supply chain collaboration models, from multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC and universal serial bus 3.0 (USB 3.0 cable procurements, were benchmarked and statistically validated. The results suggest that the practices of collaborative planning for procurement quantity and accurate fulfillment by suppliers are significantly related to cost effectiveness and shipping time efficiency. Although the price negotiation of upstream raw materials for the collaborative suppliers has no statistically significant benefit to the shipping time efficiency, the shared cost reduction of component procurement is significantly positive for supply chain collaboration among green

  3. Nanoparticle-Incorporated PDMS Film as an Improved Performance SPME Fiber for Analysis of Volatile Components of Eucalyptus Leaf

    Parviz Aberoomand Azar


    Full Text Available A new fabrication strategy was proposed to prepare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS- coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME on inexpensive and unbreakable Cu fiber. PDMS was covalently bonded to the Cu substrate using self-assembled monolayer (SAM of (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3MPTS as binder. To increase the performance of the fiber, the incorporation effect of some nanomaterials including silica nanoparticles (NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH to PDMS coating was compared. The surface morphology of the prepared fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their applicability was evaluated through the extraction of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs of Eucalyptus leaf in headspace mode, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized. Extracted compounds were analyzed by GC-MS instrument. The results obtained indicated that prepared fibers have some advantages relative to previously prepared SPME fibers, such as higher thermal stability and improved performance of the fiber. Also, results showed that SPME is a fast, simple, quick, and sensitive technique for sampling and sample introduction of Eucalyptus VOCs.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of patient-specific instrumentation for improving alignment of the components in total knee replacement.

    Thienpont, E; Schwab, P E; Fennema, P


    We conducted a meta-analysis, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, to examine the effect of patient-specific instruments (PSI) on radiological outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR) including: mechanical axis alignment and malalignment of the femoral and tibial components in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes, at a threshold of > 3º from neutral. Relative risks (RR) for malalignment were determined for all studies and for RCTs and cohort studies separately. Of 325 studies initially identified, 16 met the eligibility criteria, including eight RCTs and eight cohort studies. There was no significant difference in the likelihood of mechanical axis malalignment with PSI versus conventional TKR across all studies (RR = 0.84, p = 0.304), in the RCTs (RR = 1.14, p = 0.445) or in the cohort studies (RR = 0.70, p = 0.289). The results for the alignment of the tibial component were significantly worse using PSI TKR than conventional TKR in the coronal and sagittal planes (RR = 1.75, p = 0.028; and RR = 1.34, p = 0.019, respectively, on pooled analysis). PSI TKR showed a significant advantage over conventional TKR for alignment of the femoral component in the coronal plane (RR = 0.65, p = 0.028 on pooled analysis), but not in the sagittal plane (RR = 1.12, p = 0.437). Axial alignment of the tibial (p = 0.460) and femoral components (p = 0.127) was not significantly different. We conclude that PSI does not improve the accuracy of alignment of the components in TKR compared with conventional instrumentation.

  5. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)


    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  6. Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the health status of elderly people in a transitional society, Kerala, India.

    Mini, G K


    Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.

  7. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor


    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  8. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M


    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted...... and objections against the increasing tendency to place the responsibility for child-rearing tasks on schools. This study reveals the strong and weak parts of the Hi Five study and can guide program improvement....... of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify challenges to program implementation. Several data sources were used, including observations of school...

  9. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus



    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  10. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    Rush, Thomas


    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  11. A novel osmolality-shift fermentation strategy for improving acarbose production and concurrently reducing byproduct component C formation by Actinoplanes sp. A56.

    Cheng, Xin; Peng, Wei-Fu; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Bao; Li, Kun-Tai


    Component C (Acarviosy-1,4-Glc-1,1-Glc) was a highly structural acarbose analog, which could be largely formed during acarbose fermentation process, resulting in acarbose purification being highly difficult. By choosing osmolality level as the key fermentation parameter of acarbose-producing Actinoplanes sp. A56, this paper successfully established an effective and simplified osmolality-shift strategy to improve acarbose production and concurrently reduce component C formation. Firstly, the effects of various osmolality levels on acarbose fermentation were firstly investigated in a 50-l fermenter. It was found that 400-500 mOsm/kg of osmolality was favorable for acarbose biosynthesis, but would exert a negative influence on the metabolic activity of Actinoplanes sp. A56, resulting in an obviously negative increase of acarbose and a sharp formation of component C during the later stages of fermentation (144-168 h). Based on this fact, an osmolality-shift fermentation strategy (0-48 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg; 49-120 h: 450-500 mOsm/kg; 121-168 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg) was further carried out. Compared with the osmolality-stat (450-500 mOsm/kg) fermentation process, the final accumulation amount of component C was decreased from 498.2 ± 27.1 to 307.2 ± 9.5 mg/l, and the maximum acarbose yield was increased from 3,431.9 ± 107.7 to 4,132.8 ± 111.4 mg/l.

  12. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Froggatt, P


    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  13. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Berger, M C


    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  14. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Zavala De Cosio, M E


    in Latin America because of the much more rapid mortality decline. In Latin America, in the face of the fertility increase of the mid-20th century, there was no attempt to control nuptiality, as in traditional European populations, to limit family size. Nuptiality control as a mechanism of demographic regulation was never socially acceptable in Latin America. The beginning of the Latin American transition occurred in urban areas, among more educated women who were over 20 years old at marriage. The fertility transition in these privileged sectors was quite similar to that in Europe. But a second transition has occurred among impoverished women conserving traditional reproductive patterns of early marriage and numerous closely spaced births. Availability of modern contraception among rural and marginal urban women has allowed termination of childbearing, but usually at relatively high levels of fertility. Fertility decline, in this case, does not reflect improvements in living conditions.

  15. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Devedžić Mirjana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  16. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz


    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  17. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Ali Duman


    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  18. [Demographic changes and health management].

    Calero, Juan del Rey


    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.

  19. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  20. The demographic system of a Mediterranean island: Mykonos, Greece 1859-1959.

    Hionidou, V


    "This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic distinctiveness of island populations. The population of the Greek island of Mykonos in the period 1859 to 1959 is used. Using the results obtained from family reconstitution and inverse projection the inter-relations of the major demographic components are described. The pre-transitional demographic system of Mykonos was found to have been characterised by the combination of low mortality and low marital though moderately high overall fertility. The resulting high population growth was counterbalanced by high emigration which kept the island population almost constant. Mortality and fertility experienced parallel and rapid decline. In both pre- and transitional Mykonos fertility rather than mortality seems to have been the main factor responsible for the changes in population growth. The findings point to a demographic distinctiveness of Mediterranean island populations."

  1. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F


    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  2. On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

  3. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors


    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  4. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Somoza, J L


    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  5. Improving the long-lead predictability of El Niño using a novel forecasting scheme based on a dynamic components model

    Petrova, Desislava; Koopman, Siem Jan; Ballester, Joan; Rodó, Xavier


    El Niño (EN) is a dominant feature of climate variability on inter-annual time scales driving changes in the climate throughout the globe, and having wide-spread natural and socio-economic consequences. In this sense, its forecast is an important task, and predictions are issued on a regular basis by a wide array of prediction schemes and climate centres around the world. This study explores a novel method for EN forecasting. In the state-of-the-art the advantageous statistical technique of unobserved components time series modeling, also known as structural time series modeling, has not been applied. Therefore, we have developed such a model where the statistical analysis, including parameter estimation and forecasting, is based on state space methods, and includes the celebrated Kalman filter. The distinguishing feature of this dynamic model is the decomposition of a time series into a range of stochastically time-varying components such as level (or trend), seasonal, cycles of different frequencies, irregular, and regression effects incorporated as explanatory covariates. These components are modeled separately and ultimately combined in a single forecasting scheme. Customary statistical models for EN prediction essentially use SST and wind stress in the equatorial Pacific. In addition to these, we introduce a new domain of regression variables accounting for the state of the subsurface ocean temperature in the western and central equatorial Pacific, motivated by our analysis, as well as by recent and classical research, showing that subsurface processes and heat accumulation there are fundamental for the genesis of EN. An important feature of the scheme is that different regression predictors are used at different lead months, thus capturing the dynamical evolution of the system and rendering more efficient forecasts. The new model has been tested with the prediction of all warm events that occurred in the period 1996-2015. Retrospective forecasts of these

  6. Improving the long-lead predictability of El Niño using a novel forecasting scheme based on a dynamic components model

    Petrova, Desislava; Koopman, Siem Jan; Ballester, Joan; Rodó, Xavier


    El Niño (EN) is a dominant feature of climate variability on inter-annual time scales driving changes in the climate throughout the globe, and having wide-spread natural and socio-economic consequences. In this sense, its forecast is an important task, and predictions are issued on a regular basis by a wide array of prediction schemes and climate centres around the world. This study explores a novel method for EN forecasting. In the state-of-the-art the advantageous statistical technique of unobserved components time series modeling, also known as structural time series modeling, has not been applied. Therefore, we have developed such a model where the statistical analysis, including parameter estimation and forecasting, is based on state space methods, and includes the celebrated Kalman filter. The distinguishing feature of this dynamic model is the decomposition of a time series into a range of stochastically time-varying components such as level (or trend), seasonal, cycles of different frequencies, irregular, and regression effects incorporated as explanatory covariates. These components are modeled separately and ultimately combined in a single forecasting scheme. Customary statistical models for EN prediction essentially use SST and wind stress in the equatorial Pacific. In addition to these, we introduce a new domain of regression variables accounting for the state of the subsurface ocean temperature in the western and central equatorial Pacific, motivated by our analysis, as well as by recent and classical research, showing that subsurface processes and heat accumulation there are fundamental for the genesis of EN. An important feature of the scheme is that different regression predictors are used at different lead months, thus capturing the dynamical evolution of the system and rendering more efficient forecasts. The new model has been tested with the prediction of all warm events that occurred in the period 1996-2015. Retrospective forecasts of these

  7. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Phillips, Stephanie


    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  8. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie


    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  9. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.


    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  10. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Bobić Mirjana


    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  11. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Phillips, Stephanie


    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  12. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C


    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  13. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.


    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p


    Rezarta Kalaja


    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction is one of the several ways to evaluate quality of health service, composing an effective indicator to measure the success of hospitals. In this context determining main factors that contributes in patient satisfaction is crucial to improve quality in healthcare delivery. Respective literature suggest that socio-demographic factors serve as main drivers for patient satisfaction, therefore through this article based on the ground survey methodology it is measure the existing linkages between gender, age, level of education and incomes and patient satisfaction in Albania.

  15. Principal Components of Superhigh-Dimensional Statistical Features and Support Vector Machine for Improving Identification Accuracies of Different Gear Crack Levels under Different Working Conditions

    Dong Wang


    Full Text Available Gears are widely used in gearbox to transmit power from one shaft to another. Gear crack is one of the most frequent gear fault modes found in industry. Identification of different gear crack levels is beneficial in preventing any unexpected machine breakdown and reducing economic loss because gear crack leads to gear tooth breakage. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method for identification of different gear crack levels under different working conditions is proposed. First, superhigh-dimensional statistical features are extracted from continuous wavelet transform at different scales. The number of the statistical features extracted by using the proposed method is 920 so that the extracted statistical features are superhigh dimensional. To reduce the dimensionality of the extracted statistical features and generate new significant low-dimensional statistical features, a simple and effective method called principal component analysis is used. To further improve identification accuracies of different gear crack levels under different working conditions, support vector machine is employed. Three experiments are investigated to show the superiority of the proposed method. Comparisons with other existing gear crack level identification methods are conducted. The results show that the proposed method has the highest identification accuracies among all existing methods.

  16. Wheat Gluten-Laminated Paperboard with Improved Moisture Barrier Properties: A New Concept Using a Plasticizer (Glycerol Containing a Hydrophobic Component (Oleic Acid

    Sung-Woo Cho


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to reduce the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR and water absorbance of wheat gluten/paperboard laminates by introducing a hydrophobic component (oleic acid (OA into the hydrophilic plasticizer (glycerol. Whereas the paperboard showed immeasurably high WVTR, the laminate with gluten/glycerol yielded finite values. More importantly, by incorporating 75 wt.% OA into the plasticizer, the WVTR and water absorbance were reduced by, respectively, a factor of three and 1.5–2. Of particular interest was that the mechanical properties were not changing dramatically between 0 and 50 wt.% OA. The results showed clear benefits of combining a gluten film with paperboard. Whereas the paperboard provided toughness, the WG layer contributed with improved moisture barrier properties. In addition, WVTR indicated that the paperboard reduced the swelling of the outer gluten/glycerol layer in moist conditions; a free standing gluten/glycerol film would yield infinite, rather than finite, WVTR values.

  17. Do Wealthier Households Save More? – The Impact of the Demographic Factor


    This paper investigates the relationship between wealth, ageing and saving behaviour of private households by using pooled cross sections of German consumption survey data. Different components of wealth are distinguished, as their impact on the savings rate is not homogeneous. On average, the effect attributed to real estate dominates the other components of wealth. In addition, the savings rate strongly responds to demographic trends. Besides the direct impact of the age structure, an indir...

  18. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    Price, C Aaron


    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  19. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  20. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Yamamoto, C


    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  1. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A


    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  2. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C


    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  3. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    Sanjeev Goel


    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  4. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek


    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...


    Bente Florina Maria


    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  6. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Devedžić Mirjana M.


    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  7. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne


    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  8. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  9. Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia

    Đurđev Branislav S.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent

  10. Decomposition of Interference Hyperspectral Images Using Improved Morphological Component Analysis%基于改进MCA的干涉高光谱图像分解

    温佳; 赵军锁; 王彩玲; 夏玉立


    As the special imaging principle of the interference hyperspectral image data ,there are lots of vertical interference stripes in every frames .The stripes’ positions are fixed ,and their pixel values are very high .Horizontal displacements also exist in the background between the frames .This special characteristics will destroy the regular structure of the original interference hyperspectral image data ,which will also lead to the direct application of compressive sensing theory and traditional compression algorithms can’t get the ideal effect .As the interference stripes signals and the background signals have different characteristics themselves ,the orthogonal bases which can sparse represent them will also be different .According to this thought ,in this paper the morphological component analysis (MCA) is adopted to separate the interference stripes signals and background signals .As the huge amount of interference hyperspectral image will lead to slow iterative convergence speed and low computational efficien‐cy of the traditional MCA algorithm ,an improved MCA algorithm is also proposed according to the characteristics of the inter‐ference hyperspectral image data ,the conditions of iterative convergence is improved ,the iteration will be terminated when the error of the separated image signals and the original image signals are almost unchanged .And according to the thought that the orthogonal basis can sparse represent the corresponding signals but cannot sparse represent other signals ,an adaptive update mode of the threshold is also proposed in order to accelerate the computational speed of the traditional MCA algorithm ,in the proposed algorithm ,the projected coefficients of image signals at the different orthogonal bases are calculated and compared in order to get the minimum value and the maximum value of threshold ,and the average value of them is chosen as an optimal threshold value for the adaptive update mode .The experimental results

  11. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Demographic implications of the New United States certificates.

    Lunde, A S; Grove, R D


    are making an increased use of vital records and at the same time are extending their contacts with state health departments; in some states collaborative projects have been undertaken. Because of the importance of the source documents, which in some cases have not been exploited fully, demographers should increase their contact with the state vital statistics offices which develop, collect, and process the records. By indicating an interest in vital registration and by making their research needs known, demographers can encourage the acceptance of new concepts and collaborate in the improvement of vital records for demographic research purposes.

  13. Improving the accuracy of derivation of the Williams’ series parameters under mixed (I+II) mode loading by compensation of measurement bias in the stress field components data

    Lychak, Oleh V.; Holyns'kiy, Ivan S.


    A new method for compensation of bias in the stress field components measurement data used for Williams’ series parameters derivation was presented. Essential increase of accuracy of derivation of SIF-related leading terms in series under mixed (I+II) mode loading was demonstrated. It was shown that a relatively low value of bias in the stress field components data error could result in the essential deviation of the values of derived Williams’ coefficients and the crack tip coordinates.

  14. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.


    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yiel...

  15. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  16. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M


    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  17. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Rachael Irving


    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  18. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Garrigan Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  19. Implications of Severe Economic Decline & Demographic Pressures on Youth Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Okpala, Comfort O.


    Although literacy rates have improved somehow in recent years, there are still large numbers of people that are illiterates in developing countries. This paper examines the impact of severe economic decline and demographic pressures on youth literacy rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, a cross-sectional data of 39 Sub-Saharan African…

  20. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya


    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  1. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Monica Pregnolato


    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees.Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated.Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey.Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places (i

  2. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Bongoh Kye


    Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

  3. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.


    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and

  4. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Malmqvist Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  5. Demographic research in the Arab Middle East: opportunities, barriers, and prospects.

    Weller, R H


    The demographic characteristics of the Arab region that present opportunities for population research are described, and existing obstacles to research are discussed. Additionally, the prospects for improving the situation are explored. The combination of high fertility, moderately low mortality, and in some instances massive new immigration have produced extremely rapid rates of population growth. During the early 1970s the population of the United Arab Emirates increased by an annual rate of at least 15%, Qatar's population by 8.5% annually, and Kuwait's population by 6% annually. Even the labor exporting countries had high rates of population growth. Thus the slowest growth between 1970 and 1975 occurred in Yemen, where the annual rate of population growth was 1.8%. Because of the large growth gap between birth and death rates in the Arab countries, the age composition is very young. Such young age composition reduces measures of fertility and mortality that do not control for age. It also means that rapid population growth will not cease in the near future. These are the major demographic characteristics of the region and some of the major opportunities for demographic research they present. Obstacles to research in the region include the absence of a tradition of census taking or survey research for demographic purposes and the absence of a registration system for vital statistics in many of the countries. According to informed sources, the governments involved are not always supportive of research per se. Political instability often works against conducting demographic research. Another obstacle to demographic research in the Arab Middle East is language. There is a shortage of qualified instructors to teach demography in universities working in Arabic. A promising development for population research is the increase of demographic data collection by the various governments. Also, non-Arab researchers and funding organizations have expressed growing interest

  6. The Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Awareness and Usage of Support Groups.

    Coleman, Linda Jane; Shah, Nehal; Jain, Sanjay


    There are support groups established for one's emotional and/or physical health; as a result, marketing has appeared in regards to the needs, benefits, and hesitations regarding these groups. This study addresses several types of individuals and situations that lend themselves to using support groups. The authors conducted a study designed to examine demographic characteristics as they relate to a person's decision to go to support groups for health conditions. Looking at the demographics of users and the types of support groups, the authors discuss diverse opportunities for support groups and their organizations to promote communication, improve marketing strategies, and create influential users.

  7. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo


    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  8. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL


    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  9. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Asghar Mirfardi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Component Reliability



    In a system, Every component has its unique position within system and its unique failure characteristics. When a component's reliability is changed, its effect on system reliability is not equal. Component reliability sensitivity is a measure of effect on system reliability while a component's reliability is changed. In this paper, the definition and relative matrix of component reliability sensitivity is proposed, and some of their characteristics are analyzed. All these will help us to analyse or improve the system reliability.

  11. Distributed and Parallel Component Library

    XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping


    Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik


    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly.

  13. Growing slowly, getting older: demographic trends in the Third District states

    Timothy G. Schiller


    National trends such as slower population growth, an aging population, and immigrants as a larger component of the population are mirrored in the Third District states (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware). These trends are likely to persist and perhaps even accelerate well into the future. In "Growing Slowly, Getting Older: Demographic Trends in the Third District States," Tim Schiller reviews these trends and their possible interaction with health care and retirement benefit programs nat...

  14. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D


    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  15. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    Naruo Yoshida


    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  16. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Li Sen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  17. Improving the analysis of social component of flash-floods risk assessment: Application to urban areas of Castilla y León (Spain)

    Aroca Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque del Pozo, Jose Maria; Garcia Martin, Juan Antonio; Diez Herrero, Andres


    The increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change, the respective intensification of extreme events as well as the increase in human exposure to natural hazards and their vulnerability show that the enhancement of strategies on how to reduce disaster risk and promote adaptation to extreme events is critical to increase resilience. Growing economic losses, high numbers of casualties and the disruption of livelihoods in various places of the world, at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Social vulnerability characterizes the predisposition of society to be afflicted by hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. Despite its importance, social vulnerability is often a neglected aspect of traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on economic and structural measures. The aim of this research is to identify those social characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazards, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is a Social Susceptibility Index (SSI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Analysis of demographic and socio-economic information provided by different public organisms. By adding exposure information to SSI, a Social and Infraestructure Flood Vulnerability Index (SIFVI) is created. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,226 km2). Townships that are included in this study meet two requirements: i) city centres are affected by an area where potential significant flash-flood risk exists (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01); ii) city centres are affected by an area with low

  18. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Morelos, J B


    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  19. Quality of demographic data in GGS Wave 1

    Jorik Vergauwen


    Full Text Available Background: A key feature of the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP is that longitudinal micro-data from the Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS can be combined with indicators from the Contextual Database (CDB that provide information on the macro-level context in which people live. This allows researchers to consider the impact of socio-cultural, economic, and policy contexts on changing demographic behaviour since the 1970s. The validity of longitudinal analyses combining individual-level and contextual data depends, however, on whether the micro-data give a correct account of demographic trends after 1970. Objective: This article provides information on the quality of retrospective longitudinal data on first marriage and fertility in the first wave of the GGS. Methods: Using the union and fertility histories recorded in the GGS, we compare period indicators of women's nuptiality and fertility behaviour for the period 1970-2005 and cohort indicators of nuptiality and fertility for women born after 1925 to population statistics. Results: Results suggest that, in general, period indicators estimated retrospectively from the GGS are fairly accurate from the 1970s onwards, allowing exceptions for specific indicators in specific countries. Cohort indicators, however, were found to be less accurate for cohorts born before 1945, suggesting caution when using the GGS to study patterns of union and family formation in these older cohorts. Conclusions: The assessment of the validity of demographic data in the GGS provides country-specific information on time periods and birth cohorts for which GGS estimates deviate from population statistics. Researchers may use this information to decide on the observation period or cohorts to include in their analysis, or use the results as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of item nonresponse in union and fertility histories, which may further improve the quality of GGS estimates, particularly for these

  20. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Goran Rajović


    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  1. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing


    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component

  2. A multi-component patient-handling intervention improves attitudes and behaviors for safe patient handling and reduces aggression experienced by nursing staff

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Casper, Sven Dalgas; Andersen, Lars L.


    This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before......-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient-handling...... attitudes and behaviours for safe patient-handling and less physically aggressive episodes. However, this did not translate into improved health of the staff during the 12-month study period....

  3. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Podyashchikh, P


    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  4. Oral health related to demographic features in Bosnian children aged six.

    Muratbegović, Amra Arslanagić; Marković, Nina; Zukanović, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimović; Jurić, Hrvoje


    The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken.

  5. MultiComponent Exercise and theRApeutic lifeStyle (CERgAS) intervention to improve physical performance and maintain independent living among urban poor older people - a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Peramalah, Devi; Kandiben, Shathanapriya; Lee, Pek Ling; Gani, Norlissa; Madzlan, Mohamed Faris; Abd Hamid, Mohd Alif Idham; Akram, Zohaib; Chu, Ai Sean; Bulgiba, Awang; Cumming, Robert G.


    Background The ability of older people to function independently is crucial as physical disability and functional limitation have profound impacts on health. Interventions that either delay the onset of frailty or attenuate its severity potentially have cascading benefits for older people, their families and society. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a multiComponent Exercise and theRApeutic lifeStyle (CERgAS) intervention program targeted at improving physical perf...

  6. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors



    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  7. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  8. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Bonanni, P


    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  9. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU


    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  10. An approach to improve direct runoff estimates and reduce uncertainty in the calculated groundwater component in water balances of large lakes

    Wiebe, Andrew J.; Conant, Brewster; Rudolph, David L.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti


    Groundwater is important in the overall water budget of a lake because it affects the quantity and quality of surface water and the ecological health of the lake. The water balance equation is frequently used to estimate the net groundwater flow for small lakes but is seldom used to determine net groundwater flow components for large lakes because: (1) errors accumulate in the calculated groundwater term, and (2) there is an inability to accurately quantify the direct runoff component. In this water balance study of Lake Pyhäjärvi (155 km2) in Finland, it was hypothesized a hydrograph separation model could be used to estimate direct runoff to the lake and, when combined with a rigorous uncertainty analyses, would provide reliable net groundwater flow estimates. The PART hydrograph separation model was used to estimate annual per unit area direct runoff values for the watershed of the inflowing Yläneenjoki River (a subwatershed of the lake) which were then applied to other physically similar subwatersheds of the lake to estimate total direct runoff to the lake. The hydrograph separation method provided superior results and had lower uncertainty than the common approach of using a runoff coefficient based method. The average net groundwater flow into the lake was calculated to be +43 mm per year (+3.0% of average total inflow) for the 38 water years 1971-2008. It varied from -197 mm to 284 mm over that time, and had a magnitude greater than the uncertainty for 17 of the 38 years. The average indirect groundwater contribution to the lake (i.e., the groundwater part of the inflowing rivers) was 454 mm per year (+32% of average total inflow) and demonstrates the overall importance of groundwater. The techniques in this study are applicable to other large lakes and may allow small net groundwater flows to be reliably quantified in settings that might otherwise be unquantifiable or completely lost in large uncertainties.

  11. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C


    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  12. Evaluating the Improvements of StarCraft Gameplay in the ABL Agent EISBot by Implementing Dynamic Specificities through an External Component

    Okun Jared


    Full Text Available I studied how artificial intelligence (AI adapts to failure. I worked with AI framework ABL, which uses a behavior tree. The tree begins by creating behaviors to accomplish an AI goal. Behaviors are chosen based on priorities. However, these priorities are not effective in all situations, and cannot change in ABL, which prevents the AI to learn from failure. For my study, I gave ABL the ability to change its priorities. This essentially allows an ABL AI to adapt from its mistakes. This ability was then tested for effectiveness using the ABL AI EISBot (an AI that plays videogames and the game of StarCraft. The new ability caused EISBot to improve significantly showing that the ability to change priorities improves an AI’s performance.

  13. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M


    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  14. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne


    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  15. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K


    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  16. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James


    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  17. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Aggarwal, Raj


    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  18. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.


    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  19. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Peng, Xizhe


    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  20. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  1. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali


    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  2. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors



    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  3. How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?

    Derya KARA


    Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

  4. Improving the low-temperature capacitance of CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide in a redox electrolyte

    Su, Linghao, E-mail:; Song, Zuwei; Lu, Lihua; Pang, Guanglong


    Graphical abstract: The specific capacitance of CoNiAl layered double hydroxide in 6 M KOH reduces sharply from room temperature to −20 °C, which is effectively enhanced by adding redox pair Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4−} in the electrolyte. - Highlights: • CoNiAl layered double hydroxide is synthesized by homogeneous precipitation. • The specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature. • At −20 °C the specific capacitance is increased by 178% in a redox electrolyte. - Abstract: CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide with a lamellar structure similar to hydrotalcite-like compounds is synthesized via homogeneous precipitation and the effect of temperature on its capacitive performances in 6 M KOH is investigated. Electrochemical tests show its specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature from 18 to −20 °C. At −20 °C an increase of specific capacitance by 178% is achieved by adding redox pair Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4−} as the electron shuttle in the electrolyte due to their cooperation with the electrode reaction during the charge/discharge processes.

  5. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)


    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  6. Autonomous component carrier selection

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  7. The demographic drivers of local population dynamics in two rare migratory birds.

    Schaub, Michael; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Kéry, Marc; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël


    The exchange of individuals among populations can have strong effects on the dynamics and persistence of a given population. Yet, estimation of immigration rates remains one of the greatest challenges for animal demographers. Little empirical knowledge exists about the effects of immigration on population dynamics. New integrated population models fitted using Bayesian methods enable simultaneous estimation of fecundity, survival and immigration, as well as the growth rate of a population of interest. We applied this novel analytical framework to the demography of two populations of long-distance migratory birds, hoopoe Upupa epops and wryneck Jynx torquilla, in a study area in south-western Switzerland. During 2002-2010, the hoopoe population increased annually by 11%, while the wryneck population remained fairly stable. Apparent juvenile and adult survival probability was nearly identical in both species, but fecundity and immigration were slightly higher in the hoopoe. Hoopoe population growth rate was strongly correlated with juvenile survival, fecundity and immigration, while that of wrynecks strongly correlated only with immigration. This indicates that demographic components impacting the arrival of new individuals into the populations were more important for their dynamics than demographic components affecting the loss of individuals. The finding that immigration plays a crucial role in the population growth rates of these two rare species emphasizes the need for a broad rather than local perspective for population studies, and the development of wide-scale conservation actions.

  8. Finite Element Analysis and Improved Design for Aircraft′s Wing Rib Components%某型飞机翼肋组件的有限元分析及改进设计

    吴江; 杨兆军


    For the crack on a certain type of aircraft′s wing rib components, using Pro/E software, a three-dimensional model of wing rib components is established, the model is imported in ANSYS software to establish the finite element model.Using contact finite element method to simulate the mechanical behavior of rivet connection , bolt connection and contact of various components , the structure strength of aircraft′s wing rib components is analyzed under landing and flying conditions .The anal-ysis results show that, the aircraft′s wing rib components produce fatigue crack because the structure strength is insufficient. The improvement and comparison analysis for aircraft's wing rib components is carried out based on the analysis results, the improved design make the aircraft′s wing rib components have stronger structural fatigue strength and can effectively prevent fa-tigue crack.%针对某型飞机翼肋组件裂纹问题,利用Pro/E软件对翼肋组件进行三维建模,将其导入ANSYS软件中建立了有限元模型。采用接触有限元方法模拟铆钉联接、螺栓联接及各构件间接触的力学特征,对着陆和飞行两种工况下翼肋组件的结构强度进行了分析。分析结果表明,飞行工况中,翼肋组件结构强度不足导致了疲劳裂纹产生。根据分析结果对翼肋组件进行了改进和比较分析,改进设计后的翼肋组件结构疲劳强度得到了较大提高,可有效预防疲劳裂纹产生。

  9. Forecasting the Effects of Raising the Retirement Age on Russia’s Demographic Struc

    Elena Vital’evna Chistova


    Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a

  10. GCS component development cycle

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti


    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  11. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study

    Paul J. Arciero


    Full Text Available The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE training (PRISE in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15 or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15 for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs, power (bench throws, BTs, blood pressure (BP, augmentation index, (AIx, and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre and 13 (post. At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05 in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively, BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts, AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%, and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg. These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day diet and multi-component exercise (RISE training (PRISE enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women.

  12. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Haub, C


    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  13. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  14. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Gordon Carmichael


    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  15. Improving the Concentrations of the Active Components in the Herbal Tea Ingredient, Uraria crinita: The Effect of Post-harvest Oven-drying Processing

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Li, Ke; Peng, Wen-Huang; Pao, Li-Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Qin, Xue-Mei; Lee, Meng-Shiou


    Uraria crinita is widely used as a popular folk drink; however, little is known about how the post-harvest operations affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of UC. We assessed three drying methods (Oven-drying, Air-drying, Sun-drying), as well as the Oven-drying temperature using metabolomics approaches and bioactivity assays. The samples processed at 40 degree show a greater effect on the levels of estrogen receptor-alpha activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 activity, anti-oxidative activity, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition compared with the other samples. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the 40 degree Oven-dried samples and the other samples, which is consistent with the results of bioactivity assay. These results are ascribed to at least two-fold increase in the concentrations of flavonoids, spatholosineside A and triterpenoids in the oven-dried samples compared with the other groups. The proposed Oven-drying method at 40 degree results in an improved quality of UC. PMID:28079108

  16. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Knežević Aleksandar


    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  17. 一种提高数据传输可靠性的成分载波选择算法%Component carrier selection algorithm to improve the reliability of data transmission



    载波聚合是LTE-Advanced的关键技术之一,它能有效地解决LTE-A系统带宽扩展问题。合理的选择成分载波将使得数据业务在传输时具有高的可靠性。本文提出了一种提高数据传输可靠性的成分载波选择算法,综合考虑成分载波信道质量和负载均衡两方面,对成分载波进行选择。通过仿真表明,该算法可以有效地选择成分载波进行聚合,降低数据传输的误比特率和误块率,减少平均传输次数,从而提高数据传输的可靠性,降低系统开销。%Carrier aggregation technology is one of the key technologies in LTE-A system, which can effectively solve the bandwidth extension problem in LTE-A system. Carrier aggregation select proper the component carrier during transmission will make the data with high reliability. This paper presents a component carrier selection algorithm to improve the reliability of data transmission, considering both component carrier channels quality and load balancing, then select the component carrier. The simulation results show that this algorithm can efficiently aggregate the component carrier and decrease bit error rate and block error rate of data transmission, reducing the average number of transmission, thereby increasing the reliability of data transmission, reducing system overhead.

  18. From First Demographic Transition to Second Demographic Transition: Reflections on the Modern Demographic Transition%从一次人口转变到二次人口转变——现代人口转变及其启示

    刘爽; 卫银霞; 任慧


    Based on a brief analysis of the narrowly-defined demographic transition and the classical model, this paper argues that the proposed theory of the second demographic transition broadly interprets the internal motivation and mechanism of action of the demographic changes by drawing upon the demographic "intermediate variables", reflecting on the relationship between modern demographic transition and social changes at the macro, meso and micro levels. Demographic transition is a multidimensional dynamic historical process, involving a set of transitions on marriage, reproduction, family, health, population control etc. Demographic transition is not only demographic change, but more importantly, is its nested social change. The unprecedented close relationship between the two reflects the social changes and social needs. Over the past 30 years China has made its population be adapted to economic development through family planning. In the next 30 to 50 years or even longer, China should make economic and social development be adapted to the changes and needs of the population. The end of development is to improve population survival and enhance life quality.%在扼要解析狭义人口转变及其经典模型的基础上,认为第二次人口转变的提出,是结合人口“中间变量”从广义上阐释了入口变化的内在动因与作用机理,进而在宏观、中观和微观三个层面引入了对现代人口转变与社会变迁关系的思考。主张人口转变是一个多维的动态历史过程,蕴涵着婚姻、生育、家庭、健康、人口调控等系列转变。提出第二次人口转变在中国的城市地区已露端倪。最后特别指出人口转变不仅仅是入口变化,更重要的是将其嵌套的社会变迁,两者关系的空前紧密折射着社会变化与社会需求。过去30年中国通过计划生育让人口“适应”了经济腾飞,而今后三、五十年以至更长时间,应使人口的“主

  19. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    Wilder, Stanley


    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell


    Radhika Gollapudi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  1. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  2. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M


    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  3. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    任强; 郑晓瑛


    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  5. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Neha GUPTA


    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  6. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  11. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  12. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Wane, H R


    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful

  13. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen


    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  14. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend


    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  15. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    Michael Sarel


    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  16. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw


    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  17. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Russell Dowling


    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  18. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Jamal Abdul Nasir


    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  19. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh


    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  20. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Philippe Bocquier


    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  1. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2: study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression

    Edward Watkins


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. Methods/Design A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2IV 7-2. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms

  2. Analysis and Improvement of the Components of SNOW 2.0 Based on Statistical Tests%基于随机性测试的SNOW 2.0算法部件分析与改进

    姚丹丹; 张筱; 王钊; 姚望; 邱望洁; 郑志明


    SNOW族算法是目前序列密码算法设计的一个主流方向。针对SNOW族算法现有的安全漏洞,该文以最具代表性的SNOW 2.0算法为研究对象,采用随机性测试方法对其多个域上模加、非线性S盒以及线性反馈移位寄存器(LFSR)3个核心部件进行分析,提出基于随机S盒和高性能LFSR等部件改进的多套改进方案,有效提升SNOW族算法的安全性和实现性能。%The SNOW family is a main trend of the design of the stream cipher. Because of the security vulnerabilities of the SNOW family, this paper selects SNOW 2.0 algorithm which is the most representative of the family as a research object. Three core components of SNOW 2.0 that are mold addition on more than one domain, nonlinear S-box and Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) are analyzed using statistical tests. Several improved algorithms are proposed based on improving random S-box and improving high performance LFSR. The result enhances effectively the security and performance of SNOW family.

  3. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Farnoosh Golband


    Full Text Available E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60; a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test by using SPSS (V.16. The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05; whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05. Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  4. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Patrik Galeta


    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  5. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.


    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  6. Peculiarities of gender and demographically targeted advertising texts

    A.S. Teletov


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlightes the individual components in the total advertising by gender. Examples of typical advertising products for men, women, youth, children, the elderly are given. The classification of objects advertising by gender is made. It is analyzed the specific drafting advertising copy, including headlines and slogans. The basic provisions for advertising of products segmented by demographic principle. The results of the analysis. The analysis of consumer advertising texts revealed some gender peculiarities. It is confirmed that advertising for female audience is informative headlines, because it usually knows what the needed product is at the moment. It shows that an important psychological feature for women is the attention to detail that is normally ignored by men; text ads feature women is the use of a large number of emotionally charged, interrogative and incentive offers. Grounded in advertising to appeal to men innovations more often than other types of uses is provocative headlines. Semantic orientation lexicon in advertising for men focuses on external data and character traits a man on his professionalism. A small number of adjectives emphasizes restraint and courage recipient. Relative adjectives in texts predominate in advertising addressed to men and more qualitative adjectives containing the emotional evaluation of the advertised product – for women. It is proposed to take into account the physiological differences between male (analytical and female (figurative thinking: men do not like when they are run, so do not use verbs in the imperative mood, and women often act as wingmen, they need advice, call to action, so the imperative verb form is more appropriate. It is confirmed that promotional texts baby goods semantics vocabulary related to the development, nutrition, child health and feelings to it, because advertising is designed for parents and other adults. It is better to use verbs in the

  7. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Filipović Marko


    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  8. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Adriana Veronica Litra


    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  9. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Adriana Veronica Litra


    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  10. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Abdoul Hossain Madani


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.


    Mijalce Gjorgievski


    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  12. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Sinan NARDALI


    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  13. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E


    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  14. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle

    Vreni Jean-Richard


    Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  15. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés


    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  16. Motivating the population to cope with the demographic change

    König, Armin


    The effects of the demographic challenge will change the nature of politics and the emphasis of political sectors over the next 20 years, especially on a local level. This calls for new ways of thinking, new social skills and a new frame of awareness to allow for sustainable development. The community of Illingen in the Saarland, a town of 18,000 residents, has not denied the demographic change, but has accepted it. It shows how the populace, politics and administration have been confronted w...

  17. Sessile serrated adenomas:Demographic,endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Suryakanth; R; Gurudu; Russell; I; Heigh; Giovanni; De; Petris; Evelyn; G; Heigh; Jonathan; A; Leighton; Shabana; F; Pasha; Isaac; B; Malagon; Ananya; Das


    AIM:To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma(SSA) in a single center.METHODS:Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007.A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics,polyp characteristics,presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer,polypectomy methods,and related complications.RESULTS:One hundred and seventy-one(2.9%) of all patients undergoing co...

  18. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect



    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  19. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  20. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Schwarze, Gene E.


    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  1. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Arsić Slađana


    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  2. 高光谱数据非监督分类的改进独立成分分析方法%An Improved Independent Component Analysis Method for Unsupervised Classification of Hyperspectral Data

    李娜; 赵慧洁


    To solve the problem that the first - order and second - order statistics may be inadequate for obtaining a complete representation of the data, a high - order statistics - based method, kurtosis - based independent component analysis (KICA), is introduced to implement unsupervised classification of hyperspectral data. Aimed at the purpose that kurtosis can be very sensitive to outliers such as noise, the improved KICA (IKICA) model is proposed in the work when kurtosis is used as optimization criterion for the ICA problem. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and its application capability in unsupervised classification, IKICA is compared with maximum likelihood -based ICA and negentropy -based ICA, and the synthesized and real hyperspectral data acquired by Object Modularization Imaging Spectrometer (OMIS) and Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) are used. The results show that convergence speed and robustness are enhanced obviously and anti - noise capability is improved in the authors' work. The application result has high precision of classification.%利用数据本身统计特性是实现高光谱数据非监督分类的有效方法之一.针对利用高光谱数据一阶、二阶统计量不能完全表征数据结构的问题,提出了一种基于数据高阶统计特性--峭度的改进独立成分分析方法(Improved Kurtosis-Based Independent Component Analysis,IKICA)的高光谱数据非监督分类方法,并针对利用峭度进行非高斯性度量时对噪声等敏感的问题进行了模型改进.利用同一航带的OMIS高光谱遥感数据对该算法的性能进行了评价,并分别与基于最大似然估计和基于负熵的独立成分分析(ICA)方法进行了性能比较.将该方法应用于PHI获取的方麓茶场航空高光谱数据的非监督分类,结果表明,本文提出的算法明显地提高了运算的收敛速度和鲁棒性,并具有较高的分类精度和较强的抗噪声能力.

  3. Developing a Model Component

    Fields, Christina M.


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.


    M. K. M. Kathyayani


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Existence of particular chronobiological pattern in onset of acute cerebrovascular diseases characterised by circannual rhythms has been detected. India is a subtropical country with clear seasonal variations in weather conditions. Stroke causes death and disability worldwide. Seasons may influence stroke occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these seasonal variations of stroke are not fully understood, but a possible reason may include seasonal variation of biological factors such as arterial blood pressure, serum lipid levels and other blood components. Better understanding and controlling of risk factors associated with onset of stroke will improve the disease prevention. The objective of the present study is to examine the role of possible precipitating or triggering factors. This study reviews records of patients with stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam, were selected. Computed tomographic types of stroke, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic and risk factors associated were considered with tropical seasonal variation. RESULTS A total of 150 stroke patients were included in the study of which 93 (62% were males, 57 (38% were females and 46% in 50-65 years age group, 4% in 20-35 years, 28% in 35-50 years, 22% in 65-80 years and above age groups. Of the total, 93.33% presented with 1st attack and only 6.66% presented with recurrent stroke. The prevalence of types of stroke was: ischaemic stroke 54.66%, haemorrhagic stroke 45.33%. The prevalence of risk factors associated with stroke was - male gender 62%, smoking 56.66%, hypertension 56%, age >50 years 46%, alcohol consumption 43%, hyperlipidaemia 16.66%, consumption of alcohol and smoking together 13.33%, valvular heart diseases 6.66%. A high seasonal prevalence was observed in winter season (50.66%. CONCLUSION This study revealed that male

  5. Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics

    Ray, Brian D.


    In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

  6. Demographic and personality characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.


    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. I

  7. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.


    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  8. Predicting Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcome Using Demographic Characteristics: A Replication

    Anthony, William A.; Buell, Gregory J.


    Replication was undertaken of a recent study conducted by Buell and Anthony which had found that recidivism and posthospital employment could be predicted by a single demographic variable, number of previous hospitalizations and employment history, respectively. Results of the replication were consistent for posthospital employment but not for…

  9. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  10. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie; Caye-Thomasen, Per;


    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic...... of socio-demographic areas elaborated by Demarks Statistic. RESULTS: The mean national incidence increased almost linearly over the time period from 6.1 per million per year in the first period from 1976 to 1984, to 22.1 per million per year in the last period from 2003 to 2012. There was a lower incidence...... at the end of the period in the remote areas compared with the other socio-demographic areas (1976-1984, p = 0.05 and 2003-2011, p = 0.001). The mean age at diagnosis increased during the period, from 52.6 years in the first period to 58.6 years in the last period. There was no significant difference...

  11. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine


    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  12. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

    Emilio Zagheni


    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  13. Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?

    Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.


    For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

  14. Global Demographic Change and Its Implications for Military Power


    119 APPENDIXES A. Delayed Maternity and Fertility Rates...some during the past decade. The consequence of what has already taken place in the world’s maternity wards (so to speak) will unfold over the next 20...bathing, and dressing . See Spillman, 2004, p. 160. 31 Spillman, 2004, Table 2, pp. 167–168. 32 Bloom, Canning, and Fink, 2008. 74 Global Demographic

  15. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Nerlich, Steve


    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  16. Social identity patterns and trust in demographically diverse work teams

    van der Zee, Karen; Vos, Menno; Luijters, Kyra


    The article presents a model that links trust in a demographically diverse work context to three different social-identity patterns. Trust is considered to be beneficial for interpersonal relationships and work outcomes in diverse teams as well as for a healthy work relationship between minority mem

  17. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.


    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  18. Demographic Trends in the European Union: Political and Strategic Implications


    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), in Laxenburg, Austria, concluded that the current...Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate,” International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Office of Information, 27 March...its Demographic Evolution, Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate.” International Institute for Applied Systems

  19. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.


    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  20. Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students

    Wristen, Brenda


    As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

  1. Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.

    Wolf, James F.; And Others


    Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

  2. Doctoral Accounting Candidates: A Profile of Demographics and Perceptions.

    Backmon, Ida Robinson


    Presents information on minority doctoral students in accounting, drawing on surveys completed by 47 such students. Outlines demographic characteristics, and identifies respondents' rankings of costs and benefits of pursuing a doctorate in accounting. Most respondents were professionally certified and were interested in academic careers. (SLD)

  3. Leisure Lifestyles: Segmentation by Interests, Needs, Demographics, and Television Viewing.

    Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.


    Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)

  4. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay


    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  5. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.


    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  6. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Roussel, L; Thery, I


    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  7. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia


    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  8. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.


    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show th

  9. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  10. Higher Order Risk Attitudes, Demographics, and Financial Decisions

    Noussair, C.N.; Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.


    We conduct an experiment to study the prevalence of the higher order risk attitudes of prudence and temperance, in a large demographically representative sample, as well as in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants make pairwise choices between lotteries of the form proposed by Eeckhoudt a

  11. The Boder Test: Neuropsychological and Demographic Features of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; And Others


    Investigated the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of 30 children in reading categories defined by performance on the Boder Test. Provided evidence that the Boder Test may be a nonbiased valid screening test for the identification of dyslexia and dyslexic subtypes. (JAC)

  12. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  13. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus


    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  14. [Demographic aspects of social security of elderly population in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region].

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu; Emel'ianova, A S


    Social security of elderly people is discussed at different levels of the realization of the geronto-social policy in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region within the context of the Madrid Plan of Actions on Aging. There have been comparatively analyzed demographic indicators that show age structures of the regions which are parts of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region. There have been defined regional differences and trends of improvement of geronto-social policy for providing security of life activity of elderly people in the Russian part of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region.

  15. Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Dobrin Seth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

  16. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F


    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  17. Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease

    Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)


    This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

  18. Empirical Succession Mapping and Data Assimilation to Constrain Demographic Processes in an Ecosystem Model

    Kelly, R.; Andrews, T.; Dietze, M.


    Shifts in ecological communities in response to environmental change have implications for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and feedbacks to global climate change. Community composition is fundamentally the product of demography, but demographic processes are simplified or missing altogether in many ecosystem, Earth system, and species distribution models. This limitation arises in part because demographic data are noisy and difficult to synthesize. As a consequence, demographic processes are challenging to formulate in models in the first place, and to verify and constrain with data thereafter. Here, we used a novel analysis of the USFS Forest Inventory Analysis to improve the representation of demography in an ecosystem model. First, we created an Empirical Succession Mapping (ESM) based on ~1 million individual tree observations from the eastern U.S. to identify broad demographic patterns related to forest succession and disturbance. We used results from this analysis to guide reformulation of the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), an existing forest simulator with explicit tree demography. Results from the ESM reveal a coherent, cyclic pattern of change in temperate forest tree size and density over the eastern U.S. The ESM captures key ecological processes including succession, self-thinning, and gap-filling, and quantifies the typical trajectory of these processes as a function of tree size and stand density. Recruitment is most rapid in early-successional stands with low density and mean diameter, but slows as stand density increases; mean diameter increases until thinning promotes recruitment of small-diameter trees. Strikingly, the upper bound of size-density space that emerges in the ESM conforms closely to the self-thinning power law often observed in ecology. The ED model obeys this same overall size-density boundary, but overestimates plot-level growth, mortality, and fecundity rates, leading to unrealistic emergent demographic patterns. In particular

  19. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Qingsong Wang


    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  20. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John


    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

  1. The historical role of demographic change in Hong Kong.

    Yang, Z


    In the aftermath of the Opium War, Britain coerced the Manchurian government into signing three treaties under which Britain occupied and leased the territory of Hong Kong and established colonial rule in the region. The rapid development of Hong Kong over the past 30 years has resulted in an increase of the territory's population from 5650 in 1841 to 6,149,000 at the end of 1994. Hong Kong now ranks fourth among the global financial centers, sixth in global foreign exchange reserve, and eighth among the world's trade systems, with per capita output of US$21,760. Demographic change and an exceptional development model were instrumental in building Hong Kong into what it has become. This paper discusses successful demographic transformation as the milestone of Hong Kong's social development, population growth as the basis of the Hong Kong government's economic strategy, and a modernized population management system as an important condition for the smooth transition of Hong Kong.

  2. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Amol M. Karmarkar


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  3. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Lundgren, Britt; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Tremonti, Christy A; Myers, Adam D; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S


    Many astronomers now participate in large international collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In April 2014, the CPWS administered a demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the US or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the US astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the IAU (16%)...

  4. Demographic and Commercial Environments and Building Control Customer Services

    Hope Peter


    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective business analytics schema developed in this study provides a basis for observing how demographic and commercial environmental impacts affect building control customer services. In order to overlay environmental impacts onto building control services, schematic mapping of resource distributions and services were plotted according to corporate jurisdiction, corporate virtues and customer type characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative surveys were conducted on corporate staff and material resources, business performance measures and targets, building control service manager observations and demographic and commercial environments. Results from this research provide a single view corporate map of people, material resources, and service performance in relation to customer characteristics, while reaching out to better understand the building control customer experience, general public expectation and market influences. In this regard, this research can provide a foundation for realising corporate virtue aspirations.

  5. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Stephen Carstens


    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  6. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Forest, Benjamin


    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  7. Variability and component composition

    Storm, T. van der


    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  8. A Socio- Demographic Profile of Infant Deaths in A Tribal Block of South Gujarat

    Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai


    Full Text Available With progressive reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR and advent of technology, socio – demographic determinants assume more importance (than biological, more so in remote and inaccessible areas, which incidentally also record high IMR. Study was carried out in a tribal block of South Gujarat to generate socio- demographic profile for 48 infant deaths reported during one year. Data was collected through house to house survey on a designed questionnaire. Amongst 48 death cases, literacy rates amongst mothers and fathers were 64.6 and 75% respectively. Occupation wise 81.3% fathers and 52.1% mothers were farm laborer. Joint families were in 81.3% cases and 85.4% belonged to lower social class. Teenage pregnancy was found in 56.3% cases. Age of 25% mothers’ at birth was below 20 years. First birth order was found in 47.9% cases. Birth spacing was less than 2 years in 60.4% cases. It is concluded that improving literacy, increasing age at pregnancy, increasing birth spacing (> 2 years along with overall socioeconomic improvement of community can help in attaining the further reduction in infant mortality.

  9. [Hereditary spherocytosis: Review. Part I. History, demographics, pathogenesis, and diagnosis].

    Donato, Hugo; Crisp, Renée Leonor; Rapetti, María Cristina; García, Eliana; Attie, Myriam


    Hereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent hereditary anemia excluding beta thalassemia in Argentina. Historical, demographic, genetic and pathogenic aspects of the disease are reviewed, and confirmatory laboratory tests are described. Special characteristics on the outcome of the disease in our population and prevalent protein deficiencies in our country are described. Emphasis is given on new available laboratory tests, which allow an earlier diagnosis using volume of blood samples significantly smaller than required for conventional tests.

  10. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize


    The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

  11. Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children

    Singh H


    Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.


    Aleshkovski, Ivan


    In the article, the author analyzes the impact of globalization on the transformation of international migration flows in the Russian Federation. The author considers the features of global trends in international migration in Russia: increasing involvement of Russia and its regions in the international migration, the qualitative changes in the structure of migration flows, the increasing role of international migration as a factor of the country's demographic development.

  13. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Ayyoub Malek


    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  14. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    Forest, Benjamin


    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  15. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Xingan Li; Henry Joutsijoki; Jorma Laurikkala; Martti Juhola


    The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We f...

  16. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben


    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  17. Demographic characteristics of exploited tropical lutjanids: a comparative analysis

    Heupel, Michelle R.; Williams, Ashley A.; David J. Welch; Campbell R. Davies; Penny, Ann; Jacob P Kritzer; Marriott, Ross J.; Bruce D. Mapstone


    Demographic parameters from seven exploited coral reef lutjanid species were compared as a case study of the implications of intrafamily variation in life histories for multispecies harvest management. Modal lengths varied by 4 cm among four species (Lutjanus fulviflamma, L. vitta, L. carponotatus, L. adetii), which were at least 6 cm smaller than the modal lengths of the largest species (L. gibbus, Symphorus nematophorus, Aprion virescens). Modal ages, indicating ages of full selection to...

  18. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

    Akeredolu Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  19. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu


    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail:

  20. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Paul Rohe Milton


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  1. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo


    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  2. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factors of pension system requires a fundamental change in the methodological approaches to the problem of raising the retirement age by using the actuarial methods of forecasting. The actuarial analysis of the problem of retirement age shows that the perception of the linear dependence on demographic parameters of the age when the national pension is awarded cannot be considered as a tool for regulating the efficiency of the pension system. For the science-based solution to the problem of rising the retirement age, along with the dynamics of demographic parameters, it is necessary to take into account the whole range of macroeconomic conditions for the state development as well as the long-term socio-economic consequences. Another significant result of the study are the specific parameters of the actuarial assessments of the impact of demographic and macroeconomic conditions of increasing the retirement age in Russia, conducted using the state statistical data. The practical proposals to mitigate the negative economic consequences are formulated. The key conclusion reached is that the raising of the retirement age should be aimed exclusively at the economic stimulation of the formation of the pension rights of the insured in the long term, rather than to the short-term savings of the state budget. The methodological approaches grounded in the work, and the quantitative results of the actuarial calculations may be applied in the shaping the public pension policy when

  3. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K


    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  4. One-component nanomedicine.

    Su, Hao; Koo, Jin Mo; Cui, Honggang


    One-component nanomedicine (OCN) represents an emerging class of therapeutic nanostructures that contain only one type of chemical substance. This one-component feature allows for fine-tuning and optimization of the drug loading and physicochemical properties of nanomedicine in a precise manner through molecular engineering of the underlying building blocks. Using a precipitation procedure or effective molecular assembly strategies, molecularly crafted therapeutic agents (e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, small molecule prodrugs, or drug amphiphiles) could involuntarily aggregate, or self-assemble into nanoscale objects of well-defined sizes and shapes. Unlike traditional carrier-based nanomedicines that are inherently multicomponent systems, an OCN does not require the use of additional carriers and could itself possess desired physicochemical features for preferential accumulation at target sites. We review here recent progress in the molecular design, conjugation methods, and fabrication strategies of OCN, and analyze the opportunities that this emerging platform could open for the new and improved treatment of devastating diseases such as cancer.

  5. The demographic effects of technological change and capitalist transformation--a re-interpretation of the demographic transition theory.

    Maitra, P


    The interrelationship between demographic transition, capitalist transformation, and technological change in the 2 contrasting cases of the UK and India is explored. In the UK, technological change evolved from the extensive to the intensive phase, while technological change was introduced in India from the UK and other developed economies. The Demographic Transition Model is re-examined for these cases while the extensive and intensive phases of technological change with their effects on labor demand and consequent effects on fertility rate are analyzed. Changes in economic structure, demography, and factor pricing systems are presented as indicators of capitalist transformation of an economy. At the onset of capitalist transformation, population growth tends to decline as a result of increasing demand for labor in productive activities. Accordingly, the pattern of population growth depends upon the growth of demand for labor in productive activities which in turn depends upon the nature of the source of technological change; Demographic Transition theory ignores this point. Debate remains over whether imported technology, once reaching maturity, may effect capitalist transformation of economies toward true integrated development.

  6. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.


    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  7. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D


    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  8. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Julian R Homburger


    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform


    Ashraf, Quamrul H; Lester, Ashley; Weil, David N


    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous health improvements on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for a direct effect of health on worker productivity, as well as indirect effects that run through schooling, the size and age-structure of the population, capital accumulation, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics, disease burdens, and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We consider both changes in general health, proxied by improvements in life expectancy, and changes in the prevalence of two particular diseases: malaria and tuberculosis. We find that the effects of health improvements on income per capita are substantially lower than those that are often quoted by policy-makers, and may not emerge at all for three decades or more after the initial improvement in health. The results suggest that proponents of efforts to improve health in developing countries should rely on humanitarian rather than economic arguments.

  10. The role of demographic compensation theory in incidental take assessments for endangered species

    McGowan, Conor P.; Ryan, Mark R.; Runge, Michael C.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts


    Many endangered species laws provide exceptions to legislated prohibitions through incidental take provisions as long as take is the result of unintended consequences of an otherwise legal activity. These allowances presumably invoke the theory of demographic compensation, commonly applied to harvested species, by allowing limited harm as long as the probability of the species' survival or recovery is not reduced appreciably. Demographic compensation requires some density-dependent limits on survival or reproduction in a species' annual cycle that can be alleviated through incidental take. Using a population model for piping plovers in the Great Plains, we found that when the population is in rapid decline or when there is no density dependence, the probability of quasi-extinction increased linearly with increasing take. However, when the population is near stability and subject to density-dependent survival, there was no relationship between quasi-extinction probability and take rates. We note however, that a brief examination of piping plover demography and annual cycles suggests little room for compensatory capacity. We argue that a population's capacity for demographic compensation of incidental take should be evaluated when considering incidental allowances because compensation is the only mechanism whereby a population can absorb the negative effects of take without incurring a reduction in the probability of survival in the wild. With many endangered species there is probably little known about density dependence and compensatory capacity. Under these circumstances, using multiple system models (with and without compensation) to predict the population's response to incidental take and implementing follow-up monitoring to assess species response may be valuable in increasing knowledge and improving future decision making.

  11. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    M.V. Mamabolo


    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  12. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas


    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these subgroup

  13. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media


    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  14. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing


    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  15. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik


    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  16. Influence of harvesting pressure on demographic tactics: Implications for wildlife management

    Servanty, S.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Ronchi, F.; Focardi, S.; Baubet, E.; Gimenez, O.


    management strategies based on context-specific demographic models are useful for selecting interventions for population control. This type of approach allows the assessment of population response to exploitation by considering a range of plausible scenarios, improving the chance of selecting appropriate management actions. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

  17. Demographic and Marketing Data for the Marketable Preschool Education Program. Technical Report Number 26.

    Stepp, Ermel, Jr.

    Demographic and marketing data was collected to justify the development of a television series for preschool children. The terms "demographic" and "marketing" have been constricted in meaning for pertinence to educational program development. Demographic points were made pertaining to population, family income, percent of families below poverty…

  18. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    Postnikov, E. B.


    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  19. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse


    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen.......68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All...

  20. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  1. Demographics of mass customization: a global study of manufacturing plants

    Giovani José Caetano da Silveira


    Full Text Available Abstract This study explores the demographic configuration of mass customization (MC manufacturing plants. It uses cluster analysis, ANOVA and correspondence analysis to test for differences in business unit size, location, and supply chain structure between MC and non-MC producers across the globe. The analysis uses data from an international survey of manufacturers of metal products, machinery, and instruments from 21 countries. Results indicate no significant differences in size, but significant differences in location and supply chain indicators between MC and non-MC plants. We also find renewed evidence of the positioning of MC plants in Hayes & Wheelwright's (1979 product and process matrix.

  2. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Anatoly V. Korotkov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  3. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Xingan Li


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We found out that SOM was able to group efficiently the present data and characterize these different groups. Other machine learning methods were applied to ensure groups computed with SOM. The correlations obtained between attributes were chiefly weak.

  4. New developments in demographic targeting--the implications of 1991.

    Humby, C R


    This paper examines benefits that systems such as ACORN, a demographic marketing system that classifies neighborhoods, offer today and monitors some of the trends. It then considers the impact of the 1992 UK census and gives a view of what marketeers can expect in the next 5 years. Neighborhood classifications represent a summary of the consumption patterns of a set of neighbors. If we could reach individuals based on the current life stage the gains to be had would be as great again as that offered by the neighborhood classifications themselves. The greatest weakness of all the neighborhood-based systems is their inability to target at life stage or age.

  5. Demographics of paediatric renal replacement therapy in Europe

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Schaefer, Franz;


    BACKGROUND: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009...... to 2011. METHODS: Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. RESULTS: The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe...

  6. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes


    parameters, but not if the government is not allowed to borrow to cover revenue shortfalls for current age-related spending. In that context, balanced budget rules are not an approriate form of fiscal rule. The implication is that a government facing demograhic change or demands for more welfare spending...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  7. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C


    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators.

  8. Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.

    Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West


    Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality.

  9. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus


    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  10. Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention.

    Aber, J Lawrence; Brown, Joshua L; Jones, Stephanie M


    The present study addressed 3 questions concerning (a) the course of developmental trajectories toward violence over middle childhood, (b) whether and how the course of these trajectories differed by demographic subgroups of children, and (c) how responsive these trajectories were to a universal, school-based preventive intervention. Four waves of data on features of children's social-emotional development known to forecast aggression/violence were collected in the fall and spring over 2 years for a highly representative sample of 1st to 6th grade children from New York City public elementary schools (N = 11,160). Using hierarchical linear modeling techniques, synthetic growth curves were estimated for the entire sample and were conditioned on child demographic characteristics (gender, family economic resources, race/ethnicity) and amount of exposure to components of the preventive intervention. Three patterns of growth--positive linear, late acceleration, and gradual deceleration--characterized the children's trajectories, and these trajectories varied meaningfully by child demographic characteristics. Most important, children whose teachers taught a high number of lessons in the conflict resolution curriculum demonstrated positive changes in their social-emotional developmental trajectories and deflections from a path toward future aggression and violence.

  11. Genealogy and Demographic History of a Widespread Amphibian throughout Indochina.

    Blair, Christopher; Davy, Christina M; Ngo, Andre; Orlov, Nikolai L; Shi, Hai-tao; Lu, Shun-qing; Gao, Lan; Rao, Ding-qi; Murphy, Robert W


    Relatively little is known about spatial patterns of cryptic diversity in tropical species and the processes that generate them. Few studies examine the geographic distribution of genetic lineages in Southeast Asia, an area hypothesized to harbor substantial cryptic diversity. We investigated the evolutionary history of Asian tree frogs of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (n = 172) based on 1800 bp of the mtDNA genes ND1 and cytochrome b and tested hypotheses pertaining to climate, geology, and dispersal patterns. Analyses revealed substantial genetic diversity and lineage divergence throughout the region with evidence for widespread sympatric lineages and a general north versus south clustering. Relaxed molecular clock analysis and tests for demographic expansion identified an initial cladogenesis during the Miocene with subsequent Plio-Pleistocene diversification, with the former corresponding to periods of increased aridity and the onset of monsoonal weather systems. Rates of diversification were relatively constant until the Early Pleistocene when rates increased exponentially. We found equivocal evidence for isolation-by-distance and a potential role of some landscape features as partial barriers to dispersal. Finally, our analyses showed that divergence between insular and mainland populations occurred before Homo sapiens colonized Southeast Asia, suggesting that historical human-mediated dispersal did not drive insular diversification. Our results suggested that demographic expansion in the Late Pleistocene resulted in widespread sympatric lineages in the P. leucomystax complex throughout southern China and Indochina and further clarified the evolutionary history of lineages within P. leucomystax.

  12. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008.

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R


    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  13. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L


    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality.

  14. Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

  15. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Dorota Merecz-Kot


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  16. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch


    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  17. IUD Expulsion and its Socio-demographic Determinants in China


    Objective To identify the determinant of the occurrence of IUD expulsionMaterials & Methods Based on 25 733 IUD uses from the Chinese Two-per-Thou-sand Fertility Survey data, this study examines the patterns and differentials of IUDexpulsion rate by characteristics of women, and identifies the socio-demographic deter-minants of IUD expulsion. A Life Table method was used to calculate the cumulativeexpulsion rate and a random-effects discrete-time survival model was employed to as-sess the impact of potential determinants simultaneously on the risk of expelling anIUD.Results Three major findings are observed in this study. First, IUD expulsion wasthe second main reason, after pregnancy during IUD use, for IUD discontinuationduring the first four years of IUD insertion; the expulsion rates were 6. 4%, 9. 1%,10. 8 %, and 12. 0% at 12, 24, 36and 48months, respectively. Second, there was aclustering of IUD expulsion: some women experienced repeated IUD expulsions.Third, some socio-demographic characteristics and fertility history were associatedwith the occurrence of IUD expulsion. In particular, the expulsion rate was highamong young women, among those with two or more children and among those livingin rural areas.Conclusion The above mentioned factors shoald be addressed in order to decrease theIUD expulsion rate and enhance the reprocluctive he alth of women.

  18. Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population

    Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.


    Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

  19. Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events.

    Živković, Daniel; Tellier, Aurélien


    Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on the whole-genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age structure (for example, in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, that is, seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates, which buffers against environmental variability and modulates species extinction in fragmented habitats. Within this study, we investigate the combined effect of germ banking and time-varying population size on the neutral coalescent and particularly derive the allele frequency spectrum under some simplifying assumptions. We then perform an ABC analysis using two simple demographic scenarios-a population expansion and an instantaneous decline. We demonstrate the appreciable influence of seed banks on the estimation of demographic parameters depending on the germination rate with biases scaled by the square of the germination rate. In the more complex case of a population bottleneck, which comprises an instantaneous decline and an expansion phase, ignoring information on the germination rate denies reliable estimates of the bottleneck parameters via the allelic spectrum. In particular, when seeds remain in the bank over several generations, recent expansions may remain invisible in the frequency spectrum, whereas ancient declines leave signatures much longer than in the absence of seed bank.

  20. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    Henderson, Calen B.


    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  1. Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership

    Polovina Nada


    Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job - indirectly point to the reduction and impoverishment of the reproductive potentials in this subpopulation. The second part of the paper presents contemporary theoretical-research argumentation which tends to explain the dynamics of the functioning of the pattern of family and heterosexual partnership (postulates of evolution psychology, psychology of sex roles, psychology of reproductive behaviour and sociology of family. The third part presents the concluding remarks and the standpoints of the author herself about the need to construct a new thinking area and discourse which would follow the created changes and processes, as well as to preserve in them the idea of longstanding co-operative relations in which man and woman, in new life conditions and realities, contribute to the benefit of the descendents.

  2. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  3. Demographic history of the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni(chiru)

    Yu-Rong DU; Song-Chang GUO; Zhao-Feng WANG; Hai-Xing CI; Zhen-Yuan CAI; Qian ZHANG; Jian-Ping SU; Jian-Quan LIU


    The Tibetan antelope(chiru,Pantholops hodgsoni),a heavily poached species and symbol of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau(QTP),is noted worldwide for its special calving migration.This species originated in the early Quaternary and it is interesting to know how the following climatic oscillations affected its demographic dynamics in the climate-sensitive QTP.In this study,we analyzed the mitochondrial D-loop region from 312 individuals sampled in all of the six major populations.We found high rates of gene flow and little genetic differentiation between populations,suggesting that the calving migration may have homogenized the genetic pool of this species.Both mismatch distribution analyses and coalescent simulations suggested that this species experienced a demographic expansion approximately 600-200 Kyt following the retreat of the large glaciers developed in the QTP at 800-600 Kyr,rather than at the end of the last glacial age,as previously suggested based on a limited sample size.In addition,we found evidence of a chiru population decrease probably related to the human settings at the QTP during the middle Holocene.

  4. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J


    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  5. Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.

    Gregory J. Marchant


    Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

  6. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2


    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen


    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  8. Reusable Component Services

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  9. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David


    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  10. Global dynamics of a network-based SIQRS epidemic model with demographics and vaccination

    Huang, Shouying; Chen, Fengde; Chen, Lijuan


    This paper investigates a new SIQRS epidemic model with demographics and vaccination on complex heterogeneous networks. We analytically derive the basic reproduction number R0, which determines not only the existence of endemic equilibrium but also the global dynamics of the model. The permanence of the disease and the globally asymptotical stability of disease-free equilibrium are proved in detail. By using a monotone iterative technique, we show that the unique endemic equilibrium is globally attractive under certain conditions. Our results really improve and enrich the results in Li et al (2014) [14]. Interestingly, the basic reproduction number R0 bears no relation to the degree-dependent birth, but our simulations indicate that the degree-dependent birth does affect the epidemic dynamics. Furthermore, we find that quarantine plays a more active role than vaccination in controlling the disease.

  11. Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics

    Perreault Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17% experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs

  12. Demographic and work-related correlates of job burnout in professional eating disorder treatment providers.

    Warren, Cortney S; Schafer, Kerri J; Crowley, Mary Ellen J; Olivardia, Roberto


    Patients with eating disorders present unique challenges to treatment providers that may contribute to job burnout. This study examined demographic and work-related correlates of three primary components of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lack of personal accomplishment) in a sample of 296 professional eating disorder treatment providers. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996), demographics, and a questionnaire developed by the authors measuring eating disorder-specific factors theorized to be relevant to burnout. Overall, participants reported comparable levels of emotional exhaustion but significantly less cynicism and lack of personal accomplishment relative to established norms for mental health care providers on the MBI-HSS. Analyses of variance and backward regression analyses suggested that higher levels of burnout were associated with being younger, female, and overweight; working longer hours; having less experience; and experiencing a patient's death. Conversely, working in a private practice setting, having children, and having a personal history of an eating disorder were associated with lower burnout levels. Furthermore, over 45% of participants reported that treatment resistance, ego-syntonicity, high relapse rates, worry about patient survival, emotional drain, lack of appropriate financial reimbursement, and extra hours spent working contributed to feelings burned out somewhat to very much. Overall, these data suggest that emotional exhaustion is the most common aspect of burnout experienced by eating disorder treatment providers and highlight some of the key correlates of burnout for this population, which can be used to inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M


    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.

  14. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Zuhlke, W


    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  15. The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.

    O'Sullivan, Eleanor M


    AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.

  16. Forecasting societies' adaptive capacities through a demographic metabolism model

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Muttarak, Raya


    In seeking to understand how future societies will be affected by climate change we cannot simply assume they will be identical to those of today, because climate and societies are both dynamic. Here we propose that the concept of demographic metabolism and the associated methods of multi-dimensional population projections provide an effective analytical toolbox to forecast important aspects of societal change that affect adaptive capacity. We present an example of how the changing educational composition of future populations can influence societies' adaptive capacity. Multi-dimensional population projections form the human core of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios, and knowledge and analytical tools from demography have great value in assessing the likely implications of climate change on future human well-being.


    Lucia Vilčeková


    Full Text Available The paper describes brand buying behavior of Slovak consumers across different demographic features with emphasis on domestic versus foreign brands. First, the introduction to brands and branding is provided, followed by description of purchase decision process and finally, research results are presented. The representative research was conducted in year 2013 on a sample of 1067 Slovak consumers older than 16 years of age. A relationship between age and attitudes toward brands was determined. Young people prefer foreign brands and country of origin is more important for them as for older consumers. The size of a city where people live does not have any influence on their brand preferences. Differences within gender were found, men prefer domestic products and women think foreign brands are more available. Women buy Slovak products because they want to support the economy.

  18. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K


    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  19. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood

    Schmidt, Lone; Sobotka, Tomas; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm;


    of involuntary childlessness and smaller families than desired due to increased infertility and fetal death with higher female and male age. For women, the increased risk of prolonged TTP, infertility, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies and trisomy 21 starts at around 30 years of age with a more......BACKGROUND Across the developed world couples are postponing parenthood. This review assesses the consequences of delayed family formation from a demographic and medical perspective. One main focus is on the quantitative importance of pregnancy postponement. METHODS Medical and social science...... databases were searched for publications on relevant subjects such as delayed parenthood, female and male age, fertility, infertility, time to pregnancy (TTP), fetal death, outcome of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and mental well-being. RESULTS Postponement of parenthood is linked to a higher rate...

  20. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W


    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  1. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie


    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS.

  2. [Keys to demographic changes in the new millennium].

    Solsona, Montse; Viciana, Francisco


    This article describes the main features of the dynamics of demographic change in the population of Spain during the twentieth century, emphasizing the most recent developments: population ageing, the establishment of a very low fertility regime and the increasing importance of foreign immigration as well as the impact which all these have on the composition of households. Those aspects most directly related to the provision of health and social services is discussed, such as the impact of increased life expectancy on the incidence of illness and handicap in the population, the role of foreign immigration in providing personal services within the family and the health implications of the new model of delayed fertility. Finally, the health implications of population projections for the next 50 years are discussed.

  3. Environmental versus demographic variability in stochastic predator-prey models

    Dobramysl, U.; Täuber, U. C.


    In contrast to the neutral population cycles of the deterministic mean-field Lotka-Volterra rate equations, including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions yields complex spatio-temporal structures associated with long-lived erratic population oscillations. Environmental variability in the form of quenched spatial randomness in the predation rates results in more localized activity patches. Our previous study showed that population fluctuations in rare favorable regions in turn cause a remarkable increase in the asymptotic densities of both predators and prey. Very intriguing features are found when variable interaction rates are affixed to individual particles rather than lattice sites. Stochastic dynamics with demographic variability in conjunction with inheritable predation efficiencies generate non-trivial time evolution for the predation rate distributions, yet with overall essentially neutral optimization.

  4. Demographics, societal aging, and meat consumption in China

    MIN Shi; BAI Jun-fei; James Seale Jr; Thomas Wahl


    Drawn on the data col ected by surveying 1 340 urban households from six cities in China, this paper estimates the impacts of demographic structure and population aging on household meat consumption, by jointly considering meat consumed at home and away from home. Based on the trajectories of population, a simple simulation on meat demand trend in China is conducted subsequently. The results suggest:1) Meat consumed away from home averagely accounts for near 30%of household total meat consumption in terms of quantity, so that its omission likely leads to a signiifcant underestimate of total meat consumption and misunderstanding the driving forces;2) population aging signiifcantly and negatively affects per capita meat consumption, suggesting that the expected meat demand in China without considering population aging wil be overestimated. The ifndings from this study have important implications for better understanding the relative issues on China’s meat consumption under the situation of population aging.

  5. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.


    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  6. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.


    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  7. KIR gene content in amerindians indicates influence of demographic factors.

    Danillo Gardenal Augusto

    Full Text Available Although the KIR gene content polymorphism has been studied worldwide, only a few isolated or Amerindian populations have been analyzed. This extremely diverse gene family codifies receptors that are expressed mainly in NK cells and bind HLA class I molecules. KIR-HLA combinations have been associated to several diseases and population studies are important to comprehend their evolution and their role in immunity. Here we analyzed, by PCR-SSP (specific sequencing priming, 327 individuals from four isolated groups of two of the most important Brazilian Amerindian populations: Kaingang and Guarani. The pattern of KIR diversity among these and other ten Amerindian populations disclosed a wide range of variation for both KIR haplotypes and gene frequencies, indicating that demographic factors, such as bottleneck and founder effects, were the most important evolutionary factors in shaping the KIR polymorphism in these populations.

  8. A demographic portrait of Romanian immigrants In California

    Dan Valeriu Voinea


    Full Text Available The most numerous Romanian community in the United States of America is in the "Golden State", California – a state that is a traditional immigration state since the beginning of the gold rush. Officially, there are currently over 60.000 people of Romanian origin established in California, although that number might be much higher because of two factors: undocumented migration and the loss of gradual loss of identity through each generation. Starting from as little as 15-16 families back in 1912 (Alecse, n.d., Romanians established in California make up 14.5% of the 449,928 immigrants of Romanian origin living in the the United States of America (Voinea, 2014, 62. The aim of this paper is to analyze the current demographic portrait of Romanian immigrants in California, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey.

  9. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT

    Penn, Alex; Wang, Wilbur; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yee, Judy; Webb, Emily M.; Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail:


    Objectives: To describe the demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 336 consecutive patients (189 men and 147 women) who were imaged between June 1 and June 17, 2010 and who had prior comparison scans. Readers recorded the presence or absence of an intermittently upturned omentum, defined as a thick rind of fat interposed between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall seen on one but not the other scan. At chart review, we recorded patient demographics and other clinical characteristics (prior surgical history, presence of cirrhosis). Results: An intermittently upturned omentum was found in 10 of 336 (3.0%) patients. An intermittently upturned omentum was seen more commonly in men than in women (9 of 189 men, or 4.8% versus 1 of 147 women, or 0.7%, p = 0.047) and in cirrhotics (4 of 37 cirrhotics, or 10.8% versus 6 of 299 non-cirrhotics, or 2.0%, p = 0.023). In a sub-analysis of patients without prior abdominal surgery, this finding was again seen more commonly in men than women (7 of 163 men, or 4.3% versus 0 of 134 women, or 0%, p = 0.018) and in cirrhotics (3 of 33 cirrhotics, or 9.1% versus 4 of 264 non-cirrhotics, or 1.5%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: An intermittently upturned omentum is not uncommon and is more frequently seen in men and in patients with cirrhosis who may have a larger anterior hepatic space.

  10. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P


    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  11. Genomic control of neuronal demographics in the retina.

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W


    The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with their genomic architecture across recombinant-inbred mouse strains. Using such a resource, we consider how the variation in the numbers of twelve different types of retinal neuron are independent of one another, including those sharing transcriptional regulation as well as those that are synaptically-connected, each mapping to distinct genomic loci. Using the populations of two retinal interneurons, the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, we present in further detail examples where the variation in neuronal number, as well as the variation in mosaic patterning or in laminar positioning, each maps to discrete genomic loci where allelic variants modulating these features must be present. At those loci, we identify candidate genes which, when rendered non-functional, alter those very demographic properties, and in turn, we identify candidate coding or regulatory variants that alter protein structure or gene expression, respectively, being prospective contributors to the variation in phenotype. This forward-genetic approach provides an alternative means for dissecting the molecular genetic control of neuronal population dynamics, with each genomic locus serving as a causal anchor from which we may ultimately understand the developmental principles responsible for the control of those traits.

  12. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  13. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Guan, Yanjun


    Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

  14. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

    Peter M Kreuzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. OBJECTIVE: By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. MATERIALS: A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL. RESULTS: Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and

  15. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Braeckman Bart P


    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  16. Improving quality of components and protein preparations of blood plasma by introduction of quality management according to the principles of GMP and ISO 9001 in the blood service institutions with benchmarking effectiveness

    Liubchack V.V.


    Full Text Available Aspects of harmonious introduc¬tion of the new standards of quality management in the institutions of blood service were considered. It was proved that it does not contradict to current legislation and significantly increases pathogenic security of blood components and blood products.

  17. Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.


    1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life

  18. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Clare R. Wall


    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B


    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  20. Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

    Daniel Weibel


    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.

  1. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola


    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.


    Leena Rahul Salunkhe


    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  3. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.


    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.


    E. Lazarevich


    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  5. Comparisons of Patient Demographics in Prospective Sports, Shoulder, and National Database Initiatives

    Saltzman, Bryan M.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Romeo, Anthony A.


    Background: There has been increased emphasis in orthopaedics on high-quality prospective research to provide evidence-based treatment guidelines, particularly in sports medicine/shoulder surgery. The external validity of these studies has not been established, and the generalizability of the results to clinical practice in the United States is unknown. Hypothesis: Comparison of patient demographics in major prospective studies of arthroscopic sports and shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing the same procedures in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database will show substantial differences to question the generalizability and external validity of those studies. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study utilized patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), meniscectomy (MX), rotator cuff repair (RCR), and shoulder stabilization (SS) from the NSQIP database (2005-2013). Two prospective studies (either randomized controlled trials or, in 1 case, a major cohort study) were identified for each of the 4 procedures for comparison. Demographic variables available for comparison in both the identified prospective studies and the NSQIP included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results: From the NSQIP database, 5576 ACLR patients, 18,882 MX patients, 7282 RCR patients, and 993 SS patients were identified. The comparison clinical studies included cohort sizes as follows: ACLR, n = 121 and 2683; MX, n = 146 and 330; RCR, n = 90 and 103; SS, n = 88 and 196. Age differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 6 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. Sex differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 7 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. BMI differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients of all 4 of the prospective clinical studies that reported this demographic variable. Conclusion: Significant differences exist for patient age, sex

  6. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma


    highlighted that the male-researchers were devoted to the roles of academic citizens and mentors, while they did not refer the interest for academic freedom and the role of a knowledge producer. Findings revealed that the role of an academic citizen is perceived equally to other roles, despite the fact that researchers work in different research fields. In this research study, the highest estimates were given to the roles by the researchers representing medical sciences. Results showed that the lowest estimates for the diverse roles in higher education were provided by the researchers from engineering sciences. A correlation analysis between distinguished minor roles descriptions revealed that the participation of scientists in society debates and public policy correlates with all the remaining roles of scientists very weakly or weakly. The strongest correlation with all roles refers to academic duty, critic, personal development, and acting in one research field. In conclusion, intellectual leadership is the scope of challenging processes regarding developing, designing, creating, defining, ensuring, critiquing, teaching, instructing, researching, mentoring, enabling questioning, generating, envisioning, advocating, encouraging, re-imagining, managing, representing, counseling, achieving, evaluating, acting, and providing. The general components here refer to ideas, values, understandings, solutions, beliefs, visions, knowledge, approaches, purposes, and actions. By concluding the study, it is worth to accentuate that the demographic factors that are meaningful in studying the researchers’ roles within the intellectual leadership in higher education are the following - gender and research areas. The work experience in higher education and the year of Ph.D. defence are not the factors, which are meaningfully related to the role performance, academic duty and academic freedom of the researcher as an intellectual leader in higher education.

  7. Psychological Component of Infertility

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  8. Demographic Patterns from the 1960s in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal

    Rydell, Ingrid


    Demographic behaviour has changed dramatically in the industrialised world after World War II. This literature review describes the demographic development in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal from the 1960s. The general pattern is delayed transition to adulthood and first birth, fertility and marriage-rates have declined, while divorce-rates have increased. But demographic behaviour differs between the countries. In France, cohabitation and births outside marriage are common and the divorce ...

  9. Density dependence in a recovering osprey population: demographic and behavioural processes.

    Bretagnolle, V; Mougeot, F; Thibault, J-C


    1. Understanding how density-dependent and independent processes influence demographic parameters, and hence regulate population size, is fundamental within population ecology. We investigated density dependence in growth rate and fecundity in a recovering population of a semicolonial raptor, the osprey Pandion haliaetus [Linnaeus, 1758], using 31 years of count and demographic data in Corsica. 2. The study population increased from three pairs in 1974 to an average of 22 pairs in the late 1990s, with two distinct phases during the recovery (increase followed by stability) and contrasted trends in breeding parameters in each phase. 3. We show density dependence in population growth rate in the second phase, indicating that the stabilized population was regulated. We also show density dependence in productivity (fledging success between years and hatching success within years). 4. Using long-term data on behavioural interactions at nest sites, and on diet and fish provisioning rate, we evaluated two possible mechanisms of density dependence in productivity, food depletion and behavioural interference. 5. As density increased, both provisioning rate and the size of prey increased, contrary to predictions of a food-depletion mechanism. In the time series, a reduction in fledging success coincided with an increase in the number of non-breeders. Hatching success decreased with increasing local density and frequency of interactions with conspecifics, suggesting that behavioural interference was influencing hatching success. 6. Our study shows that, taking into account the role of non-breeders, in particular in species or populations where there are many floaters and where competition for nest sites is intense, can improve our understanding of density-dependent processes and help conservation actions.

  10. Ecological and socio-demographic differences in maternal care services in Nepal

    Vrijesh Tripathi


    Full Text Available Background. Nepal is set to achieve MDG-5 goals by end of 2015. However, maternal health parameters will remain way below those of developed countries. This study was conducted to assess the factors contributing to utilization of ANC and safe delivery services with the aim of furthering overall maternal health parameters in Nepal.Material and Methods. Using survey data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011, socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the utilization of ANC and safe delivery services among women aged 15–49 years who gave births during the last three years preceding the survey are examined. Data was segregated into three ecological zones: Mountain, Hill and Terai zones for univariate analyses. Data from all three zones was then pooled for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of Antenatal Care and Safe Delivery services in Nepal.Results and Conclusion. The analyses show that rural place of residence is at a disadvantage in receiving ANC (OR, 0.8; 95% CI [0.7–0.9] and ensuring safe delivery (OR, 0.6; 95% CI [0.5–0.7]. Woman’s education, husband’s education and wealth quintile are significant factors in ensuring ANC and safe delivery services. Further, the analyses show that Budh/Muslim/Kirat/Christians are at a significant disadvantage in ensuring safe delivery (OR, 0.8; 95% CI [0.7–0.9] as compared with Hindus. Though ecological zones lost their significance in receiving ANC, women in the Terai region are at a significant advantage in ensuring safe delivery (OR, 1.7; 95% CI [1.2–2.1].Recommendation. Segregated targets should be set for the different ecological zones for further improvement in maternal mortality rates in Nepal.


    Toma G.


    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  12. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.


    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    Chan, V O


    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  14. Design of Critical Components

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  15. Multilevel component analysis

    Timmerman, M.E.


    A general framework for the exploratory component analysis of multilevel data (MLCA) is proposed. In this framework, a separate component model is specified for each group of objects at a certain level. The similarities between the groups of objects at a given level can be expressed by imposing cons

  16. Aligning component upgrades

    Roberto Di Cosmo


    Full Text Available Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  17. Study and implementation of a thermal acceleration test for the improvement of the quality and reliability of components and systems; Estudo e implementacao de um teste de aceleracao termica para a melhoria da qualidade e confiabilidade de componentes e sistemas

    Leao, Felippe Carneiro


    The objective of this work is to introduce the application of the burn-in test (test of thermal acceleration) in electronic products, using the practical example of this test in a power supply and to do an analysis of the application of this test in a production line showing the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation. For that it is made an abbreviation presentation of the basic concepts of quality and reliability. Starting from these concepts are presented the statistical models used in reliability, that describe the behavior of life of products and components. Besides showing, from the speed chemical reaction model , the influence of the temperature about this reliability.

  18. Demographic and Citation Trends in Astrophysical Journal papers and Reports

    Schwarz, G J


    We have used data from ADS, AAS, and astro-ph, to study the publishing, preprint posting, and citation patterns for papers published in the ApJ in 1999 and 2002. This allowed us to track statistical trends in author demographics, preprint posting habits, and citation rates for ApJ papers as a whole and across various subgroups and types of ApJ papers. The most interesting results are the frequencies of use of the astro-ph server across various subdisciplines of astronomy, and the impact that such posting has on the citation history of the subsequent ApJ papers. By 2002 72% of ApJ papers were posted as astro-ph preprints, but this fraction varies from 22-95% among the subfields studied. A majority of these preprints (61%) were posted after the papers were accepted at ApJ, and 88% were posted or updated after acceptance. On average, ApJ papers posted on astro-ph are cited more than twice as often as those that are not posted on astro-ph. This difference can account for a number of other, secondary citation tren...

  19. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 165 patients with lichen planus

    Bilge Bülbül Şen


    Full Text Available Objective: Lichen planus (LP, is a papulosquamous inflammatory disease, which involves the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. The incidence varies according to geographical regions. In this study, it was aimed to detect the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients with LP who have been under follow-up at our clinic. Methods: One hundred sixty five patients, who were diagnosed as LP in our clinic between 2010 and 2013, were enrolled to the study. The age, gender, disease duration, time of onset of disease, characteristics of involvement, associated systemic diseases, laboratory findings and treatment were recorded retrospectively. Results: In our study, 0.6% of all patients admitted to our clinic were diagnosed as LP. A total of 165 patients included in the study, 92 women (56% and 73 men (44%, respectively. Patients’ ages ranged 8-78 (mean 44.7±16.7. Disease duration ranged from 1 month to 20 years (mean 15.6±29.7. One hundred thirty four patients (81.2% had skin involvement, 51 (31% had oral mucosal involvement, and 15 (9% had genital involvement. Five (4.5% of 111 patients with viral hepatitis tests were positive for hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus positivity was seen in 4 (4% patients. Conclusion: There is a need for further studies with more patients to better understand the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of LP. We believe that our study will contribute to the determination of our country’s data.

  20. Transgender Demographics: A Household Probability Sample of US Adults, 2014

    Berger, Mitchell B.; Graham, Louis F.; Dalton, Vanessa K.


    Objectives. To estimate the proportion of US adults who identify as transgender and to compare the demographics of the transgender and nontransgender populations. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from states and territories in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that asked about transgender status. The proportion of adults identified as transgender was calculated from affirmative and negative responses (n = 151 456). We analyzed data with a design-adjusted χ2 test. We also explored differences between male-to-female and nontransgender females and female-to-male and nontransgender males. Results. Transgender individuals made up 0.53% (95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.61) of the population and were more likely to be non-White (40.0% vs 27.3%) and below the poverty line (26.0% vs 15.5%); as likely to be married (50.5% vs 47.7%), living in a rural area (28.7% vs 22.6%), and employed (54.3% vs 57.7%); and less likely to attend college (35.6% vs 56.6%) compared with nontransgender individuals. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the transgender population is a racially diverse population present across US communities. Inequalities in the education and socioeconomic status have negative implications for the health of the transgender population. PMID:27997239

  1. The Demographic and Political Composition of Mechanical Turk Samples

    Kevin E. Levay


    Full Text Available One of the most notable recent developments in survey research is the increased usage of online convenience samples drawn from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk. While scholars have noted various social and political differences (e.g., age, partisanship between MTurk and population-based samples, the breadth and depth of these variations remain unclear. We investigate the extent to which MTurk samples differ from population samples, and the underlying nature of these differences. We do so by replicating items from the population-based American National Election Studies (ANES 2012 Time Series Study in a survey administered to a sample of MTurk respondents. With few exceptions, we not only find that MTurk respondents differ significantly from respondents completing the 2012 ANES via the Web but also that most differences are reduced considerably when controlling for easily measurable sample features. Thus, MTurk respondents do not appear to differ fundamentally from population-based respondents in unmeasurable ways. This suggests that MTurk data can be used to advance research programs, particularly if researchers measure and account for a range of political and demographic variables as needed.

  2. Demographic insights into the Jat population of Haryana

    Ketaki Chandiok


    Full Text Available Demography is the science of populations that seeks to understand population dynamics in light of the population structure and its socio-economic makeup. The present study was conducted to understand the demographic profile of Jat community of Haryana. The data were collected from 15 Jat dominated villages in different months of the year 2011-2013 from 1158 households comprising 7162 individuals using pretested interview schedules. The research included various parameters like sex ratio, literacy rate, occupational status, marital status, socio-economic status of the studied population. The results revealed that the Jat population has experienced decline in fertility rate in the past few years. Median age of present population comes out to be 25 years which is lesser than national population, showing that population of Haryana is a young population. The sex ratio of the presently studied population was found to be low as compared to the state and country’s estimate. Almost one fourth of the population was found to be illiterate (23.87% with a higher percentage of females (35.58% as compared to the males (11.1%. Majority of the women participate in agriculture (31.4% or home makers (40.82% and almost half of the males (43.87 % are practicing agriculture.

  3. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    R. Arun


    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  4. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K


    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  5. ron Intake in Adults from Medellin According to Demographics, 2012

    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the iron intake in healthy adults of Medellín according to demographics, and to determine the association between the consumption of iron and hemoglobin in this popula¬tion. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 109 subjects. We applied a semiquantitative survey of food consumption frequency source of iron given the frequency of consumption and portion. Summary measures, frequencies, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Spearman correlation were calculated. We used SPSS version 20.0, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age subjects was 32, 64.2 % were female, 81.6 % with technical or university studies, 29.3 % students and 43.9 % of low socioeconomic status. We found a daily intake of 12.3 mg/day on average, 61 % from non-heme iron. The total iron consumed was statistically higher in unemployed subjects than in workers, students and housewives. The heme iron intake was statistically higher in individuals with graduate. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing iron consumption by sex, age group and hemoglobin. Conclusions: The low intake of iron is not influenced by sex or age group, but by occupation and education, and is a factor that cannot reduce the prevalence of iron and other micronutrients deficiencies. It requires to implement more and better strategies for nutrition education and increased avail¬ability, production and consumption of safe food

  6. Changing demographics of pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease

    B.J.M. Mulder


    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a serious complication of congenital heart disease (CHD. Without early surgical repair, around one-third of paediatric CHD patients develop significant PAH. Recent data from the Netherlands suggest that >4% of adult CHD patients have PAH, with higher rates in those with septal defects. A spectrum of cardiac defects is associated with PAH-CHD, although most cases develop as a consequence of large systemic-to-pulmonary shunts. Eisenmenger's syndrome, characterised by reversed pulmonary-to-systemic (right-to-left shunt, represents the most advanced form of PAH-CHD and affects as many as 50% of those with PAH and left-to-right shunts. It is associated with the poorest outcome among patients with PAH-CHD. 40 yrs ago, ∼50% of children with CHD requiring intervention died within the first year, and <15% survived to adulthood. Subsequent advances in paediatric cardiology have seen most patients with CHD survive to adulthood, with resulting shifts in the demographics of CHD and PAH-CHD. The number of adults presenting with CHD is increasing and, although mortality is decreasing, morbidity is increasing as older patients are at increased risk of arrhythmia, heart failure, valve regurgitation and PAH. Data show that probability of PAH increases with age in patients with cardiac defects.

  7. A Life Space Perspective to Approach Individual Demographic Processes

    Robette, Nicolas


    Full Text Available AbstractThe concept of life space refers to the different locations with which individualsinteract along their life course. In this article we present several methodologicalproposals to describe and measure various territories to which individualsrelate over time, taking advantage of a rich data source, the Biographies etentourage survey. We produce relevant indicators which can be used in thestudy of different demographic processes and demonstrate how this perspectiveelegantly formalizes the linked dynamics of interactive non-independenttrajectories in the case of the couples’ activity space.RésuméLe concept d’espace de vie désigne l’ensemble des lieux avec lesquels unindividu est en relation au cours de sa vie. Dans cet article, plusieurs méthodessont proposées pour décrire et mesurer les différents territoires auxquels lesindividus sont attachés au fil du temps, en mettant pour cela à profit la richessedes données de l’enquête Biographies et entourage. Plusieurs indicateurs sontconstruits, qui peuvent être utilisés pour l’étude de processus démographiquesvariés. La pertinence d’une perspective en termes d’espace de vie est enfinvalidée par l’analyse des interactions dynamiques entre trajectoires nonindépendantes,appliquée aux espaces d’activité des couples.

  8. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.


    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  9. Examination of recreational motives of individuals: Demographic differences

    Hamdi Alper Güngörmüş


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the motivational factors that motivate individuals to the recreational exercise participation with regard to demographic variables. 302 male (55,1% and 246 female (44,9% with a total of 548 recreational exercise participants from 9 health and fitness centers, in Ankara, participated voluntarily to this study. “Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure” was used as means of data collection instrument. Independent Samples t-test was used to examine the mean differences with regard to gender and marital status considering 5 subscales. The results of independent samples t-test indicated that, there was a significant mean difference between males and females in “health” and status” (p<0,05. Results of the ANOVA analyses demonstrated statistically mean differences with “competition” subscales (p<0,05. Furthermore, there was a significant mean difference in 4 subscales except “health” with the effect of “marital regard to age (p<0,05. (competition, body shape/appearance, education (health (p<0,05, As a result of this study, “health”, “skill development” and ”body shape/appearance” were found to be the top three factors which motivate individuals to participate recreational exercise.

  10. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C


    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  11. Impact of Demographic Structure on Paddy and Forestland Management

    LI Tiehua; XIANG Wenhua; XU Guozhen; ZENG Guangzheng


    In order to understand the impact of demographic structure on paddy and forestland management after the convening of the Third Plenary Session of the 11"1 CPC (Communist Party of China) Central Committee and the implementation of the Household Responsibility System (the government divided up land among peasants for cultivating and the peasants sell a set part of their produced goods to the government at stipulated prices by contract in the countryside of China), 147 households in 6 villages, belonging to Xiangtan County and Zhuzhou County in Hunan Province, were selected as research samples, and interview, questionnaire survey and second hand data analyzing were used as the methods. The results showed: Persons with different ages had different ideas, and young peasants would like to work in towns or cities for more income, so they used and depended on land less; In terms of sex, the male was still the main user of land, and therefore the ability, idea and activity of male played an important role in land management; Generally, the labors with better educational background grasped more knowledge and technologies, and they had more opportunity to get jobs and had better working condition and more income in town or cities, so they depended on and used land less.

  12. A multi-component patient-handling intervention improves attitudes and behaviors for safe patient handling and reduces aggression experienced by nursing staff: A controlled before-after study

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Casper, Svend Dalgas; Andersen, Lars Louis


    This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before......-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient-handling...... attitudes and behaviours for safe patient-handling and less physically aggressive episodes. However, this did not translate into improved health of the staff during the 12-month study period....


    Abdul Talib, Salim; Hashim, Rahmat; Karuthan, Chinna; Kumar, Mukesh


    This study examines the association of the demographic profiles and dining out behavior of Malaysian fine dining restaurant consumers’ with their purchasing orientation. Additionally, consumers’ purchasing orientation via their demographic features was determined. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaire at 8 fine dining restaurants. 1200 questionnaires were distributed and 419 useable questionnaires were collected. Data were analyzed using the SPSS employing cross-tabulat...

  14. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja


    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  15. Robust Principal Component Analysis?

    Candes, Emmanuel J; Ma, Yi; Wright, John


    This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the L1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for th...

  16. Star Cluster Demographics. I. A General Framework and Application to the Antennae Galaxies

    Whitmore, B C; Fall, S M; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali


    We present a framework for understanding the demographics of star cluster systems, and develop a toy model which incorporates a universal initial power law mass function, selected formation histories, selected disruption laws, and a convolution with common artifacts and selection effects found in observational data. The model confirms that the observed correlation between the brightest young cluster in a galaxy and the total number of young clusters can be understood as a statistical size-of-sample effect, rather than a difference in the physical process responsible for the formation of the clusters. A comparison is made between different cluster disruption laws and it is shown that the break in the dN/d\\tau diagram used to determine the parameters in the Boutloukos & Lamers model may be produced by incompleteness near the breakpoint. A model of the Antennae galaxies is developed and compared with the observational data. An important component of our model is the use of a "two-stage" disruption process, w...

  17. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.


    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  18. E-cigarette Use Related to Demographic Factors in Hawai‘i

    Davis, James W; Taira, Deborah A


    E-cigarette use is rapidly expanding in the United States and is projected to be a $3 billion industry by the end of this year. E-cigarette use in Hawai‘i is significantly higher than national averages. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship in Hawai‘i between demographic characteristics and several aspects of e-cigarette use including percentage of residents trying e-cigarettes, reasons for use, and perceived effects on health. Survey data were collected from a random sample of Hawai‘i residents via the telephone in the summer of 2015, using methodology similar to that of the Hawai‘i Health Survey. Chi-squared tests found e-cigarette use to be significantly associated with age (P =.001), gender (P =.03), ethnicity (P e-cigarettes, 21% said their use of regular cigarettes did not change, 6% said they reduced use of regular cigarettes, and 20% said they completely stopped smoking regular cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression results suggest Native Hawaiians (OR=29.1, P =.01) and Filipinos (OR=24.3, P =.01) were significantly more likely to report perceived improved health due to e-cigarette use compared to Caucasians. Given existing health disparities for Native Hawaiians and Filipinos, the fact that these groups are significantly more likely than other ethnic/racial groups to report that e-cigarettes improved their health bears notice and highlights the need for additional research in this area. PMID:27738563

  19. Demographic vulnerability of the clonal and endangered meadow thistle

    Jongejans, E.; Vere, de N.; Kroon, de H.


    For effective management of endangered species it is pivotal to understand why a species is endangered and which key life cycle components are involved in its response to environmental changes. Our objective was to investigate the response of rosettes of the redlisted clonal herb Cirsium dissectum t

  20. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

    Hekmat R


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26