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  1. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

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    Xue Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described.

  2. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

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    Xue Luo; Yu-meng Shen; Meng-nan Jiang; Xiang-feng Lou; Yin Shen

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and va...

  3. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

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    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  4. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

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    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length.

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    Dastiridou, Anna I; Ginis, Harilaos; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Karyotakis, Nikos; Detorakis, Efstathios; Siganos, Charalambos; Cholevas, Pierros; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between axial length (AL) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF). This relation has been questioned because of the possible confounding effect of ocular volume on ocular rigidity (OR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between AL, as a surrogate parameter for ocular volume, and OR, ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and POBF. Eighty-eight cataract patients were enrolled in this study. A computer-controlled device comprising a microdosimetric pump and a pressure sensor was used intraoperatively. The system was connected to the anterior chamber and used to raise the intraocular pressure (IOP) from 15 to 40 mm Hg, by infusing the eye with a saline solution. After each infusion step, the IOP was continuously recorded for 2 seconds. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the procedure. The OR coefficient was calculated from the pressure volume data. OPA and POBF were measured from pressure recordings. Median AL was 23.69 (interquartile range 3.53) mm. OR coefficient was 0.0218 (0.0053) μL(-1). A negative correlation between the OR coefficient and AL (ρ = -0.641, P < 0.001) was documented. Increasing AL was associated with decreased OPA (ρ = -0.637, P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.690, P < 0.001) and POBF (ρ = -0.207, P = 0.053 and ρ = -0.238, P = 0.028) at baseline and elevated IOP, respectively. Based on manometric data, increasing AL is associated with decreased OR, OPA, and POBF. These results suggest decreased pulsatility in high myopia and may have implications on ocular pulse studies and the pathophysiology of myopia.

  6. Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure.

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    Dastiridou, Anna I; Ginis, Harilaos S; De Brouwere, Dirk; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the pressure-volume relation in the living human eye, measure the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and calculate the corresponding pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in a range of clinically relevant IOP levels. Fifty patients with cataract (50 eyes) were enrolled in the study. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, a computer-controlled device for the intraoperative measurement and control of IOP was used to artificially increase the IOP in a stepping procedure from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The IOP was continuously recorded for 2 seconds after each infusion step. The pressure-volume relation was approximated with an exponential fit, and the ocular rigidity coefficient was computed. OPA, pulse volume (PV), and POBF were measured from the continuous IOP recordings. The average rigidity coefficient was 0.0224 microL(-1) (SD 0.0049). OPA increased by 91% and PV and POBF decreased by 29% and 30%, respectively, when increasing the IOP from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The OPA is positively correlated with the coefficient of ocular rigidity (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). The present results suggest a nonlinear pressure-volume relation in the living human eye characterized by an increase in rigidity at higher IOP levels. The increased OPA and decreased pulse volume relate to the decreased POBF and the increased mechanical resistance of the ocular wall at high IOP levels.

  7. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

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    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-si...

  8. Contrast sensitivity, ocular blood flow and their potential role in assessing ischaemic retinal disease.

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    Shoshani, Yochai Z; Harris, Alon; Rusia, Deepam; Spaeth, George L; Siesky, Brent; Pollack, Ayala; Wirostko, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    To examine the definition, evaluation methodology, association to ocular blood flow and potential clinical value of contrast sensitivity (CS) testing in clinical and research settings, focusing in patients with ischemic retinal disease. A review of the medical literature focusing on CS and ocular blood flow in ischemic retinal disease. CS may be more sensitive than other methods at detecting subtle defects or improvements in primarily central retinal ganglion cell function early on in a disease process. CS testing attempts to provide spatial detection differences which are not directly assessed with standard visual acuity chart testing. Analyzing all studies that have assessed both CS change and ocular blood flow, it is apparent that both choroidal circulation and retinal circulation may have an important role in influencing CS. The concept that CS is directly influenced by ocular blood flow is supported by reviewing the studies involving both. Although the studies in the literature have not established a direct cause and effect relationship per se, the literature review makes it logical to assume that changes in retinal and choroidal blood flow influence CS. This raises the possibility that a subjective visual characteristic, specifically CS, may be able to be evaluated more objectively by studying blood flow. It appears appropriate to study the relationship between blood flow and CS more extensively to develop improved ways of measuring various aspects of blood flow to the eye and to best quantify early changes in visual function. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow.

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    Wang, Jing; Freeman, Ellen E; Descovich, Denise; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Kamdeu Fansi, Alvine; Li, Gisele; Lesk, Mark R

    2013-03-07

    Theoretical models and animal studies have suggested that scleral rigidity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The aim of this study was to present a noninvasive technique for estimating ocular rigidity (E) in vivo, and to compare the estimated rigidity between patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG); ocular hypertension (OHT); suspect glaucomatous disc (GS); and normal subjects (N). We hypothesized that OHT patients would have higher rigidity. All patients underwent measurements of ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) using dynamic contour tonometry, pulsatile choroidal blood flow (ChBFP) using laser Doppler flowmetry; axial length (AL); and assessment of automated visual field mean deviation (MD). The ratio between OPA and ChBFP was calculated according to the Friedenwald's equation of ocular rigidity. The calculated ratio is denoted as (ER). The average ER values of the four diagnostic groups were compared using nonparametric tests. The relationship between ER and other ocular and systemic factors was examined using correlation and regression analysis. A total of 257 subjects were included in the study (56 N, 108 OAG, 48 GS, and 45 OHT). ER correlated negatively with AL and positively with MD, signifying that a lower rigidity was associated with a longer eye and a worse (more negative) MD. ER was also found to be highest in OHT (0.235 ± 0.16) and lowest in OAG (0.188 ± 0.14; P = 0.01). Estimated coefficient of ocular rigidity by OPA and ChBFP suggested that glaucoma patients had the lowest rigidity and OHT the highest. It supports the idea that a more compliant ocular shell may predispose the optic nerve head to intraocular pressure (IOP)-related damage.

  10. Ocular rigidity, outflow facility, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow in open-angle glaucoma: a manometric study.

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    Dastiridou, Anna I; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikos; Cholevas, Pierros; Androudi, Sofia; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2013-07-10

    To compare ocular rigidity (OR) and outflow facility (C) coefficients in medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and controls, and to investigate differences in ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) between the two groups. Twenty-one OAG patients and 21 controls undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients with early or moderate primary or pseudoexfoliative OAG participated in the glaucoma group. A computer-controlled system, consisting of a pressure transducer and a microstepping device was employed intraoperatively. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, IOP was increased by infusing the eye with microvolumes of saline solution. IOP was recorded after each infusion step. At an IOP of 40 mm Hg, an IOP decay curve was recorded for 4 minutes. OR coefficients, C, OPA, and POBF were estimated from IOP and volume recordings. There were no differences in age or axial length in the two groups. The OR coefficient was 0.0220 ± 0.0053 μl(-1) in the OAG and 0.0222 ± 0.0039 μl(-1) in the control group (P = 0.868). C was 0.092 ± 0.082 μL/min/mm Hg in the glaucoma group compared with 0.149 ± 0.085 μL/min/mm Hg in the control group at an IOP of 35 mm Hg (P 0.05). Manometric data reveal lower C in OAG patients and increased C with increasing IOP. There were no differences in the OR coefficient, OPA, and POBF between medically treated OAG patients and controls, failing to provide evidence of altered scleral distensibility and choroidal blood flow in OAG.

  11. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging of Ocular Anatomy and Blood Flow

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    Urs, Raksha; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging is currently performed with mechanically scanned single-element probes. These probes have limited capabilities overall and lack the ability to image blood flow. Linear-array systems are able to detect blood flow, but these systems exceed ophthalmic acoustic intensity safety guidelines. Our aim was to implement and evaluate a new linear-array–based technology, compound coherent plane-wave ultrasound, which offers ultrafast imaging and depiction of blood flow at safe acoustic intensity levels. Methods We compared acoustic intensity generated by a 128-element, 18-MHz linear array operated in conventionally focused and plane-wave modes and characterized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lateral resolution. We developed plane-wave B-mode, real-time color-flow, and high-resolution depiction of slow flow in postprocessed data collected continuously at a rate of 20,000 frames/s. We acquired in vivo images of the posterior pole of the eye by compounding plane-wave images acquired over ±10° and produced images depicting orbital and choroidal blood flow. Results With the array operated conventionally, Doppler modes exceeded Food and Drug Administration safety guidelines, but plane-wave modalities were well within guidelines. Plane-wave data allowed generation of high-quality compound B-mode images, with SNR increasing with the number of compounded frames. Real-time color-flow Doppler readily visualized orbital blood flow. Postprocessing of continuously acquired data blocks of 1.6-second duration allowed high-resolution depiction of orbital and choroidal flow over the cardiac cycle. Conclusions Newly developed high-frequency linear arrays in combination with plane-wave techniques present opportunities for the evaluation of ocular anatomy and blood flow, as well as visualization and analysis of other transient phenomena such as vessel wall motion over the cardiac cycle and saccade-induced vitreous motion. PMID:27428169

  12. [Peculiarities of ocular blood flow in ischemic optic neuropathy and normal tension glaucoma].

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    Mamikonian, V R; Galoian, N S; Sheremet, N L; Kazarian, E E; Kharlap, S I; Shmeleva-Demir, O A; Andzhelova, D V; Tatevosian, A A

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of ocular hemodynamics in ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) outcome and normal tension glaucoma (NTG), the conditions that are difficult to be differentially diagnosed, have been investigated. The study enrolled 32 patients (40 eyes) with ION outcome, 26 patients (46 eyes) with NTG, and 20 patients (32 eyes) with no ocular pathology. Besides the standard ophthalmological examination, color Doppler imaging of ocular vessels, evaluation of ocular blood flow volume and individual normal range of intraocular pressure (flowmetry) were performed in all cases. The results showed that an excess of the actual intraocular pressure (IOP) over the individual normal range was much higher in patients with NTG than in patients with ION (39% and 14.5% correspondingly). It was also found that NTG is associated with a more significant decrease of ocular blood flow volume (30.1% in average) in comparison to ION outcome (11%). In both conditions a decrease in velocity parameters of the blood flow in main ocular vessels was registered, however, ocular hemodynamics changes appeared to be more severe in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A statistically reliable correlation between volumetric and velocity parameters of ocular blood flow has been discovered.

  13. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting

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    Masashi Ishii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS (P=0.003. Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow (P=0.002. In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.

  14. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos.

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    Itakura, Mariko; Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females) with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion) during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos.

  15. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos

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    Itakura M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Itakura,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Tomoyuki Kashima,2 Hideo Akiyama,2 Shoji Kishi21Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, JapanAbstract: Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS score, tear film break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05. The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05. The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05.Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos.Keywords: dry eye, ectropion, eyelid surgery, facial nerve palsy, lagophthalmos, rebamipide

  16. Effect of 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine on ocular blood flow in rabbits.

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    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2007-02-27

    Previously, we reported that a relatively selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) elicited ocular hypotension in rabbits (Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 2005;97:501-509). In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2-CN-Ado on ocular blood flow in rabbit eyes. An intravitreal injection of 2-CN-Ado increased ocular blood flow, measured by a non-contact laser flowmeter. 2-CN-Ado-induced increase in ocular blood flow was accompanied with the retinal vasodilation. The increase in ocular blood flow was inhibited by an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, but not by an adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist alloxazine or an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. The repetitive applications of topical 2-CN-Ado twice a day for 7 days produced a persistent increase in ocular blood flow with ocular hypotension. These results suggest that 2-CN-Ado increases the ocular blood flow mainly via adenosine A(2A) receptor, and that the topical application of 2-CN-Ado for several days not only increases the ocular blood flow but also prolong ocular hypotension, indicating that 2-CN-Ado may be a useful lead compound for the treatment of ischemic retinal diseases such as glaucoma.

  17. Differences in ocular blood flow in glaucoma between patients of African and European descent.

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    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Racette, Lyne; Abassi, Rania; Chandrasekhar, Kaarthik; Tobe, Leslie A; Behzadi, Jennifer; Eckert, George; Amireskandari, Annahita; Muchnik, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To investigate differences in ocular blood flow in individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with open angle glaucoma (OAG). A retrospective data analysis was performed on OAG patients of AD and ED who were previously examined for ocular blood flow within the Department of Ophthalmology at Indiana University School of Medicine. Data analysis included blood pressure, heart rate, visual fields, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and color Doppler imaging of retrobulbar vessels. Color Doppler imaging measurements were performed on ophthalmic, central retinal, and nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries, with peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic velocities (EDV) as well as the Pourcelot vascular resistive index calculated for each vessel. Two-sample t tests of unequal variance were performed with P values <0.05 considered statistically significant. OAG patients of AD had statistically significant lower retrobulbar blood flow values than patients of ED including lower ophthalmic artery PSV (P=0.0001), ophthalmic artery EDV (P=0.0008), central retinal artery PSV (P=0.01), temporal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P=0.0037), and nasal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P<0.0001). No significant differences were found in terms of intraocular pressure or visual field parameters. Significantly lower blood flow values were identified in all retrobulbar blood vessels in AD compared with ED OAG patients. These findings suggest that the contribution of ocular blood flow to the disease process may be different in AD compared with ED OAG patients.

  18. Blood flow velocity and thickness of the choroid in a patient with chorioretinopathy associated with ocular blunt trauma.

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    Ishikawa, Yuri; Hashimoto, Yuki; Saito, Wataru; Ando, Ryo; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-06-08

    Choroidal circulation hemodynamics in eyes with ocular blunt trauma has not been quantitatively examined yet. We quantitatively examined changes in choroidal blood flow velocity and thickness at the lesion site using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in a patient with chorioretinopathy associated with ocular blunt trauma. A 13-year-old boy developed a chorioretinal lesion with pigmentation extending from the optic disc to the superotemporal side in the right eye after ocular blunt trauma. The patient's best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.2 in the right eye. Indocyanine green angiography showed hypofluorescence from the initial phase, with a decrease of mean blur rate (MBR) on LSFG color map, which corresponded to the chorioretinal lesion. The BCVA and foveal outer retinal morphologic abnormality spontaneously improved during follow-up. MBR and choroidal thickness increased by 23-31% and 13-17 μm at the lesion site and by 11-22% and 33-42 μm at the fovea, respectively, during the 6-month follow-up period after baseline measurements in the affected eye. In contrast, these parameters showed little or no changes at the normal retinal site in the affected eye and the fovea in the fellow eye. Current data revealed that both blood flow velocity and thickness in the choroid at the lesion site decreased in the acute stage and subsequently increased together with improvements in visual function and outer retinal morphology. These results suggest that LSFG and EDI-OCT may be useful indices that can noninvasively evaluate activity of choroidal involvement in ocular blunt trauma-associated chorioretinopathy.

  19. Ocular Blood Flow Measured Noninvasively in Zero Gravity

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    Ansari, Rafat R.; Manuel, Francis K.; Geiser, Martial; Moret, Fabrice; Messer, Russell K.; King, James F.; Suh, Kwang I.

    2003-01-01

    In spaceflight or a reduced-gravity environment, bodily fluids shift to the upper extremities of the body. The pressure inside the eye, or intraocular pressure, changes significantly. A significant number of astronauts report changes in visual acuity during orbital flight. To date this remains of unknown etiology. Could choroidal engorgement be the primary mechanism and a change in the curvature or shape of the cornea or lens be the secondary mechanism for this change in visual acuity? Perfused blood flow in the dense meshwork of capillaries of the choroidal tissue (see the preceding illustration) provides necessary nutrients to the outer layers of the retina (photoreceptors) to keep it healthy and maintain good vision. Unlike the vascular system, the choroid has no baroreceptors to autoregulate fluid shifts, so it can remain engorged, pushing the macula forward and causing a hyperopic (farsighted) shift of the eye. Experiments by researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center could help answer this question and facilitate planning for long-duration missions. We are investigating the effects of zero gravity on the choroidal blood flow of volunteer subjects. This pilot project plans to determine if choroidal blood flow is autoregulated in a reduced-gravity environment.

  20. Effects of Heat Stress on Ocular Blood Flow During Exhaustive Exercise

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    Tsukasa Ikemura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that heat stress reduces the ocular blood flow response to exhaustive exercise was tested by measuring ocular blood flow, blood pressure, and end- tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2 in 12 healthy males while they performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75% of the maximal heart rate at ambient temperatures of 20°C (control condition and 35°C (heat condition, until exhaustion. The blood flows in the retinal and choroidal vasculature (RCV, the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA and the superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA were recorded at rest and at 6 and 16 min after the start of exercise period and at exhaustion [after 16 ± 2 min (mean ± SE and 24 ± 3 min of exercise in the heat and control condition, respectively]. The mean arterial pressure at exhaustion was significantly lower in the heat condition than in the control condition at both 16 min and exhaustion. The degree of PETCO2 reduction did not differ significantly between the two thermal conditions at either 16 min or exhaustion. The blood flow velocity in the RCV significantly increased from the resting baseline value at 6 min in both thermal conditions (32 ± 6% and 25 ± 5% at 20°C and 35°C, respectively. However, at 16 min the increase in RCV blood flow velocity had returned to the resting baseline level only in the heat condition. At exhaustion, the blood flows in the STRA and SNRA had decreased significantly from the resting baseline value in the heat condition (STRA: -19 ± 5% and SNRA: -30 ± 6%, and SNRA blood flow was lower than that in the control condition (-14 ± 6% vs -30 ± 6% at 20°C and 35°C, respectively, despite the finding that both thermal conditions induced the same reductions in PETCO2 and vascular conductance. These findings suggested that the heat condition decreases or suppresses ocular blood flow via attenuation of pressor response during exhaustive exercise.

  1. Progress in measurement of ocular blood flow and relevance to our understanding of glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

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    Harris, A; Chung, H S; Ciulla, T A; Kagemann, L

    1999-09-01

    New technologies have facilitated the study of the ocular circulation. These modalities and analysis techniques facilitate very precise and comprehensive study of retinal, choroidal, and retrobulbar circulations. These techniques include: 1. Vessel caliber assessment; 2. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopic fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography to image and evaluate the retinal circulation and choroidal circulation respectively; 3. Laser Doppler flowmetry and confocal scanning laser Doppler flowmetry to measure blood flow in the optic nerve head and retinal capillary beds; 4. Ocular pulse measurement; and 5. color Doppler imaging to measure blood flow velocities in the central retinal artery, the ciliary arteries and the ophthalmic artery. These technique have greatly enhanced the ability to quantify ocular perfusion defects in many disorders, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, two of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Recently it has become clear, in animal models of glaucoma, that retinal ganglion cells die via apoptosis. The factors that initiate apoptosis in these cells remain obscure, but ischemia may play a central role. Patients with either primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma experience various ocular blood flow deficits. With regard to age-related macular degeneration, the etiology remains unknown although some theories include primary retinal pigment epithelial senescence, genetic defects such as those found in the ABCR gene which is also defective in Stargardt's disease and ocular perfusion abnormalities. As the choriocapillaris supplies the metabolic needs of the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer retina, perfusion defect in the choriocapillaris could account for some of the physiologic and pathologic changes in AMD. Vascular defects have been identified in both nonexudative and exudative AMD patients using new technologies. This paper is a comprehensive update

  2. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

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    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling

  3. Retinal angiographic blood flowmetry is reduced in the ocular ischaemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Grith Lssrkholm; Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine;

    2013-01-01

    with ocular ischaemic syndrome (OIS) and 20 control eyes from subjects with carotid artery stenosis but without signs of ocular ischaemia. Analyses of video fluorescein angiograms extracting time intervals for the time delay between specific phases of the angiogram were performed. Time delay was compared...... and a correlation between flow and ocular perfusion pressure. While angiographic flowmetry proved effective in discriminating between groups of individuals, it can only be used to support the diagnosis of the ocular ischaemic syndrome in patients with extreme flow reduction....

  4. Peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors as biomarkers to ocular findings in diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras-Roca, Marc; Molins, Blanca; Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Vinagre, Irene; Ríos, José; Adán, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    To study the association between peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors and presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) and its related anatomic features in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Observational cross-sectional study on a proof of concept basis. Seventy-six T2DM included patients were divided based on the presence (n = 58) or absence of DME (n = 18) according to optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) was performed in DME patients. Fasting peripheral blood sample testing included glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, creatinin and lipid levels among others. Serum levels of a broad panel of cytokines and inflammatory mediators were also analysed. OCT findings included central subfoveal thickness, diffuse retinal thickness (DRT), cystoid macular edema (CME), serous retinal detachment and epirretinal membrane. UWFA items included pattern of DME, presence of peripheral retinal ischemia and enlarged foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Metabolic and inflammatory factors did not statistically differ between groups. However, several inflammatory mediators did associate to certain ocular items of DME cases: IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with DRT (p = 0.044), IL-10 was decreased in patients with CME (p = 0.012), and higher IL-8 (p = 0.031) and VEGF levels (p = 0.031) were observed in patients with enlarged FAZ. Inflammatory and metabolic peripheral blood factors in T2DM may not be differentially associated to DME when compared to non-DME cases. However, some OCT and UWFA features of DME such as DRT, CME and enlarged FAZ may be associated to certain systemic inflammatory mediators.

  5. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms.

  6. Bilayered Films Based on Novel Polymer Derivative for Improved Ocular Therapy of Gatifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Dinesh Aher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Thiomers could prove to be suitable mucoadhesives for fabrication of ocular inserts. Objective. The study intends to explore the application of thiolated sodium alginate (TSA to the preparation of bilayered ocular inserts of gatifloxacin. Methods. Cysteine moieties were grafted onto sodium alginate (SA and the resultant thiomer was characterized for relevant physicochemical properties. Bilayered inserts were fabricated with a mucoadhesive immediate release layer composed of either SA or TSA and a sustained release layer composed of acrylates. Films were prepared by solvent evaporation and evaluated for mechanical properties, drug content, and in vitro release. Results and Discussion. The synthesized TSA possessed 248.80±49.7 μmol thiol groups/gm and its solutions thickened on standing due to disulphide bridging. Its films showed improved mucoadhesion and also a strikingly beneficial property of resisting erosion and remaining as a hydrated adhesive layer for the duration of drug release. The bilayered films were found to be flexible, with good folding endurance, uniform thickness, and appropriate drug content, and showed a release of about 80% of loaded gatifloxacin in 12 h. Conclusion. The study demonstrates promise in employing thiolated polymer in conjunction with acrylates for the design of ocular inserts for twice a day therapy with gatifloxacin.

  7. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: J Kevin ...

  8. Ocular rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Zorana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.

  9. Transmission improvement options via local energy degradation at a cyclotron driven ocular tumor treatment facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Hrbacek, Jan; Ijpes, Dennis; Schippers, Jacobus Maarten

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this work is to increase the beam transmission from the cyclotron to the patient location of ocular tumor treatment facility Optis 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute and thus to reduce the patient treatment times. The examined options for such transmission increase were the installation of local degraders in the patient treatment room and modification of the energy selection collimator settings. The experiments have shown that an improvement of the beam transmission is possible to achieve, however on a cost of an increase in lateral or distal penumbra of the beam. The benefits and drawbacks of the examined options are discussed.

  10. Can We Improve the Tolerance of an Ocular Prosthesis by Enhancing Its Surface Finish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Andre S; Worrell, Emma; Roos, Jonathan C P; Edwards, Barry; Malhotra, Raman

    2017-03-07

    Patients who wear an ocular prosthesis frequently suffer with dry eye symptoms and socket discharge, often on a daily basis. The aim of the study was to determine whether a smoother, optical quality polish of the prosthesis' surface could improve symptoms and wear tolerance. The study was designed as single-center, single-masked, prospective randomized controlled trial. Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing annual ocular prosthesis maintenance review were approached from the prosthesis clinic. Forty-one out of 49 eligible patients were recruited. Participants were randomized to either a standard or a higher "optical quality" polish of their prosthesis. At entry to the trial, at 1 month, and 12 months they completed a questionnaire covering cleaning, lubricant use, inflammation, discomfort, and discharge. Lower scores indicated better tolerance of the prosthesis. At each visit, the prosthesis was stained and photographed against a standard background to assess deposit build up. Primary outcome measures were 1) a subjective questionnaire score and 2) an objective assessment of surface deposit build-up on prosthetic eyes by standardized photographic grading. Forty-one patients participated in the study. The median age of their prosthesis was 36 months (range 9 months-40 years). There was no statistically significant difference in questionnaire scores or deposit build up between the 2 groups at baseline. By 12-months, the higher optical quality polish showed a statistically significant reduction in symptoms and frequency of discharge (2.19 vs. 3.85; p = 0.05-lower scores better). Scoring of the prosthesis' deposit build-up showed a significant difference at 1 month, but this was not sustained at 12 months. Creating an optical quality finish to an ocular prosthesis reduces deposit build up on artificial eyes. The authors found this modification improved patient tolerance at 12 months.

  11. Short-term effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection on ocular blood flow evaluated with color Doppler ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Alpaslan; Anayol; Yasin; Toklu; Elif; Asik; Kamberoglu; Sabri; Raza; Hasan; Basri; Arifoglu; Huseyin; Simavli; Ayse; Gul; Kocak; Altintas; Saban; Simsek

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the changes in ocular blood flow with color Doppler ultrasonography(CDU) after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide(IVTA) injection.METHODS:A total of 46 patients who underwent IVTA(4 mg/0.1 mL) injection for diabetic macular edema(DME)(n =22), central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO)(n =12) and choroidal neovascular membrane(CNVM)(n =12) were included in the study. Peak systolic velocity(PSV), end diastolic velocity(EDV) and resistivity index(RI) were measured from the ophthalmic artery(OA), the central retinal artery(CRA) and the posterior ciliary artery(PCA)of each patient with CDU before, at the end of the first week and at the end of the first month following IVTA injection.RESULTS:In the DME group, PSV of OA at the first of the first month(mean ±SD)(37.48 ±10.87 cm/s) increased compared to pre-injection value(31.39 ±10.84 cm/s)(P =0.048). There was a statistically significant decrease(P =0.049) in PSV of CRA at the end of the first month(7.97±2.67 cm/s) compared to the pre-injection(9.47±3.37 cm/s).There was not any statistically significant difference onthe other parameters in the DME group. Also, there was not any statistically significant difference on the ocular blood flow values in the CRVO and CNVM groups.CONCLUSION:We observed that 4 mg/0.1 mL IVTA increased PSV of OA and decreased PSV of CRA in DME patients and did not have any effect on ocular blood flow values of CRVO and CNVM patients.

  12. Short-term effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection on ocular blood flow evaluated with color Doppler ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alpaslan Anayol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the changes in ocular blood flow with color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA injection.METHODS: A total of 46 patients who underwent IVTA (4 mg/0.1 mL injection for diabetic macular edema (DME (n=22, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO (n=12 and choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM (n=12 were included in the study. Peak systolic velocity (PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV and resistivity index (RI were measured from the ophthalmic artery (OA, the central retinal artery (CRA and the posterior ciliary artery (PCA of each patient with CDU before, at the end of the first week and at the end of the first month following IVTA injection.RESULTS:In the DME group, PSV of OA at the first of the first month (mean±SD (37.48±10.87 cm/s increased compared to pre-injection value (31.39±10.84 cm/s (P=0.048. There was a statistically significant decrease (P=0.049 in PSV of CRA at the end of the first month (7.97±2.67 cm/s compared to the pre-injection (9.47±3.37 cm/s. There was not any statistically significant difference on the other parameters in the DME group. Also, there was not any statistically significant difference on the ocular blood flow values in the CRVO and CNVM groups.CONCLUSION: We observed that 4 mg/0.1 mL IVTA increased PSV of OA and decreased PSV of CRA in DME patients and did not have any effect on ocular blood flow values of CRVO and CNVM patients.

  13. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Moss

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Adam M Moss, Alon Harris, Brent Siesky, Deepam Rusia, Kathleen M Williamson, Yochai ShoshaniDepartment of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAAbstract: Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.Keywords: ocular blood flow, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, timolol, glaucoma, visual function, optic nerve head

  14. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-04-26

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.

  15. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Melanoma Sections What is Ocular Melanoma? Ocular Melanoma Causes ... Melanoma Diagnosis Ocular Melanoma Treatment What is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Melanoma Ocular? ...

  16. Alpha B-crystallin improved survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of acute ocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihong Wu; Layi Wang; Shike Hou

    2012-01-01

    Increased endogenous αB-crystallin protein levels have been shown to reduce cell apoptosis,although the effects of exogenous αB-crystallin protein remain poorly understood.The present study established an acute ocular hypertension model in the right eye of Sprague-Dawley rats.Fluorogold retrograde tracing and immunofluorescence methods showed that the number of retinal ganglion cells decreased in the right eyes and caspase-3 expression increased following acute ocular hypertension.Intravitreal injection of αB-crystallin in the right eye increased the number of retinal ganglion cells and reduced caspase-3 expression.Results demonstrated that exogenous αB-crystallin protein inhibited caspase-3 expression and improved retinal ganglion cell survival following acute ocular hypertension.

  17. The effect of ageing on ocular blood flow, oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah K H Lim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ageing on the recovery of ocular blood flow, intravitreal oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation. METHODS: Long Evans rats (3- and 14-month-old underwent acute stepwise IOP elevation from 10 to 120 mmHg (5 mmHg steps each 3 minutes. IOP was then returned to baseline and recovery was monitored for 2 hours. Photopic electroretinograms (ERG were recorded at each IOP step during stress and at each minute during recovery. Ocular blood flow and vitreal oxygen tension (pO2 were assayed continuously and simultaneously using a combined laser Doppler flow meter (LDF and an oxygen sensitive fibre-optic probe, respectively. The combined sensor was placed in the vitreous chamber, proximal to the retina. Data were binned into 3 minute intervals during stress and 1 min intervals during recovery. Recovery data was described using a bi-logistic function. RESULTS: Rats of both ages showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation, with pO2 showing a closer relationship to ERG than LDF. During recovery, both ages showed a distinctive two-phased recovery for all three measures with the exception of the LDF in 3-month-old rats, which showed only 1 phase. In all animals, LDF recovered fastest (1 hour. 14-month-old rats showed surprisingly faster and greater LDF recovery compared to the younger group, with similar levels of pO2 recovery. However, the ERG in these middle-aged animals did not fully recover after two hours, despite showing no difference in susceptibility to IOP during stress compared to the young group. CONCLUSIONS: Young and middle-aged eyes showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation in terms of pO2, LDF and ERG. Despite this lack of difference during stress, older eyes did not completely recover function, suggesting a more subtle age-related susceptibility to IOP.

  18. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating...

  19. Effective melanin depigmentation of human and murine ocular tissues: an improved method for paraffin and frozen sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Manicam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The removal of excessive melanin pigments that obscure ocular tissue morphology is important to address scientific questions and for differential diagnosis of ocular tumours based on histology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish an effective and fast melanin bleaching method for paraffin and frozen mouse and human ocular tissues. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded and frozen ocular specimens from mice and human donors were subjected to bleaching employing two methods. The first employed potassium permanganate (KMnO4 with oxalic acid, and the second 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. To determine optimal bleaching conditions, depigmentation was carried out at various incubation times. The effect of diluents used for 10% H2O2 was assessed using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, and deionized water. Three different slide types and two fixatives, which were ice-cold acetone with 80% methanol, and 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA were used to determine the optimal conditions for better tissue adherence during bleaching. All tissues were stained in hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. RESULTS: Optimal bleaching was achieved using warm 10% H2O2 diluted in PBS at 65°C for 120 minutes. Chromium-gelatin-coated slides prevented tissue detachment. Adherence of cryosections was also improved with post-fixation using 4% PFA and overnight air-drying at RT after cryosectioning. Tissue morphology was preserved under these conditions. Conversely, tissues bleached in KMnO4/oxalic acid demonstrated poor depigmentation with extensive tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS: Warm dilute H2O2 at 65°C for 120 minutes rapidly and effectively bleached both cryo- and paraffin sections of murine and human ocular tissues.

  20. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  1. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  2. Efficacy of 2-Month Treatment With Cord Blood Serum Eye Drops in Ocular Surface Disease: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Buzzi, Marina; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Versura, Piera

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the morphological changes of corneal epithelium and subbasal nerves by in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with ocular surface disease (OSD) treated with cord blood serum (CBS) eye drops. Twenty patients with OSD (mean age 61.1 ± 12.6 years) were included in this prospective 1-arm study and treated with CBS eye drops for 2 months. Corneal sensitivity, Schirmer test score, breakup time, subjective symptoms [Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)], and corneal staining were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) treatment. In vivo confocal microscopy analyzed giant epithelial cells, subbasal nerve number and tortuosity, neuromas, beading, and dendritic cells (DCs) in the central cornea. OSDI, Visual Analogue Scale, and Oxford grading values significantly decreased at T1 versus T0 (respectively, 44.1 ± 18.9 vs. 74.2 ± 13.9; 3.7 ± 1.5 vs. 8.9 ± 0.9; and 2.4 ± 1.1 vs. 3.3 ± 1.3; P < 0.0001), whereas corneal sensitivity, Schirmer test score, and breakup time significantly increased (respectively, 49.5 ± 2.6 vs. 47.9 ± 2.9; 3.2 ± 2.0 vs. 2.4 ± 2.2; 4.6 ± 3.1 vs. 3.8 ± 2.1; P < 0.0001). Corneal nerve morphology improved at T1 versus T0 with a higher total nerve number (3.4 ± 1.6 vs. 2.5 ± 1.6 per frame) and lower tortuosity (3.0 ± 0.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.6) (P < 0.01). The number of patients presenting with giant epithelial cells, beading, and neuromas decreased at T1. DC density did not change after treatment. The detection of neuromas and higher DC density at T0 were associated with greater OSDI reduction at T1 (P < 0.001). CBS eye drops significantly improved corneal nerve morphology and subjective symptoms in patients with severe OSD. The presence of neuromas and higher dendritic cell density at baseline were associated with greater reduction of discomfort symptoms after treatment.

  3. Improvement in Cerebral and Ocular Hemodynamics Early after Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients of Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis with or without Contralateral Carotid Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the alternation in cerebral and ocular blood flow velocity (BFV in patients of carotid stenosis (CS with or without contralateral carotid occlusion (CO early after carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Patients and Methods. Nineteen patients underwent CEA for ≥50% CS. Fourteen patients had the unilateral CS, and five patients had the ipsilateral CS and the contralateral CO. Transcranial Doppler (TCD and Color Doppler Imaging (CDI were performed before and early after CEA. Results. In patients with unilateral CS, significant improvements in BFV were observed in anterior cerebral artery (ACA and middle cerebral artery (MCA on the ipsilateral side after CEA. In patients of ipsilateral CS and contralateral CO, significant improvements in BFV were observed in the ACA and MCA not only on the ipsilateral side but also on the contralateral side postoperatively. The ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA retrograde flows in two patients were recovered to anterograde direction following CEA. The BFV in short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA of the ipsilateral side significantly increased postoperatively irrespective of the presence of contralateral CO. Conclusions. CEA improved cerebral anterior circulation hemodynamics especially in patients of unilateral CS and contralateral CO, normalized the OA reverse flow, and increased the blood perfusion of SPCA.

  4. Injeção subconjuntival de soro autógeno no tratamento de queimadura ocular por álcali em coelhos Subconjunctival injection of autogenous blood in the treatment of ocular alcali burn in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Colussi Cypel

    2004-10-01

    , in the study group. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this experimental study suggest that the autogenous serum may have a primary effect on the process of scarring of the eyes after ocular alkali burn, decreasing late complications and improving the prognosis related to the stability of the inflammatory scarring process.

  5. Physiologically activated phase transition systems for improved ocular retention of ketorolac tromethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Sunil; Vhora, Imran; Desai, Jagruti; Thakkar, Sneha; Thakkar, Hetal

    2012-03-01

    In present investigation, novel physiologically activated phase transition systems for Ketorolac Tromethamine was developed. In-situ gelling systems: pH sensitive gel using carbopol 980 and HPMC K100LV, ion sensitive gel using gallan gum and temperature sensitive gel using Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 were developed. The drug content, content uniformity, pH, optical transmittance, rheological property, bioadhesive strength, in-vitro drug release, ocular irritation and stability study were evaluated. Characterization revealed that gels were conforming to all criteria required for ocular delivery in terms of stability on sterilization, long residence time, non-irritability and sustained drug release without affecting vision. Thus, In-situ gels can be a promising alternative to the prevalent market formulations.

  6. Physiologically activated phase transition systems for improved ocular retention of ketorolac tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Thakor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In present investigation, novel physiologically activated phase transition systems for Ketorolac Tromethamine was developed. In-situ gelling systems: pH sensitive gel using carbopol 980 and HPMC K100LV, ion sensitive gel using gallan gum and temperature sensitive gel using Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 were developed. The drug content, content uniformity, pH, optical transmittance, rheological property, bioadhesive strength, in-vitro drug release, ocular irritation and stability study were evaluated. Characterization revealed that gels were conforming to all criteria required for ocular delivery in terms of stability on sterilization, long residence time, non-irritability and sustained drug release without affecting vision. Thus, In-situ gels can be a promising alternative to the prevalent market formulations.

  7. Physiologically activated phase transition systems for improved ocular retention of ketorolac tromethamine

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Thakor; Imran Vhora; Jagruti Desai; Sneha Thakkar; Hetal Thakkar

    2012-01-01

    In present investigation, novel physiologically activated phase transition systems for Ketorolac Tromethamine was developed. In-situ gelling systems: pH sensitive gel using carbopol 980 and HPMC K100LV, ion sensitive gel using gallan gum and temperature sensitive gel using Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 were developed. The drug content, content uniformity, pH, optical transmittance, rheological property, bioadhesive strength, in-vitro drug release, ocular irritation and stability study were ...

  8. Short-term effects of brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol on ocular perfusion pressure and blood flow in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Ehrlich, Rita; Cantor, Louis; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rusia, Deepam; Hollander, David A; Abrams, Leslie; Williams, Julia M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2012-01-01

    To examine the comparative short-term effects of brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol on ocular perfusion pressure and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (OAG). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), and retrobulbar hemodynamics were assessed in 15 patients with OAG (mean age 68.1 years, eight women) with well controlled IOP. IOP was measured by Goldman applanation tonometery and color Doppler imaging was utilized to assess the retrobulbar blood vessels before and 1 month after treatment with topical brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol. Statistical analysis was performed by Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks and post-hoc Wilcoxon signed rank test for multiple comparisons with Holm's sequential Bonferroni procedure. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. The Friedman test and subsequent post-hoc analysis indicated that IOP, BP, OPP, and retrobulbar blood flow velocities did not significantly differ between brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol after 1-month treatment administration in patients with OAG and well controlled IOP. In this cohort of patients with OAG, short-term treatment with brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol results in similar effects on OPP and retrobulbar blood flow velocities.

  9. Assessment of effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular agerelatedmacular degeneration (AMD.Methods: 35 patients with wet AMD undergone intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injection. Color Doppler Imaging (CDI and dopplerographywere used to measure hemodynamic parameters including the peak systolic velocity (Vsyst, cm / s, end-diastolic velocity (V diast, cm / s, and resistance index (RI of blood flow in the central retinal artery (CRA, the short posterior ciliary arteries (PCA, and the ophthalmic artery (OA. All patients were examined before and after injection on day 1‑7 and 30 day during the 3‑month follow up period.Results: Before intravitreal injection Vsyst was decreased in short PCA (p<0.05, RI in CRA and in short PCA significantly increased in comparison with normal index in same vessels. The peak systolic velocity in OA, in CRA and in short PCA was not significantly changed. After second injection resistance index in CRA and in short PCA was normalized.Conclusion: There was not impairment of ocular blood flow in retinal and choroidal after monthly intravitreal injection of ranibizumab during the 3‑month follow up period.

  10. Assessment of effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular agerelatedmacular degeneration (AMD.Methods: 35 patients with wet AMD undergone intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injection. Color Doppler Imaging (CDI and dopplerographywere used to measure hemodynamic parameters including the peak systolic velocity (Vsyst, cm / s, end-diastolic velocity (V diast, cm / s, and resistance index (RI of blood flow in the central retinal artery (CRA, the short posterior ciliary arteries (PCA, and the ophthalmic artery (OA. All patients were examined before and after injection on day 1‑7 and 30 day during the 3‑month follow up period.Results: Before intravitreal injection Vsyst was decreased in short PCA (p<0.05, RI in CRA and in short PCA significantly increased in comparison with normal index in same vessels. The peak systolic velocity in OA, in CRA and in short PCA was not significantly changed. After second injection resistance index in CRA and in short PCA was normalized.Conclusion: There was not impairment of ocular blood flow in retinal and choroidal after monthly intravitreal injection of ranibizumab during the 3‑month follow up period.

  11. 'Simple 7' Steps Can Help Improve Blood Pressure in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few healthy lifestyle habits can reduce black Americans' risk of high blood pressure, researchers say. "We found that even small improvements in cardiovascular health can reduce risk for developing high blood pressure," said study lead author John Booth III, of ...

  12. Liposomal flucytosine capped with gold nanoparticle formulations for improved ocular delivery

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    Salem HF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heba F Salem,1 Sayed M Ahmed,2 Mahmoud M Omar3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 2Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, El-Minia, Egypt Abstract: Nanoliposomes have an organized architecture that provides versatile functions. In this study, liposomes were used as an ocular carrier for nanogold capped with flucytosine antifungal drug. Gold nanoparticles were used as a contrasting agent that provides tracking of the drug to the posterior segment of the eye for treating fungal intraocular endophthalmitis. The nanoliposomes were prepared with varying molar ratios of lecithin, cholesterol, Span 60, a positive charge inducer (stearylamine, and a negative charge inducer (dicetyl phosphate. Formulation F6 (phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, Span 60, and stearylamine at a molar ratio of 1:1:1:0.15 demonstrated the highest extent of drug released, which reached 7.043 mg/h. It had a zeta potential value of 42.5±2.12 mV and an average particle size approaching 135.1±12.0 nm. The ocular penetration of the selected nanoliposomes was evaluated in vivo using a computed tomography imaging technique. It was found that F6 had both the highest intraocular penetration depth (10.22±0.11 mm as measured by the computed tomography and the highest antifungal efficacy when evaluated in vivo using 32 infected rabbits’ eyes. The results showed a strong correlation between the average intraocular penetration of the nanoparticles capped with flucytosine and the percentage of the eyes healed. After 4 weeks, all the infected eyes (n=8 were significantly healed (P<0.01 when treated with liposomal formulation F6. Overall, the nanoliposomes encapsulating flucytosine have been proven efficient in treating the infected rabbits’ eyes, which proves the efficiency of the

  13. Environmental enrichment preserved lifelong ocular dominance plasticity, but did not improve visual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifzu, Franziska; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-05-01

    In standard cage (SC)-raised mice, ocular dominance (OD) plasticity of the primary visual cortex (V1) induced by monocular deprivation (MD) is maximal in juveniles, declines in adults, and is absent beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. Raising mice in an enriched environment (EE) preserved a juvenile-like OD plasticity after 7 days of MD until at least PD196, mediated by reductions of deprived eye responses in V1. Whether the sensitive phase for OD plasticity can be prolonged into older age and whether long-term EE modifies visual abilities was not yet known. Here, we demonstrate that EE raising enables lifelong OD plasticity. In contrast to PD200 EE-mice, the preserved OD shift in both >PD400 and >PD700 EE-mice was mediated by increases in open eye responses in V1 (adult OD plasticity). When SC-mice were transferred to EE after PD110, OD plasticity was restored until PD922. Moreover, visual abilities tested by both optomotry and the visual water task and interindividual variability were not different between PD700 SC- and EE-mice. Taken together, EE raising enabled a lifelong OD plasticity but did not affect basic visual performance.

  14. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

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    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  15. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  16. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

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    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  17. How to improve cord blood engraftment?

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    Meral eBeksac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various factors make cord blood (CB a significant source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, including ease of procurement and lack of donor attrition, with the ability to process and store the donor cells long term. Importantly, high proliferative potential of the immature HSCs allows one log less use of cells compared to bone marrow (BM or peripheral blood stem cells. As total nucleated cell (TNC and CD34 + cell content of CB grafts are correlated with engraftment rate and speed, strategies to expand HSC and homing have been developed. This chapter will focus on modalities such as intra-bone administration, fucosylation, CD26 inhibition, Prostaglandin G2 derivative or complement 3 exposure and SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCL-12 pathway interventions that have been experimented successfully. Furthermore increasing evidence in line with better recognition of CB progenitors that are involved in engraftment and homing will also be addressed.

  18. Conjugation of cell-penetrating peptides with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles improves ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Aimee; Vega, Estefania; Pérez, Yolanda; Gómara, María J; García, María Luisa; Haro, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a peptide for ocular delivery (POD) and human immunodeficiency virus transactivator were conjugated with biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG)-nanoparticles (NPs) in an attempt to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method following two different pathways. One involved preparation of PLGA NPs followed by PEG and peptide conjugation (PLGA-NPs-PEG-peptide); the other involved self-assembly of PLGA-PEG and the PLGA-PEG-peptide copolymer followed by NP formulation. The conjugation of the PEG and the peptide was confirmed by a colorimetric test and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Flurbiprofen was used as an example of an anti-inflammatory drug. The physicochemical properties of the resulting NPs (morphology, in vitro release, cell viability, and ocular tolerance) were studied. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in rabbit eyes after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate. Of the formulations developed, the PLGA-PEG-POD NPs were the smaller particles and exhibited greater entrapment efficiency and more sustained release. The positive charge on the surface of these NPs, due to the conjugation with the positively charged peptide, facilitated penetration into the corneal epithelium, resulting in more effective prevention of ocular inflammation. The in vitro toxicity of the NPs developed was very low; no ocular irritation in vitro (hen’s egg test–chorioallantoic membrane assay) or in vivo (Draize test) was detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLGA-PEG-POD NPs are promising vehicles for ocular drug delivery. PMID:25670897

  19. Evaluation of TOPKAT, Toxtree, and Derek Nexus in Silico Models for Ocular Irritation and Development of a Knowledge-Based Framework To Improve the Prediction of Severe Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Parks, Amanda K; Carney, Edward W; Spencer, Pamela J

    2016-05-16

    Assessment of ocular irritation is an essential component of any risk assessment. A number of (Q)SARs and expert systems have been developed and are described in the literature. Here, we focus on three in silico models (TOPKAT, BfR rulebase implemented in Toxtree, and Derek Nexus) and evaluate their performance using 1644 in-house and 123 European Centre for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) compounds with existing in vivo ocular irritation classification data. Overall, the in silico models performed poorly. The best consensus predictions of severe ocular irritants were 52 and 65% for the in-house and ECETOC compounds, respectively. The prediction performance was improved by designing a knowledge-based chemical profiling framework that incorporated physicochemical properties and electrophilic reactivity mechanisms. The utility of the framework was assessed by applying it to the same test sets and three additional publicly available in vitro irritation data sets. The prediction of severe ocular irritants was improved to 73-77% if compounds were filtered on the basis of AlogP_MR (hydrophobicity with molar refractivity). The predictivity increased to 74-80% for compounds capable of preferentially undergoing hard electrophilic reactions, such as Schiff base formation and acylation. This research highlights the need for reliable ocular irritation models to be developed that take into account mechanisms of action and individual structural classes. It also demonstrates the value of profiling compounds with respect to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties that, in combination with existing models, results in better predictions for severe irritants.

  20. A Way to Improve Analytic Speed of Emergency Blood Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zihui; LI Jun; LIU Zisheng

    2002-01-01

    The circulatory way of eccentric hatch of seperating emergency blood sample quickly and entirely, that is the blood sample is centrifugatened first; second, hatched at 37 ℃; then adopt the circulatory way of centrifugation which can seperate quickly emergency blood sample, and collect nonfibrin serum. The serum was placed paired, and was tested automatically by Corning 644 Electrolyte Analysor and Shimadzu CL- 7000 Biochemistry Analysor after placed naturely with sample 2 hours. There has not difference between two analytic result after T test of statistics. This way shortens the seperation time of serum of emergency blood sample, improves emergency analytic speed, and has a good value on sample seperation of common automatic analysis.

  1. Ocular hemodynamics in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

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    N. H. Zavgorodnya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In case of retinal detachment atrophic processes lead to irreversible loss of functions within 4–6 days, it happens on underlying low ocular blood flow. In order to evaluate the degree of violation of regional hemodynamics in patients with retinal detachment two groups of patients were examined: the main group (52 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and the control group (24 myopic patients with lattice form of peripheral chorioretinal dystrophy. Methods and results. Doppler and reography results had been compared, significant decrease of blood flow in patients with retinal detachment was found. No differences between affected and fellow eye in these patients, close negative correlation between the level of ocular blood flow and the degree of myopia in the control group. Conclusion. This demonstrates the feasibility of actions to improve regional blood flow in patients operated on for retinal detachment.

  2. Ocular toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, J Fernando; Espinoza, Juan V; Arevalo, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is an uncommon worldwide parasitic infection that affects mostly children and is found in both rural and metropolitan areas. In many parts of the world, parasitic infections of the eye are a major cause of blindness. The diagnosis of toxocariasis is essentially clinical, based on the lesion morphology and supportive laboratory data such as serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers and ELISA Toxocara titers on aqueous humor; other diagnostic methods are imaging studies including optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, computed tomography, and ocular ultrasound. Treatment is directed at complications arising from intraocular inflammation and vitreous membrane traction. Early vitrectomy may be of value both diagnostically and therapeutically.

  3. Improvement in blood fluidity by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Deguchi, Takahiro; Fujita, Takanori; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    Improvement in blood fluidity leads to the prevention of various lifestyle-related diseases. A raw material for improving blood fluidity has been long desired in the research area of functional and supplemental foods. We successfully showed an improvement in blood fluidity by the Zingiberaceae plant, Kaempferia parviflora. The rhizome of the plant reduced the blood passage time through a micro slit using a disseminated intravascular coagulation model. The mechanism was attributed to the activation of fibrinolysis, as demonstrated by elongation of the euglobulin lysis time and an in-vitro fibrinolysis assay. The active principles were determined to be methoxyflavones. The results show that the rhizome of K. parviflora is a promising candidate preventive agent for treating lifestyle-related diseases.

  4. Directional plasticity rapidly improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment in monkeys using a multichannel vestibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y; Chiang, Bryce; Rahman, Mehdi A; Ahn, Joong Ho; Davidovics, Natan S; Della Santina, Charles C

    2013-12-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can be disabling. We have shown that a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can partly restore vestibular sensation as evidenced by improvements in the 3-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR). However, a key challenge is to minimize misalignment between the axes of eye and head rotation, which is apparently caused by current spread beyond each electrode's targeted nerve branch. We recently reported that rodents wearing a MVP markedly improve 3D VOR alignment during the first week after MVP activation, probably through the same central nervous system adaptive mechanisms that mediate cross-axis adaptation over time in normal individuals wearing prisms that cause visual scene movement about an axis different than the axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that rhesus monkeys would exhibit similar improvements with continuous prosthetic stimulation over time. We created bilateral vestibular deficiency in four rhesus monkeys via intratympanic injection of gentamicin. A MVP was mounted to the cranium, and eye movements in response to whole-body passive rotation in darkness were measured repeatedly over 1 week of continuous head motion-modulated prosthetic electrical stimulation. 3D VOR responses to whole-body rotations about each semicircular canal axis were measured on days 1, 3, and 7 of chronic stimulation. Horizontal VOR gain during 1 Hz, 50 °/s peak whole-body rotations before the prosthesis was turned on was <0.1, which is profoundly below normal (0.94 ± 0.12). On stimulation day 1, VOR gain was 0.4-0.8, but the axis of observed eye movements aligned poorly with head rotation (misalignment range ∼30-40 °). Substantial improvement of axis misalignment was observed after 7 days of continuous motion-modulated prosthetic stimulation under normal diurnal lighting. Similar improvements were noted for all animals, all three axes of rotation tested, for all sinusoidal frequencies tested (0.05-5 Hz), and for

  5. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.

  6. Hyperemic responses of the optic nerve head blood flow to chromatic equiluminant flicker are reduced by ocular hypertension and early glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsini, Benedetto; Riva, Charles E.; Salgarello, Tommaso; Logean, Eric; Colotto, Alberto; Giudiceandrea, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated in ocular hypertension (OHT) and early glaucoma (EOAG) patients the optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow response (RF) to chromatic equiluminant flicker. This stimulus generates neural activity dominated by the parvo-cellular system. Eleven EOAG, 20 OHT patients, and 8 age-matched control subjects were examined. The blood flow (F) at the neuroretinal rim was continuously monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry before, during, and after a 60-s exposure to a 4 Hz, red-green equiluminant flicker stimulus (30 deg field). RF was expressed as percentage F-change during the last 20 s of flicker relative to baseline F. Responses were collected at a number of temporal sites. The highest RF value was used for subsequent analysis. As compared to controls, both OHT and EOAG patients showed a decrease (pRF. We conclude that RF elicited by chromatic equiluminant flicker is abnormally reduced in OHT and EOAG patients indicating an impairment of the parvo-cellular-mediated vasoactivity. This decrease of vascular response may occur independently of neural activity loss early in the disease process.

  7. The Steroid Effect on the Blood-Ocular Barrier Change Induced by Triolein Emulsion as seen on Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

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    Lee, Jong Yuk; Eun, Choong Ki [Graduate School of Inje University, College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Woo [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Kim, Hak Jin; Jung, Yeon Joo [Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Seung Youn; Cho, Byung Mann; Choi, Seon Hee [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on the damaged blood-ocular barrier caused by triolein emulsion, using contrast-enhanced MR imaging. An emulsion of 0.1-mL triolein in 20 mL of saline was infused into the carotid arteries of 32 cats, 12 cats were placed in the treatment group and 18 cats were placed in the Control group. Thirty minutes after the infusion of triolein emulsion, a set of orbital pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted MR images (T1WIs) were obtained. Infusion of 10 mg/kg dexamethasone into the ipsilateral carotid artery of each of the cats in the treatment group cats and 20 mL saline in each of the cats in the control group was given. A second set of pre- and post-contrast orbital T1WIs were obtained three hours following triolein emulsion infusion. Qualitative analysis was performed for the the anterior chamber (AC), the posterior chamber (PC), and in the vitreous humor of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyes. The signal intensity ratios of the ipsilateral eye over the contralateral eye were quantitatively evaluated in the three ocular chambers on the first and second set of T1WIs, and were then statistically compared. Qualitatively, the AC, the PC or the vitreous did not show immediate contrast enhancement on the first and the second set of post-contrast T1WIs. However, the AC and the PC showed delayed contrast enhancement for both groups of cats on the second pre-contrast T1WIs. No enhancement or minimally delayed enhancement was seen for the vitreous humor. Quantitatively, the signal intensity ratios in the PC of the treatment group of cats were statistically lower than the ratios of the control group of cats for the second set of T1WIs (p = 0.037). The AC and vitreous showed no statistically significant difference between the feline treatment group and control group (p > 0.05). Contrast-enhanced MR images revealed increased vascular permeability in the PC of the eye after infusion of triolein emulsion

  8. Ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vital P; Harris, Alon; Anderson, Douglas; Stodtmeister, Richard; Cremasco, Fernanda; Kergoat, Helene; Lovasik, John; Stalmans, Ingborg; Zeitz, Oliver; Lanzl, Ines; Gugleta, Konstantin; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-06-01

    This review article discusses the relationship between ocular perfusion pressure and glaucoma, including its definition, factors that influence its calculation and epidemiological studies investigating the influence of ocular perfusion pressure on the prevalence, incidence and progression of glaucoma. We also list the possible mechanisms behind this association, and discuss whether it is secondary to changes in intraocular pressure, blood pressure or both. Finally, we describe the circadian variation of ocular perfusion pressure and the effects of systemic and topical medications on it. We believe that the balance between IOP and BP, influenced by the autoregulatory capacity of the eye, is part of what determines whether an individual will develop optic nerve damage. However, prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to better define the role of ocular perfusion pressure in the development and progression of glaucoma.

  9. Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Samir; Darmstadt, Gary; Naheed, Aliya; Arifeen, Shams; Islam, Maksuda; Fatima, Kaniz; Breiman, Robert; Sack, David; Hamer, Davidson

    2011-06-01

    Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.

  10. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  11. Ocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Reema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is a parasite of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally. It is being reported in increasing numbers from Mediterranean countries like Italy. In India this infection is occasionally being reported. We report three cases of ocular dirofilariasis from the state of Assam presenting as periorbital and subconjunctival cysts. The parasites were identified as Dirofilaria repens. The purpose of this article is to take note of this emerging zoonosis in Assam; also to review literature in the cases reported.

  12. Cisticercosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaides Arencibia González

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis establece un grupo de enfermedades zoonóticas parasitarias; cuando se aloja en el ojo y sus anexos producen una cisticercosis ocular y periocular. Constituye una de las causas de uveítis ocular y pérdida importante de la visión. El diagnóstico clínico se realiza mediante la observación directa del parásito, cuando existen opacidades de los medios, el ultrasonido se emplea como medio diagnóstico útil. Los anti helmintos asociados a esteroides forman parte de su terapéutica, sumado al tratamiento definitivo de la extracción del parásito, en este tipo de afección mediante vitrectomía vía pars plana. Se presenta un caso portador de esta condición, se describen las características más importantes del cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, manejo y curso evolutivo-terapéutico.

  13. Development, in vitro and in vivo characterization of Eudragit RL 100 nanoparticles for improved ocular bioavailability of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Parmanand; Gupta, Roop Narayan; Jha, Arvind Kumar; Pandey, Ravishankar

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by increased intra ocular pressure (IOP) which results in blindness if left untreated. Acetazolamide (ACZ) is used to treat glaucoma since long back. Since it is a Class IV drug [According to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)], so its topical delivery results in poor ocular bioavailability. Objective of the present study is to increase the topical ocular bioavailability and to sustain the release of drug for longer time. ACZ-loaded Eudragit® RL 100 nanoparticle suspension (ACZ-E-NPs) was prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Ratio of organic to aqueous phase and composition of organic phase were altered to get the best formulation. Formulations prepared with acetone and methanol as organic phase were smallest in size. EE was in the range of 57.8% to 68.5%. According to drug release study almost all the formulations released 80% of drug in 8 h duration. The kinetics of drug release showed that the drug release pattern followed Higuchi's model (highest R2 values) and further it was fitted to the Korsemeyer-Peppas model, which showed the release was as per Fickian diffusion. IOP lowering effects of plain drug solution and ACZ-E-NPs were compared in adult male albino rabbits with a Riester Tonometer. The data revealed that the ACZ-E-NPs lower the IOP for longer time and of higher magnitude also. The difference was significant (p<0.001). Short-term stability study showed that none of the formulations was having remarked difference in their physicochemical properties after 6 months of storage at various temperatures.

  14. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  15. Heparin coatings for improving blood compatibility of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Roy; Pond, Daniel

    2016-12-29

    Blood contact with biomaterials triggers activation of multiple reactive mechanisms that can impair the performance of implantable medical devices and potentially cause serious adverse clinical events. This includes thrombosis and thromboembolic complications due to activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade, activation of the complement system, and inflammation. Numerous surface coatings have been developed to improve blood compatibility of biomaterials. For more than thirty years, the anticoagulant drug heparin has been employed as a covalently immobilized surface coating on a variety of medical devices. This review describes the fundamental principles of non-eluting heparin coatings, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications with focus on those technologies which have been commercialized. Because of its extensive publication history, there is emphasis on the CARMEDA(®) BioActive Surface (CBAS(®) Heparin Surface), a widely used commercialized technology for the covalent bonding of heparin.

  16. Toxoplasmosis and its Ocular Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koev Kr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides general information about the parasitic infection of toxoplasmosis and describes the ways of its transmission. It outlines the importance of the consequences of toxoplasmosis infection and the methods of its prevention. The review traces the harmful effects of the disease on human and animal organisms, the causes and stages of development of the disease. The review specifically focuses on the ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis which can cause ocular lesions, inflammation and scarring. Herein are described the ways toxoplasmosis can damage the eyes causing chorioretinitis, nystagmus, microphthalmia, etc. Furthermore, the review addresses the problem of how congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis affects eyes. The ocular symptoms of toxoplasmosis include weakened or blurred vision, eyeballs pain, ocular sensitivity to light, etc. The harmful effects of toxoplasmosis to pregnant women and immunocompromised patients have been delineated. Some of the disease manifestations include jaundice, rash, asphyxia, etc. The review traces the diagnostic work-up and comments on common tests for toxoplasmosis, such as taking of blood serum samples. The review ends with the treatment of the disease and of its ocular manifestations in particular, for example application of intravitreous injection. The prevention of the infection is extremely important for pregnant women, immunocompromised patients and patients with AIDS.

  17. Effects of C-nitropyrazoles and C-nitroazoles on ocular blood flow and retinal function recovery after ischemic insult%C-硝基吡唑类和C-硝基吡咯类对局部缺血损伤后眼血流量和视网膜功能恢复的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo XUAN; Tao WANG; George CY CHIOU; Igor L'vovich DALINGER; Tatyana Konstantinovna SHKINEVA; Svyatoslav Arkadievich SHEVELEV

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Effects of C-nitropyrazoles and C-nitroazoles on ocular blood flow and retinal.function recovery after ischemia have been studied. METHODS: The compounds were tested on ocular blood flow of ocular hyperten sive (40 mmHg) rabbit eyes with colored microsphere technique. They were also tested on the retinal function recovery after ischemia of rat eyes with electroretinography. RESULTS: All compounds (DC-1 through DC-17)showed significant increase in retinal function recovery after ischemia in the range of 26 % to 120 %(P<0.05). Among five compounds (DC-1 through DC-5) studied, four compounds (DC-2 through DC-5) in creased the blood flow in ehoroid, iris, and ciliary body, but not in retina. DC-1 did not show significant increase of blood flow in any of these ocular tissues. CONCLUSION: C-Nitropyrazoles can facilitate significant retinal function recovery after ischemic insult through the increase of ocular blood flow. Since rabbit's retina is scarce in vasculature, it did not show significant change in blood flow by C-nitropyrazoles as expected. Among all 17 compounds, DC-5 seems to be the most potent compound.

  18. Adult Ocular Toxocariasis Mimicking Ciliary Body Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass.

  19. Transfusing Wisely: Clinical Decision Support Improves Blood Transfusion Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ian; Doucet, Jay J; Clay, Brian; Kopko, Patricia; Fipps, Donald; Hemmen, Eema; Paulson, Debra

    2017-08-01

    The cost and risks of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, along with evidence of overuse, suggest that improving transfusion practices is a key opportunity for health systems to improve both the quality and value of patient care. Previous work, which included a BestPractice Advisory (BPA), was adapted in a quality improvement project designed to reduce both exposure to unnecessary blood products and costs. A prospective, pre-post study was conducted at an academic medical center with a diverse patient population. All noninfant inpatients without gastrointestinal bleeding who were not within 12 hours of surgical procedures were included. The interventions were education, a BPA, and other enhancements to the computerized provider order entry system. The percentage of multiunit (≥ 2 units) RBC transfusions decreased from 59.9% to 41.7% during the intervention period and to 19.7% postintervention (p < 0.0001). The percentage of inpatient RBC transfusion units administered for hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 7 g/dL declined from 72.3% to 57.8% during the intervention period and to 38.0% for the postintervention period (p < 0.0001). The overall rate of inpatient RBC transfusion (units administered per 1,000 patient-days without exclusions) decreased from 89.8 to 78.1 during the intervention period and to 72.7 during the postintervention period (p <0.0001). The estimated annual cost savings was $1,050,750. The interventions reduced multiunit transfusions (by 67.1%) and transfusions for Hb ≥ 7 g/dL (by 47.4%). The improvement in the overall transfusion rate (19.0%) was less marked, limited by better baseline performance relative to other centers. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving engraftment and immune reconstitution in umbilical cord blood transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eDanby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is an important source of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC for allogeneic transplantation when HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donors (MUD are unavailable. Although the overall survival rates of UCB transplantation are comparable to the results with MUD, UCB transplants are associated with slow engraftment, delayed immune reconstitution, and increased opportunistic infections. While this may be a consequence of the lower cell dose in UCB grafts, it also reflects the relative immaturity of cellular immunity within cord blood. Furthermore, the limited number of cells and the non-availability of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI currently prevent the use of post-transplant cellular immunotherapy to boost donor-derived immunity to treat infection, mixed chimerism and disease relapse. Therefore, to further develop UCB transplantation, many strategies to enhance engraftment and immune reconstitution are currently under investigation. This review summarises our current understanding of engraftment and immune recovery following UCB transplantation and why this differs from allogeneic transplants using other sources of HSC. It also provides an comprehensive overview of the promising techniques being used to improve myeloid and lymphoid recovery, including expansion, homing, and delivery of UCB HSC; combined use of UCB with third party donors; isolation and expansion of NK cells, pathogen specific T cells, and regulatory T cells; methods to protect and/or improve thymopoiesis. As many of these strategies are now in clinical trials, it is anticipated that UCB transplantation will continue to advance, further expanding our understanding of UCB biology and HSC transplantation.

  1. Improving eye care follow-up adherence in diabetic patients with ocular abnormalities: the effectiveness of patient contracts in a free, pharmacy-based eye screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, C L; Murchison, A P; Dai, Y; Hark, L A; Mayro, E L; Collymore, B; Haller, J A

    2015-07-01

    Patient contracts are increasingly utilized in medical practice and have the potential to improve health outcomes in high-risk populations. However, as a relatively new tool, there has been limited research regarding the efficacy of patient contracts. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision impairment in adults in the US and only 50-60% of adults with diabetes adhere to annual dilated fundus exam recommendations. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of patient contracts on follow-up adherence in diabetic patients with ocular abnormalities after a free, pharmacy-based eye screening. This prospective study implemented a non-invasive, non-mydriatic fundus camera in an urban, community-based pharmacy setting to screen for ocular diseases in patients with diabetes. Patients were assigned to the contract or non-contract group. Patients who signed a contract agreed to: 1) review their results with their primary care doctor, 2) follow-up with an ophthalmologist if their results were abnormal, and 3) inform research staff if/when they completed an eye care appointment. All study participants and their primary care doctors were notified of their results via mail. Follow-up questionnaires were administered to all patients by telephone three months after the screening results. 500 patients were screened and 113 (22.6%) had abnormal results. Of the patients who had abnormal results, 83 (74.3%) were able to be contacted. Of the 83 patients who were able to be contacted, the majority of patients were African American (73.5%) and female (56.6%). The mean age was 54.7 years. Of those, 34 (41.0%) adhered to follow-up recommendations. There was no significant difference in follow-up adherence between the contract (38.1%) and non-contract group (43.9%) (P = 0.59). In addition, 70.4% of patients did not comply with at least one measure of the contract agreement. Contracts did not increase follow-up adherence to eye appointments in diabetic patients with

  2. Ocular infections due to Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the types and causes of non-tuberculous ocular infections and study their response to topical antibiotic therapy. METHOD: A single center, retrospective review of 18 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial ocular infections, seen over a 3 year period was done. Laboratory diagnosis was established by growth on blood agar, LJ medium and Ziehl-Nielsen acid fast stain. RESULTS: Out of 18 patients, six had post corneal graft infection, six had corneal ulcers, three had endogenous endophthalmitis, one had post operative endophthalmitis and two cases were of post surgical wound infection. History of trauma was reported in two cases and surgery in nine cases. M.chelonae was grown in blood agar for all patients. For corneal infections fortified genatmicin and fortified amikacin topical eye drops were given while the cases of endophthalmitis received intravitreal amikacin. Response to treatment was poor in 16 cases (88.9%. Only two cases of corneal ulcer improved after prolonged treatment. There was a misdiagnosis of Corynebacterium spp. on Gram stain in the initial cases. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin (72.2% followed by amikacin (44.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Early clinical recognition and prompt laboratory diagnosis together with aggressive topical antibiotic therapy may shorten morbidity and improve the clinical outcome of non-tuberculous mycobacterial ocular infection.

  3. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  4. Ocular manifestations of candidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Rothova, A.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.G.; Viscoli, C.; Schlamm, H.T.; Oborska, I.T.; Rex, J.H.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ocular candidiasis is a major complication of candidemia. The incidence, risk factors, and outcome of eye involvement during candidemia are largely unknown. We prospectively studied the ocular manifestations of candidemia in a large, worldwide, randomized multicenter trial that compared

  5. [The analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Ramanauskiene, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The article describes qualitative and quantitative analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation. Flavonoids have been qualitatively determined by methods of thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography and color reaction with magnesium powder and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Ferments were identified with ferric ammonium sulphate solution; glycosides--with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde solution in sulphur acid; saponin--with lead subacetate solution; reductive materials - with silver nitrate ammoniacal solution; albumen--with ninhydrin solution; and caffeic acid--by method of thin-layer chromatography. An optimal spectrophotometrical method for determining the quantity of quercetin was applied. The refractive index, relative density, loss of drying and ethanol concentration were determined according to European Pharmacopoeia Requirements.

  6. Ivermectin treatment of ocular onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H R

    1990-01-01

    Ivermectin, a recently developed macrocyclic lactone with broad antiparasitic activity, has been shown by a series of clinical trials to be safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/Kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement, although ivermectin has no known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. With treatment there is no significant exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease even in those with severe ocular disease. Treatment leads to a marked and prolonged improvement in ocular status. Because of its safety and efficacy, ivermectin can be used on a mass scale and promises to revolutionize the treatment of onchocerciasis.

  7. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  8. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  9. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  10. Ocular diseases: immunological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors, such as environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, can trigger the immunological events that affect the ending of the diverse spectrum of ocular disorders. Significant advances in understanding of immunological and molecular mechanisms have been researched to improve the diagnosis and therapy for patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Some kinds of ocular diseases are inadequately responsive to current medications; therefore, immunotherapy may be a potential choice as an alternative or adjunctive treatment, even in the prophylactic setting. This article first provides an overview of the immunological and molecular mechanisms concerning several typical and common ocular diseases; second, the functions of immunological roles in some of systemic autoimmunity will be discussed; third, we will provide a summary of the mechanisms that dictate immune cell trafficking to ocular local microenvironment in response to inflammation.

  11. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  12. Custom ocular prosthesis: A palliative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Thakkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of palliative care is the achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Eyes are generally the first features of the face to be noticed. Loss of an eye is a traumatic event which has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Several ocular and orbital disorders require surgical intervention that may result in ocular defects. An ocular prosthesis is fabricated to restore the structure, function, and cosmetics of the defects created by such conditions. Although an implant eye prosthesis has a superior outcome, due to economic factors it may not be a feasible option for all patients. Therefore, a custom-made ocular prosthesis is a good alternative. This case report presents a palliative treatment for a patient with an enucleated eye by fabricating a custom ocular prosthesis which improved his psychological, physical, social, functional, emotional and spiritual needs.

  13. Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan S; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E; Della Santina, Charles C

    2011-05-01

    By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith end organs can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head-mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third, and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of 1 week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2-5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans.

  14. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersz RNI; van der Meer PF

    2015-01-01

    Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should d...

  15. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersz RNI; van der Meer PF

    2015-01-01

    Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should d...

  16. Effects of various concentrations of diethylcarbamazine citrate applied as eye drops in ocular onchocerciasis, and the possibilities of improved therapy from continuous non-pulsed delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-01-01

    ...% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour...

  17. Effects of Topical Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% on Circadian IOP, Blood Pressure and Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Randomized, Double Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oddone

    Full Text Available To compare the 24-hour (24h effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and cardiovascular parameters of timolol 0.5% and bimatoprost 0.01% in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive subjects.In this prospective, randomized, double masked, crossover, clinical trial, after washout from previous medications enrolled subjects underwent 24h IOP, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR measurements and were randomized to either topical bimatoprost 0.01% at night plus placebo in the morning or to timolol 0.5% bid. After 8 weeks of treatment a second 24h assessment of IOP, BP and HR was performed and then subjects switched to the opposite treatment for additional 8 weeks when a third 24h assessment was performed. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the mean 24h IOP after each treatment. Secondary endpoints included the comparisons of IOP at each timepoint of the 24h curve and the comparison of BP, HR, ocular perfusion pressure and tolerability.Mean untreated 24h IOP was 20.3 mmHg (95%CI 19.0 to 21.6. Mean 24h IOP was significantly lower after 8 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than after 8 weeks of treatment with timolol 0.5% bid (15.7 vs 16.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003. Mean IOP during the day hours was significantly reduced from baseline by both drugs while mean IOP during the night hours was reduced by -2.3 mmHg (p = 0.0002 by bimatoprost 0.01% plus placebo and by -1.1 mmHg by timolol 0.5% bid (p = 0.06. Timolol 0.5% significantly reduced the mean 24h systolic BP from baseline, the diastolic BP during the day hours, the HR during the night hours, and the mean 24h systolic ocular perfusion pressure.Both Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% are effective in reducing the mean 24h IOP from an untreated baseline but Bimatoprost 0.01% is more effective than timolol 0.5% throughout the 24h. Timolol 0.5% effect on IOP is reduced during the night hours and is associated with reduced BP, HR and ocular perfusion pressure.EU Clinical Trial Register and Eudra

  18. Effects of Topical Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% on Circadian IOP, Blood Pressure and Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Randomized, Double Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, Lucia; Berardo, Francesca; Ferrazza, Manuela; Michelessi, Manuele; Roberti, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the 24-hour (24h) effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and cardiovascular parameters of timolol 0.5% and bimatoprost 0.01% in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive subjects. Methods In this prospective, randomized, double masked, crossover, clinical trial, after washout from previous medications enrolled subjects underwent 24h IOP, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements and were randomized to either topical bimatoprost 0.01% at night plus placebo in the morning or to timolol 0.5% bid. After 8 weeks of treatment a second 24h assessment of IOP, BP and HR was performed and then subjects switched to the opposite treatment for additional 8 weeks when a third 24h assessment was performed. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the mean 24h IOP after each treatment. Secondary endpoints included the comparisons of IOP at each timepoint of the 24h curve and the comparison of BP, HR, ocular perfusion pressure and tolerability. Results Mean untreated 24h IOP was 20.3 mmHg (95%CI 19.0 to 21.6). Mean 24h IOP was significantly lower after 8 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than after 8 weeks of treatment with timolol 0.5% bid (15.7 vs 16.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003). Mean IOP during the day hours was significantly reduced from baseline by both drugs while mean IOP during the night hours was reduced by -2.3 mmHg (p = 0.0002) by bimatoprost 0.01% plus placebo and by -1.1 mmHg by timolol 0.5% bid (p = 0.06). Timolol 0.5% significantly reduced the mean 24h systolic BP from baseline, the diastolic BP during the day hours, the HR during the night hours, and the mean 24h systolic ocular perfusion pressure. Conclusion Both Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% are effective in reducing the mean 24h IOP from an untreated baseline but Bimatoprost 0.01% is more effective than timolol 0.5% throughout the 24h. Timolol 0.5% effect on IOP is reduced during the night hours and is associated with reduced BP, HR and ocular perfusion pressure. Trial

  19. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  20. Main Ocular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Saray Quignon Santana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.

  1. A Change in Ocular Circulation after Photocoagulation for Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries that occur in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are improved by therapy, and thus posttherapy changes in ocular circulation are also conceivable. We report a case of ROP in which we were able to measure the ocular circulation before and after photocoagulation therapy, using a laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG system that is modified for neonates. Case Report: A female infant was born at 25 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 808 g. We performed photocoagulation in both eyes at age 15 weeks, and we measured the ocular circulation with the “LSFG-baby” system before and at 12 weeks after the photocoagulation treatment. We also measured the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH and the relative flow volume (RFV in the retinal vessels, and we examined the change rates from before to after treatment. The changing rate of the MBR-A (the mean of all values in the ONH in the right and left eyes was 76.5 and 98.5%, respectively. The vascular RFV in the severe dilation and tortuosity quadrant also tended to decrease. Conclusions: Photocoagulation improved the dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries and reduced the ocular blood flow in this neonate with ROP. The LSFG-baby system effectively and directly revealed the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels.

  2. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rocio I; Sigler, Eric J; Rafieetary, Mohammad R; Calzada, Jorge I

    2015-01-01

    Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS) is a chorioretinal disorder with a distinct fundus appearance that is commonly found in regions endemic for Histoplasma capsulatum. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to OHS is considered one of the principal causes of central vision loss among young adults in endemic areas. Although there is no consensus regarding its pathogenesis, evidence points to Histoplasma capsulatum as the most probable etiology. Once considered an intractable hemorrhagic maculopathy, CNVs are now treatable. Extrafoveal CNVs are successfully treated with laser photocoagulation. Subfoveal and juxtafoveal CNVs are managed with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, photodynamic therapy, or a combination of both. Modern imaging technologies such as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography have improved our diagnostic abilities, making it easier to monitor disease activity and CNV regression. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and current treatment of this disease.

  3. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawali, Ankush A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620) was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis). Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH) and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated “ocular thermographic” camera is today's need of the hour. PMID:24347863

  4. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush A Kawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620 was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis. Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated "ocular thermographic" camera is today′s need of the hour.

  5. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  6. Blood Doping Improves Endurance and Heat Tolerance, Studies Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Recent research on blood doping is reviewed, focusing on how the practice may help to determine what factors limit human performance, particularly regarding its potential benefit as an aid in thermal regulation. (CB)

  7. Topical ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pravin; Katara, Rajesh; Mishra, Sushil; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2013-05-01

    Topical fluoroquinolones are used in ophthalmology to treat ocular infections. They are bactericidal and inhibit bacterial DNA replication by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase. Fluoroquinolones possess two ionizable groups: a carboxylic group (pKa1 = 5.5 - 6.34) and a heterocyclic group (pKa2 = 7.6 - 9.3), in the nucleus, which acquire charge at pH above and below the isoelectric point (pI = 6.75 - 7.78). At isoelectric point, fluoroquinolones remain unionized and show enhanced corneal penetration but exhibit reduced aqueous solubility and the drug may precipitate from aqueous solution. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of fluoroquinolones are obtained by using hydrochloride or mesylate salt which is acidic and irritating to the eyes. Hence, pH of the solution is kept between 5 and 7 to ensure aqueous solubility and minimum ocular irritation. This review gives an overview of various physicochemical and formulation factors affecting the ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones and strategies for getting higher ocular bioavailability for ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones. These strategies could be employed to improve efficacy of fluoroquinolones in eye preparation. Broad-spectrum antibacterials, such as the ophthalmic fluoroquinolones, are powerful weapons for treating and preventing potentially sight-threatening infections. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones have quickly assumed an outstanding place in the ophthalmic applications. Especially valuable for their broad-spectrum coverage against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, these agents have become the anti-infective of preference for many ophthalmologists. Moxifloxacin seems to be a promising powerful molecule among all fluoroquinolones for treatment of bacterial infections.

  8. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy

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    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.Four cases of the so-called descending ocular myopathy with a family history in three generations are reported. In the first case muscular biopsy and electromyographic studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. Descending ocular myopathy seems to be just a clinical form of muscular distrophy of late onset.

  9. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  10. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  11. Ocular manifestations and outcome of treatment of Stevens-Johnson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is an immune-based ... and cicatrisation occur, resulting in degrees of ocular motility, tear-function, and visual defects. ... Full blood count, urinalysis and HIV tests were all normal.

  12. Membrane concepts for blood purification : towards improved artificial kidney devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, M.S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the fabrication and characterization of new membranes for blood purification. A novel membrane concept is proposed to combine diffusion and adsorption in one step to remove uremic retention solutes. A membrane with embedded functionalized particles, a s

  13. Active ocular vergence improves postural control in elderly as close viewing distance with or without a single cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Yang, Qing; Delpit-Baraut, Vincent; Dailly, Olivier; Kapoula, Zoï

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems decreases with age, reducing the capacity of postural control, and increasing the risk of falling. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of vision, active vergence eye movements, viewing distance/vergence angle and a simple cognitive task on postural control during an upright stance, in completely autonomous elderly individuals. Participated in the study, 23 elderly subjects (73.4 ± 6.8 years) who were enrolled in a center dedicated to the prevention of falling. Their body oscillations were measured with the DynaPort(®) device, with three accelerometers, placed at the lumbosacral level, near the center of mass. The conditions were the following: eyes open fixating on LED at 20 cm or 150 cm (vergence angle 17.0° and 2.3° respectively) with or without additional cognitive tasks (counting down from one hundred), performing active vergence by alternating the fixation between the far and the near LED (convergence and divergence), eyes closed after having fixated the far LED. The results showed that the postural stability significantly decreased when fixating on the LED at a far distance (weak convergence angle) with or without cognitive tasks; active convergence-divergence between the LEDs improved the postural stability while eye closure decreased it. The privilege of proximity (with increased convergence at near), previously established with foot posturography, is shown here to be valid for accelerometry with the center of mass in elderly. Another major result is the beneficial contribution of active vergence eye movements to better postural stability. The results bring new perspectives for the role of eye movement training to preserve postural control and autonomy in elderly.

  14. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  15. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

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    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  16. Improved technique for blood flow velocity measurement using Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares Oliveira, Eduardo J.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Costa, Eduardo T.

    2002-04-01

    The Doppler velocimeter developed allows to determine the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the velocity vector of the flow, and to calculate the precise blood flow in a vessel. Four piezoelectric transducers constitute the Doppler velocimeter. Three of these transducers are positioned to form an equilateral triangle (base of a pyramid). When these transducers move simultaneously, backward or forward from the initial position, the emitted ultrasonic beams focalize on a position (peak of the pyramid) closer or farther from the transducers faces, according to the depth of the vessel where we intend to measure de flow. The angle between the transducers allows adjusting the height of this pyramid and the position of the focus (where the three beams meet). A forth transducer is used to determine the diameter of the vessel and monitor the position of the Doppler velocimeter relative to the vessel. Simulation results showed that with this technique is possible to accomplish precise measurement of blood flow.

  17. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions.

  18. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain

  19. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  20. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  1. [Ocular toxocariasis--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Andreea; Panfil, Madălina; Totolici, Geanina; Brănişteanu, Daniel; Costin, Dănut; Schmitzer, Speranţa

    2014-01-01

    Ocular Toxocariasis is a parasitosis caused by Toxocara catis/canis larvae localized in the eye. The most frequent clinical manifestations are the central retinal granuloma, peripheral retinal granuloma and chronic endophthalmitis. Secondary complications due to the presence of parasite in the posterior segment of the eye may have significant consequences on visual function. We present the case of a 23 years old patient, admitted for progressive decrease of the right eye BCVA during the last 6 months. After performing clinical examination and serological tests we established the diagnosis of ocular Toxocariasis. The patient presented a particular form of the disease consisting in the presence of both a central retinal granuloma and a peripheral one. We performed 23G pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. VA improved as soon as the first month after surgery.

  2. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  3. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Osamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA. Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A, in the tissue (MBR-T, and in the vessels (MBR-V were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  4. Specialized Diagnostic Investigations to Assess Ocular Status in Hypertensive Diseases of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Navinchandra Bakhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes specialized diagnostic investigations to assess ocular status in hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. Ocular assessment can aid in early detection for prompt multidisciplinary treatment, obstetric intervention and follow-up. The investigations accurately predict the possible causes of blindness in hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. The investigations include fluorescein angiography, ophthalmodynamometry, fluorophotometry, imaging modalities, OCT, ultrasonography, doppler velocimetry and blood chemistry analysis. The review includes a summary of imaging techniques and related recent developments to assess the neuro-ophthalmic aspects of the disease. The imaging modalities have been instrumental in understanding the complex neuropathophysiological mechanisms of eclamptic seizures. The importance of blood chemistry analysis in hypertensive diseases of pregnancy has been emphasized. The investigations have made a significant contribution in improving the standards of antenatal care and reducing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  5. Albinism: Improving Teacher and Caregiver Strategies for Meeting the Special Needs of Children with the Visual Disability of Ocular Albinism or Oculocutaneous Albinism (Birth to Age 14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Julia Robertson

    This practicum report addresses the educational needs of students with the visual disability of ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. Two booklets were developed, published, and distributed--one for regular education teachers of children with albinism and one specifically about the very young child with albinism. The booklets discuss the special…

  6. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (−4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (−3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (−3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

  7. Bayesian fusion algorithm for improved oscillometric blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohamad; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z; Bolic, Miodrag; Rajan, Sreeraman; Batkin, Izmail

    2016-11-01

    A variety of oscillometric algorithms have been recently proposed in the literature for estimation of blood pressure (BP). However, these algorithms possess specific strengths and weaknesses that should be taken into account before selecting the most appropriate one. In this paper, we propose a fusion method to exploit the advantages of the oscillometric algorithms and circumvent their limitations. The proposed fusion method is based on the computation of the weighted arithmetic mean of the oscillometric algorithms estimates, and the weights are obtained using a Bayesian approach by minimizing the mean square error. The proposed approach is used to fuse four different oscillometric blood pressure estimation algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a pilot dataset of 150 oscillometric recordings from 10 subjects. It is found that the mean error and standard deviation of error are reduced relative to the individual estimation algorithms by up to 7 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of systolic pressure, respectively, and by up to 2 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of diastolic pressure, respectively.

  8. Nanocarriers for treatment of ocular neovascularization in the back of the eye: new vehicles for ophthalmic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Chan, Elsa C; Lee, Jia Hui; Bee, Youn-Shen; Lin, Tsung-Wu; Dusting, Gregory J; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic neovascularization of the retina is a major cause of substantial and irreversible loss of vision. Drugs are difficult to deliver to the lesions in the back of the eye and this is a major obstacle for the therapeutics. Current pharmacological approach involves an intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents to prevent aberrant growth of blood vessels, but it has limitations including therapeutic efficacy and side-effects associated with systemic exposure and invasive surgery. Nanotechnology provides novel opportunities to overcome the limitations of conventional delivery system to reach the back of the eye through fabrication of nanostructures capable of encapsulating and delivering small molecules. This review article introduces various forms of nanocarrier that can be adopted by ocular drug delivery systems to improve current therapy. The application of nanotechnology in medicine brings new hope for ocular drug delivery in the back of the eye to manage the major causes of blindness associated with ocular neovascularization.

  9. The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on ocular blood flow in diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitta F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumihiko Nitta,1 Hiroshi Kunikata,1,2 Naoko Aizawa,1 Kazuko Omodaka,1 Yukihiro Shiga,1 Masayuki Yasuda,1 Toru Nakazawa1–31Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: This study evaluated the effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB on macular edema associated with diabetic retinopathy (DME or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVOME using laser speckle flowgraphy.Methods: A comparative interventional study of 25 eyes from 22 patients with macular edema (DME group: 12 eyes; BRVOME group: 13 eyes who underwent IVB. Mean blur rate (MBR was measured in the retinal artery, retinal vein, optic nerve head (ONH, and choroid before and after IVB. Results: In the BRVOME group, there was no significant change in MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein or ONH, but choroidal MBR decreased significantly (P=0.04. In the DME group, the MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein, ONH, and choroid decreased significantly (P=0.02, P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.04, respectively. In the DME group, pre-IVB MBR in the ONH was significantly correlated with post-IVB foveal thickness (R= -0.71, P=0.002. There was no such correlation in the BRVOME group in the ONH.Conclusion: IVB had a suppressive effect on circulation in eyes with DME but not in those with BRVOME. This suggests that this noninvasive and objective biomarker may be a useful part of pre-IVB evaluations and decision-making in DME.Keywords: macular edema, mean blur rate, optic nerve head, biomarker, ocular circulation

  10. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

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    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  11. Ivermectin treatment of patients with severe ocular onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H R; Semba, R D; Newland, H S; Keyvan-Larijani, E; White, A; Dukuly, Z; Greene, B M

    1989-05-01

    The treatment of onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine and suramin is associated with an exacerbation of ocular disease. This occurs more frequently in patients with severe onchocercal ocular disease. We assessed ocular changes following ivermectin treatment in 39 patients with severe ocular onchocerciasis. Patients were treated with 100, 150, or 200 micrograms/kg of ivermectin at either 1 or 2 year intervals and followed for 3 years. There was no evidence for an acute exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease, and there was a marked improvement in ocular status in the group as a whole. There was a significant decrease in onchocercal involvement which was maintained for at least 3 years. Annual treatment with ivermectin can be used safely in patients with severe ocular disease and is beneficial over a prolonged period of time.

  12. Effects of Mild Hypercapnia During Head-Down Bed Rest on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, aud Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Taibbi, G.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Zanello, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Hu, X.; Stenger, M. B.; Vizzeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, as experienced by some astronauts during long-duration space flight. Elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on ISS may also raise ICP and contribute to VIIP development. We seek to determine if the combination of mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the International Space Station, with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt, will induce ophthalmic and cerebral blood flow changes similar to those described in the VIIP syndrome. We hypothesize that mild hypercapnia in the head-down tilt position will increase choroidal blood volume and cerebral blood flow, raise intraocular pressure (IOP), and transiently reduce visual acuity as compared to the seated or the head-down tilt position without elevated CO2, respectively.

  13. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  14. Ocular rosacea: a review

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    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.

  15. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  16. Eclectic Ocular Comorbidities and Systemic Diseases with Eye Involvement: A Review

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    María D. Pinazo-Durán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections. Recent advances in early diagnosis and therapy of the ophthalmic pathologies have reinforced patient options to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Because of this, it is essential not to overlook sight-threatening conditions such as the ocular comorbidities and/or the eye involvement in the context of systemic disorders. Moreover, the important role of the multidisciplinary cooperation to improve and sustain management of patients affected with eclectic ocular comorbidities and/or systemic disorders with eye repercussion is specifically addressed. This review intends to shed light on these topics to help in making opportune diagnosis and appropriately managing the affected patients.

  17. [Quantification of ocular dominance for better management of eye disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, R; Alahyane, N; Senot, P; Vergne, J; Lemoine, C; Doré-Mazars, K; Blouin, J; Vergilino-Perez, D; Guillaume, A

    2015-04-01

    The dominant eye is defined as the one we unconsciously choose when we have to perform monocular tasks. In the field of clinical neuro-ophthalmology, it is well-established that ocular dominance plays a key role in several eye diseases. Furthermore, the accurate quantification of ocular dominance is crucial with regard to certain surgical techniques. However, classical preoperative tests cannot determine the amount of ocular dominance. In order to obtain further insight into the phenomenon of ocular dominance, we study its influence at behavioral and neurophysiological levels (experiments 1 and 2). Based on these new data, we suggest a method to improve quantification of ocular dominance (experiment 3). We demonstrate that ocular dominance has an influence on hand movements and on interhemispheric transfer time. Moreover, we show that an analysis of the dynamics of saccades allows us to sort out participants with strong or weak ocular dominance. In conclusion, this better understanding of the phenomenon of ocular dominance, coupled with the analysis of saccadic dynamics, might, in the short or medium term, lead to the establishment of a quick and straightforward battery of tests allowing determination of the amount of ocular dominance for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Alterações oculares em pacientes com tuberculose Ocular manifestation in patients with tuberculosis

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    Simone Ribeiro Araújo de Almeida

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os achados clínicos da tuberculose ocular e seus aspectos epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados prontuários médicos de pacientes que foram atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia - setor de Uveíte e AIDS da Unifesp-EPM, São Paulo, Brasil, entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2002 e que tiveram diagnóstico de tuberculose ocular. Foram inclusos os pacientes que apresentaram PPD forte reator, epidemiologia positiva para tuberculose e lesão ocular que melhorou com tratamento específico. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados prontuários médicos de 17 pacientes, sendo 12 (70,6% do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 54 (24-84 anos. O tempo médio entre o início dos sintomas e a primeira consulta foi de 100 dias. Os achados oculares foram inespecíficos nesta ocasião mas prevaleceram as alterações de segmento anterior e 41% dos pacientes apresentavam sinais de tuberculose sistêmica. Alterações como glaucoma, descolamento de retina e hemorragia vítrea foram responsáveis pela redução da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: Embora pouco prevalente, a tuberculose ocular apresenta morbidade elevada. A inespecificidade da apresentação clínica da doença ocular pode atrasar o seu diagnóstico.PURPOSE: To analyze clinical findings of ocular tuberculosis and its epidemiological features. METHODS: Were reviewed clinical files of patients who attended the Ophthalmology - Uveitis and AIDS sector of UNIFESP-EPM, São Paulo, Brazil between January 1999 and July 2002 and had a diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Patients who had Mantoux test higher than 10 mm, epidemiological history of tuberculosis and ocular findings that improved after specific treatment were included. RESULTS: Seventeen medical files were analyzed, of those, 12 (70,6% were females. The mean age was 54 (24-84 years. The average time between symptoms and diagnosis was 100 days. Ocular findings at the first interview were multiple but most were at the anterior segment of

  19. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

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    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  20. [Ocular changes in Down's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraszewska-Matuszewska, B; Pieczara, E; Samochowiec-Donocik, E; Nawrocka, L

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed the kind of ocular changes and methods of therapy in 34 children, aged 5 months to 14 years, treated in the clinic in the years 1982-1992. The most frequent change was congenital cataract. The other signs observed were: Brushfield's spots, alternate esotropia, nystagmus, partial optic atrophy, retinal detachment, congenital glaucoma, ectropion and keratoconus. Occurrence of several anomalies were frequent. The adequate surgical treatment was applied depending on the kind of changes. Cataract extraction was made by aspiration method. Visual acuity improved in 58.8% of eyes.

  1. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  2. Evaluation of an intervention to improve blood culture practices: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, P; Maillet, M; Vitrat-Hincky, V; Recule, C; Vittoz, J-P; Guyomard, A; Seigneurin, A; François, P

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention to improve blood culture practices. A cluster randomised trial in two parallel groups was performed at the Grenoble University Hospital, France. In October 2009, the results of a practices audit and the guidelines for the optimal use of blood cultures were disseminated to clinical departments. We compared two types of information dissemination: simple presentation or presentation associated with an infectious diseases (ID) specialist intervention. The principal endpoint was blood culture performance measured by the rate of patients having one positive blood culture and the rate of positive blood cultures. The cases of 130 patients in the "ID" group and 119 patients in the "simple presentation" group were audited during the second audit in April 2010. The rate of patients with one positive blood culture increased in both groups (13.62 % vs 9.89 % for the ID group, p = 0.002, 15.90 % vs 13.47 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.009). The rate of positive blood cultures improved in both groups (6.68 % vs 5.96 % for the ID group, p = 0.003, 6.52 % vs 6.21 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.017). The blood culture indication was significantly less often specified in the request form in the simple presentation group, while it remained stable in the ID group (p = 0.04). The rate of positive blood cultures and the rate of patients having one positive blood culture improved in both groups. The ID specialist intervention did not have more of an impact on practices than a simple presentation of audit feedback and guidelines.

  3. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  4. Blood genotyping for improved outcomes in chronic transfusion patients: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutner JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jose Mauro Kutner,1 Mariza Mota,1 Fabiana Conti,1 Lilian Castilho1,2 1Hemotherapy and Cell Therapy Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Hemocentro Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil Abstract: Blood transfusions are life sustaining in chronically transfused patients. However, certain complications, such as alloimmunization to red blood cells, can create challenges in the management of those patients. Routine phenotyping of blood recipients and the use of phenotype-matched blood units for transfusion have been useful to lower the occurrence of red cell alloantibodies in chronically transfused individuals. Nevertheless, extensive phenotyping is expensive, laborious, and cannot be performed in certain situations. The molecular understanding of blood groups has enabled the design of assays that may be used to better guide matched red blood cell transfusions. This review summarizes key findings related to red cell alloimmunization, the already identified and potential future benefits of blood group genotyping, and how molecular typing is being incorporated in the blood bank's routine to improve clinical and long-term outcomes in chronically transfused patients. Keywords: blood group genotyping, chronically transfused patients, platelet genotyping, RBC alloimmunization

  5. Ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  6. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  7. Ocular syphilis presenting as unilateral chorioretinitis

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    Anand Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a multi systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations of Syphilis have a myriad of presentations and severity. A 31year old male patient was referred from ophthalmology department as a case of chorioretinitis for screening for syphilis. Patient had diminished vision and redness of right eye for 2 months duration. History of premarital exposure and extramarital contact was present. Ocular examination revealed - Rt eye: conjunctival congestion and Argyll Robertson pupil; Lt eye: normal. Fundoscopy of right eye showed yellowish white retinal lesions, macular edema and hyperaemia and left eye was normal .No genital lesion, scars or cutaneous lesion was present.VDRL was reactive in 1 dilution,TPHA was positive ; HIV test was negative ; CSF revealed VDRL - Negative and TPHA -Negative.Patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin 1.2 Million units intramuscularly daily for 21 days. The patient responded well to treatment and there was improvement in his vision. Ocular Syphilis can occur at any stage of Syphilis and may be the only presenting sign. Syphilis serology was positive confirming the disease.This case highlights the importance of syphilis with ocular manifestation - there by proving that diagnosis of syphilis based on ocular finding is clinically challenging.

  8. Ocular dermoid in Pai Syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormey, Peter; Bilic Cace, Iva; Boyle, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Pai Syndrome is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of unknown cause with hypertelorism, midline cleft lip, nasal and facial polyps, ocular anomalies and the presence of distinctive lipomas adjacent to the corpus callosum. Herein, we present an infant girl with Pai Syndrome diagnosed in the first week of life with typical facial findings and associated pericallosal lipoma identified on cranial ultrasound and brain MRI. These typical features identified included median cleft of the upper lip (in her case as a forme fruste) with a cleft alveolus and a mid-anterior alveolar process congenital polyp. In addition to these findings there was mild hypertelorism and an ocular abnormality on the right eye. An ophthalmology assessment on day 5 identified the ocular lesion as a limbal dermoid. Several ocular anomalies have been reported in association with Pai Syndrome, however, dermoids have not been frequently described in this Syndrome and not before in a limbal location. Increasing identification of previously unreported ocular abnormalities in Pai Syndrome may improve diagnosis and may prove useful in future work attempting to elucidate the aetiology of this rare syndrome.

  9. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Sur...

  10. Immunogenetics of ocular inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, R D

    2007-02-01

    Ocular inflammatory disease comprises of a diverse group of clinical entities that may result from autoimmune processes, infections, or both. While many individual ocular inflammatory diseases are quite rare, ocular inflammation is one of the more common causes of visual disability, including blindness, in the developed world. Better understanding of ocular inflammatory disease is an important step in designing more sophisticated therapies that may help prevent loss of visual function for these patients.

  11. Ocular involvement of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Yavarikia, Alireza; Keramat, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old male diagnosed with brucellosis a week earlier was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with visual complaints. On examination, visual acuity was 20/25, he had conjunctival injection on slit lamp examination. There was also bilateral optic disk swelling plus retinal hyperemia (optic disc hyperemia and vascular tortuosity) and intraretinal hemorrhage on funduscopy. The patient was admitted and treated with cotrimoxazole, rifampin, doxycycline and prednisolone for 2 months. Ocular manifestations subsided gradually within 6 months after treatment. Brucellosis can affect the eye and lead to serious ocular complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment should be considered in endemic areas.

  12. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, I P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  13. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S

    2014-04-01

    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  14. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  15. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  16. Design of a donor-driven data collection strategy for operational improvement of blood donation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, R; Heuston, M; Ashley, S; Bhortake, A; Carey, R; Dua, S; Mihelic, M; Rajderkar, S; Saini, V

    2010-07-01

    Prior studies have noted that donor retention may be negatively impacted by the total time it takes to complete the blood donation process. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the blood donation process and examine opportunities for operational improvements, an educational partnership established between a blood bank and a university designed and implemented a donor-driven data collection strategy. A large amount of real-time, comprehensive, donor-reported data was collected as donors navigated the process, which has enabled a thorough analysis of the process and its potential improvements. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation efforts, examine the challenges in operationalizing a donor-driven data collection approach, and present insights and recommendations for its application in similar settings. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water...... trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre...

  18. Main Ocular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Principales manifestaciones oculares en la artritis reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osbel Alfonso Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.La artritis reumatoide se considera una enfermedad autoinmune, la cual produce manifestaciones articulares y extraarticulares que contribuyen a alterar la capacidad funcional del individuo. En esta revisión se muestran las principales manifestaciones oculares en pacientes con diagnóstico de dicha enfermedad. Se describen experiencias válidas para estudiantes y residentes de medicina interna, oftalmología y reumatología y se realiza la valoración de la interconsulta oftalmológica de los pacientes enfermos en la prevención de afecciones oculares propias de la enfermedad de base y su contribución al mejoramiento de su salud ocular.

  19. [Role of quality control for improvement of blood components in the Regional Blood Centre of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebie, K; Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Bationo, E M; Dahourou, H; Ouattara, S; Kienou, K; Nana, S; Kaba, L; Fretz, C; Murphy, E L

    2017-06-02

    In Burkina Faso, blood components must comply with national standards. Then, all Transfusion services must implement a quality control process to ensure compliance. Our study aims to establish the main characteristics of blood components of the regional transfusion center of Ouagadougou, and evaluate the capability of this center to improve its manufacturing process. We conducted from marsh to December 2014 a pre-post study, assessing blood components' characteristics before and after the implementation of a six months' improvement plan. The assessed parameters were: volume, hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in RBCs; volume and the number of platelets in PPCs; and volume and concentration of clotting factor VIII in fresh frozen plasma (FFP), respectively. Three hundred and twelve RBCs and 280 PCs were randomly selected for the first series of controls, and 215 RBCs, 54 PCs and 60 FFP were selected for the second series of controls. We compared the mean values of the components parameters and the overall non-compliance rates for each series. The average Hb level of RBCs was respectively 47.8±8.9g and 54.7±7.2g in the first and second series compare to a standard of≥40g. Non-compliance rates of Hb level decreased significantly from 17.6% to 1.4%. For PCs units, the mean number of platelets was 0.14±0.10×10(11) and 0.30±0.15×10(11) in the first and second period compare to a standard of 0.5×10(11). Non-compliance rates for platelets number were high 97.1% and 72.2%. The study demonstrates that only RBCs complied with national standards. The study also demonstrates the capability of CRTSO to improve blood components' processing even if for PCs and FFP, NC rates remain high. QC must be maintained and expanded to the others regional blood centers of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SAFETY OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION AND VIRTUAL TRANSFUSION LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Rožman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even though blood transfusion is a relatively safe form of therapy, because of the eventual administrative errors in the transfusion chain between the blood donor and the recipient of blood, transfusion errors still occur. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure an utmost extent of safety and reliability of all transfusion related procedures. The safety of blood transfusion can be improved by preventive actions, i.e. implementation of the total quality management concept, haemovigilance and virtual transfusion laboratory. In the resulting system, the information web, robotics, computer sciences and communication technologies ensure safe and reliable identification of the patients, blood donors, corresponding test samples and blood products. Apart form this; the modern technologies enable the automation of laboratory testing, the integrity of laboratory results and enable an optimal use of blood.Conclusions. For an improved transfusion safety in Slovenia, adoption of corresponding prevention as well as haemovigilance is necessary. Identification errors can be prevented by implementation of the wristbands systems with the code bars for the tagging of the patient and his biological samples, whereas the administrative errors in the blood bank and transfusion laboratory can be prevented by implementation of information systems and automation.We assume that the virtual transfusion laboratory will become an integral part of the new Slovenian transfusion web and will speed up, unify and simplify today’s methods of ordering and administering blood products. To the attending physician, it will enable the choice of optimal transfusion therapy schedule and at the same time, it will enable the supervision of individual orders, deviations and indications, all of which is needed in order to analyse and improve the quality and the costs of the treatment. These services represent the first obligatory step for the modernisation of the transfusion

  1. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhartendu Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  2. Ocular rosacea: a dermatologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Guy; Schaller, Martin

    2013-12-01

    As many as 50% of patients given the diagnosis of cutaneous rosacea also have ocular rosacea. Conservative figures indicate that approximately 10 million patients are affected by ocular rosacea in the United States alone. Despite this prevalence, ocular symptoms of rosacea are often improperly diagnosed, particularly when they occur in the absence of skin involvement.

  3. Improved isolation protocol for equine cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

      BACKGROUND AIMS: A robust methodology for the isolation of cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSCs) from fresh umbilical cord blood has not been reported in any species. The objective of this study was to improve the isolation procedure for equine CB-MSCs. METHODS: Pre-culture...... separation of red and white blood cells was done using either PrepaCyte?-EQ medium or Ficoll-Paque? PREMIUM density medium. Regular FBS and MSC-qualified FBS were compared for their ability to support the establishment of putative primary MSC colonies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Prepa...

  4. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  5. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  6. Chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implants improve hyaline cartilage repair in ovine microfracture defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Hurtig, Mark; Rossomacha, Evgeny; Sun, Jun; Chevrier, Anik; Shive, Matthew S; Buschmann, Michael D

    2005-12-01

    Microfracture is a surgical procedure that is used to treat focal articular cartilage defects. Although joint function improves following microfracture, the procedure elicits incomplete repair. As blood clot formation in the microfracture defect is an essential initiating event in microfracture therapy, we hypothesized that the repair would be improved if the microfracture defect were filled with a blood clot that was stabilized by the incorporation of a thrombogenic and adhesive polymer, specifically, chitosan. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) blood clot adhesion in fresh microfracture defects and (2) the quality of the repair, at six months postoperatively, of microfracture defects that had been treated with or without chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot implants, using a sheep model. In eighteen sheep, two 1-cm2 full-thickness chondral defects were created in the distal part of the femur and treated with microfracture; one defect was made in the medial femoral condyle, and the other defect was made in the trochlea. In four sheep, microfracture defects were created bilaterally; the microfracture defects in one knee received no further treatment, and the microfracture defects in the contralateral knee were filled with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/autologous whole blood and the implants were allowed to solidify. Fresh defects in these four sheep were collected at one hour postoperatively to compare the retention of the chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot with that of the normal clot and to define the histologic characteristics of these fresh defects. In the other fourteen sheep, microfracture defects were made in only one knee and either were left untreated (control group; six sheep) or were treated with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implant (treatment group; eight sheep), and the quality of repair was assessed histologically, histomorphometrically, and biochemically at six months postoperatively. In the defects that were examined

  7. Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Seiji; Kodama, Tatsuo; Ohira, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used clinically in Eastern Asia, and traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formulas are approved as ethical drugs. The Kampo formulas are mixtures of the crude extracts of several herbs, each of which contains multiple components. Numerous investigators have reported that some herbal medicines are efficacious for treating several human diseases. We reviewed the literature on traditional herbal medicines and treatment of ocular diseases. Oral Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to inhibit postoperative uveitis in humans. Oral Goshajinki-gan improved ocular surface disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan increased retinal blood flow. Keishi-bukuryo-gan Sho might be associated with vitreoretinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan and Goshajinki-gan delayed lens opacification in rats and mice. Oral Sairei-to, Orengedoku-to, Senkanmeimoku-to, Scutellariae radix extract, Gardeniae fructus extract, topical Liguisticum wallichii rhizoma extract, and intravenous injection of tetramethylpyrazine, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and crocetin inhibited some forms of experimental uveitis in rabbits. Topical glycyrrhizinate improved allergic conjunctivitis in humans and rats. Oral crocetin improved eyestrain in humans. Oral berberine diminished experimental uveitis in rats. Baicalein, wogonin, berberine, and berberrubine inhibited in vitro expression of several cytokines in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Some Kampo formulas are efficacious for treating several ocular diseases in humans and animals. Some herbal extracts and their components inhibit some forms of experimental uveitis.

  8. Cyclosporine for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçmaz, R. Oktay; Kempen, John H.; Newcomb, Craig; Daniel, Ebenezer; Gangaputra, Sapna; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Foster, C. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cyclosporine treatment for non-infectious ocular inflammation Design Retrospective cohort study Participants Three hundred seventy-three patients with non-infectious ocular inflammation managed at four tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to use cyclosporine as a single non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979-2007 inclusive. Methods Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage of cyclosporine and main outcome measures were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Main Outcome Measures: Control of inflammation, sustained control after reducing corticosteroid dosages, and discontinuation of therapy because of toxicity. Results Of the 373 patients (681 eyes) initiating cyclosporine monotherapy, 33.4% by six months and 51.9% by one year gained sustained, complete control of inflammation over at least two visits spanning at least 28 days. Approximately 25% more improved to a level of slight inflammatory activity by each of these time points. Corticosteroid-sparing success (completely controlled inflammation for at least 28 days with prednisone 10 mg/day or less) was achieved by 22.1% by six months and 36.1% within one year. Toxicity led to discontinuation of therapy within one year by 10.7% of the population. Patients over 55 years of age were over 3-fold more likely to discontinue therapy because of toxicity than patients ages 18-39 years. Doses of 151-250 mg/day tended to be more successful than lower doses, and were not associated with a higher discontinuation for toxicity rate; higher doses did not appear to offer a therapeutic advantage. Conclusion Cyclosporine, with corticosteroid therapy as indicated, was modestly effective for controlling ocular inflammation

  9. Routine blood cultures in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnancy for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Harumi; Goto, Yoshihito; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Usui, Rie; Mori, Rintaro

    2015-02-13

    Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that affects the upper urinary tract and kidneys, and is one of the most common conditions for hospitalisation among pregnant women, aside from delivery. Samples of urine and blood are obtained and used for cultures as part of the diagnosis and management of the condition. Acute pyelonephritis requires hospitalisation with intravenous administration of antimicrobial agents. Several studies have questioned the necessity of obtaining blood cultures in addition to urine cultures, citing cost and questioning whether blood testing is superfluous. Pregnant women with bacteraemia require a change in the initial empirical treatment based on the blood culture. However, these cases are not common, and represent approximately 15% to 20% of cases. It is unclear whether blood cultures are essential for the effective management of the condition. To assess the effectiveness of routine blood cultures to improve health outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register without language or date restrictions (31 December 2014). Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing outcomes among pregnant women with pyelonephritis who received initial management with or without blood cultures. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Clinical trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed one trial report for inclusion. We identified one trial report but this was excluded. No clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. There are no large-scale randomised controlled trials to assess outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnancy with or without blood cultures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of managing pyelonephritis in pregnant women with or without

  10. Amniotic membrane transplantation: An option for ocular surface disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Thatte

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : AMT in various ocular surface pathologies shows success in achieving the goal of symptomatic relief, improved epithelialization, stromal healing and vision. Reduction in inflammation, corneal haze and recurrence of original disease is achieved with minimum complications.

  11. Improving blood pressure control through provider education, provider alerts, and patient education: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Christianne L; Elasy, Tom A; Greevy, Robert; Griffin, Marie R; Liu, Xulei; Stone, William J; Wallston, Kenneth A; Dittus, Robert S; Alvarez, Vincent; Cobb, Janice; Speroff, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    Inadequate blood pressure control is a persistent gap in quality care. To evaluate provider and patient interventions to improve blood pressure control. Cluster randomized, controlled trial. 2 hospital-based and 8 community-based clinics in the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System. 1341 veterans with essential hypertension cared for by 182 providers. Eligible patients had 2 or more blood pressure measurements greater than 140/90 mm Hg in a 6-month period and were taking a single antihypertensive agent. Providers who cared for eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive an e-mail with a Web-based link to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (provider education); provider education and a patient-specific hypertension computerized alert (provider education and alert); or provider education, hypertension alert, and patient education, in which patients were sent a letter advocating drug adherence, lifestyle modification, and conversations with providers (patient education). Proportion of patients with a systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg at 6 months; intensification of antihypertensive medication. Mean baseline blood pressure was 157/83 mm Hg with no differences between groups (P = 0.105). Six-month follow-up data were available for 975 patients (73%). Patients of providers who were randomly assigned to the patient education group had better blood pressure control (138/75 mm Hg) than those in the provider education and alert or provider education alone groups (146/76 mm Hg and 145/78 mm Hg, respectively). More patients in the patient education group had a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or less compared with those in the provider education or provider education and alert groups (adjusted relative risk for the patient education group compared with the provider education alone group, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.62]; P = 0

  12. Effects of various concentrations of diethylcarbamazine citrate applied as eye drops in ocular onchocerciasis, and the possibilities of improved therapy from continuous non-pulsed delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials. Images PMID:678494

  13. Effects of various concentrations of diethylcarbamazine citrate applied as eye drops in ocular onchocerciasis, and the possibilities of improved therapy from continuous non-pulsed delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials.

  14. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetesmellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin M Nentwich; Michael W Ulbig

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the mostfrequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitusand the most common cause of blindness in the workingagepopulation. In the next 15 years, the number ofpatients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected toincrease significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 millionpeople in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to besuffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people withdiabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts foran increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e. , exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.

  15. Multiple transfused thalassemia major: Ocular manifestations in a hospital-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.

  16. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was

  17. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was establishe

  18. Atorvastatin preconditioning improves the forward blood flow in the no-reflow rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liang; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Dayin; Li, Wenzhu; Wang, Jue; Liu, Kun; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-02-01

    Atorvastatin is not only an antilipemic but also used as an anti-inflammatory medicine in heart disease. Our working hypothesis was that atorvastatin preconditioning could improve the forward blood flow in the no-reflow rats associated with inflammation. We investigated that two doses of atorvastatin preconditioning (20 and 5 mg/kg/day) could alleviate deterioration of early cardiac diastolic function in rats with inflammation detected by echocardiography and haemodynamics. This benefit was obtained from the effect of atorvastatin preconditioning on improving forward blood flow and preserving the infarct cardiomyocytes, which was estimated by Thioflavin S and TTC staining in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Subsequently, the improving of forward blood flow was ascribed to reduction of microthrombus in microvascular and myocardial fibrosis observed by MSB and Masson's trichrome staining with atorvastatin preconditioning. Ultimately, we found that atorvastatin preconditioning could reduce inflammation factor, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and fibrinogen-like protein 2, both in myocardial and in mononuclear cells, which probably attribute to microcirculation dysfunction in no-reflow rats detected by immunohistochemistry staining, western blot, and ELISA detection, respectively. In conclusion, atorvastatin preconditioning could alleviate deterioration of early cardiac diastolic function and improve the forward blood flow in the no-reflow rats attributing to reduction of TNF-α and fgl-2 expression.

  19. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  20. [Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório, Alexandre Mattoso; Nishiwaki-Dantas, Maria Cristina; Mimica, Lycia Mara Jenne; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa; Lima, Ana Luísa Höfling de

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication) were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group). Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar). In group A, 30 cultures (47.7%) were positive and 6 (8.6%) in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  1. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  2. Ocular sparganosis from Assam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Reema; Gogoi, Rajendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Sparganosis is caused by plerocercoid larvae of the Pseudophyllidea tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Though prevalent in East Asian and south east Asian countries like China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand; yet very few cases are reported from India. We report a case of migrating sub-conjunctival ocular sparganosis mimicking scleritis which later on developed into orbital cellulitis from Dibrugarh, Assam, North-eastern part of India. This case is reported for its rarity. PMID:25709957

  3. 眼前节内眼模拟手术诱发血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型%Rat model of blood-ocular barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular analogic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢茂松; 郑永征; 徐国兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立眼前节内眼模拟手术诱发血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型.方法 清洁级健康成年雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠150只,随机分为对照组和模型组,每组75只.按1 ml/kg的剂量腹腔注射盐酸氯胺酮-盐酸甲苯噻嗪混合液麻醉大鼠.磷酸盐缓冲液灌注袋连接三通管.三通管一端连接24G静脉留置针,手术显微镜下在3点时钟位从角巩缘前透明角膜30°斜行穿刺入前房,退出针头,留置套管;另一端连接24G静脉留置针套管,与测压计相连测量大鼠眼压.大鼠眼压波动于0~12 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)之间,波动30次/min,重复60次.采用氧氟沙星滴眼液滴眼.建模后第1、2、3、5、7天,采用免疫组织化学法检测大鼠白蛋白;定量检测大鼠房水、视网膜中伊凡思蓝(EB)浓度.结果 免疫组织化学染色结果显示,建模后第1、2、3、5、7天对照组白蛋白阳性染色均局限于虹膜和视网膜血管内,脉络膜弥漫性着色.建模后第1天,模型组白蛋白阳性染色主要位于虹膜和视网膜神经层血管周围;建模后第2、3天,阳性染色扩散到虹膜和视网膜全层;建模后第5、7天,阳性染色主要局限于虹膜和视网膜血管内.模型组房水中EB浓度在建模后第1、2、3、5天,均较对照组高(t=25.781,37.433,25.150,19.171;P<0.01);建模后第7天,与对照组接近(t=1.303,P=0.209).模型组视网膜EB浓度在建模后第1、2、3天,均较对照组高(t=11.997,14.622,23.014;P<0.01);建模后第5、7天,与对照组接近(t=2.027,0.756; P=0.058,0.459).结论 通过模拟眼前节内眼手术损伤因素,可建立内眼手术诱发的血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型.%Objective To establish a rat model of blood ocular barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular analogic surgery. Methods One hundred and fifty healthy adult male rats were randomly divided into control group and model group,75 rats in each group.The rats were

  4. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  5. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G; McNaughton, Candace D; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B; Talbot, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique) and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. During the baseline period, 321 of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate and sustained

  6. Reproducibility of Neonate Ocular Circulation Measurements Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the ocular blood flow in neonates may clarify the relationships between eye diseases and ocular circulation abnormalities. However, no method for noninvasively measuring ocular circulation in neonates is established. We used laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG modified for neonates to measure their ocular circulation and investigated whether this method is reproducible. During their normal sleep, we studied 16 subjects (adjusted age of 34–48 weeks whose blood flow could be measured three consecutive times. While the subjects slept in the supine position, three mean blur rate (MBR values of the optic nerve head (ONH were obtained: the MBR-A (mean of all values, MBR-V (vessel mean, and MBR-T (tissue mean, and nine blood flow pulse waveform parameters in the ONH were examined. We analyzed the coefficient of variation (COV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for each parameter. The COVs of the MBR values were all ≤10%. The ICCs of the MBR values were all >0.8. Good COVs were observed for the blowout score, blowout time, rising rate, falling rate, and acceleration time index. Although the measurement of ocular circulation in the neonates was difficult, our results exhibited reproducibility, suggesting that this method could be used in clinical research.

  7. OCULAR COLOBAMATA IN A FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the proportion of cases affected in a family with ocular colobamata . MATERIAL: Ocular colobomata present in a family METHOD: Visual acuity, Slit lamp examination, Ophthalmoscopy, Fundus Photography, B - Scan, Family members were examined. RESULTS: Family showed poor visual acuity, Iris and Choridal Coloboma without optic disc involvement and normal corneal diameter. CONCLUSION: Ocular coloboma occurring in patients of my study is family and genetically determined.

  8. Ocular neuropathy in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evliyaoglu, Ferhat; Karadag, Remzi; Burakgazi, Ahmet Z

    2012-11-01

    Ocular movements and coordination require complex and integrated functions of somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Neurological disorders affecting these nervous systems may cause ocular dysfunction involving extraocular muscles and pupils. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of ocular neuropathy related to certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory neuropathies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, and hereditary neuropathies, are examined in detail. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Strengthening the Role of Ocular Pathology in Clinical Thinking Training Targeting for House Staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yungang Ding; Wenxin Zhang; Xiaohui Liu; Jianxian Lin; Jianliang Zheng; Yongping Li

    2011-01-01

    Ocular pathology serves as one vital branch subject of histopathology, and also as a basic ocular science analysing the pathogenesis of eye disease,the regular pattern of disease progress,and ocular morphology,tissue metabolism and functional changes noted during the onset of ocular diseases.The underlying purpose lies in revealing and investigating the mechanism of such diseases and the nature of lesions,providing essential theoretical evidence to diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.ocular pathology acts as a bridge connecting basic and clinical medical science1.Clinical ophthalmologists,especially junior house staff,should attach importance to ocular pathology,understand,be familiar with,and master basic knowledge in ocular pathological subject to cultivate sound clinical thinking and analytical ability and to improve comprehensive diagnosis and treatment efficacy in clinical setting.

  10. Ex Vivo Expansion or Manipulation of Stem Cells to Improve Outcome of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2016-02-01

    The outcome of umbilical cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematologic malignancies now rivals that of matched unrelated donor transplantation. However, delayed hematopoietic and immunologic recovery remains a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple strategies are now being studied to overcome these limitations. One strategy involves ex vivo expansion of the umbilical cord blood unit prior to transplantation. A second strategy involves exposure of the umbilical cord blood graft to compounds aimed at improving homing and engraftment following transplantation. Such a strategy may also address the problem of slow hematopoietic recovery as well as the increased risk of graft failure. Many of these strategies are now being tested in late phase multi-center clinical trials. If proven cost-effective and efficacious, they may alter the landscape of donor options for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  11. Blood transfusions in critical care: improving safety through technology & process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Rebecca K; Brient, Kathy; Clark, Marie; Custard, Kristi; Davis, Carolyn; Gecomo, Jonathan; Ho, Judy Ong

    2010-06-01

    A multidisciplinary safety initiative transformed blood transfusion practices at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, Texas. An intense analysis of a mistransfusion using the principles of a Just Culture and the process of Cause Mapping identified system and human performance factors that led to the transfusion error. Multiple initiatives were implemented including technology, education and human behaviour change. The wireless technology of Pyxis Transfusion Verification by CareFusion is effective with the rapid infusion module efficient for use in critical care. Improvements in blood transfusion safety were accomplished by thoroughly evaluating the process of transfusions and by implementing wireless electronic transfusion verification technology. During the 27 months following implementation of the CareFusion Transfusion Verification there have been zero cases of transfusing mismatched blood.

  12. Cellulose filtration of blood from malaria patients for improving ex vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Minja, Daniel T R; Jespersen, Jakob S;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Establishing in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture lines from patient parasite isolates can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations of drug sensitivity and mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis and immunity. Cellulose column filtration of blood is an inexpensive, rapid...... and effective method for the removal of host factors, such as leucocytes and platelets, significantly improving the purification of parasite DNA in a blood sample. METHODS: In this study, the effect of cellulose column filtration of venous blood on the initial in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasite isolates....... falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 genotyping was performed using nested PCR on extracted genomic DNA, and the var gene transcript levels were investigated, using quantitative PCR on extracted RNA, at admission and 4 days of culture. RESULTS: The cellulose-filtered parasites grew to higher parasitaemia...

  13. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  14. Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with zwitterionic polymers for improving blood compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Chen, Qiang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Mengzhou; Wu, Shishan; Lin, Sicong; Shen, Jian

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to modify silicone rubber (SR) membrane for improving the blood compatibility was investigated. The hydrophobic SR surface was firstly activated by air plasma, after which an initiator was immobilized on the activated surface for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three zwitterionic polymers were then grafted from SR membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface composition, wettability, and morphology of the membranes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (WCA) measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted from SR surfaces, which remarkably improved the wettability of the SR surface. The blood compatibility of the membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. As observed, all the zwitterionic polymer modified surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion, showing significantly improved blood compatibility. This work should inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical applications such as vessel, catheter, and microfluidics.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach for rehabilitation following ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a very common incidence that occurs in up to 67% of patients with maxillofacial trauma. It results in life-long agony of not being like others with two eyes, which can see and admire the nature's beauty. This article reports on a case of a 23-year-old male patient with phthisis bulbi, resulting from ocular trauma. The patient was rehabilitated aesthetically by fabrication of custom-made ocular prosthesis for his traumatically injured right eye. The patient was pleased with the aesthetic outcome, comfort, and mobility offered by the custom ocular prosthesis. There were no complications with regard to health of underlying residual ocular tissues and there was no need of relining of the prosthesis at 6 month recall appointment. Rehabilitation of patients with ocular trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologist, psychologist, and skilled maxillofacial prosthodontist. Custom-made ocular prosthesis fitted over the phthisical globe seems to be a highly positive, logical, noninvasive, and beneficial approach to increase mobility to the prosthesis, improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of the patient.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity, and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.

  17. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  18. Facile Conjugation of Heparin onto Titanium Surfaces via Dopamine Inspired Coatings for Improving Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guicai; XIE Bing; PAN Changjiang; YANG Ping; DING Hongyan; HUANG Nan

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization of heparin on biomaterials surface has been proven to be an effective strategy for preventing thrombus formation. However, the procedures of most immobilization methods (physical adsorption, covalent linkage, electrostatic interaction) are complicated and time-consuming. In the present study, heparin with various concentrations immobilized on a titanium (Ti) substrate via polydopamine layer for improving blood compatibility was investigated. Water contact angle measurement showed that the immobilization of heparin resulted in an increase of the hydrophilicity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Toluidine Blue O (TBO) tests displayed that the heparin molecules were successfully immobilized on Ti surface. The evaluations of blood compatibility (hemolysis rate, APTT, platelet adhesion and activation, fibrinogen conformational change) showed that the immobilization of heparin decreased hemolysis rate, prolonged blood coagulation time, reduced platelets adhesion and activation, and induced less fibrinogen conformational change. Moreover, a significant inhibition of blood coagulation and platelet adhesion was obtained when the heparin concentration was higher than 5 mg/mL, indicating that only with a certain surface densities could heparin perform its anticoagulant properties well. The results suggest that the immobilization of heparin via polydopamine layer can confer excellent antithrombotic properties, and the heparin immobilization method via polydopamine layer provides an alternative approach for other biomolecules immobilization on biomaterials surface. Thus it is envisaged that this method will be potentially useful for the surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  19. Utilizing Radiofrequency Identification Technology to Improve Safety and Management of Blood Bank Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Meadows, Pamela; Hall, Robert S; Hibner, Travis; Deslich, Stacie

    2015-11-01

    The importance of efficiency in the supply chain of perishable products, such as the blood products used in transfusion services, cannot be overstated. Many problems can occur, such as the outdating of products, inventory management issues, patient misidentification, and mistransfusion. The purpose of this article was to identify the benefits and barriers associated with radiofrequency identification (RFID) usage in improving the blood bank supply chain. The methodology for this study was a qualitative literature review following a systematic approach. The review was limited to sources published from 2000 to 2014 in the English language. Sixty-five sources were found, and 56 were used in this research study. According to the finding of the present study, there are numerous benefits and barriers to RFID utilization in blood bank supply chains. RFID technology offers several benefits with regard to blood bank product management, including decreased transfusion errors, reduction of product loss, and more efficient inventory management. Barriers to RFID implementation include the cost associated with system implementation and patient privacy issues. Implementation of an RFID system can be a significant investment. However, when observing the positive impact that such systems may have on transfusion safety and inventory management, the cost associated with RFID systems can easily be justified. RFID in blood bank inventory management is vital to ensuring efficient product inventory management and positive patient outcomes.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Surface Modification of Metallocene Polyethylene for Improving Blood Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide number of polymers are being used for various medical applications. In this work, microwave-assisted surface modification of metallocene polyethylene (mPE was studied. FTIR analysis showed no significant changes in the chemical groups after treatment. Contact angle analysis revealed a decrease in contact angle of the treated samples insinuating increasing hydrophilicity and better biocompatibility. Qualitative analysis of treated samples using scanning electron microscope (SEM depicted increasing surface roughness and holes formation further corroborating the results. Coagulation assays performed for estimating prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT showed an increase in the clotting time which further confirmed the improved blood compatibility of the microwave-treated surfaces. Further, the extent of hemolysis in the treated sample was lower than the untreated one. Hence, microwave-assisted surface modification of mPE resulted in enhanced blood compatibility. Improved blood compatibility of mPE may be exploited for fabrication of artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  1. Improved blood compatibility of polyethersulfone membrane with a hydrophilic and anionic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shengqiang; Xue, Jimin; Lu, Yi; Liu, Yeqiu; Wang, Dongsheng; Sun, Shudong; Ran, Fen; Zhao, Changsheng

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a novel triblock copolymer of poly (styrene-co-acrylic acid)-b-poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)-b-poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (P(St-co-AA)-b-PVP-b-P(St-co-AA)) is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and used for the modification of blood contacting surface of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane to improve blood compatibility. The synthesized block copolymer can be directly blended with PES to prepare PES membranes by a liquid-liquid phase separation technique. The compositions and structure of the PES membranes are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ATR-FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the surface charge density of the modified PES membrane was measured by Zeta-potential; the blood compatibility of the PES membranes was assessed by detecting bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum fibrinogen (BFG) adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet activation, and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) generation. The results indicated that the blood compatibility of the modified PES membrane was improved due to the membrane surface modification by blending the amphiphilic block copolymer and the surface segregation of the block copolymer.

  2. Ocular health assessment of cocoa farmers in a rural community in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Hansraj, Rekha; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Ocansey, Stephen; Kyei, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa farming provides employment for over 800,000 households in rural Ghana, with the country currently touted as the second largest producer of cocoa worldwide. Agriculture is one of the riskiest occupations for the eyes due to the numerous ocular hazards on farms. The authors conducted an ocular health assessment among cocoa farmers at Mfuom, a rural community in the Central Region of Ghana, to examine the ocular health status and the ocular safety measures used by cocoa farmers. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, ocular injuries, and utilization of eye care services and ocular protection, and a clinical examination was used to evaluate their ocular status. Cocoa farmers were at high risk for ocular injuries and farm-related vision disorders and utilized eye care services and ocular protection poorly. Ocular condition identified were mainly refractive error (28.6%), cataract (20.0%), glaucoma (11.7%), conjunctivitis (13%), pterygium (2.7%), and cornea opacity (2.2%). There is a need for the introduction of an interventional eye care program to help address the ocular health challenges identified among the farmers. This can be done through collaborative efforts by educational institutions, government, and other role players in the agricultural industry to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable cocoa farmers in rural Ghana.

  3. The formulation of drug for ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiache, J M; el Meski, S; Beyssac, E; Serpin, G

    1997-01-01

    The different barriers that slow the penetration of active ingredients administered by the ocular route are described, and some novel dosage forms designed for this route are discussed. Both precorneal and corneal factors considerably restrict ocular penetration. The low bioavailability of classical ophthalmic dosage forms can be improved by several approaches, particularly by increasing the time the active ingredients remain in contact with the eye tissues. The new dosage forms are reviewed according to their type and their drug release mechanisms. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of each are outlined. The potential of these dosage forms can be expected to enhance development. They offer prolonged effectiveness, reproducibility, fewer unwanted side effects, and improved tolerance.

  4. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaux-Shropshire TL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tonya L Breaux-Shropshire,1,2 Eric Judd,1 Lee A Vucovich,3 Toneyell S Shropshire,4 Sonal Singh5 1Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Veterans Administration, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Lister Hill Library, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Physical Therapy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM on blood pressure (BP control and patient outcomes. Design: A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL. Inclusion criteria: Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results: Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the

  5. Salidroside as a Novel Protective Agent to Improve Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Noha A. S.; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Rahmoune, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol and trehalose have been widely examined as protective agents in the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the effectiveness of these reagents alone on cell viability is moderate. Here, the addition of salidroside attenuated oxidative damage of sheep RBCs prior to and post cryostorage. The supplementation of salidroside to the cryopreservation media containing 10% glycerol improved RBC survival by approximately 61.1?4.8% vs 37.9?4.6%. A smaller effect was seen in RBCs c...

  6. Ocular abnormalities in multi-transfused beta-thalassemia patients

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    Reza Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess ocular changes in thalassemia patients who have received multiple transfusions and chelate binding therapy in order to avoid iron accumulation. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 54 thalassemia major patients were selected as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as a control group. Ocular examination included visual acuity, refraction testing, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, tonometry, perimetry, tear break-up time test, and color vision testing were performed for all the participants. We computed the frequency and duration of blood transfusion, the mean serum ferritin level, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and type, duration, and daily dose of chelation therapy for thalassemia patients based on their records. Statistical Analysis Used: All data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 19. Results: All the thalassemic patients were asymptomatic, but abnormal ocular findings (dry eye (33.3%, cataract (10.2%, retinal pigment epithelium degeneration (16.7%, color vision deficiency (3.7%, and visual field defects (33.7% were seen in 68.5% of thalassemic group. The prevalence of ocular abnormalities in normal group was 19.4%, which was significantly lower than that in thalassemia patients (P = 0.000. No significant correlation was found between ocular abnormalities and mean serum ferritin level (P = 0.627 and mean hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.143. Correlation of number of blood transfusion with the presence of ocular abnormalities was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.005. Conclusions: As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients extends, regular ophthalmological evaluation to detect early changes in their ocular system is recommended.

  7. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

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    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  8. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of Cyclosporin A emulgel for ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Weiwei; Du, Shuang; Lu, Yang; Tu, Jiasheng

    2015-01-01

    Emulgels have been extensively covered as a promising drug delivery system for the administration of lipophilic drugs. This work was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation for Cyclosporin A (CsA) employing polycarbophil as the gelling agent for ocular delivery. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, stability, precorneal clearance and irritation. Results showed that CsA emulgel formulations prepared with polycarbophil exhibited acceptable physical properties and drug release, which remained consistent after storage for 3 months. A prolonged retention time was also observed on the ocular surface with improved ocular bioavailability and no irritation. Therefore, the polycarbophil-based emulgel could be exploited as a potential hydrophobic drug carrier for topical ocular drug delivery.

  10. Electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation improves microvascular flow independent of blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Paul W G; Prins, Wilhelmina B; Plokker, Herbert W M; van Dongen, Eric P A; van Iterson, Mat; Ince, Can

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is a discrepancy between global hemodynamic parameters and microvascular flow in patients before and after successful elective electrical cardioversion (ECV) for atrial fibrillation (AF). Prospective observational study. Preanesthesia holding area in a teaching hospital. Adult patients who underwent successful elective ECV for AF. ECV. Routine measurements of heart rate and noninvasive blood pressure were recorded and the sublingual microcirculation was visualized by sidestream darkfield imaging before and after the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm by elective ECV. The conversion to sinus rhythm significantly improved the microvascular flow index for smaller and larger microvessels. For smaller microvessels, perfused vessel density did not reach significance after conversion to sinus rhythm, whereas the proportion of perfused vessels was significantly larger and indices of heterogeneity for microvascular flow index decreased significantly. No correlation could be identified for the changes in mean blood pressure, perfused vessel density, and microvascular flow index for smaller microvessels. Successful ECV in patients with AF improves indices of sublingual microvascular perfusion. This change has no clear relation to the change in blood pressure and cannot be predicted from it. It may be prudent not to rely solely on global hemodynamic parameters to assess end-organ perfusion in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using improved serial blood sampling method of mice to study pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Watari, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Keiko; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yukari; Takai, Nozomi; Nezasa, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    In pharmacokinetic evaluation of mice, using serial sampling methods rather than a terminal blood sampling method could reduce the number of animals needed and lead to more reliable data by excluding individual differences. In addition, using serial sampling methods can be valuable for evaluation of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of drug candidates. In this study, we established an improved method for serially sampling the blood from one mouse by only one incision of the lateral tail vein, and investigated whether our method could be adapted to pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. After intravenous and oral administration of ibuprofen and fexofenadine (BCS class II and III), the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by our method and a terminal blood sampling method, with the result that both methods gave comparable results (ibuprofen: 63.8 ± 4.0% and 64.4%, fexofenadine: 6.5 ± 0.7% and 7.9%, respectively, in bioavailability). In addition, our method could be adapted to DDI study for cytochrome P450 and organic anion transporting polypeptide inhibition. These results demonstrate that our method can be useful for pharmacokinetic evaluation from the perspective of reliable data acquisition as well as easy handling and low stress to mice and improve the quality of pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

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    E. Yu. Markovа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of viral infections, ophthalmologists, pediatricians and general practitioners should all be aware of ocular manifestations of these diseases. According to our observations, despite the presence of corneal disorders, in 95 percent of children changes were reversible and in 1.5 months visual acuity was high. Only in five percent of cases despite the intensive therapy, patients had bacterial complications, causing a decrease in visual acuity.The combined  efforts of infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists as well as timely and proper treatment are required to reduce the inflammation symptoms and prevent complications. By adding Ophtalmoferon® medication to the complex therapy of ocular surface diseases we observed its high therapeutic efficacy and a good safety profile. This medication is available in the form of ready-to-use eye drops, unlike other antiviral agents, improving  its compliance in outpatients.

  13. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (-5.93 ± 6.25 vs. -1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (-6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (-7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  14. Autologous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to improve ocular surface in severely damaged cases%自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植改善重度眼表损伤临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 潘志强; 骆非; 接英; 彭秀军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) in treating severely damaged ocular surface.Methods Four cases of corneal chemical burn and two cases of Stenven-Johnson Syndrome were enrolled in this study.The BMSCs were obtained and cultured in vitro.The cells were harvested afler 14 days and confirmed to be BMSCs.Then the cells were placed on an amniotic membrane (AM) and expanded until 90% confluence formation before using.After the abnormal conjunctival and corneal tissues were removed from the cornea,the AM coated autologous BMSCs were transplanted onto the corneal surface.Aftersurgery,antibiotics,steroid and lubricant eye drops were used and patients were examined by slit-lamp and impression cytology.Results In all the six treated eyes,the entire corneal epithelium was intact one week after surgery.The visual acuity improved in three eyes,two eyes kept at the same level and decreased in one eye.The ocular surface was smooth,but the new blood vessels didn't show significant reduction.After twelve weeks,the epithelial cells phenotype and goblet cells appeared on corneal surface.Conclusions Autologous BMSCs can improve ocular surface condition in severely damaged patients,which show potential use for treating limbal deficiency.%目的 评价自体骨髓间充质干细胞在严重眼表损伤移植后的治疗效果.方法 选取了化学烧伤4例,Stevens-Johnson综合征2例.骨髓间充质干细胞取自患者,细胞培养14 d后,经细胞检测鉴定为骨髓间充质干细胞,将细胞种植在羊膜表面,细胞扩增融合达90%后使用.手术切除表面结膜化组织达角膜缘外3 mm,将羊膜上培养的自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植到角膜及角膜缘表面,术后予抗生素、激素、人工泪液点眼治疗;病人定期随访,进行裂隙灯显微镜及印迹细胞学检查.结果 6例患眼均覆盖了含有自体骨髓间充质干细胞的羊膜片,术后1周角膜上皮完整.3

  15. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Shockravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian′s food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03. Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats.

  16. The ocular microtremor record as a potential procedure for establishing brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D; Thomas, J G

    1977-03-01

    The normal ocular microtremor possesses certain characteristics. Abnormal records are found in unconscious patients. Six patients with clinical manifestations of brain death showed complete absence of ocular microtremor when it was recorded shortly before death. A seventh patient who had taken an overdose of barbiturates had a virtually flat record which gradually improved as her coma lightened. The ocular microtremor record is proposed as a potential monitor of brain stem viability or death.

  17. Ocular safety limits for 1030nm femtosecond laser cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2013-03-01

    Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.

  18. Ocular involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhyani, Maryam; Keshtkar-Jafari, Alireza; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Lajevardi, Vahide; Beigi, Sara; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Rayati Damavandi, Maede; Arami, Shabnam

    2014-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Ocular involvement in PV has been reported but its prevalence and clinical characteristics are not well defined. This prospective cross-sectional study of 103 PV patients was designed to determine the prevalence, clinical types and epidemiological trends of ocular involvement in a population of Iranian patients with PV. Ocular involvement was present in 17 (16.5%) patients. Conjunctivitis was the most prevalent type of ocular involvement (9/17, 52.9%), followed by erosion of the palpebral conjunctiva (7/17, 41.2%). Erosion of the bulbar conjunctiva was noted in only one patient (5.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms were eye irritation (76.5%) and redness (76.5%). No significant relation was found between ocular involvement and disease activity (partial remission or relapse). Mucoid discharge was significantly more common in patients with conjunctival erosions as compared to patients with conjunctivitis (P = 0.038). We conclude that ocular involvement is not rare in PV; 16.5% of PV patients develop ocular disease independent of the disease activity and extension. Conjunctivitis is the most common type of involvement, however, palpebral conjunctival erosion is more frequent than previously realized.

  19. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder

    2012-09-12

    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  20. Air quality improvement during 2010 Asian games on blood coagulability in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Wang, Jian; Guo, Meihua; Xiong, Mingmei; Zhou, Qipeng; Li, Defu; Shu, Jiaze; Lu, Wenju; Sun, Dejun

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Perturbation of the coagulation balance is one of the potential mechanisms. However, evidence regarding the impact of improvement in air pollution on blood coagulability in COPD patients has never been reported. Coagulation processes are known to be of relevance for cardiovascular pathology; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood marker (D-dimer) of coagulation. A 3-year (through the Asian game) cohort study based on the GIRD COPD Biobank Project was conducted in 36 COPD patients to estimate whether changes in measurements of D-dimer were associated with changes in pollutant concentration, comparing for 51 intervention days (November 1-December 21) in 2010 with the same calendar date of baseline years (2009 and 2011). Daily mean concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological variables were measured during the time. Daily PM10 decreased from 65.86 μg/m(3) during the baseline period to 62.63 μg/m(3) during the Asian Games period; daily NO2 decreased from 51.33 to 42.63 μg/m(3). SO2 and other weather variables did not differ substantially. We did not observe statistically significant improvements in D-dimer levels by 9.86% from a pre-Asian game mean of 917 ng/ml to a during-Asian game mean of 1007 ng/ml, platelet number by 11.66%, PH by -0.15%, PCO2 by -6.54%, and PO2 by -1.16%. In the post-Asian game period, when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Asian game levels, and similar effects were also demonstrated in D-dimer, platelet number, and arterial blood gas. For D-dimer and platelet number, we observed statistically significant increases associated with increases in NO2 at lag 1-3 and SO2 at lag 2-4. For PH, PCO2, and PO2, any significant effect was not demonstrated. This study gives no support to the hypothesis that reduction in air pollution levels during the

  1. Sports related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K

    2012-07-01

    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

  2. Fifty-eight cases of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong-jiang; LIU Shao-rui; LI Xiao-min; ZHUO Ye-hong; TIAN Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background The blood supply to the eye comes from the retinal central vascular system of the ophthalmic artery and the ciliary vascular system. The ophthalmic artery stems from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. If occlusion or stenosis occurs in the carotid artery, the blood perfusion to the ophthalmic artery becomes insufficient, leading to signs and symptoms of anterior and posterior ocular ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis.Methods This study was a retrospective review of 145 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Fifty-eight patients who had symptoms of ocular ischemic disease caused by carotid artery stenosis formed group A and the other 87 patients who only had carotid artery stenosis formed group B. We analyzed the causes and course of disease, and relative risk factors,by comparing the two groups.Results The degree of carotid artery stenosis in group A was higher than that in group B. And group A had a greater decrease of ophthalmic artery flow. Male, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were significantly related to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax was the most common ocular symptom in group A. The ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central/branch retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa, and ocular ischemic syndrome.Conclusions Carotid artery stenosis correlates with ocular ischemic diseases. Ophthalmologists must observe for ocular symptoms, which were the onset symptoms in some patients.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy and use of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography by emergency physicians: phase II of the FOTO-ED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Beau B; Thulasi, Praneetha; Fraser, Clare L; Keadey, Matthew T; Ward, Antoinette; Heilpern, Katherine L; Wright, David W; Newman, Nancy J; Biousse, Valérie

    2013-07-01

    During the first phase of the Fundus Photography vs Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department study, 13% (44/350; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9% to 17%) of patients had an ocular fundus finding, such as papilledema, relevant to their emergency department (ED) management found by nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography reviewed by neuro-ophthalmologists. All of these findings were missed by emergency physicians, who examined only 14% of enrolled patients by direct ophthalmoscopy. In the present study, we evaluate the sensitivity of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography, an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy, for relevant findings when photographs are made available for use by emergency physicians during routine clinical care. Three hundred fifty-four patients presenting to our ED with headache, focal neurologic deficit, visual change, or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 120 mm Hg had nonmydriatic fundus photography obtained (Kowa nonmydriatic α-D). Photographs were placed on the electronic medical record for emergency physician review. Identification of relevant findings on photographs by emergency physicians was compared with a reference standard of neuro-ophthalmologist review. Emergency physicians reviewed photographs of 239 patients (68%). Thirty-five patients (10%; 95% CI 7% to 13%) had relevant findings identified by neuro-ophthalmologist review (6 disc edema, 6 grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, 7 isolated hemorrhages, 15 optic disc pallor, and 1 retinal vascular occlusion). Emergency physicians identified 16 of 35 relevant findings (sensitivity 46%; 95% CI 29% to 63%) and also identified 289 of 319 normal findings (specificity 91%; 95% CI 87% to 94%). Emergency physicians reported that photographs were helpful for 125 patients (35%). Emergency physicians used nonmydriatic fundus photographs more frequently than they performed direct ophthalmoscopy, and their detection of relevant abnormalities improved. Ocular fundus

  4. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  5. How to Improve Blood Supply Capacity%如何提高血液供应能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海弘; 杜方安; 林荣路; 陈琳; 王翠玲

    2012-01-01

    结合工作实践,从实行社会营销式献血招募;建立血液动态库存管理制度;完善计划用血评估机制;健全特殊用血应急预案等方面,介绍了血站提高血液供应能力的做法.%The paper introduced major measures to improve blood supply capacity of blood banks from four aspects; combined with practice, the implementation of a social marketing style recruitment of blood donation; establishment of the blood dynamic inventory management system; improvement of the assessment mechanisms of the planned blood usage; making a sound special blood use contingency plan.

  6. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  7. Improved blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C J; Tang, J J; Shao, Z Y; Wang, J; Huang, N

    2007-09-01

    This paper dealt with improving the blood compatibility of the rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin. The rapamycin- and rapamycin/curcumin-loaded PLGA (poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)) coatings were fabricated onto the surface of the stainless steel stents using an ultrasonic atomization spray method. The structure of the coating films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the drug-eluting stents indicated that the surface of all drug-eluting stents was very smooth and uniform, and there were not webbings and "bridges" between struts. There were not any cracks and delaminations on stent surface after expanded by the angioplasty balloon. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by static platelet adhesion test and GMP140 (P-selection), respectively. The clotting time was examined by activated partially prothromplastin time (APTT) test. The fibrinogen adsorption on the drug-loaded PLGA films was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All obtained data showed that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-loaded PLGA coating can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, prolong APTT clotting time as well as decrease the fibrinogen adsorption. All results indicated that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-eluting coating obviously improve the blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stents. It was suggested that it may be possible to develop a drug-eluting stent which had the characteristics of not only good anti-proliferation but also improved anticoagulation.

  8. Blood Cell Segmentation Based on Improved Pulse Coupled Neural Network and Fuzzy Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanbo Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of biomedical image processing, because of the low intensity and brightness of the cell image, and the complex structure of the cell image, the segmentation of cell images is very difficult. A large number of studies have shown that the Pulse Coupled Neural Networks (PCNN is suitable for image segmentation. However, the traditional PCNN must set a large number of parameters in image segmentation, and the optimal number of iterations cannot be automatically determined. In this paper, a new improved PCNN model is proposed. The work of improved PCNN includes the acceptance portion of the PCNN model being simplified and the connection portion of PCNN being improved. In addition, the maximum fuzzy entropy is used as the criterion to determine the optimal number of iterations. Experimental results on blood cell image segmentation show that this proposed method can automatically determine the number of loop iterations and automatically select the best threshold. It also has the characteristics of fast convergence, high accuracy and good segmentation effect in blood cell image segmentation processing.

  9. Xueshuantong improves cerebral blood perfusion in elderly patients with lacunar infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Gui; Yunmei Yang; Shihong Ying; Minming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A total of 64 patients with acute lacunar infarction were enrolled within 24 hours of onset. The patients received conventional therapy (antiplatelet drugs and hypolipidemic drugs) alone or conventional therapy plus 450 mg Xueshuantong once a day. The main ingredient of the Xueshuantong lyophilized powder used for injection was Panax notoginseng saponins. Assessments were made at admission and at discharge using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Activity of Daily Living and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Additionally, the relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume and relative mean transit time in the region of interest were calculated within 24 hours after the onset of lacunar infarction, using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technology. Patients underwent a follow-up MRI scan after 4 weeks of treatment. There was an improvement in the Activity of Daily Living scores and a greater reduction in the scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in the treatment group than in the control group. However, the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed no significant differences after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the control group, the relative cerebral blood flow at discharge had increased and showed a greater improvement in the treatment group. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the relative mean transit time at discharge and the value was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The experimental findings indicate that Xueshuantong treatment improves neurological deficits in elderly patients with lacunar infarction, and the mechanism may be related to increased cerebral perfusion.

  10. Ocular manifestations of feline herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, S E

    2001-03-01

    Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection is ubiquitous in the domestic cat population worldwide. The most common clinical ocular manifestations of infection with FHV-1 are conjunctivitis and keratitis. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of feline herpesvirus-1 and discusses the various clinical ocular manifestations, diagnostic techniques and treatment of FHV-1-induced diseases. Ocular manifestations include: conjunctivitis, keratitis, stromal keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ophthalmia neonatorium, symblepharon, corneal sequestrum, eosinophilic keratitis and anterior uveitis. Diagnostic techniques discussed include: virus isolation, fluorescent antibody testing, serum neutralising titers, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Various therapies are also discussed.

  11. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG.

  12. Ocular neuromyotonia after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessell, S.; Lessell, I.M.; Rizzo, J.F. III

    1986-12-15

    Ocular neuromyotonia is a paroxysmal monocular deviation that results from spasm of eye muscles secondary to spontaneous discharges from third, fourth, or sixth nerve axons. We observed this rare disorder in four patients who had been treated with radiation for tumors in the region of the sella turcica and cavernous sinus. Based on these cases and four others identified in the literature it would appear that radiation predisposes to a cranial neuropathy in which ocular neuromyotonia may be the major manifestation. Radiation appears to be the most common cause of ocular neuromyotonia.

  13. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  14. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  15. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  16. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  17. Impact of Microbiome on Ocular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kugadas, Abirami; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near fu...

  18. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves exercise performance and decreases blood pressure in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J; Justus, Nicholas W; Hauser, Jordan I; Case, Ashlee H; Helms, Christine C; Basu, Swati; Rogers, Zachary; Lewis, Marc T; Miller, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO3(-) ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant work rate exercise time at 75% of the patient's maximal work capacity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included plasma NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), dynamic hyperinflation, dyspnea and leg discomfort. Relative to placebo, beetroot ingestion increased plasma NO3(-) by 938% and NO2(-) by 379%. Median (+interquartile range) exercise time was significantly longer (p = 0.031) following the ingestion of beetroot versus placebo (375.0 + 257.0 vs. 346.2 + 148.0 s, respectively). Compared with placebo, beetroot ingestion significantly reduced iso-time (p = 0.001) and end exercise (p = 0.008) diastolic blood pressures by 6.4 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Resting systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (p = 0.019) by 8.2 mmHg for the beetroot versus the placebo trial. No other variables were significantly different between the beetroot and placebo trials. These results indicate that acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation can elevate plasma NO3(-) and NO2(-) concentrations, improve exercise performance, and reduce blood pressure in COPD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Decreases Blood Pressure in COPD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Justus, Nicholas W.; Hauser, Jordan I.; Case, Ashlee H.; Helms, Christine C.; Basu, Swati; Rogers, Zachary; Lewis, Marc T.; Miller, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO3− ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant work rate exercise time at 75% of the patient’s maximal work capacity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included plasma NO3− and nitrite (NO2−) levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), dynamic hyperinflation, dyspnea and leg discomfort. Relative to placebo, beetroot ingestion increased plasma NO3− by 938% and NO2− by 379%. Median (+ interquartile range) exercise time was significantly longer (p = 0.031) following the ingestion of beetroot versus placebo (375.0 + 257.0 vs. 346.2 + 148.0 sec., respectively). Compared to placebo, beetroot ingestion significantly reduced iso-time (p = 0.001) and end exercise (p = 0.008) diastolic blood pressures by 6.4 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Resting systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (p = 0.019) by 8.2 mmHg for the beetroot versus the placebo trial. No other variables were significantly different between the beetroot and placebo trials. These results indicate that acute dietary NO3− supplementation can elevate plasma NO3− and NO2− concentrations, improve exercise performance, and reduce blood pressure in COPD patients. PMID:25445634

  20. Neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihan AR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Rahim Raihan,1 Embong Zunaina,1,2 Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah,1,2 Hussein Adil,1,2 Thavaratnam Lakana-Kumar1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline, and two patients (case 1 and case 3 had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids.Keyword: cat scratch disease

  1. Vasoinhibins: novel inhibitors of ocular angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie; Arnold, Edith; García, Celina; Rivera, José Carlos; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez

    2008-10-01

    Disruption of the quiescent state of blood vessels in the retina leads to aberrant vasopermeability and angiogenesis, the major causes of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy. Prolactin is expressed throughout the retina, where it is proteolytically cleaved to vasoinhibins, a family of peptides (including the 16-kDa fragment of prolactin) with potent antiangiogenic, vasoconstrictive, and antivasopermeability actions. Ocular vasoinhibins act directly on endothelial cells to block blood vessel growth and dilation and to promote apoptosis-mediated vascular regression. Also, vasoinhibins prevent retinal angiogenesis and vasopermeability associated with diabetic retinopathy, and inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase via protein phosphatase 2A is among the various mechanisms mediating their actions. Here, we discuss the potential role of vasoinhibins both in the maintenance of normal retinal vasculature and in the cause and prevention of diabetic retinopathy and other vasoproliferative retinopathies.

  2. OCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xi; XU Ge-zhi; JIAO Qin; LI Xia; SHI Ruo-fei

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the ocular complications of 62 patients with active atopic dermatitis( AD) during the period of 2003 2006. Methods Routine ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp microscope, indirect ophthalmoscope or Goldmann three-mirror lens, A-scan and B-scan ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) and corneal topography, as well as tear film break-up time (BUT) and Schirmer tests were carried out. Results Cataract (28 eyes), keratoconjunctivitis (42 eyes), superficial punctate keratopathy (45 eyes) and tear function abnormality ( 76 eyes) were major ocular complications in AD patients. Retinal detachment (6 eyes) was the most severe ocular complication in the AD patients. Conclusion Ocular complications are common in AD patients and a very careful examination of eyes is essential in treating AD patients. If the eyes can be examed carefully and in time, some operations and severe complications can be avoidable, especially for the patients with retinal breaks or retinal detachment.

  3. Ocular complications of malaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-08

    Oct 8, 2011 ... parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of ... 2003 at the Ebony Eye Specialist Clinic Onitsha with a week history of double ...

  4. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Paul Th L; Pelk-Jongen, Marianne; Wijkmans, Clementine; Voss, Andreas; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2008-09-01

    Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was established to handle blood-exposure incidents that occur both inside and outside of a hospital. Infection control practitioners carried out risk assessment, made the practical arrangements associated with managing incidents, and carried out treatment and follow-up, all in accordance with standardized procedures. We analyzed the time it took for exposed individuals to report the incident, the time required to perform a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test for the source individual when needed, occurrence of injuries, hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination status of exposed individuals, and adherence to protocol at the expert center. A mean of 465 incidents was registered during each year of the 3-year study period. Although 698 (50%) of 1,394 reported exposures took place in a hospital, 704 (50%) took place outside of a hospital, and 460 (33%) occurred at a time other than regular office hours. HIV tests for source individuals were performed increasingly quickly over the course of the 3-year study period because of earlier reporting and improvements in practical matters associated with performing and processing the tests. The percentage of healthcare workers employed outside a hospital who were vaccinated against HBV increased from 34% (52 of 152) to 70% (119 of 170) during the 3-year study period. Consequently, the administration of immunoglobulin and unnecessary laboratory testing were reduced. In assessing the quality of the expert center, flaws in the handling of incidents were identified in 148 (37%) of 396 incidents analyzed in 2003, compared with 38 (8%) of 461 incidents analyzed in 2005. The practical matters associated with management of blood-exposure incidents, such as timely reporting

  5. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  6. Ocular disease in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Millichamp, Nicholas J; Barrantes, Luz Denia Barrantes; Barr, Brady R; Montero, Juan R Bolaños; Platt, Steven G; Abel, Mike T; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    Beginning in early 2006, an ocular disease of unknown etiology was routinely observed in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) inhabiting the highly polluted Tarcoles River in west-central Costa Rica. We examined the nature and incidence of ocular disease in Tarcoles crocodiles and assessed the possible association between the disease and accumulation of chemical pollutants in diseased individuals. During 12-15 September and 12-13 December 2007, crocodiles were captured and examined for ocular disease and sampled to determine environmental contaminant accumulation. Three of 11 (27.3%) crocodiles captured (all males) exhibited unilateral ocular disease, primarily characterized by corneal opacity and scarring, anterior synechia, and phthisis bulbi. Multiple pollutants were detected in crocodile caudal scutes (organochlorine pesticides [OCPs] and metals), crocodile blood (OCPs), and sediments (OCPs and metals) from the Tarcoles, but no associations were found between contaminant accumulation and the incidence of eye disease. On the basis of the limited number of diseased animals examined and the potential exposure of crocodiles to pathogens and other pollutants not targeted in this study, we cannot rule out infection or chemical toxicosis as causes of the eye lesions. However, circumstantial evidence suggests that the observed ocular disease is likely the result of injury-induced trauma (and possibly secondary infection) inflicted during aggressive encounters (e.g., territorial combat) among large adult crocodiles living at relatively high densities.

  7. [Raise awareness of IgG4 relative ocular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shihui; Li, Hongyang

    2015-12-01

    Purpose IgG4-related ocular disease is a chronic systemic disease with lymphocyte abnormal. The lacrimal glands, extraocular muscles and infraorbital nerve were often involved which was often the first symptom of systemic disease. While ophthalmologists did not know this disease well. They usually misdiagnosed it as idiopathic inflammatory pseudotumor, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy etc, which resulted in delayed treatments. Here pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment methods of IgG4-relative ocular disease were described in order to improve awareness of this ocular disease, reduce clinical misdiagnosis, improve disease prognosis and standardized treatment. As the incidence of this disease increased in recent years, it is very necessary to improve awareness of the disease for ophthalmologists.

  8. Proteomics meets blood banking: identification of protein targets for the improvement of platelet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Devine, Dana V

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics has brought new perspectives to the fields of hematology and transfusion medicine in the last decade. The steady improvement of proteomic technology is propelling novel discoveries of molecular mechanisms by studying protein expression, post-translational modifications and protein interactions. This review article focuses on the application of proteomics to the identification of molecular mechanisms leading to the deterioration of blood platelets during storage - a critical aspect in the provision of platelet transfusion products. Several proteomic approaches have been employed to analyse changes in the platelet protein profile during storage and the obtained data now need to be translated into platelet biochemistry in order to connect the results to platelet function. Targeted biochemical applications then allow the identification of points for intervention in signal transduction pathways. Once validated and placed in a transfusion context, these data will provide further understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to platelet storage lesion. Future aspects of proteomics in blood banking will aim to make use of protein markers identified for platelet storage lesion development to monitor proteome changes when alterations such as the use of additive solutions or pathogen reduction strategies are put in place in order to improve platelet quality for patients.

  9. Ocular toxocariasis. A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Julia Curbelo Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case on ocular toxocariasis is presented. The clinical manifestations were pain and red eye in a four year-old child. A prior acute uveitis in the LE was found in the physical ocular exam. Vitrea band that was out of the superior edge of papila and a marginal granuloma were found in the eyes fundus. The patient was admitted and treated with oral corticoids and oral antihelmintics

  10. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, J.D.; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact...

  11. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2010-10-01

    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  12. Cicatricial changes in ocular pemphigus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos-Saldaña, P; Zuñiga-Gonzalez, I; Hernandez-Camarena, J C; Navas, A; Ramirez-Luquin, T; Robles-Contreras, A; Jimenez-Martinez, M C; Ramirez-Miranda, A; Bautista-de Lucio, V M; Graue-Hernandez, E O

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular involvement in patients with pemphigus at an ophthalmological referral center. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on patients with the immunopathological diagnosis of pemphigus examined between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2010. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA), ocular symptoms, and ocular surface inflammatory and scarring changes were assessed. Results A total of 15 patients were identified, with a mean age of 68.27±14.35 years, and 80% (n=12) were female. Extraocular involvement was reported in one patient. All of the eyes showed cicatricial changes in the conjunctiva. In all, 6 eyes (20%) were classified as stage I; 12 eyes (40%) as stage II; 10 eyes (33%) as stage III; and 2 eyes (7%) as stage IV. A statistically significant association was found between BCVA and the severity of ocular involvement. The mean BCVA logMAR was 1.66 (20/914), with a range from logMAR 0 (20/20) to logMAR 4 (NLP). Other ocular diseases were found in 8 (53.3%), systemic diseases in 10 (66.7%), and the use of pemphigus-inducing drugs in 10 patients (66.7%). Conclusions The present report represents the largest series of ocular involvement in pemphigus confirmed by immunopathology. The clinical manifestations varied from conjunctival hyperemia to corneal scarring and perforation. There was a strong association between scarring changes and low BCVA. Ocular and systemic diseases as well as the use of pemphigus-inducing drugs may predispose to ocular cicatricial changes observed in this series. PMID:24480839

  13. Trauma ocular y politrauma Ocular trauma and multitrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Cruz Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre el trauma ocular y su manejo en pacientes politraumatizados. Entre las causas más frecuentes de trauma ocular se encuentran los accidentes domésticos, laborales, juegos, actividades recreativas y deportivas. Involucran en un alto por ciento a niños y jóvenes, y predomina el sexo masculino en casi todos los trabajos revisados. No solo en Cuba sino en el mundo, el trauma ocular es fuente importante de ceguera unilateral o bilateral. Se presenta un breve compendio de los términos y definiciones actuales que son utilizados para el manejo del trauma ocular, su clasificación y la ventaja que ofrece aplicar el Puntaje del Trauma Ocular, OTS (Ocular Trauma Score, para el pronóstico de la agudeza visual final de acuerdo a los hallazgos clínicos encontrados en la evaluación inicial. Se hace referencia a los pacientes con politrauma y los aspectos a tener en cuenta por el oftalmólogo para tomar conducta cuando estos presentan heridas penetrantes o perforantes y tienen compromiso vital. En estos casos se hace necesaria la colaboración urgente de múltiples especialistas para primero mantener al paciente con vida y luego disminuir las complicaciones que repercuten en su pronóstico visual.A review was made on the ocular trauma and its management in multitrauma patients. The most common causes comprise domestic and occupational accidents, games, recreational and sport activities. It involves more frequently a high percentage of young people, with male prevalence in almost all the reviewed papers. Ocular trauma is an important source of unilateral or bilateral blindness not only in Cuba but worldwide as well. A brief summary of the current terms and definitions used to manage ocular trauma, their classification and the advantage of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS to know the possible final visual acuity, according to the clinical findings at the emergency room, were presented. Reference was also made to the multitrauma

  14. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L

    2012-09-10

    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  15. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

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    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  16. Zwitterionic polymer functionalization of polysulfone membrane with improved antifouling property and blood compatibility by combination of ATRP and click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Lu, Ting; Xie, Yi; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Sun, Shu-Dong; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The chemical compositions are very important for designing blood-contacting membranes with good antifouling property and blood compatibility. In this study, we propose a method combining ATRP and click chemistry to introduce zwitterionic polymer of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), negatively charged polymers of poly(sodium methacrylate) (PNaMAA) and/or poly(sodium p-styrene sulfonate) (PNaSS), to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of polysulfone (PSf) membranes. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results confirmed the successful grafting of the functional polymers. The antifouling property and blood compatibility of the modified membranes were systematically investigated. The zwitterionic polymer (PSBMA) grafted membranes showed good resistance to protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion; the negatively charged polymer (PNaSS or PNaMAA) grafted membranes showed improved blood compatibility, especially the anticoagulant property. Moreover, the PSBMA/PNaMAA modified membrane showed both antifouling property and anticoagulant property, and exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting blood coagulation. The functionalization of membrane surfaces by a combination of ATRP and click chemistry is demonstrated as an effective route to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of membranes in blood-contact.

  17. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  18. Ocular signs, diagnosis and long-term treatment with allopurinol in a cat with leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter; Schaarschmidt-Kiener; Krudewig

    2014-06-01

    A case of leishmaniasis with predominantly ocular signs in a cat living in Switzerland and it's treatment is reported. The cat was imported from Spain 4 years earlier and was initially presented with chronic uveitis. Laboratory test results were negative for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as for Bartonella haenselae and Leishmania spp. Twenty-one months later the cat was presented again because of development of keratitis and granulomatous blepharitis. Blood cell count revealed severe Pancytopenia; Cytology of fine needle aspirates of granulomatous lesions on both upper eyelids and of a corneal smear revealed intracytoplasmatic microorganisms. A preliminary diagnosis of leishmaniasis was supported by positive polymerase chain reaction from bone marrow and eyelid samples for Leishmania infantum DNA and by a high serum antibody titer for Leishmania spp. Treatment with Allopurinol (10 mg/kg, BID) orally led to rapid improvement of ocular signs, general condition and blood cell count with complete remission of lid and corneal lesions within 2 months of treatment.

  19. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-saharan african country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Smit Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not

  20. Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub-saharan african country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not bee

  1. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

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    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  2. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections in South India

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    Ramesh S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / Aims: The eye may be infected from external sources or through intra-ocular invasion of micro-organisms carried by the blood stream. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify the specific bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections and to determine their in-vitro antibacterial susceptibilities to commonly used antibacterial agents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients with clinically diagnosed bacterial ocular infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis, internal and external hordeolum, suppurative scleritis, canaliculitis, keratitis, dacryocystitis, preseptal cellulitis, endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis presenting between January 2005 and December 2005 was performed. Extra-ocular and intra-ocular specimens were collected and were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Results: A total of 756 patients with bacterial ocular infections were analyzed, of which 462(61% eyes had adnexal bacterial infection, 217(28.7% had corneal infection, 6 (0.8% had scleral involvement and the remaining 71(9.39% eyes had infection of the intra-ocular tissues. The predominant bacterial species isolated was S. aureus (195 of 776; 25% followed by S. pneumoniae (169 of 776; 21.78% and coagulase negative staphylococci (142 of 776; 18.3%. The largest number of gram-positive isolates were susceptible to cefazolin (545 of 624; 87.34%, chloramphenicol (522 of 624; 83.65% and gatifloxacin (511 of 624; 81.89% and gram-negative isolates were to amikacin (127 of 136; 93.38%, gatifloxacin (125 of 136; 91.91% and ofloxacin (119 of 136; 87.5%, while aerobic actinomycetes were to amikacin (100%, gatifloxacin (14 of 16; 87.5%, chloramphenicol (14 of 16; 87.5% and ofloxacin (13 of 16; 81.25%. Conclusions: S. aureus frequently causes infections of eyelids and conjunctiva, S. pneumoniae of lacrimal apparatus and cornea and coagulase negative staphylococci causes intra-ocular infections. Of all routinely used antibacterials

  3. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment.

  4. [The analysis for improving the SNR of blood components noninvasive measurement with DS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhao, Zhe; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2012-08-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of blood components measurement and enhance the stability of prediction model, the quantitative signal-noise-ratio (SNR) analysis of measuring instruments based on dynamic spectrum (DS) and preprocessing method was conducted. The SNR of DS is increased after adding boxcar integrator, decreasing wavelength revolution, balancing the DS's SNR and excluding gross errors in preprocessing according to experiment results. Two volunteers were tested continuously for many times using the DS data acquiring system. The correlation coefficients of the each volunteer's DS data was increased from 0.934 and 0.953 to 0.991 and 0.987, respectively. Moreover, the gap between the correlation coefficient of the same volunteer's DS and different volunteers' DS is increased too, which shows that the SNR can be improved by these methods. The quantitative SNR analysis can guide the way of choosing preprocessing method efficiently, which will create the condition for clinical application of the blood components noninvasive measurement.

  5. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  6. Improved arterial blood oxygenation following intravenous infusion of cold supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer's lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model.

  7. Boston ocular surface prosthesis: An Indian experience

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    Varsha Madanlal Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Boston ocular surface prosthesis (BOSP is a scleral contact lens used in the management of patients who are rigid gas permeable (RGP failures as with corneal ectasias such as keratoconus and in those patients who have ocular surface disease such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. Aim: To report utilization of BOSP in a tertiary eye care center in India. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 patients who received BOSP from July 2008 to May 2009. Indications for fitting these lenses, improvement in visual acuity (VA before and after lens fitting and relief of symptoms of pain and photophobia were noted. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Thirty-two patients (43 eyes received these lenses. These consisted of 23 eyes of 17 patients who failed RGP trials for irregular astigmatism and corneal ectasia such as keratoconus and post radial keratotomy and scar and 20 eyes of 15 patients with SJS. Mean age of RGP failures was 27.94 years. Pre- and post-BOSP wear mean LogMAR VA was 1.13 and 0.29, respectively, in RGP failures. The P value was statistically significant (P 2 lines in 7/20 eyes (35% with SJS, with improvement in symptoms. Conclusion: BOSP improves VA in patients who have irregular astigmatism as in ectasias and RGP failures and improves vision and symptoms in patients with SJS.

  8. Nurse case management improves blood pressure, emotional distress and diabetes complication screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Robert A; Lendel, Irina; Saleem, Tipufaiz M; Shaeffer, Gregory; Adelman, Alan M; Mauger, David T; Collins, Mary; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2006-01-01

    We studied the impact of nurse case management (NCM) on blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin A1C, lipids, and diabetes complication screening. A 1-year randomized-controlled trial was conducted in two primary care clinics of the Penn State Hershey Medical Center. Diabetes patients were randomized to control group (CG) (n=182) who received usual care by their primary care provider and intervention group (IG) (n=150) who received additional NCM care, including self-management education, and implementation of diabetes guidelines. Primary outcomes included BP, A1C, lipid, process measures, and secondary outcome was diabetes-related emotional distress as assessed by Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID). BP significantly decreased from 137/77 to 129/72 in IG as compared to an increase from 136/77 to 138/79 in CG after 1 year. PAID scores improved significantly in IG (from 23 to 10) due to reduced emotional stress. A1C (7.4) and LDL (105) were unaffected. Complications screening significantly improved in IG compared to CG: opthalmologic exam 26 to 68%, foot exam 47 to 64%, and nephropathy screening 34 to 72%. NCM improved BP, diabetes-related emotional distress, and process measures in primary care. Unchanged A1C and lipids might be due to a threshold effect. Intervention based upon initial risk assessment may prove more cost-effective.

  9. Crohn’s Disease Ocular Manifestations

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    Koev Kr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.

  10. Improving blood pressure control in end stage renal disease through a supportive educative nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension in patients on hemodialysis (HD) contributes significantly to their morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether a supportive nursing intervention incorporating monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement can improve blood pressure (BP) control in a chronic HD population. A randomized controlled design was used and 118 participants were recruited from six HD units in the Detroit metro area. The intervention consisted of (1) BP education sessions; (2) a 12-week intervention, including monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement; and (3) a 30-day post-intervention follow-up period. Participants in the treatment were asked to monitor their BP, sodium, and fluid intake weekly for 12 weeks in weekly logs. BP, fluid and sodium logs were reviewed weekly with the researcher to determine if goals were met or not met. Reinforcement was given for goals met and problem solving offered when goals were not met. The control group received standard care. Both systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly decreased in the treatment group.

  11. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies. PMID:23509737

  12. Brazilian propolis: a natural product that improved the fungicidal activity by blood phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  13. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryllo Mendes Possamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  14. Functional and anatomical outcome in closed globe combat ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Qamar Ul; Ishaq, Mazhar; Yaqub, Amer; Saeed, Muhammad Kamran

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops. This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with ocular injuries from January 2010 to June 2014. Record of each patient was evaluated and demography, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity, associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13. Overall, 49 eyes of 44 male participants were analysed. The overall mean age was 27.59±6.89 years. The most common mode of injury was improvised explosive device blast responsible for 22(50%) casualties. Ocular contusion was the most frequent closed-globe injury occurring in 35(71.42%) eyes. Most frequent ocular findings in all injured eyes were vitreous haemorrhage 16(32.65%), cataract 12(24.48%), retinal detachment 8(16.32%) and commotio retinae 8(16.32%). A total of 48(97.96%) intra-ocular/adnexal surgeries were performed with pars plana vitrectomy 17(34.69%), cataract surgery 16(32.65%), intraocular lens implantation 8(16.32%), and adnexal surgery 5(10.20%) being the most frequently performed procedures. Overall visual improvement at the final follow-up was statistically significant in all injured eyes irrespective of mode of treatment (p =0.001). The functional and anatomical outcome was better in closed-globe combat ocular injuries compared to open-globe injuries.

  15. Bearing gap adjustment for improvement of levitation performance in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Ryo; Yoshida, Fumihiko; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate a bearing gap adjustment for improvement of levitation performance in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump to realize a blood pump with a low hemolysis level. The impeller levitates axially by balancing a gravitational force, buoyancy, a magnetic force, and hydrodynamic forces on the top and bottom sides of the impeller. To adjust the levitation position of the impeller, the balance of acting forces on the impeller was adjusted by changing the shroud area on the bottom impeller. Three pumps having various shroud area were prepared as tested models: 817 mm(2) (HH-S), 875 mm(2) (HH-M) and 931 mm(2) (HH-L). First, for evaluating the bearing gap adjustment, the bearing gap was estimated by calculating a balancing position of the acting forces on the impeller. We actually measured the gravitational force, buoyancy and the magnetic force, and numerically analyzed hydrodynamic forces on the top and bottom sides of the impeller. Second, to verify accuracy of the estimated bearing gap, the measurement test of the bearing gap was performed. Finally, an in-vitro hemolysis test was performed to evaluate a hemolysis level of the pump. As a result, bottom bearing gaps were estimated as 40 μm (HH-S), 60 μm (HH-M) and 238 μm (HH-L). In the measurement test, bottom bearing gaps were measured as 63 μm (HH-S), 219 μm (HH-M), and 231 μm (HH-L). The estimated bearing gaps had positively correlated with the measured bearing gaps in relation to the shroud area on the impeller. In the hemolysis test, hemolysis level in every model was almost equivalent to that of BPX-80, when the bearing gap was adjusted greater than 60 μm. We could adjust the bearing gap by changing the shroud area on the impeller for improvement of levitation performance to realize a blood pump with a low hemolysis level.

  16. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  17. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  18. Commensal ocular bacteria degrade mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Harris, A; Lumb, R; Powell, K

    2002-12-01

    Antimicrobial activity in tears prevents infection while maintaining a commensal bacterial population. The relation between mucin and commensal bacteria was assessed to determine whether commensals possess mucinolytic activity, how degradation depends on mucin integrity, and whether mucins affect bacterial replication. Bacteria were sampled from healthy eyes and contact lenses from asymptomatic wearers. Intracellular mucins were extracted and purified from cadaver conjunctivas, and surface mucins from extended wear contact lenses. After exposure to bacteria, changes in mucin hydrodynamic volume (proteolytic cleavage) and subunit charge (oligosaccharide degradation) were assayed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The effect of mucin on bacterial replication was followed for up to 24 hours from the end of incubation with purified ocular mucins. Ocular bacteria decreased the hydrodynamic volume of intracellular and contact lens adherent mucins, irrespective of glycosylation density. A decrease in mucin sialylation was observed after exposure to commensal bacteria. Subunit charge distributions were generally shifted to lesser negative charge, consistent with loss of charged epitopes. Subunits with high negative charge, observed after digesting lightly adhering contact lens mucins with bacteria, suggest preferential cleavage sites in the mucin molecule. The presence of purified ocular mucin in the medium inhibited bacterial growth. Bacteria in the healthy ocular surface possess mucinolytic activity on both intact and surface processed mucins, targeted to discrete sites in the mucin molecule. Inhibition of bacterial growth by ocular mucins can be seen as part of the mucosal control of microbiota.

  19. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  20. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-nian ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  1. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of patient with ocular defect using an alternative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ocular prosthesis is a simulation of of a perfectly normal healthy eye and surrounding tissues. The primary purpose of an ocular prosthesis is to maintain the volume of eye socket and create the illusion of a healthy eye and surrounding tissue. A custom ocular prosthesis is a good option when reconstruction by plastic surgery or the use of Osseo-integrated implants is not possible or not desired. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with missing eye with custom made ocular prosthesis was described. Advantages include improved adaptation, increased mobility of prosthesis, improved facial contours and enhanced esthetics gained from the control of the iris and sclera. An accurate alignment of the artificial eye is one of the major prerequisites for esthetic success of the ocular prosthesis.

  2. Improved tunable filter-based multispectral imaging system for detection of blood stains on construction material substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janchaysang, Suwatwong; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2013-06-01

    We present the improved tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for detecting blood stains on construction materials. Based upon the reflectance and Kubelka Munk absorbance spectra stocked from our previous work, we modify the blood discrimination criteria to make the system more efficient by replacing the old criteria which make use of polynomial fitting with new criteria associated with a few wavelengths images. The newly established criteria are tested to be able to detect blood against other stains almost as efficient as the old criteria, while the number of spectral images required for detecting blood stains are reduced significantly from 64 to 9 spectral images. The reduction of required spectral images will reduce the time needed for image capturing and blood detection criteria application with little sacrificing of the specificity and sensitivity of the system.

  3. An Unconventional Approach To Reducing Retinal Degeneration After Traumatic Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    abnormal retinal pericyte vasospasms after ocular trauma in mice, and their relationship to: retinal macrophage activity, and oral administration of L...specifically for blast-type ocular injury. Our hypotheses are based upon evidence that the vascular effects contribute to neurodegeneration after...the effects of oral administration of L-Arginine—a nitric oxide (NO) precursor—on ameliorating these vascular contributions. Blood flow control has

  4. Miastenia grave ocular Severe ocular myastenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaimir Estevéz Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad autoinmune de la unión neuromuscular que se caracteriza por la variabilidad de la debilidad muscular, que empeora o está provocada por el ejercicio del músculo o de los grupos musculares implicados, mientras que el descanso la mejora. La primera descripción de la enfermedad data de 1672, su relación con una afección del timo no se estableció hasta 1901. La enfermedad es poco frecuente, afecta a todas las etnias por igual, y no tiene predilección geográfica. Se reporta un paciente masculino de 28 años de edad atendido en el Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" por presentar visión doble, ptosis palpebral ligera en ojo derecho que empeora con el transcurso del día. Por el interrogatorio y el cuadro clínico se sospecha de una miastenia grave, se remite al clínico y el neurólogo. En los estudios realizados de neuroimágenes, tomografía y electroencefalograma no se encontraron alteraciones. Se decide valorar el caso con el servicio de Neuroftalmología de nuestro centro y por el Instituto de Neurología y es confirmado el diagnóstico.Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune illness of the neuromuscular joint that is characterized by the variability of the muscular weakness that worsens or caused by exercising of the muscle or the involved muscular groups; resting helps in improving the condition of the muscle. The first description of the illness dates back to 1672, but its linking to a thymus disorder was not discovered until 1901. This illness is not very frequent, affects equally to all the races, and it does not predominate in any particular geographic region. This paper presented a male patient aged 28 years who went to the Ophthalmologic Service at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology because he suffered from double vision, slight palpebral ptosis in his right eye that became worse as the day went by. After the

  5. Persian Traditional Medicine and Ocular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Hasan; Emaratkar, Elham; Hadavand, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM) system pays special attention to disease prevention. In PTM, physicians believe that overeating may cause accumulation of unhealthy substances in the body and diseases called “Emtela.” With respect to ocular health, foods can be categorized as beneficial and harmful. Harmful foods such as beef, geese, eggplant, cauliflower, and cheese can cause reduced vision. Dehydrating foods such as walnut and salty fish and hot foods such as garlic, onion, and pepper can cause dry eye. Food items that have beneficial effects on ocular health include thyme and saffron and fruits such as grape, fig, apple, plum, and berries. PTM stipulates that one should not drink water with meals or immediately afterwards, since drinking cold (icy) water causes difficulty in absorption of nutrients. Gulping water may have harmful effects on the eyes; therefore, PTM physicians recommend drinking water at a suitable temperature. It is not safe to drink water first at the morning. Sleeping right after eating is harmful too. Avicenna believes that sleeping on one’s belly after a full meal is very harmful for the eyes. Galen says that old people need deep and continuous sleep more than others. From the view of PTM, moving eyes in different directions, making delicate expressions, trying to look at delicate and find pictures and reading small letters would remove ocular fatigue. There have been mentions of local medicine for improving vision as well; for instance, fennel extracts, pomegranate juice, and honey which are suitable for vision improvement. Local administration of pomegranate blossoms is suitable for treating inflammatory reactions. PMID:27800504

  6. Gene therapy in ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vijay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a novel form of drug delivery that enlists the synthetic machinery of the patient′s cells to produce a therapeutic agent. Genes may be delivered into cells in vitro or in vivo utilising viral or non-viral vectors. Recent technical advances have led to the demonstration of the molecular basis of various ocular diseases. Ocular disorders with the greatest potential for benefit of gene therapy include hereditary diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, tumours such as retinoblastoma or melanoma, and acquired proliferative and neovascular retinal disorders. Gene transfer into ocular tissues has been demonstrated with growing functional success and may develop into a new therapeutic tool for clinical ophthalmology in future.

  7. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKheradmand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.

  8. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  9. Improving health profile of blood donors as a consequence of transfusion safety efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted in impro...... nature, have successfully refined the selection of a particularly healthy subpopulation Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... or to the selection criteria for blood donation. Blood donors recruited in more recent years exhibited a lower relative mortality than those who started earlier. CONCLUSION: Blood donors enjoy better than average health. Explicit and informal requirements for blood donation in Scandinavia, although mostly of a simple...

  10. OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. ... Age appropriate visual acuities were checked, ocular examination was done ... Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) in 28(75.7%) subjects CVI, refractive errors ...

  11. Improving detection of avian malaria from host blood: a step towards a standardised protocol for diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Chris N; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    Avian malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., has been linked to the mortality and population-level declines in native birds in some regions. While molecular diagnostic methods have greatly improved our ability to detect infections of both human and bird malaria, failing to identify false negatives remains an important handicap, particularly for avian malaria due to host DNA presence in the bird blood cells. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of diagnostics by PCR, we evaluated the performance of a commercial silica-membrane-based DNA extraction kit by modifying the protocol with four unpooled elution volume alternatives. Our results suggest that the best template is the DNA extract obtained from the second eluate of a first 50 μL elution step. In one case, the only band visible was from this second eluate and, thus, may not have been identified as positive for Plasmodium spp. if a different elution protocol had been followed. Our results are likely explained by the concept of size exclusion chromatography by which particles of different sizes will elute at different rates. Overall, first elution templates may consist of a lower ratio of parasite to host DNA, while second eluates may contain a higher parasite to host DNA ratio. A low ratio of parasite to host DNA is a concern in detecting chronic infections, in which birds typically carry low levels of parasitemia, making accurate diagnostics imperative when identifying reservoirs of disease that could lead to spillback events.

  12. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  13. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  14. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  15. Iris mammillations in ocular melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Peter G

    2001-01-01

    Hyperpigmentation of the ocular tissues and of the skin around the eye is uncommon. In ocular melanosis, the episclera, uveal tract and the angle of the anterior chamber may be involved. Heterochromia iridis may be present, if the iris is affected. In oculodermal melanocytosis or the naevus of Ota, hyperpigmentation of the skin follows the distribution of the first and second divisions of the fifth cranial nerve. This report documents a patient with episcleral pigment, heterochromia iridis and numerous tiny pigmented nodules on the iris (mammillations). The possible significance of these findings is discussed.

  16. Ocular complications of orbital venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, J N; Guibor, P

    1975-03-01

    Three ocular complications directly related to orbital venography are described, one resulting in permanent loss of vision,. The patient had lymphangioma of the orbit which evidently had bled secondary to increased venous pressure and injection of contrast bolus. Both of the 2 patients with transient visual disturbances had diabetic retinopathy. The common factor is felt to be an imparied vascular bed which cannot meet the stress of increased venous pressure and contrast medium injection. Conditions which predispose to ocular-orbital stasis and/or hemorrhage are discussed.

  17. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  18. An investigation into diabetic patients knowledge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Clarke-Farr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which evaluated the knowledge of a sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive questionnaire was provided to diabetic patients in the Cape Town metropolitan district and its surrounds. Specifically, the questionnaire aimed to determine the patient’s knowledge of diabetes, their knowledge of the ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering other general information relating to diabetes and its ocular complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the existence of two types of diabetes. Twenty nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control as very important, only 37% of the respondents measured their blood sugar on a daily basis. A particular concern was that although 96% of the respondents felt that it was important to have their eyes checked regularly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  19. 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and pentastarch improves cryopreservation of cord blood cells over 10% DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Jun; Joyal, Elizabeth G; Gildner, Jean F; Washington, Kareem N; Phang, Oswald A; Uchida, Naoya; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2010-10-01

    Cell number and viability are important in cord blood (CB) transplantation. While 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the standard medium, adding a starch to freezing medium is increasingly utilized as a cytoprotectant for the thawing process. Similar to hetastarch, pentastarch has the advantages of faster renal clearance and less effect on the coagulation system. We compared a lower DMSO concentration (5%) containing pentastarch with 10% DMSO and performed cell viability assay, colony-forming units (CFUs), and transplantation of CB cells in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had similar CD34+, CD3+, and CD19+ cell percentages after thawing as fresh CB cells. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had higher viability (83.3±9.23%) than those frozen in 10% DMSO (75.3±11.0%, pDMSO/pentastarch group. At the end of 3 hours, the viability decreased by a mean of 7.75% for the 5% DMSO/pentastarch and 17.5% for the 10% DMSO groups. CFUs were similar between the two cryopreserved groups. Frozen CB cells engrafted equally well in IL2Rγ(null) mice compared to fresh CB cells up to 24 weeks, and CB cells frozen in 5% DMSO/pentastarch engrafted better than those in 10% DMSO. Our data indicate that the lower DMSO concentration with pentastarch represents an improvement in the CB cryopreservation process and could have wider clinical application as an alternate freezing medium over 10% DMSO. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. A new model of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass: design improvement, performance, and hemolysis tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Juliana; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Dos Santos, Alex Eugênio; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Andrade, Aron; Biscegli, José F

    2011-05-01

    A new model of blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) application has been developed and evaluated in our laboratories. Inside the pump housing is a spiral impeller that is conically shaped and has threads on its surface. Worm gears provide an axial motion of the blood column. Rotational motion of the conical shape generates a centrifugal pumping effect and improves pumping performance. One annular magnet with six poles is inside the impeller, providing magnetic coupling to a brushless direct current motor. In order to study the pumping performance, a mock loop system was assembled. Mock loop was composed of Tygon tubes (Saint-Gobain Corporation, Courbevoie, France), oxygenator, digital flowmeter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control. Experiments were performed on six prototypes with small differences in their design. Each prototype was tested and flow and pressure data were obtained for rotational speed of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. Hemolysis was studied using pumps with different internal gap sizes (1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.7 mm). Hemolysis tests simulated CPB application with flow rate of 5 L/min against total pressure head of 350 mm Hg. The results from six prototypes were satisfactory, compared to the results from the literature. However, prototype #6 showed the best results. Best hemolysis results were observed with a gap of 1.45 mm, and showed a normalized index of hemolysis of 0.013 g/100 L. When combined, axial and centrifugal pumping principles produce better hydrodynamic performance without increasing hemolysis.

  1. Administration of sesamol improved blood-brain barrier function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGilder, R L; Kelly, K A; Chua, M D; Ptachcinski, R L; Huber, Jason D

    2009-07-01

    Uncontrolled or poorly controlled blood glucose during diabetes is an important factor in worsened vascular function. While evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a prominent role in development of microangiopathy of the retina, kidney, and nerves, the role oxidative stress plays on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and structure has lagged behind. In this study, a natural antioxidant, sesamol, was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to examine the role that oxidative stress plays on BBB structure and function. Experiments were conducted at 56 days after STZ injection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly were divided into four treatment groups CON--control; STZ--STZ-induced diabetes; CON + S--control + sesamol; STZ + S--STZ-induced diabetes + sesamol. Functional and structural changes to the BBB were measured by in situ brain perfusion and western blot analysis of changes in tight junction protein expression. Oxidative stress markers were visualized by fluorescent confocal microscopy and assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Results demonstrated that the increased BBB permeability observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats was attenuated in STZ + S rats to levels observed in CON. Sesamol treatment reduced the negative impact of STZ-induced diabetes on tight junction protein expression in isolated cerebral microvessels. Oxidative stress markers were elevated in STZ as compared to CON. STZ + S displayed an improved antioxidant capacity which led to a reduced expression of superoxide and peroxynitrite and reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, this study showed that sesamol treatment enhanced antioxidant capacity of the diabetic brain and led to decreased perturbation of hyperglycemia-induced changes in BBB structure and function.

  2. Can mHealth improve access to safe blood for transfusion during obstetric emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Akhter, Sadika; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Islam, Syed Shariful; Ashraf, Fatema; Rahman, Monjur; Begum, Nazneen; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Austin, Anne; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Of the 99% maternal deaths that take place in developing countries, one-fourth is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). PPH accounts for one-third of all blood transfusions in Bangladesh where the transfusion process is lengthy as most facilities do not have in-house blood bank facilities. In this context, the location where blood is obtained and the processes of obtaining blood products are not standardized, leading to preventable delays in collecting blood, when it is needed. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an online Blood Information Management Application (BIMA) system for reducing lag time in the blood transfusion process. The study was conducted in a public medical college hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and in two proximate, licensed blood banks between January 2014 and March 2015, using a before after design. A total of 310 women (143 before and 177 after), who needed emergency blood transfusion during their perinatal period, as determined by a medical professional, were included in the study. A median linear regression model was employed to assess the adjusted effect of BIMA on transfusion time. After the introduction of BIMA, the median duration between the identified need for blood and blood transfusion reduced from 152 to 122 minutes (Pmaternal age, education, parity, duty roster of providers, and reasons for blood transfusion, a 24 minute reduction in the time was observed between the identified need for blood and transfusion (P<0.001). BIMA was effective in reducing delays in blood transfusion for emergency obstetric patients. This pilot study suggests that implementing BIMA is one mechanism that has the potential to streamline blood transfusion systems in Bangladesh.

  3. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  4. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...

  5. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yureeda Qazi; Surekha Maddula; Balamurali K. Ambati

    2009-12-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. Pathologic angiogenesis in the eye can lead to severe visual impairment. In our review, we discuss the roles of both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecular players in corneal angiogenesis, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, exudative macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, highlighting novel targets that have emerged over the past decade.

  6. Posttransfusion Increase of Hematocrit per se Does Not Improve Circulatory Oxygen Delivery due to Increased Blood Viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert; Tsai, Amy G; Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Hofmann, Axel; Meier, Jens; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Friedman, Joel M; Tartakovsky, Daniel M; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Blood transfusion is used to treat acute anemia with the goal of increasing blood oxygen-carrying capacity as determined by hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen delivery (DO2). However, increasing Hct also increases blood viscosity, which may thus lower DO2 if the arterial circulation is a rigid hydraulic system as the resistance to blood flow will increase. The net effect of transfusion on DO2 in this system can be analyzed by using the relationship between Hct and systemic blood viscosity of circulating blood at the posttransfusion Hct to calculate DO2 and comparing this value with pretransfusion DO2. We hypothesized that increasing Hct would increase DO2 and tested our hypothesis by mathematically modeling DO2 in the circulation. Calculations were made assuming a normal cardiac output (5 L/min) with degrees of anemia ranging from 5% to 80% Hct deficit. We analyzed the effects of transfusing 0.5 or more units of 300 cc of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) at an Hct of 65% and calculated microcirculatory DO2 after accounting for increased blood viscosity and assuming no change in blood pressure. Our model accounts for O2 diffusion out of the circulation before blood arriving to the nutritional circulation and for changes in blood flow velocity. The immediate posttransfusion DO2 was also compared with DO2 after the transient increase in volume due to transfusion has subsided. Blood transfusion of up to 3 units of PRBCs increased DO2 when Hct (or hemoglobin) was 60% lower than normal, but did not increase DO2 when administered before this threshold. After accounting for the effect of increasing blood viscosity on blood flow owing to increasing Hct, we found in a mathematical simulation of DO2 that transfusion of up to 3 units of PRBCs does not increase DO2, unless anemia is the result of an Hct deficit greater than 60%. Observations that transfusions occasionally result in clinical improvement suggest that other mechanisms possibly related to increased blood viscosity may

  7. Advanced drug delivery and targeting technologies for the ocular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barar, Jaleh; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Fathi, Marziyeh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. These technologies tackle several ocular diseases such as inflammation-based diseases (e.g., scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, choroiditis, retinitis, retinochoroiditis), ocular hypertension and neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Such therapies appear to provide ultimate treatments, even though much more effective, yet biocompatible, noninvasive therapies are needed to control some disabling ocular diseases/disorders. Methods: In the current study, we have reviewed and discussed recent advancements on ocular targeted therapies. Results: On the ground that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of ophthalmic drugs need special techniques, most of ocular DDSs/devices developments have been designed to localized therapy within the eye. Application of advanced DDSs such as Subconjunctival insert/implants (e.g., latanoprost implant, Gamunex-C), episcleral implant (e.g., LX201), cationic emulsions (e.g., Cationorm™, Vekacia™, Cyclokat™), intac/punctal plug DDSs (latanoprost punctal plug delivery system, L-PPDS), and intravitreal implants (I-vitaion™, NT-501, NT- 503, MicroPump, Thethadur, IB-20089 Verisome™, Cortiject, DE-102, Retisert™, Iluvein™ and Ozurdex™) have significantly improved the treatment of ocular diseases. However, most of these DDSs/devices are applied invasively and even need surgical procedures. Of these, use of de novo technologies such as advanced stimuli-responsive nanomaterials, multimodal nanosystems (NSs)/nanoconjugates (NCs), biomacromolecualr scaffolds, and bioengineered cell therapies

  8. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  9. Cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood improves the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Jakob; Westerberg, Martin; Bengtsson, Anders; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-09-01

    The inflammatory response after cardiac surgery is characterized by a profound release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent data suggest that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is of greater importance than the absolute levels. Retransfusion of unwashed cardiotomy suction blood contributes to the inflammatory response, but the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and whether cell salvage before retransfusion influences the systemic balance have not been investigated previously. Twenty-five coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomized to either cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood or no cell salvage before retransfusion. Plasma levels of three anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4 and IL-10] and two proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6), and the IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was measured in cardiotomy suction blood before and after cell salvage, and in the systemic circulation before, during and after surgery. Plasma levels of all cytokines except IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation. The IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was 6-fold higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation [median 10.2 (range 1.1-75) vs 1.7 (0.2-24), P suction blood and improved the systemic IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio 24 h after surgery [median 5.2 (3.6-17) vs 12.4 (4.9-31)] compared with no cell salvage (P = 0.032). The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood is unfavourable. Cell salvage reduces the absolute levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and improves the balance in the systemic circulation after surgery.

  10. In vivo diffuse correlation spectroscopy investigation of the ocular fundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattini, Stefano; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Gatti, Antonietta; Rovati, Luigi

    2013-05-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in vivo recorded from rabbits' ocular fundus are presented. Despite the complexity of these ocular tissues, we provide a clear and simple demonstration of the DCS abilities to analyze variations in physiological quantities of clinical interest. Indeed, the reported experimental activities demonstrate that DCS can reveal both choroidal-flow and temperature variations and detect nano- and micro-aggregates in ocular fundus circulation. Such abilities can be of great interest both in fundamental research and practical clinical applications. The proposed measuring system can be useful in: (a) monitoring choroidal blood flow variations, (b) determining the end-point for photo-dynamic therapy and transpupillary thermo therapy and, (c) managing the dye injection and determining an end-point for dye-enhanced photothrombosis. Moreover, it could allow both diagnoses when the presence of nano- and micro-aggregates is related to specific diseases and verifying the effects of nanoparticle injection in nanomedicine. Even though the reported results demonstrate the applicability of DCS to investigate ocular fundus, a detailed and accurate investigation of the limits of detection is beyond the scope of this article.

  11. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of ocular candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Miki; Saito, Takashi; Doi, Shoichi; Hotta, Gou; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Matsushima, Aki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Ocular candidiasis is a major complication of Candida bloodstream infection (BSI). This study was performed to reveal the clinical characteristics of ocular candidiasis. Of the 220 patients with Candida BSI, 204 cases received ophthalmology consultations between January 2005 and December 2011 at 2 teaching hospitals. Fifty-four (26.5%) cases had findings consistent with the diagnosis of ocular candidiasis. Of these 54 cases, 43 (79.6%) were diagnosed within 7 days after a positive blood culture. Among ocular candidiasis cases, more cases were due to Candida albicans (P =0.034 odds ratio [OR]; 3.68 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-12.2) and had higher β-d-glucan values (P = 0.001 OR; 9.99 95% CI 2.60-21.3). We need to consider fundoscopic examination to be performed within the first 7 days of therapy, especially for those patients who have C. albicans BSIs and higher β-d-glucan values. Additionally, follow-up fundoscopic examination should be considered before stopping therapy for high-risk patients.

  12. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  13. Folic acid ingestion improves skeletal muscle blood flow during graded handgrip and plantar flexion exercise in aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Moralez, Gilbert; Kouda, Ken; Jaffery, Manall F; Cramer, Matthew N; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is attenuated in aged humans performing dynamic exercise, which is due, in part, to impaired local vasodilatory mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that folic acid improves cutaneous vasodilation during localized and whole body heating through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether folic acid improves vasodilation in other vascular beds during conditions of increased metabolism (i.e., exercise). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that folic acid ingestion improves skeletal muscle blood flow in aged adults performing graded handgrip and plantar flexion exercise via increased vascular conductance. Nine healthy, aged adults (two men and seven women; age: 68 ± 5 yr) performed graded handgrip and plantar flexion exercise before (control), 2 h after (acute, 5 mg), and after 6 wk (chronic, 5 mg/day) folic acid ingestion. Forearm (brachial artery) and leg (superficial femoral artery) blood velocity and diameter were measured via Duplex ultrasonography and used to calculate blood flow. Acute and chronic folic acid ingestion increased serum folate (both P < 0.05 vs. control). During handgrip exercise, acute and chronic folic acid ingestion increased forearm blood flow (both conditions P < 0.05 vs. control) and vascular conductance (both P < 0.05 vs. control). During plantar flexion exercise, acute and chronic folic acid ingestion increased leg blood flow (both P < 0.05 vs. control), but only acute folic acid ingestion increased vascular conductance (P < 0.05 vs. control). Taken together, folic acid ingestion increases blood flow to active skeletal muscle primarily via improved local vasodilation in aged adults.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings demonstrate that folic acid ingestion improves blood flow via enhanced vascular conductance in the exercising skeletal muscle of aged humans. These findings provide evidence for the therapeutic use of folic acid to improve skeletal muscle blood flow, and perhaps

  14. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  15. Ocular toxoplasmosis associated with scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogish S Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an atypical presentation of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis with associated scleritis in a young and immunocompetent patient. The diagnosis was done on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous sample, and the clinical response to specific treatment. This case highlights the unusual presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis as scleritis.

  16. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic reso

  17. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  18. Chlorpromazine induced ocular myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug induced bilateral ptosis is a very rare adverse drug reaction. Here we report a case of ten year old male child with chlorpromazine induced bilateral ptosis due to ocular myasthenia. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 653-654

  19. Therapeutical Management for Ocular Rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria López-Valverde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important. Methods: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic. Results: A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient’s vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary. Conclusions: Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.

  20. Transplanted human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells improve left ventricular function through angiogenesis in myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Cheng-heng; WU Gui-fu; WANG Xiao-qing; YANG Yan-hua; DU Zhi-min; HE Xiao-hong; XIANG Peng

    2006-01-01

    Background Human umbilical cord blood contains an abundance of immature stem/progenitor cells, which may participate in the repair of hearts that have been damaged by myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBC) transplantation on cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling in rat model of MI.Methods Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: MI or control group (n=15), MI plus cell transplantation (n=15), and sham group (n=15). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery, thereafter, hUCBC were implanted into the marginal area of infarcted myocardium. In MI/control group, DMEM was injected instead of hUCBC following the same protocol. Left ventricular function assessment was carried out by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic measurements one month post MI. All rats were sacrificed for histological and immunochemical examinations.Results The transplanted hUCBC survived and engaged in the process of myocardial repair in the host heart.Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular function improved significantly in the rats that underwent cell transplantation. Hemodynamic studies found a significantly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) [(21.08±8.10) mmHg vs (30.82±9.59) mmHg, P<0.05], increase in +dp/dtmax [(4.29± 1.27)mmHg/ms vs (3.24±0.75) mmHg/ms, P<0.05), and increase in -dp/dtmax [(3.71 ±0.79) mmHg/ms vs (3.00±0.49) mmHg/ms, P<0.05] among MI group with hUCBC transplantation when compared with MI/control group.Masson's trichrome staining revealed that the collagen density in the left ventricle was significantly lower in rats of transplantation group than that in the MI control groups [(6.33±2.69)% vs (11.10±3.75)%, P< 0.01]. Based on immunostaining of α-actin, the numbers of microvessels were significantly (P<0.01) increased at the boundary of

  1. Ocular rosacea: an underdiagnosed cause of relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio Umberto; Cecchin, Emanuela; De Marchi, Sergio

    2014-09-19

    Red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis are among the most common ocular disease in elderly patients. In these cases the search for causes is difficult and frustrating. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a long history of red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis caused by ocular rosacea. In this patient the proper diagnosis was performed after 10 years of ocular disease, and repeated evaluations by general practitioners and clinical specialists, only after the appearance of facial signs of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Adequate therapy with oral doxycycline led to the improvement of the clinical picture that previously had shown a poor response to several topical treatments. The possibility of ocular rosacea should be considered in evaluating an elderly patient with persistent red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis. Making the proper diagnosis is crucial because ocular rosacea does not respond as expected to topical therapy and may lead to severe corneal involvement.

  2. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  3. Salidroside as a Novel Protective Agent to Improve Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Noha A S; Slater, Nigel K H; Rahmoune, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol and trehalose have been widely examined as protective agents in the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the effectiveness of these reagents alone on cell viability is moderate. Here, the addition of salidroside attenuated oxidative damage of sheep RBCs prior to and post cryostorage. The supplementation of salidroside to the cryopreservation media containing 10% glycerol improved RBC survival by approximately 61.1±4.8% vs 37.9±4.6%. A smaller effect was seen in RBCs cryopreserved in 300 mM trehalose where the addition of salidroside improved survival by 7.6±0.3%. Furthermore, the addition of salidroside to cold storage solution demonstrated a significant reduction of haemolysis after 4 days for RBCs loaded with either glycerol or trehalose, compared to cells incubated without salidroside. RBCs survival was 2-fold greater following freezing in trehalose, compared with glycerol. After 10 days, salidroside enabled a lower haemolysis of 16.7±1.3% compared to 29.0±8.4% for cells incubated without salidroside. However, salidroside had no effect on RBCs which had been frozen in glycerol as the resulting haemolysis rate by day 10 was approximately 60%. Salidroside increased glutathione reductase activity and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Furthermore, it led to reduced carbonylation of proteins in both glycerol and trehalose loaded cells. Finally, no effect on lipid peroxidation was found in the glycerol loaded RBCs although this was reduced in RBCs loaded with trehalose and salidroside. The present findings confirm the potential use of salidroside as a novel protective agent in cryopreservation and refrigerated storage of sheep RBCs.

  4. Improved Blood Pressure Control Using an Interactive Mobile Phone Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lindwall, Magnus; Taft, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

  5. Individualized conditioning regimes in cord blood transplantation: Towards improved and predictable safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, R; Boelens, J J

    2016-06-01

    The conditioning regimen used in cord blood transplantation (CBT) may significantly impact the outcomes. Variable pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs used may further influence outcome. Individualized dosing takes inter-patient differences in PK into account, tailoring drug dose for each individual patient in order to reach optimal exposure. Dose individualization may result in a better predictable regimen in terms of safety and efficacy, including timely T cell reconstitution, which may result in improved survival chances. Conditioning regimens used in CBT varies significantly between and within centres. For busulfan, individualized dosing with therapeutic drug monitoring has resulted in better outcomes. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), used to prevent rejection and GvHD, significantly hampers early T-cell reconstitution (IR). Timely IR is crucial in preventing viral reactivations and relapse. By individudalizing ATG, IR is better predicted and may prevent morbidity and mortality. Individualization of agents used in the conditioning regimen in CBT has proven its added value. Further fine-tuning, including new drugs and/or comprehensive models for all drugs, may result in better predictable conditioning regimens. A predictable conditioning regimen is also of interest/importance when studying adjuvant therapies, including immunotherapies (e.g. cellular vaccines or engineered T-cell) in a harmonized clinical trial design setting.

  6. Improving blood-compatibility of titanium by coating collagen-heparin multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, Q.L. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Chen, J.Y.; Chen, C. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, N., E-mail: nhuang@263.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China) and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2009-05-15

    This work deals with improving the blood-compatibility of titanium by coating it with heparin (Hep) and collagen (Col) using a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. In the work described here, LBL-produced Hep-Col film growth is initialized by deposition of a layer of positively charged polyL-Lysine (PLL) on a titanium surface, which is negatively charged after treatment with NaOH, followed by formation of a multilayer thin film formed by alternating deposition of negatively charged heparin and positively charged collagen utilizing electrostatic interaction. The chemical composition, wettability, surface topography, mass and thickness of the film were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electronic analytical semi-microbalances, and XP stylus profilometry. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by a static platelet adhesion test probing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of adherent platelets after lysis and by a P-selectin assay. The clotting time was examined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. All obtained data showed that the LBL film can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, and prolong clotting time of APTT and PT compared to untreated titanium. LBL-produced Hep-Col films on titanium display more excellent anticoagulation performance than on the surface of titanium.

  7. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of human red blood cells by freeze-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hui; LIU Baolin; HUA Zezhao; LI Chuan; WU Zhengzheng

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-drying of human red blood cells has a potential important application for blood transfusion.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ofintracellular trehalose on the survival of red blood cells after freeze-drying and rehydration.Fresh red blood cells were incubated in trehalose solutions of various concentrations at 37℃ for 7 h following freeze-drying.Polyvinylpyrrolidone,Trehalose,sodium citrate,and human serum albumin were used as extracellular protective agents for the freeze-drying of red blood cells.The results indicated that the intracellular trehalose concentration was increased with increasing concentration of extracellular trehalose solution,and the maximum concen tration of intracellular trehalose reached 35 mmol/L.The viability of freeze-dried red blood cells increased with the increment of intracellular trehalose concentration.

  8. Perfluorocarbon emulsion improves oxygen transport of normal and sickle cell human blood in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Pedro, José Ricardo P; Narayanan, Srinivasan V; Nguyen, Nguyen M; Roseff, Susan D; Spiess, Bruce D

    2014-07-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are compounds with high gas solubility that could help deliver O2 to tissues and have been suggested as adjunct therapy to ischemia. Using a newly designed in vitro system, we tested the hypothesis that a third generation PFC emulsion (Oxycyte) increased O2 transport of blood by measuring changes in O2 extraction ratio. The system included a computer-controlled pump and blood-gas exchange chambers to oxygenate and deoxygenate the blood from nine sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and five healthy donors. The flowing blood reached various levels of hemoglobin O2 saturation and O2 partial pressures (PO2), measured using a CO-oximeter and a blood gas analyzer. The mixtures were kept at physiological blood pressure and temperature, constant flow, normobaric conditions, and FiO2 = 0.30. After adding PFC, the measurements suggested an increase in the transport of O2 and CO. Addition of PFC resulted in larger PO2 difference from 15 ± 2 mmHg to 23 ± 2 mmHg. Using normal blood and blood from SCD patients, the average O2 extraction ratio (O2ER) after PFC was significantly higher than baseline. Addition of saline did not cause statistically significant changes. The data suggest increased (facilitated) O2 transport by this PFC emulsion in both normal and SCD blood.

  9. Can mHealth improve access to safe blood for transfusion during obstetric emergency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aminur Rahman,1,2 Sadika Akhter,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Syed Shariful Islam,4 Fatema Ashraf,5 Monjur Rahman,1 Nazneen Begum,6 Mahbub Elahi Chowdhury,1 Anne Austin,7 Iqbal Anwar1 1International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, 5Department of Gyenaecology and Obstetric, Shaheed Suhrawardi Medical College and Hospital, 6Department of Gyenaecology and Obstetric, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 7JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc., Boston, MA, USA Purpose: Of the 99% maternal deaths that take place in developing countries, one-fourth is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH. PPH accounts for one-third of all blood transfusions in Bangladesh where the transfusion process is lengthy as most facilities do not have in-house blood bank facilities. In this context, the location where blood is obtained and the processes of obtaining blood products are not standardized, leading to preventable delays in collecting blood, when it is needed. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an online Blood Information Management Application (BIMA system for reducing lag time in the blood transfusion process.Patients and methods: The study was conducted in a public medical college hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and in two proximate, licensed blood banks between January 2014 and March 2015, using a before after design. A total of 310 women (143 before and 177 after, who needed emergency blood transfusion during their perinatal period, as determined by a medical professional, were included in the study. A median linear regression model was employed to assess the adjusted effect of BIMA on transfusion time.Results: After the

  10. Chronotherapy improves blood pressure control and reduces vascular risk in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Smolensky, Michael H; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Ríos, María T; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of increased blood pressure during sleep and blunted sleep-time-relative blood pressure decline (a nondipper pattern) is very high and increases substantially with disease severity. Elevated blood pressure during sleep is the major criterion for the diagnoses of hypertension and inadequate therapeutic ambulatory blood pressure control in these patients. Substantial, clinically meaningful ingestion-time-dependent differences in the safety, efficacy, duration of action and/or effects on the 24 h blood pressure pattern of six different classes of hypertension medications and their combinations have been substantiated. For example, bedtime ingestion of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is more effective than morning ingestion in reducing blood pressure during sleep and converting the 24 h blood pressure profile into a dipper pattern. We have identified a progressive reduction in blood pressure during sleep--a novel therapeutic target best achieved by ingestion of one or more hypertension medications at bedtime--as the most significant predictor of decreased cardiovascular risk in patients with and without CKD. Recent findings suggest that in patients with CKD, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be used for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular disease risk, and that therapeutic strategies given at bedtime rather than on awakening are preferable for the management of hypertension.

  11. ROLE OF INTRANASAL STEROIDAL SPRAY IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS WITH OCULAR SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineel Muppidi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The eye is especially susceptible to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, itching (pruritus, tearing (epiphora and redness (erythema because it lacks a mechanical barrier that could prevent the deposition of allergens, such as pollen on the conjunctival surface. These ocular symptoms have been described as examples of the type 1 immediate hypersensitivity reaction. A number of recently published clinical studies apparently support the positive effect of intranasal steroidal sprays on ocular allergy symptoms. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of intranasal steroids in relieving ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 subjects who had seasonal allergic rhinitis with ocular symptoms came to Outpatient Department of Chalmeda Anand Rao Hospital in the year 2015-2016. Randomly, each intranasal steroid is given to 12 patients to a total of 60 patients for 4 weeks 2 puffs in each nostril twice daily and the clinical response is observed. RESULTS A subjective improvement in ocular symptoms was observed in 11 of the 12 patients treated with fluticasone furoate, 8 of 12 patients with fluticasone propionate, 7 of the 12 patients with mometasone furoate, 6 of the 12 patients with beclomethasone and 6 of the 12 patients with budesonide. CONCLUSION Intranasal corticosteroids, which are used for seasonal allergic rhinitis with ocular symptoms are effective in controlling of ocular symptoms. Among these, intranasal corticosteroids, which are used for allergic rhinitis, fluticasone furoate is more effective in relieving ocular symptoms in our study.

  12. Welltang - A smart phone-based diabetes management application - Improves blood glucose control in Chinese people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weibin; Chen, Min; Yuan, Jingyun; Sun, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the impact of the smart phone-based diabetes management application, Welltang, on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The second objective was to measure whether Welltang improves blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weight, blood pressure, hypoglycemic events, satisfaction of patients to use Welltang, diabetes knowledge of patients, and self-care behaviors. One hundred evenly randomized subjects with diabetes, aged 18-74years, were recruited from the outpatient Department of Endocrinology for a 3-month study. The Welltang intervention group received training for the use of Welltang, while the control group received their usual standard of care. HbA1c, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weight, blood pressure, hypoglycemic events, satisfaction of patients to use Welltang, diabetes knowledge of patients, and self-care behaviors were measured. Patient data were analyzed using independent t test and paired sample test using SPSS version 12. The average decrease in HbA1c was 1.95% (21mmol/mol) in the intervention group and 0.79% (8mmol/mol) in the control group (P<0.001). Measures of self-monitored blood glucose, diabetes knowledge, and self-care behaviors improved in patients in the intervention group. Eighty four percent of patients in the intervention group were satisfied with the use of Welltang. Differences in hypoglycemic events, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weight, and blood pressure were not statistically significant. Diabetes patients using the Welltang application achieved statistically significant improvements in HbA1c, blood glucose, satisfaction of patients to use of Welltang, diabetes knowledge, and self-care behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pattern of ocular trauma among the elderly in Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghadoost Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Ocular trauma is a common cause of visual impairment and accounts for 38% to 52% of all patients presenting as ophthalmic accident and emer- gency cases to the hospital. The purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of ocular injuries that leads to hospital- ization in the elderly in Kashan, Iran. Methods: In the retrospective consecutive case series, a total of 94 geriatric patients (≥65 years who admitted and underwent management for ocular trauma from April 2001 to March 2011 at Matini Hospital of Kashan, the only center of eye surgery in the region of Kashan, were reviewed. The items include age, sex, injury mechanism, site and ex- tent of damage, presenting and final best corrected visual acuity at least 3 months after trauma, which were reviewed and analyzed with SPSS software. Results: During the 10 years, 94 eyes of 94 patients Chin J Traumatol 2013;16(6:347-350 with ocular trauma were included. Mean age of patients was (77.5±5.1 years (range 65 to 102 years. Male to female ratio was 2.76. The mechanism of ocular injury included sharp trauma in 56 patients (59.6% and blunt in 38 patients (40.4%. Trauma occurred mostly in males (69 patients, 73.4% and at the work place (38 patients, 40.4%. On admission the visual acuity in 50 patients (53.2% with damaged eyes was light perception to hand motion. While the final best corrected visual acuity in 36 patients (38.3% was better than hand motion. Conclusion: Ocular trauma is a serious cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Appropriate and timely manage- ment may improve their visual prognosis. Key words: Eye injuries; Aged; Visual acuity

  14. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome Due to Topical Ocular Glucocorticoid Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Daisuke; Takiura, Toshihiko; Keino, Hiroshi; Okada, Annabelle A; Yan, Kunimasa

    2017-02-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe adverse effect of systemic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in children, but is extremely rare in the setting of topical ocular GC therapy. In this article, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl suffering from idiopathic uveitis who developed CS due to topical ocular GC treatment. She was referred to the ophthalmology department with a complaint of painful eyes, at which time she was diagnosed with bilateral iridocyclitis and started on a treatment of betamethasone sodium phosphate eye drops. Six months after the initiation of topical ocular GC treatment, she was referred to our pediatric department with stunted growth, truncal obesity, purple skin striate, buffalo hump, and moon face. Because her serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were undetectable, she was diagnosed with iatrogenic CS. After the doses of topical ocular GC were reduced, the clinical symptoms of CS were improved. The fact that the amount of topical ocular GC with our patient was apparently less than that of similar previous cases tempted us to perform genetic analysis of her NR3C1 gene. We found that our patient had a single heterozygous nucleotide substitution in the 3' untranslated region of the NR3C1 gene, which may explain why she developed CS. However, additional investigations are required to determine if our findings can be extrapolated to other patients. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware that even extremely low doses of topical ocular steroid therapy can cause iatrogenic CS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Pattern of ocular trauma among the elderly in Kashan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawood Aghadoost; Mohammad Reza Fazel; Hamidreza Aghadoost; Nazilla Aghadoost

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Ocular trauma is a common cause of visual impairment and accounts for 38% to 52% of all patients presenting as ophthalmic accident and emergency cases to the hospital.The purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of ocular injuries that leads to hospitalization in the elderly in Kashan,Iran.Methods:In the retrospective consecutive case series,a total of 94 geriatric patients (≥ 65 years) who admitted and underwent management for ocular trauma from April 2001 to March 2011 at Matini Hospital of Kashan,the only center of eye surgery in the region of Kashan,were reviewed.The items include age,sex,injury mechanism,site and extent of damage,presenting and final best corrected visual acuity at least 3 months after trauma,which were reviewed and analyzed with SPSS software.Results:During the 10 years,94 eyes of 94 patients with ocular trauma were included.Mean age of patients was (77.5±5.1) years (range 65 to 102 years).Male to female ratio was 2.76.The mechanism of ocular injury included sharp trauma in 56 patients (59.6%) and blunt in 38 patients (40.4%).Trauma occurred mostly in males (69 patients,73.4%) and at the work place (38 patients,40.4%).On admission the visual acuity in 50 patients (53.2%) with damaged eyes was light perception to hand motion.While the final best corrected visual acuity in 36 patients (38.3%) was better than hand motion.Conclusion:Ocular trauma is a serious cause of visual impairment in the elderly.Appropriate and timely management may improve their visual prognosis.

  16. Can cerebral blood volume be measured reproducibly with an improved near infrared spectroscopy system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Walraven, D.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In some circumstances, cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as a measure for cerebral blood flow. A new near infrared spectroscope was used for determining the reproducibility of CBV measurements assessed by the O2-method. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were investigated. An intrasubject coefficie

  17. [Work organisation improvement methods applied to activities of Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE): Lean Manufacturing, VSM, 5S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholey, F; Bourniquel, P; Rivery, E; Coudurier, N; Follea, G

    2009-05-01

    Continuous improvement of efficiency as well as new expectations from customers (quality and safety of blood products) and employees (working conditions) imply constant efforts in Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE) to improve work organisations. The Lean method (from "Lean" meaning "thin") aims at identifying wastages in the process (overproduction, waiting, over-processing, inventory, transport, motion) and then reducing them in establishing a mapping of value chain (Value Stream Mapping). It consists in determining the added value of each step of the process from a customer perspective. Lean also consists in standardizing operations while implicating and responsabilizing all collaborators. The name 5S comes from the first letter of five operations of a Japanese management technique: to clear, rank, keep clean, standardize, make durable. The 5S method leads to develop the team working inducing an evolution of the way in the management is performed. The Lean VSM method has been applied to blood processing (component laboratory) in the Pays de la Loire BTE. The Lean 5S method has been applied to blood processing, quality control, purchasing, warehouse, human resources and quality assurance in the Rhône-Alpes BTE. The experience returns from both BTE shows that these methods allowed improving: (1) the processes and working conditions from a quality perspective, (2) the staff satisfaction, (3) the efficiency. These experiences, implemented in two BTE for different processes, confirm the applicability and usefulness of these methods to improve working organisations in BTE.

  18. Effects of diethylcarbamazine on ocular onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F

    1976-09-01

    A single 10-14 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was given under betamethazone cover to 18 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis, and the effects were studied in detail over 1-2 years. A comparison was made with the findings in 21 patients (Group B) who received a similar course to be followed by a weekly suppressive 100-200 mg dose of DEC. A further 18 patients (Group C) served as controls. The initial DEC course provoked severe general reactions, but ocular complications could be controlled by betamethazone. The weekly suppressive dose was not acceptable to the majority of patients, and only one young patient with severe iritis who improved during the initial course took the weekly tablet voluntarily over 2 years. The initial DEC course reduced the numbers of microfilariae in the eye and was of temporary benefit to lesions of the anterior segment, but it did not affect lesions of the posterior segment. A possible adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Any beneficial long term effect was almost confined to Group B, and to lesions of the anterior segment. The best to hope for in lesions of the posterior segment was arrest of further development. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).

  19. Effects of suramin on ocular onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F

    1976-09-01

    39 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis in the Sudan-savanna of north Cameroon were given 4-6 g of suramin and followed in detail over 1-2 years. 39 other patients (Group B) received suramin followed 2 weeks later by a 6-7 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC). A further 18 patients (Group C) received placebo injections and were followed in the same way by the same observers. Suramin caused serious general reactions among the 100 patients who started the course - 1 case of stomatitis, 1 exfoliative dermatitis, and several cases of severe prostration, among which 2 ended fatally. These reactions underline the urgency for further studies on the toxicity of suramin, which is without doubt an efficient macro- and micro-filaricidal drug. Changes which occurred in the ocular lesions are described in detail. There was an initial aggravation of punctate and sclerosing keratitis, and sometimes a serious aggravation or development of anterior uveitis, corresponding to the peak microfilaricidal effect of the drug. The possibility of a simultaneous adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Despite these reactions, which might have been avoided by prior elimination of microfilariae by DEC, the eyes were in general quieter at 3 months and thereafter than before treatment. However, no posterior segment lesion improved after suramin, and the majority remained unchanged. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).

  20. Toxicidad ocular medicamentosa Ocular toxicity induced by medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garralda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la toxicidad ocular inducida por cuatro grupos de fármacos sistémicos: tamoxifeno, cloroquina y derivados, anticolinérgicos y tamsulosina. El objetivo principal es dar unas normas prácticas que sirvan para el manejo diario de los pacientes sometidos a estos tratamientos, más que profundizar en los mecanismos de acción de cada uno de ellos.This paper analyses ocular toxicity induced by four groups of systemic medicines: tamoxifen, chloroquine and derivatives, anticholinergics and tamsulosin. Our main aim is to provide some practical rules that will be of use in the everyday management of patients receiving these treatments, rather than to examine the mechanisms by which each of these medicines act.

  1. Contribution of laboratory methods in diagnosing clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Cinara C B; Meira, Cristina S; Ferreira, Ana I C; Frederico, Fábio B; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Almeida, Gildásio C; Mattos, Luiz C; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-07-01

    This prospective study evaluated the value of laboratorial diagnosis in ocular toxoplasmosis analyzing peripheral blood samples from a group of Brazilian patients by immunologic and molecular methods. We analyzed blood samples from 184 immunocompetent patients with ocular disorders divided into 2 groups: Group I, composed of samples from 49 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical features; Group II, samples from 135 patients with other ocular diseases. Samples were assayed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (cnPCR), real-time PCR (qPCR) for Toxoplasma gondii, indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IF), avidity test (crude tachyzoite lysate as antigen), and excreted-secreted tachyzoite proteins as antigen (ESA-ELISA). cnPCR and qPCR profiles were concordant in all samples. Positive PCR was shown in 40.8% of group I patients. The majority of the positive blood samples (75%) were taken from patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis scars, and the others (25%), from patients with retinal exudative lesions. Despite that 86 of the 135 patients from Group II had asymptomatic toxoplasmosis, all DNA blood samples had negative PCR. Concordant results were shown in the data obtained by serologic methods. Around 24% of the patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had high antibody titers determined by ESA-ELISA and IF. Anti-ESA antibodies are shown principally in patients with active infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of tachyzoites in the blood of patients with chronic infection, supporting the idea of recurrent disease. Circulating parasites in blood of immunocompetent individuals may be associated with the reactivation of the ocular disease.

  2. Improving power to detect changes in blood miRNA expression by accounting for sources of variability in experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah I; Sillé, Fenna C M; Goldbaum, Audrey; Yee, Brenda; Key, Ellen F; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T; Thomas, Reuben

    2014-12-01

    Blood miRNAs are a new promising area of disease research, but variability in miRNA measurements may limit detection of true-positive findings. Here, we measured sources of miRNA variability and determine whether repeated measures can improve power to detect fold-change differences between comparison groups. Blood from healthy volunteers (N = 12) was collected at three time points. The miRNAs were extracted by a method predetermined to give the highest miRNA yield. Nine different miRNAs were quantified using different qPCR assays and analyzed using mixed models to identify sources of variability. A larger number of miRNAs from a publicly available blood miRNA microarray dataset with repeated measures were used for a bootstrapping procedure to investigate effects of repeated measures on power to detect fold changes in miRNA expression for a theoretical case-control study. Technical variability in qPCR replicates was identified as a significant source of variability (P power to detect small fold changes in blood miRNAs can be improved by accounting for sources of variability using repeated measures and choosing appropriate methods to minimize variability in miRNA quantification. This study demonstrates the importance of including repeated measures in experimental designs for blood miRNA research. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Biomarkers, Biospecimens, and New Technologies in Molecular Epidemiology." ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Improved accuracy in the estimation of blood velocity vectors using matched filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, P.

    2000-01-01

    The blood velocity can be estimated by finding the shift in position of the blood scatterers between subsequent ultrasonic pulse emissions through cross-correlation of the received RF signals. Usually only the velocity component along the beam direction is found. It was shown in a previous paper...... that the complete velocity vector can be found, if the received signals are focused along lines parallel to the direction of the blood flow. A fairly broad beam is emitted in the approach, and this gives rise to a widening in the profiles of the estimated velocity. To reduce this effect, a focused ultrasound...

  4. Cryopreservation of Rh negative blood for improved storage & utilisation by means of indigenous freezing bags & solutions & manual deglycerolisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanu, A; Lal, M

    2001-04-01

    Cryopreservation allows donor blood to be stored for years, rather than weeks as in liquid storage. This is an established procedure in countries with a developed blood transfusion service. Cryopreservation has not been introduced in India, possibly because of the presumed high cost and complexity of the procedure. An attempt is made in this study, to cryopreserve Rh negative blood in a mechanical freezer using indigenous bags and solutions and manual deglycerolisation to reduce the cost of preservation. RBCs to be frozen were weighed and transferred by sterile welding to an 800 ml freezing bag. Based on RBC weight, 400-500 ml of glycerol (5.7 MpH 6.8) was added as cryopreservative. After extracellular and intracellular equilibration, excess glycerol was removed by centrifugation. Glycerolised RBCs were frozen at -80 degrees C in a mechanical freezer. Cryopreserved units were thawed at 37 degrees C and deglycerolised. Twenty one patients were transfused with the frozen deglycerolised RBCs after the usual pre-transfusion tests. Haematocrit (Hct) values of the frozen deglycerolised units, complied with required standards, before addition of glycerol and post glycerolisation. RBC recovery was more than 80 per cent and Hct 83.3 per cent after deglycerolisation. Twenty one patients transfused with the frozen deglycerolised blood experienced no adverse effects and showed a 24 h mean post transfusion Hb increment of 0.73 g/dl. Cryopreservation, unlike liquid storage, allows Rh negative blood of the required ABO groups to be stocked. Cryopreservation also improves its utilisation, reduces wastage and helps supplement the liquid stocks of Rh negative blood. The use of indigenous freezing bags and manual deglycerolisation has resulted in an inexpensive procedure, which can be integrated, with minor inputs, into any blood bank that is already preparing blood components.

  5. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  6. Tuberculose ocular: relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Daniella Socci da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de tuberculose ocular presumida com comprometimento coroidiano. No primeiro caso, um paciente de 43 anos, HIV positivo, com tuberculose pulmonar miliar e tuberculoma cerebral, apresenta um granuloma coroidiano único na região macular do olho esquerdo. No segundo caso, uma paciente de 12 anos, HIV negativa, com tuberculose pulmonar apresenta coroidite multifocal e comprometimento do segmento anterior do olho esquerdo. Ambos os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente com o tratamento específico, apresentando completa resolução das lesões. As lesões oculares da tuberculose são diversas e devemos continuar atentos a esta enfermidade.

  7. Ocular effects of radiofrequency energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J A

    2003-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) energy has been reported to cause a variety of ocular effects, primarily cataracts but also effects on the retina, cornea, and other ocular systems. Cataracts have been observed in experimental animals when one eye was exposed to a localized, very high RF field and the other eye was the unexposed control. The results show that 2450 MHz exposures for >or=30 min at power densities causing extremely high dose rates (>or=150 W/kg) and temperatures (>or=41 degrees C) in or near the lens caused cataracts in the rabbit eye. However, cataracts were not observed in the monkey eye exposed to similar exposure conditions, reflecting the different patterns of energy absorption (SAR, specific absorption rate) distribution, due to their different facial structure. Since the monkey head is similar in structure to the human head, the nonhuman primate study showed that the incident power density levels causing cataracts in rabbits and other laboratory animals cannot be directly extrapolated to primates, including human beings. It is reasonable to assume that an SAR that would induce temperatures >or=41 degrees C in or near the lens in the human eye would produce cataracts by the same mechanism (heating) that caused cataracts in the rabbit lens; however, such an exposure would greatly exceed the currently allowable limits for human exposure and would be expected to cause unacceptable effects in other parts of the eye and face. Other ocular effects including corneal lesions, retinal effects, and changes in vascular permeability, have been observed after localized exposure of the eye of laboratory animals to both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed wave (PW) exposures, but the inconsistencies in these results, the failure to independently confirm corneal lesions after CW exposure, the failure to independently confirm retinal effects after PW exposure, and the absence of functional changes in vision are reasons why these ocular effects are not useful in defining an

  8. A situational analysis of ocular health promotion in the South African primary health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithole, Hlupheka Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    South Africa has a serious burden of avoidable blindness and visual impairment, which may be due to poor ocular health promotional policies and programs or implementation. Therefore, this paper sought to critically analyse the South African primary health-care policies and programs, to identify the components of ocular health promotional policies and programs as well as how they are currently being implemented and to suggest areas that can be improved in order to minimise the burden of blindness and visual impairment. Triangulated quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in the study. Questionnaire and interviews were used to solicit data from national and provincial managers of different health directorates. Eye-care managers from each province also completed the questionnaire. Furthermore, relevant health policy and program documents from national and provincial departments of health were studied to identify areas relating to ocular health promotion. The study found varying degrees of implementation of various ocular health promotional activities in the provinces with the majority of respondents (62 per cent) indicating that ocular health promotion was not part of their responsibility and another 81 per cent revealing that vision screening does not form part of their health promotional programs. It further revealed a lack of a dedicated directorate for ocular health-care issues and the absence of an integrated ocular health promotional policy. Ocular health promotional activities were absent in other provinces. This may be a major contributing factor to poor ocular health promotion in South Africa and hence, the high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that an integrated ocular health promotional model (directorate and policies) be developed and be part of the South African primary health-care system. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  9. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  10. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) was funded by the Nordea Foundation....

  11. High-throughput ocular artifact reduction in multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) using component subspace projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junshui; Bayram, Sevinç; Tao, Peining; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2011-03-15

    After a review of the ocular artifact reduction literature, a high-throughput method designed to reduce the ocular artifacts in multichannel continuous EEG recordings acquired at clinical EEG laboratories worldwide is proposed. The proposed method belongs to the category of component-based methods, and does not rely on any electrooculography (EOG) signals. Based on a concept that all ocular artifact components exist in a signal component subspace, the method can uniformly handle all types of ocular artifacts, including eye-blinks, saccades, and other eye movements, by automatically identifying ocular components from decomposed signal components. This study also proposes an improved strategy to objectively and quantitatively evaluate artifact reduction methods. The evaluation strategy uses real EEG signals to synthesize realistic simulated datasets with different amounts of ocular artifacts. The simulated datasets enable us to objectively demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods when no high-quality EOG signals are available. Moreover, the results of the simulated datasets improve our understanding of the involved signal decomposition algorithms, and provide us with insights into the inconsistency regarding the performance of different methods in the literature. The proposed method was also applied to two independent clinical EEG datasets involving 28 volunteers and over 1000 EEG recordings. This effort further confirms that the proposed method can effectively reduce ocular artifacts in large clinical EEG datasets in a high-throughput fashion.

  12. Topical ocular delivery of NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash S; Sharma, Surendra K; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2008-06-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 and 4.5, and are poorly soluble in water. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of NSAIDs have been made using sodium, potassium, tromethamine and lysine salts or complexing with cyclodextrins/solubilizer. Ocular penetration of NSAID demands an acidic ophthalmic solution where cyclodextrin could prevent precipitation of drug and minimize its ocular irritation potential. The incompatibility of NSAID with benzalkonium chloride is avoided by using polysorbate 80, cyclodextrins or tromethamine. Lysine salts and alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate disrupt corneal integrity, and their use requires caution. Thus a nonirritating ophthalmic solution of NSAID could be formulated by dissolving an appropriate water-soluble salt, in the presence of cyclodextrin or tromethamine (if needed) in mildly acidified purified water (if stability permits) with or without benzalkonium chloride and polyvinyl alcohol. Amide prodrugs met with mixed success due to incomplete intraocular hydrolysis. Suspension and ocular inserts appear irritating to the inflamed eye. Oil drop may be a suitable option for insoluble drugs and ointment may be used for sustained effect. Recent studies showed that the use of colloidal nanoparticle formulations and the potent COX 2 inhibitor bromfenac may enhance NSAID efficacy in eye preparations.

  13. Topical Ocular Delivery of NSAIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Munish; Avinash S Dhake; Sharma, Surendra K; Dipak K Majumdar

    2008-01-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 a...

  14. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mamta; Sathish, K R; Bhatia, Prashant G; Chidamber, B S

    2008-01-01

    A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  15. Improving the clinical management of traumatic brain injury through the pharmacokinetic modeling of peripheral blood biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadas, Aaron; Washington, Jolewis; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir

    2016-11-30

    Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of S100B (monomer and homodimer), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 were modeled using relevant chemical and physical properties; modeling results were validated by comparison with data obtained from healthy subjects or individuals affected by neurological diseases. Brain imaging data were used to model passage of biomarkers across the blood-brain barrier. Our results show the following: (1) changes in biomarker serum levels due to age or disease progression are accounted for by differences in kidney filtration; (2) a significant change in the brain-to-blood volumetric ratio, which is characteristic of infant and adult development, contributes to variation in blood concentration of biomarkers; (3) the effects of extracranial contribution at steady-state are predicted in our model to be less important than suspected, while the contribution of blood-brain barrier disruption is confirmed as a significant factor in controlling markers' appearance in blood, where the biomarkers are typically detected; (4) the contribution of skin to the marker S100B blood levels depends on a direct correlation with pigmentation and not ethnicity; the contribution of extracranial sources for other markers requires further investigation. We developed a multi-compartment, pharmacokinetic model that integrates the biophysical

  16. Microvascular Blood Flow Improvement in Hyperglycemic Obese Adult Patients by Hypocaloric Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mastantuono, T; Di Maro, M.; Chiurazzi, M.; Battiloro, L.; Starita, N.; Nasti, G; Lapi, D.; Iuppariello, L.; M. Cesarelli; D’Addio, G.; Colantuoni, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the changes in skin microvascular blood flow (SBF) in newly diagnosed hyperglycemic obese subjects, administered with hypocaloric diet. Adult patients were recruited and divided in three groups: NW group (n=54), NG (n=54) and HG (n=54) groups were constituted by normal weight, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic obese subjects, respectively. SBF was measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring technique and oscillations in blood flow were analyzed by spectr...

  17. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle. Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em meios sólidos de cultura (ágar sangue, chocolate e Sabouraud. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 30 culturas (47,7% foram positivas e no grupo B, 6 (8,6%. Sete bactérias foram isoladas no grupo A e 4 no B. A análise estatística revelou associação significante entre a positividade dos cultivos e conjuntivite alérgica. CONCLUSÃO: Microbiota bacteriana foi mais freqüentemente encontrada nos pacientes com alergia ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group. Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. RESULTS: In group A, 30 cultures (47.7% were positive and 6 (8.6% in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  18. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  19. Transplant related ocular surface disorders: Advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation after ocular complications secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Erin D; Mahomed, Faheem; Hans, Amneet K; Dalal, Jignesh D

    2016-05-01

    HSCT has been linked to the development of an assortment of ocular surface complications with the potential to lead to permanent visual impairment if left untreated or if not treated early in the course of disease. Strategies for therapy include maintenance of lubrication and tear preservation, prevention of evaporation, decreasing inflammation, and providing epithelial support. The ultimate aim of treatment is to prevent permanent ocular sequelae through prompt ophthalmology consultation and the use of advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation. We describe several rehabilitation options of ocular surface complications occurring secondarily during the post-HSCT course.

  20. More accurate systolic blood pressure measurement is required for improved hypertension management: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meir Nitzan,1 Itzchak Slotki,2 Linda Shavit2 1Department of Applied Physics/Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, 2Department of Nephrology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel Abstract: The commonly used techniques for systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP measurement are the auscultatory Korotkoff-based sphygmomanometry and oscillometry. The former technique is relatively accurate but is limited to a physician’s office because its automatic variant is subject to noise artifacts. Consequently, the Korotkoff-based measurement overestimates the blood pressure in some patients due to white coat effect, and because it is a single measurement, it cannot properly represent the variable blood pressure. Automatic oscillometry can be used at home by the patient and is preferred even in clinics. However, the technique’s accuracy is low and errors of 10–15 mmHg are common. Recently, we have developed an automatic technique for SBP measurement, based on an arm pressure cuff and a finger photoplethysmographic probe. The technique was found to be significantly more accurate than oscillometry, and comparable to the Korotkoff-based technique, the reference-standard for non-invasive blood pressure measurements. The measurement of SBP is a mainstay for the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for several adverse events, mainly cardiovascular. Lowering blood pressure evidently reduces the risk, but excessive lowering can result in hypotension and consequently hypoperfusion to vital organs, since blood pressure is the driving force for blood flow. Erroneous measurement by 10 mmHg can lead to a similar unintended reduction of SBP and may adversely affect patients treated to an SBP of 120–130 mmHg. In particular, in elderly patients, unintended excessive reduction of blood pressure due to inaccurate SBP measurement can result in cerebral hypoperfusion and consequent cognitive

  1. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women.

  2. Impact of Microbiome on Ocular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugadas, Abirami; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near future. In addition, we discuss how microbiota at sites other than the eye may influence ocular immune responses. The information discussed in the review has been gathered using PubMed searches for literature published from January 1982 to December 2015. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2018 Highlights of ASH Attend a meeting ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  4. Discriminative Ocular Artifact Correction for Feature Learning in EEG Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyang; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong; Ang, Kai Keng

    2016-11-16

    Electrooculogram (EOG) artifact contamination is a common critical issue in general electroencephalogram (EEG) studies as well as in brain computer interface (BCI) research. It is especially challenging when dedicated EOG channels are unavailable or when there are very few EEG channels available for ICA-based ocular artifact removal. It is even more challenging to avoid loss of the signal of interest during the artifact correction process, where the signal of interest can be multiple magnitudes weaker than the artifact. To address these issues, we propose a novel discriminative ocular artifact correction approach for feature learning in EEG analysis.Without extra ocular movement measurements, the artifact is extracted from raw EEG data, which is totally automatic and requires no visual inspection of artifacts. Then, artifact correction is optimized jointly with feature extraction by maximizing oscillatory correlations between trials from the same class and minimizing them between trials from different classes. We evaluate this approach on a real world EEG data set comprising 68 subjects performing cognitive tasks. The results showed that the approach is capable of not only suppressing the artifact components but also improving the discriminative power of a classifier with statistical significance. We also demonstrate that the proposed method addresses the confounding issues induced by ocular movements in cognitive EEG study.

  5. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN HIV PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND HIV/AIDS is a multi system disorder with ocular involvement is about 70-80% of HIV patient occupational exposure to HIV is a significant health hazard for the treating clinicians including Eye Surgeons. AIM To study and evaluation of ocular manifestation in HIV patients attending out patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is observational study of 104 HIV+ve cases for a period of 1 year those patients who attended ophthalmic out patient department. RESULTS 73 were males (70.19% and 31 were females (29.80%. Majority of the patients belongs to age group of 15-50 years. Out of 104 patients 83(79.80% were married and 21(20.20% were unmarried. HIV was predominantly seen in labourers 41(32.42%. The predominant mode of transmission of sexual (Hetero Sexual transmission. HIV infection was predominantly seen in uneducated patients 64(61.53%. Total No. of ocular findings in 51 cases out of 75 with anterior Uveitis, Conjunctival microvasculopathy, Herpes Simplex Keratitis and Conjunctivitis are the most common anterior segment manifestation. CMV retinitis, HIV Microvasculopathy are the most common posterior segment manifestation. CONCLUSIONS Ophthalmologists should be familiar with common and uncommon ocular manifestations of AIDS+ve cases and their diagnosis and treatment, as early and proper treatment can Salvage their vision and improve the quality of life.

  6. OCULAR INFECTIONS: RATIONAL APPROACH TO ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Mulla Summaiya A; Khokhar Neeta D; Revdiwala Sangita B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Isolation of common pathogens involved in ocular infection and their in-vitro susceptibility to commonly used ocular antibiotics, as well as the trends in antibiotic resistance developed by these pathogens were investigated. Material/Methods: All patients with suspected bacterial ocular infections presenting between march 2010 and feb 2011 were examined under slit lamp microscope and samples were collected by using aseptic techniques. All samples were processed for direct microsco...

  7. Innate immunity of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2010-02-15

    The ocular surface epithelium serves a critical function as the defensive front line of the innate immune system. While the detection of microbes is arguably its most important task, an exaggerated host defense reaction to endogenous bacterial flora may initiate and perpetuate inflammatory mucosal responses. The ability of cells to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) mainly depends on the expression of a family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A healthy ocular surface is not inflammatory, even though ocular surface epithelium is in constant contact with bacteria and bacterial products. In this study, we show that human ocular surface epithelial cells, both corneal and conjuctival epithelial cells, respond to viral double-stranded RNA mimic polyI:C to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR3, while they fail to respond functionally to lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 ligand. Moreover, human ocular surface epithelium responds to flagellins from ocular pathogenic, but not ocular non-pathogenic bacteria, to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR5. Thus, ocular surface epithelial cells selectively respond to microbial components and induce limited inflammation; immune-competent cells can recognize microbial components through TLRs and induce the inflammation. The unique innate immune response of the ocular surface epithelium may contribute to its coexistence with commensal bacteria. Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to result from an abnormal response to the gut microbiota. Thus, we also considered the possibility of an association between ocular surface inflammation and a disordered innate immune response. IkappaBzeta is important for TLR signaling, in mice, its knock-out produced severe, spontaneous ocular surface inflammation, the eventual loss of goblet cells, and spontaneous perioral inflammation, suggesting that dysfunction/abnormality of innate immunity can lead to ocular surface inflammation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  9. Development of ocular inserts for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R T; Ryoo, J P

    1987-06-01

    Ring shaped ocular inserts have been developed to administer a therapeutic level of tylosin tartrate throughout a five day period to treat pinkeye in cattle. The inserts are based on polyvinyl chloride rings which are dip coated with a copolymer containing the antibiotic (tylosin tartrate). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of surfaces has been of value to evaluate the presence and extent of surface flaws in the hydrogel coating, and to contribute to improvement in fabrication of the rings to insure the establishment of satisfactory seals at joints, uniformity of microporosity and cross sections, and the absence of significant cracking or flaking. In vitro release rates were determined using thin layer chromatography techniques, and rates were seen to be above a few micrograms of antibiotic per hour for experiments as long as nine days at simulated tear rates as high as 2 milliliters per hour.

  10. OCULAR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Moshetova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  11. Vascular bursts enhance permeability of tumour blood vessels and improve nanoparticle delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Nichols, Joseph W.; Toh, Kazuko; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Christie, R. James; Yamada, Naoki; Ogura, Tadayoshi; Kano, Mitsunobu R.; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Bae, You Han; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced permeability in tumours is thought to result from malformed vascular walls with leaky cell-to-cell junctions. This assertion is backed by studies using electron microscopy and polymer casts that show incomplete pericyte coverage of tumour vessels and the presence of intercellular gaps. However, this gives the impression that tumour permeability is static amid a chaotic tumour environment. Using intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the permeability of tumour blood vessels includes a dynamic phenomenon characterized by vascular bursts followed by brief vigorous outward flow of fluid (named ‘eruptions’) into the tumour interstitial space. We propose that ‘dynamic vents’ form transient openings and closings at these leaky blood vessels. These stochastic eruptions may explain the enhanced extravasation of nanoparticles from the tumour blood vessels, and offer insights into the underlying distribution patterns of an administered drug.

  12. Vascular bursts enhance permeability of tumour blood vessels and improve nanoparticle delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Nichols, Joseph W; Toh, Kazuko; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Christie, R James; Yamada, Naoki; Ogura, Tadayoshi; Kano, Mitsunobu R; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Bae, You Han; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced permeability in tumours is thought to result from malformed vascular walls with leaky cell-to-cell junctions. This assertion is backed by studies using electron microscopy and polymer casts that show incomplete pericyte coverage of tumour vessels and the presence of intercellular gaps. However, this gives the impression that tumour permeability is static amid a chaotic tumour environment. Using intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the permeability of tumour blood vessels includes a dynamic phenomenon characterized by vascular bursts followed by brief vigorous outward flow of fluid (named 'eruptions') into the tumour interstitial space. We propose that 'dynamic vents' form transient openings and closings at these leaky blood vessels. These stochastic eruptions may explain the enhanced extravasation of nanoparticles from the tumour blood vessels, and offer insights into the underlying distribution patterns of an administered drug.

  13. Risk Factors and Options to Improve Engraftment in Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Petropoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of umbilical unrelated cord-blood (UCB cells as an alternative source of hematopoietic cell transplantation has been widely used mainly for patients lacking an HLA-matched donor. UCB present many advantages over bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood from volunteer donors, such as rapid availability, absence of risk for the donor, and decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. However, a significant clinical problem is delayed engraftment that is directly correlated with the number of hematopoietic stem cells in a cord-blood unit. The identification of prognostic factors associated with engraftment that can be easily modified (e.g., strategies for donor choice and the development of new approaches including use of multiple donors, intrabone injection of UCB, ex vivo expansion, and cotransplantation with accessory cells are of crucial importance in order to circumvent the problem of delayed engraftment after UCB transplantation. Those approaches may increase the quality and availability of UCB for transplantation.

  14. Ocular involvement in patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchiega, Ana Beatriz Santos; Balbi, Gustavo Guimarães Moreira; Ochtrop, Manuella Lima Gomes; de Andrade, Francisco Assis; Levy, Roger Abramino; Baraliakos, Xenofon

    2017-03-18

    Ocular inflammatory diseases can present as isolated conditions but also as part of systemic inflammatory diseases. Anterior uveitis is closely related to SpA and shares the common genetic background of HLA-B27. Other ocular manifestations, such as episcleritis and scleritis, may also occur, although less frequently. Therefore, ocular involvement has been included as one of the important clinical features of SpA in the recently published classification criteria for axial and peripheral disease. However, there are a wide variety of aetiologies for ocular diseases and this must be considered in assessment of SpA.

  15. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    .001) compared to control in intention-to-treat-analyses (n=823). Waist circumference and BMI increased 0.5 cm (0.3;0.7) (P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  16. Avaliação da sintomatologia ocular em pacientes com disfunção temporo-mandibular Ocular symptom evaluation in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele dos Santos Pereira

    2000-08-01

    number of patients who showed 100% improvement or mild symptoms was statis-tically significant for both TMD and ocular symptoms. In contrast, in short periods of time (7-15, 15-30, 30-60 days the plate's effectivity was not statistically significant to reduce TMD and ocular symptoms. The most frequent ophthalmic symptom (84.2% shown by the patients with TMD of the sample was ocular pain. Conclusion: There is a correlation between TMD and ocular symptoms, because the improvement of the clinical status of the patients with TMD who used the reversible therapy, was statistically significant for both TMD and ocular symptoms in a longer period of time (7-60 days.

  17. Improved long-term stability of blood cocaine in evacuated collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselt, R C; Yoshikawa, D; Chang, J; Li, J

    1993-07-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if a relatively minor modification of our existing specimen collection tubes could enhance the long-term stability of blood cocaine. We added cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ethanol to whole sheep blood in glass tubes that were prepared to contain one of several combinations of preservatives and anticoagulant. On day 1 and at intervals of up to one year, the drugs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cocaine and BE) or headspace gas chromatography (ethanol). Storage of blood containing 200 ng/mL cocaine at 4 degrees C for one year resulted in 100% loss of the drug using our normal 10 mL specimen collection tubes containing 100 mg sodium fluoride and 20 mg potassium oxalate. The substitution of oxalic acid for potassium oxalate reduced this loss to 76% without any significant effect on the benzoylecgonine or ethanol concentrations. Further addition of 10 mg echothiophate iodide, a quaternary ammonium compound, brought the cocaine loss down to 60% of the original concentration by one year. Further work will be required to determine if oxalic acid and/or echothiophate iodide could be used in blood collection vials intended for forensic toxicological purposes without any detrimental effect on other assays.

  18. Improved detection of Candida albicans by PCR in blood of neutropenic mice with systemic candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Munting-van Deventer; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.J. van Vliet; E.W.M. van Etten (Els); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA PCR using primers aimed at the multicopy gene coding for the small subunit rRNA and resulting in the synthesis of a 180-bp fragment was evaluated for its use in diagnosing invasive candidiasis in comparison with blood culture. With the use of a C. albicans

  19. Adjusting prednisone using blood eosinophils reduces exacerbations and improves asthma control in difficult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Peter Ab; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G

    2015-11-01

    Severe or therapy-resistant asthma represents a major problem, and despite advanced treatment, many patients require oral corticosteroids (OCS). We aimed to determine if patients with severe asthma and elevated peripheral blood eosinophils (PBE) could have treatment with OCS adjusted using an algorithm that controlled PBE (asthma symptoms with an overall lower OCS dose.

  20. Lupeol Supplementation Improves Blood Pressure and Lipid Metabolism Parameters in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ARDIANSYAH; YAMAGUCHI, Eri; SHIRAKAWA, Hitoshi; HATA, Keishi; HIWATASHI, Kazuyuki; OHINATA, Kousaku; GOTO, Tomoko; KOMAI, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation with lupeol (0.67 g·kg −1 ) of the AIN-93M-based diet fed for 7 weeks to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats caused significantly decreased blood pressure as compared with a control group...

  1. Individualized conditioning regimes in cord blood transplantation : Towards improved and predictable safety and efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, R; Boelens, J J

    INTRODUCTION: The conditioning regimen used in cord blood transplantation (CBT) may significantly impact the outcomes. Variable pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs used may further influence outcome. Individualized dosing takes inter-patient differences in PK into account, tailoring drug dose for each

  2. Renin inhibition improves cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction independent of blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Westermann (Dirk); A. Riad (Alexander); O. Lettau (Olga); A.J.M. Roks (Anton); K. Sawatis (Konstantinos); P.M. Becher (Peter Moritz); F. Escher (Felicitas); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); H.P. Schultheiss (Heinz-Peter); C. Tschöpe (Carsten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPharmacological renin inhibition with aliskiren is an effective antihypertensive drug treatment, but it is currently unknown whether aliskiren is able to attenuate cardiac failure independent of its blood pressure-lowering effects. We investigated the effect of aliskiren on cardiac remod

  3. Patient-specific blood flow simulation to improve intracranial aneurysm diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel simulation system of blood flow through intracranial aneurysms including the interaction between blood lumen and vessel tissue. It provides the means to estimate rupture risks by calculating the distribution of pressure and shear stresses in the aneurysm, in order to support the planning of clinical interventions. So far, this has only been possible with commercial simulation packages originally targeted at industrial applications, whereas our implementation focuses on the intuitive integration into clinical workflow. Due to the time-critical nature of the application, we exploit most efficient state-of-the-art numerical methods and technologies together with high performance computing infrastructures (Austrian Grid). Our system builds a three-dimensional virtual replica of the patient's cerebrovascular system from X-ray angiography, CT or MR images. The physician can then select a region of interest which is automatically transformed into a tetrahedral mesh. The differential equations for the blood flow and the wall elasticity are discretized via the finite element method (FEM), and the resulting linear equation systems are handled by an algebraic multigrid (AMG) solver. The wall displacement caused by the blood pressure is calculated using an iterative fluid-structure interaction (FSI) algorithm, and the fluid mesh is deformed accordingly. First simulation results on measured patient geometries show good medical relevance for diagnostic decision support.

  4. Individualized conditioning regimes in cord blood transplantation : Towards improved and predictable safety and efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, R; Boelens, J J

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The conditioning regimen used in cord blood transplantation (CBT) may significantly impact the outcomes. Variable pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs used may further influence outcome. Individualized dosing takes inter-patient differences in PK into account, tailoring drug dose for each in

  5. Attempts to Improve Absolute Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Simplified T1-Weighted Steady-State Cerebral Blood Volume Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirestam, R.; Knutsson, L.; Risberg, J.; Boerjesson, S.; Larsson, E.M.; Gustafson, L.; Passant, U.; Staahlberg, F. [Depts. of Medical Radiation Physics, Diagnostic Radiology, Psychiatry, and Psychogeriatrics, Lund Univ, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Attempts to retrieve absolute values of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) have typically resulted in overestimations. Purpose: To improve DSC-MRI CBF estimates by calibrating the DSC-MRI-based cerebral blood volume (CBV) with a corresponding T1-weighted (T1W) steady-state (ss) CBV estimate. Material and Methods: 17 volunteers were investigated by DSC-MRI and 133Xe SPECT. Steady-state CBV calculation, assuming no water exchange, was accomplished using signal values from blood and tissue, before and after contrast agent, obtained by T1W spin-echo imaging. Using steady-state and DSC-MRI CBV estimates, a calibration factor K = CBV(ss)/CBV(DSC) was obtained for each individual. Average whole-brain CBF(DSC) was calculated, and the corrected MRI-based CBF estimate was given by CBF(ss) = KxCBF(DSC). Results: Average whole-brain SPECT CBF was 40.1{+-}6.9 ml/min 100 g, while the corresponding uncorrected DSC-MRI-based value was 69.2{+-}13.8 ml/mi 100 g. After correction with the calibration factor, a CBF(ss) of 42.7{+-}14.0 ml/min 100 g was obtained. The linear fit to CBF(ss)-versus-CBF(SPECT) data was close to proportionality (R = 0.52). Conclusion: Calibration by steady-state CBV reduced the population average CBF to a reasonable level, and a modest linear correlation with the reference 133Xe SPECT technique was observed. Possible explanations for the limited accuracy are, for example, large-vessel partial-volume effects, low post-contrast signal enhancement in T1W images, and water-exchange effects.

  6. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    oxidative stress) in heart as well as in liver and myeloperoxidase levels (an index of neutrophil infiltration) in heart and lung. Plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α, and HMGB1 were attenuated by NaHS. Treatment of NaHS at 3 mg/kg i.p. (but not 1 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg), starting 24 h post-CLP, with dosing repeated every 6 h, improved the survival rate in CLP animals. In summary, treatment with 3 mg/kg H2S-when started in a delayed manner, when CLP-induced organ injury, inflammation and blood flow redistribution have already ensued-improves blood flow to several organs, protects against multiple organ failure, and reduces the plasma levels of multiple pro-inflammatory mediators. These findings support the view that H2S donation may have therapeutic potential in sepsis.

  7. Immunoassay of serum muramidase (lysozyme) in ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, D K; Sarin, G S

    1987-01-01

    Serum levels of muramidase activity were measured in 162 patients with different ocular diseases and 84 healthy subjects by electro-immuno-diffusion technique. We demonstrated for the first time that electro-immuno-diffusion technique could be successfully applied for the estimation of serum muramidase concentrations. Serum muramidase was found to be high in significant number of cases with granulomatous uveitis, tuberculous keratitis, central serous retinopathy and Eales' disease. Tuberculosis was presumed to be the cause in them by the process of exlusion. Patients with high serum muramidase activity were subjected to anti-tubercular treatment with a marked clinical improvement. It is suggested that high serum muramidase could be an useful parameter in deciding the line of treatment in patients with ocular diseases of uncertain etiology. Serum muramidase concentrations showed return to normal levels with the clinical improvement of the diseases with treatment. It increased again with the re-appearance of the activity of the diseases.

  8. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes: what family physicians can do to improve control of blood pressure--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Wayne; Lawson, Beverley; Buhariwalla, Farokh; Goodfellow, Mary; Goodine, Rose Anne; Hall, Jennifer; Lacey, Kendrick; MacDonald, Ian; Burge, Frederick I; Natarajan, Nandini; Sketris, Ingrid; Mann, Beth; Dunbar, Peggy; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Godwin, Marshall S

    2011-08-11

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising, and most of these patients also have hypertension, substantially increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The majority of these patients do not reach target blood pressure levels for a wide variety of reasons. When a literature review provided no clear focus for action when patients are not at target, we initiated a study to identify characteristics of patients and providers associated with achieving target BP levels in community-based practice. We conducted a practice-based, cross-sectional observational and mailed survey study. The setting was the practices of 27 family physicians and nurse practitioners in 3 eastern provinces in Canada. The participants were all patients with type 2 diabetes who could understand English, were able to give consent, and would be available for follow-up for more than one year. Data were collected from each patient's medical record and from each patient and physician/nurse practitioner by mailed survey. Our main outcome measures were overall blood pressure at target (pressure at target, and diastolic blood pressure at target. Analysis included initial descriptive statistics, logistic regression models, and multivariate regression using hierarchical nonlinear modeling (HNLM). Fifty-four percent were at target for both systolic and diastolic pressures. Sixty-two percent were at systolic target, and 79% were at diastolic target. Patients who reported eating food low in salt had higher odds of reaching target blood pressure. Similarly, patients reporting low adherence to their medication regimen had lower odds of reaching target blood pressure. When primary care health professionals are dealing with blood pressures above target in a patient with type 2 diabetes, they should pay particular attention to two factors. They should inquire about dietary salt intake, strongly emphasize the importance of reduction, and refer for detailed counseling if necessary. Similarly, they

  9. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  10. Interferometry for ocular microtremor measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, G; Coakley, D; Malone, J F

    2001-01-01

    The eyes of all normal subjects undergo a continuous, low-amplitude, high-frequency tremor called ocular microtremor (OMT). A number of potential clinical applications of OMT have been identified, including the prediction of outcome in coma. To date, OMT has been investigated primarily with an eye-contacting piezoelectric probe. We describe a laser-based, noncontacting, interferometric technique for the measurement of OMT. The technique employs an in-plane-sensitive, phase-modulating speckle interferometer to detect the movement of the sclera, or white of the eye.

  11. Ocular abnormality in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, J; Hamblet, J; Menefee, M

    1978-08-01

    A 61-year-old white woman with terminal myotonic dystrophy exhibited advanced peripheral and central retinopathy. Retinal lesions were characterized by hyperpigmentation, common, though nonspecific, in myotonic dystrophy. They resemble both heredo (tapetoretinal) and idiopathic involutional degenerations but rarely cause severe visual impairment. Neither the type nor degree of retinopathy appears to correlate with other ocular features or with the stage of the underlying disease. Our histologic observations confirm and extend those previously described. Electron microscopy suggests a primary disorder of mitochondria which may also affect smooth muscle and the myocardium.

  12. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  14. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by ocular glucocorticoids in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Maria Francesca; Valenzise, Mariella; Aversa, Salvatore; Arrigo, Teresa; De Luca, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    A boy aged 7.6 years presented to our Unit of Paediatric Endocrinology for evaluation of obesity. Progressive weight gain (10 kg) started 6 months earlier after an accidental penetrating orbital injury on the right eye. During this period the child has been treated with oral betamethasone (0.5 mg/day) for 1 month and dexamethasone 2% ocular drops (2 hourly by day) for 6 months. Physical examination showed he was 113.5 cm in height (-1.5 SD), weight 36.0 kg, blood pressure 110/90 mmHg (90th centile), body mass index 28 (+5 SD), truncal obesity, buffalo hump, "moon-face", increased lanugo hair and supraclavicular fullness. Endocrinological work-up revealed undetectable levels of basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and 24 h urine excretion cortisol, confirming the diagnosis of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. The abrupt withdrawal of ocular glucocorticoids by the parents evoked two adrenal crises; 4 months later the patient recovered. In conclusion, we would alert doctors that every formulation of glucocorticoids, no ocular drops excluded, can determine severe systemic side effects and iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.

  15. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  16. Ocular Needling for Treatment of Sudden Deafness in 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶; 郑振

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sudden deafness is a commonly encountered otological disease. The etiology and pathogenesis are still unknown, and therefore no ideal treatment is available. In clinical, the disease is treated to recover the cellular functions by improving the microcirculation of the inner ear and nourishing the nerves. To seek a more effective method, we conducted a trial with ocular needling in 40 patients from May 1998 to April 2000. The therapeutic results were satisfactory as reported in the following.

  17. Self-directed Mindfulness Training and Improvement in Blood Pressure, Migraine Frequency, and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Erica B.; Rempe, Margaret; Bradley, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interest in case studies has undergone a resurgence concurrent with increasing prioritization of illustrations of patient-centered care. However, substantial inclusion of the patient in these reports remains limited. Here, a doctor and patient collaborate to present her case report of self-directed mindfulness training and the subsequent changes in blood pressure, migraine frequency, and quality of life. Methods: After receiving encouragement from her naturopathic doctor, the pati...

  18. Lupeol supplementation improves blood pressure and lipid metabolism parameters in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Yamaguchi, Eri; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Hata, Keishi; Hiwatashi, Kazuyuki; Ohinata, Kousaku; Goto, Tomoko; Komai, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation with lupeol (0.67 g·kg(-1)) of the AIN-93M-based diet fed for 7 weeks to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats caused significantly decreased blood pressure as compared with a control group. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly lower in the lupeol group. Finally, lupeol suppressed the hepatic mRNA expression levels of the genes involved in triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis.

  19. Salidroside as a Novel Protective Agent to Improve Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Noha A. S.; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Rahmoune, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from the Public Library of Science via https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162748 Glycerol and trehalose have been widely examined as protective agents in the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the effectiveness of these reagents alone on cell viability is moderate. Here, the addition of salidroside attenuated oxidative damage of sheep RBCs prior to and post cryostorage. The supplementation of salidroside to th...

  20. Incremental costs associated with physician and pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Brooks, John M; Ardery, Gail; Newman, Dana; Carter, Barry L

    2012-08-01

    To compare costs associated with a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention with costs of usual care. Cost analysis using health care utilization and outcome data from two prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trials. Eleven community-based medical offices. A total of 496 patients with hypertension; 244 were in the usual care (control) group and 252 were in the intervention group. To compare the costs, we combined cost data from the two trials. Total costs included costs of provider time, laboratory tests, and antihypertensive drugs. Provider time was calculated based on an online survey of intervention pharmacists and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Cost parameters were taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for average wage rates, the Medicare laboratory fee schedule, and a publicly available Web site for drug prices. Total costs were adjusted for patient characteristics. Adjusted total costs were $774.90 in the intervention group and $445.75 in the control group (difference $329.16, pcosts between the two groups ranged from $224.27-515.56. The intervention cost required to have one additional patient achieve blood pressure control within 6 months was $1338.05, determined by the difference in costs divided by the difference in hypertension control rates between the groups ($329.16/24.6%). The cost over 6 months to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure 1 mm Hg was $36.25 and $94.32, respectively. The physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention increased not only blood pressure control but also the cost of care. Additional research, such as a cost-benefit or a cost-minimization analysis, is needed to assess whether financial savings related to reduced morbidity and mortality achieved from better blood pressure control outweigh the cost of the intervention. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  2. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  3. Prehospital blood product transfusion by U.S. army MEDEVAC during combat operations in Afghanistan: a process improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsby, Robert F; Quesada, Jose; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Kinoshita, Ren; Kurtz, John; Gehlen, William; Adams, Colleen; Martin, Dustin; Shackelford, Stacy

    2013-07-01

    U.S. Army flight medics performed a process improvement initiative of 15 blood product transfusions on select Category A (Urgent) helicopter evacuation casualties meeting approved clinical indications for transfusion. These transfusions were initiated from point of injury locations aboard MEDEVAC aircraft originating from one of two locations in southern Afghanistan. All flight medics executing the transfusions were qualified through a standardized and approved program of instruction, which included day and night skills validation, and a 90% or higher written examination score. There was no adverse reaction or out-of-standard blood product temperature despite hazardous conditions and elevated cabin temperatures. All casualties within a 10-minute flight time who met clinical indications were transfused. Utilization of a standard operating procedure with strict handling and administration parameters, a rigorous training and qualification program, an elaborate cold chain system, and redundant documentation of blood product units ensured that flight medic initiated transfusions were safe and effective. Research study is needed to refine the indications for prehospital blood transfusion and to determine the effect on outcomes in severely injured trauma patients. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (Pargan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  5. Improved ex vivo blood compatibility of central venous catheter with noble metal alloy coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa Homann, Manijeh; Johansson, Dorota; Wallen, Håkan; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality induced by the use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Nobel metal alloy (NMA) coating is an advanced surface modification that prevents microbial adhesion and growth on catheters and thereby reduces the risk of infection. In vitro microbiological analyses have shown up to 90% reduction in microbial adhesion on coated CVC compared to uncoated ones. This study aimed to assess the blood compatibility of NMA-coated CVC according to ISO 10993-4. Hemolysis, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, platelet counts, fibrin deposition, and C3a and SC5b-9 complement activation were analyzed in human blood exposed to the NMA-coated and control CVCs using a Chandler-loop model. NMA-coated CVC did not induce hemolysis and fell in the "nonhemolytic" category according to ASTM F756-00. Significantly lower amounts of TAT were generated and less fibrin was deposited on NMA-coated CVC than on uncoated ones. Slightly higher platelet counts and lower complement markers were observed for NMA-coated CVC compared to uncoated ones. These data suggest that the NMA-coated CVC has better ex vivo blood compatibility compared to uncoated CVC. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1359-1365, 2016.

  6. Fungal keratitis associated with ocular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Shome, Debraj; Sajnani, Manoj; Natarajan, Sundaram

    2010-06-01

    In order to report fungal keratitis in patients of ocular rosacea, a retrospective review of all cases of fungal keratitis was undertaken. Cases in which ocular rosacea coexisted were identified and included in the study. The clinical course of patients thus identified was studied from the medical records and outcomes were evaluated. A total of three cases of fungal keratitis with coexisting ocular rosacea were identified. All three patients were known cases of acne rosacea with an intermittent, irregular treatment for the same. Previous history of contact lens use, ocular surgery or trauma was not present in any of the cases. Microbiological evaluation revealed Aspergillus flavus as the causative organism in two patients and an unidentified hyaline fungus in the third. Patients received simultaneous therapy for fungal keratitis and ocular rosacea. The ocular surface completely stabilized and the infiltrate resolved in all three cases. The chronic ocular surface changes and induced inflammation in ocular rosacea, along with the instillation of topical steroids for therapy, may create an environmental milieu favorable for fungal keratitis. Microbiological evaluation should be considered, even in cases of suspected sterile keratitis, prior to treatment with topical steroids, so as to prevent the possible worsening of an associated infective corneal condition.

  7. An increase in circulating B cell-activating factor in childhood-onset ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Inaba, Yuji; Nishimura, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Nakazawa, Yozo; Koike, Kenichi

    2015-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder. The pathophysiology of childhood-onset ocular myasthenia gravis remains unclear. We investigated serum B cell-activating factor levels and other immunological parameters in child patients with ocular myasthenia gravis. Blood samples were obtained from 9 children with ocular myasthenia gravis and 20 age-matched controls. We assayed serum concentrations of B cell-activating factor, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titers, 7 types of cytokines (interleukins-2, -4, -6, -10, and -17A; interferon-γ; tumor necrosis factor-α) as well as the percentages of peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cells. Serum B cell-activating factor levels were significantly higher before immunosuppressive therapy in patients with childhood-onset ocular myasthenia gravis than in controls and decreased after immunosuppressive therapy. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum B cell-activating factor levels and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titers in patients with myasthenia gravis. Serum B cell-activating factor concentrations did not correlate with the percentages of CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cells or the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the 7 different types of cytokines examined, including interleukin-17A, between preimmunosuppressive therapy myasthenia gravis patients and controls. Circulating B cell-activating factor may play a key role in the pathophysiology of childhood-onset ocular myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a multipronged intervention to improve blood pressure control among stroke survivors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Salako, Babatunde L; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is the second-leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries, but use of evidence-based therapies for stroke prevention in such countries, especially those in Africa, is extremely poor. This study is designed to enhance the implementation and sustainability of secondary stroke-preventive services following hospital discharge. The primary study aim is to test whether a Chronic Care Model-based initiative entitled the Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) significantly improves blood pressure control after stroke. This prospective triple-blind randomized controlled trial will include a cohort of 400 patients with a recent stroke discharged from four medical care facilities in Nigeria. The culturally sensitive, system-appropriate intervention comprises patient report cards, phone text messaging, an educational video, and coordination of posthospitalization care. The primary outcome is improvement of blood pressure control. Secondary endpoints include control of other stroke risk factors, medication adherence, functional status, and quality of life. We will also perform a cost analysis of THRIVES from the viewpoint of government policy-makers. We anticipate that a successful intervention will serve as a scalable model of effective postdischarge chronic blood pressure management for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa and possibly for other symptomatic cardiovascular disease entities in the region. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  9. Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark H; Otto, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of a randomized controlled trial, we examined a model of the mechanisms of efficacy of culturally adapted cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Cambodian refugees with pharmacology-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comordid orthostatic panic attacks (PAs). Twelve patients were in the initial treatment condition, 12 in the delayed treatment condition. The patients randomized to CBT had much greater improvement than patients in the waitlist condition on all psychometric measures and on one physiological measure-the systolic blood pressure response to orthostasis (d = 1.31)-as evaluated by repeated-measures MANOVA and planned contrasts. After receiving CBT, the Delayed Treatment Group improved on all measures, including the systolic blood pressure response to orthostasis. The CBT treatment's reduction of PTSD severity was significantly mediated by improvement in orthostatic panic and emotion regulation ability. The current study supports our model of the generation of PTSD in the Cambodian population, and suggests a key role of decreased vagal tone in the generation of orthostatic panic and PTSD in this population. It also suggests that vagal tone is involved in emotion regulation, and that both vagal tone and emotion regulation improve across treatment.

  10. Anterior Segment Imaging in Combat Ocular Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the use of ocular imaging to enhance management and diagnosis of war-related anterior segment ocular injuries. Methods. This study was a prospective observational case series from an ongoing IRB-approved combat ocular trauma tracking study. Subjects with anterior segment ocular injury were imaged, when possible, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, confocal microscopy (CM, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Images captured from participants with combat ocular trauma on different systems provided comprehensive and alternate views of anterior segment injury to investigators. Conclusion. In combat-related trauma of the anterior segment, adjunct image acquisition enhances slit lamp examination and enables real time In vivo observation of the cornea facilitating injury characterization, progression, and management.

  11. Desferrioxamine-related ocular toxicity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumu Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old lady receiving repeated blood transfusions for β thalassemia since childhood, presented with rapidly deteriorating symptoms of night blindness and peripheral visual field loss. She was recently commenced on high-dose intravenous desferrioxamine for reducing the systemic iron overload. Clinical and investigative findings were consistent with desferrioxamine-related pigmentary retinopathy and optic neuropathy. Recovery was partial following cessation of desferrioxamine. This report highlights the ocular side-effects of desferrioxamine mesylate and the need to be vigilant in patients on high doses of desferrioxamine.

  12. Ocular microtremor in oculomotor palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, C; Bojanic, S; Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Malone, J F

    1999-03-01

    Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high frequency tremor of the eyes present in all individuals. Recent reports suggest that OMT may be a useful indicator of brainstem function. However, the actual origin of ocular microtremor remains controversial. This study aims to provide evidence that OMT has a neurogenic origin. The OMT activity of five subjects with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and one subject with complete unilateral internal and external ophthalmoplegia were recorded from both eyes of each subject using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique, with the normal eye acting as a control. Five parameters of OMT activity were studied in each subject: the peak count, the power of the high frequency peak, the percentage power between 60 and 100 Hz, the percentage power between 70 and 80 Hz, and the 10 dB cut-off point. In the five subjects with oculomotor nerve palsy, the mean peak count in the normal eye was 88.4 Hz (SD+/-16.9) and in the affected eye was 59 Hz (SD+/-8.6), P < 0.0096. There was also a fall in the peak power, the power between 60 and 100 Hz, and the power between 70 and 80 Hz. In subject six, who had complete opthalmoplegia, there was no evidence of OMT activity in the denervated eye. These results suggest that innervation of the extraocular muscles is necessary for normal OMT activity, and OMT therefore has a neurogenic origin.

  13. Ocular manifestations of Hansen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, G C; Vance, G; Otton, S; Kumar, S V; Stanley, J N; Rao, G N

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ophthalmic evaluation including slitlamp biomicroscopy, measurement of corneal sensitivity using Cochet and Bonnet aesthesiometer, Schirmer's test and Goldmann applanation tonometry was carried out in 89 patients of Hansen's disease attending the leprosy clinic with or without ocular symptoms and willing to undergo eye evaluation. Thirty-one patients had lepromatous leprosy (8 with erythema nodosum leprosum), 56 patients had borderline disease (13 with reversal reactions) and 2 had tuberculoid disease. In addition to the well documented changes of lagophthalmos (6.7%), uveitis (7.3%) and cataracts (19%), we noted prominent corneal nerves in 133 eyes (74.7%), beaded corneal nerves in 19 eyes (10.7%), corneal scarring in 10 eyes (5.6%), corneal hypoaesthesia in 51 eyes (28%) and dry eye in 18 eyes (13%). Beaded corneal nerves and/or stomal infiltrates occurred mainly in the lepromatous group (75%). Ocular hypotony (IOP less than 12 mm Hg) was not seen more frequently in Hansen's as compared to age and sex matched controls with refractive errors or cataracts (33.7%, vs. 37.8%, p = 0.33). Our study highlights the primary corneal involvement with corneal neuropathy as the predominant feature of Hansen's disease.

  14. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  15. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Teresa; Verbist, Berit; van Buchem, Mark; van Osch, Thijs; Webb, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  16. Ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, George R; Davis, Benjamin M; Turner, Lisa A; Cordeiro, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterised clinically by a progressive decline in executive functions, memory and cognition. Classic neuropathological hallmarks of AD include intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein which forms neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein, the primary constituent of senile plaques (SP). The gradual process of pathogenic amyloid accumulation is thought to occur 10-20 years prior to symptomatic manifestation. Advance detection of these deposits therefore offers a highly promising avenue for prodromal AD diagnosis. Currently, the most sophisticated method of 'probable AD' diagnosis is via neuroimaging or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis. Whilst these methods have reported a high degree of diagnostic specificity and accuracy, they fall significantly short in terms of practicality; they are often highly invasive, expensive or unsuitable for large-scale population screening. In recent years, ocular screening has received substantial attention from the scientific community due to its potential for non-invasive and inexpensive central nervous system (CNS) imaging. In this appraisal we build upon our previous reviews detailing ocular structural and functional changes in AD (Retinal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Retinal Neurodegeneration) and consider their use as biomarkers. In addition, we present an overview of current advances in the use of fluorescent reporters to detect AD pathology through non-invasive retinal imaging.

  17. Grafting of carboxybetaine brush onto cellulose membranes via surface-initiated ARGET-ATRP for improving blood compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Yuan, Jiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Cai, Xianmei; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Grafting-from has proven to be a very effective way to create high grafting densities and well-controlled polymer chains on different kinds of surfaces. In this work, we aim to graft zwitterionic brush from cellulose membrane (CM) via ARGET-ATRP (Activator Regenerated by Electron Transfer ATRP) method indirectly for blood compatibility improvement. Characterization of the CM substrates before and after modification was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results demonstrated zwitterionic brushes were successfully grafted on the CM surfaces, and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with the polymerization time. The platelet adhesion, hemolytic test and plasma protein adsorption results indicated the cellulose membrane had significantly excellent blood compatibility featured on lower platelet adhesion and protein adsorption without causing hemolysis. The functionalized cellulose substrate could have a great potential usage for biomedical applications.

  18. The role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins in reducing blood pressure and improving thrombogenic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, J M; Dougherty, R M

    1983-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary fats to blood pressure and thrombogenic indices is reviewed. Results of dietary studies performed at Beltsville, Maryland, have demonstrated that under controlled dietary conditions, i.e., when total fat intake is maintained at 25% fat calories with a P/S ratio of 1, at either a fixed or free-choice salt intake and where the body weight is maintained relatively constant, blood pressure can be lowered and platelet aggregation indices can be improved in men and women in the 40-60 age group. Results of a pilot epidemiologic study of farmers aged 40-45 in Finland and Italy generally confirm the experimental nutrition studies reported above. A possible explanation of these results based on the conversion of linoleic acid to prostaglandins as well as the physiological actions of prostaglandins is discussed.

  19. Intravenous Infusion of Magnesium Chloride Improves Epicenter Blood Flow during the Acute Stage of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Johongir M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary degeneration. Here, we used intravenous injection of endothelial-binding lectin followed by histology to show that the number of perfused microvessels at the injury site is decreased by 80–90% as early as 20 min following a moderate T9 contusion in adult female rats. Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microvascular blood flow recovered to up to 50% of normal volume in the injury penumbra by 6 h, but not at the epicenter. A comparison with an endothelial cell marker suggested that many microvessels fail to be reperfused up to 48 h post-injury. The ischemia was probably caused by vasospasm of vessels penetrating the parenchyma, because repeated Doppler measurements over the spinal cord showed a doubling of total blood flow over the first 12 h. Moreover, intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, used clinically to treat CNS vasospasm, greatly improved the number of perfused microvessels at 24 and 48 h. The magnesium treatment seemed safe as it did not increase hemorrhage, despite the improved parenchymal blood flow. However, the treatment did not reduce acute microvessel, motor neuron or oligodendrocyte loss, and when infused for 7 days did not affect functional recovery or spared epicenter white matter over a 4 week period. These data suggest that microvascular blood flow can be restored with a clinically relevant treatment following spinal cord injury. PMID:23302047

  20. Predictors and outcomes of ocular hypertension after open-globe injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalba, Angela V; Shah, Ankoor S; Andreoli, Michael T; Andreoli, Christopher M; Rhee, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate predictors and outcomes of ocular hypertension after open-globe injury. This is a retrospective, case-control study reviewing records of consecutive patients with open-globe injuries treated at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between February 1999 and January 2007. Of 658 patients treated, 382 had at least 2 months of follow-up and sufficient data to be included. Main outcome measures are visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and type of glaucoma intervention employed. Sixty-five (17%) patients developed ocular hypertension defined as IOP≥22 mm Hg at >1 visit or requiring treatment. Increased age (Pglobe injury. Forty-eight (74%) patients with ocular hypertension were treated medically, 8 (12%) underwent filtering or glaucoma drainage device surgery, 5 (8%) had IOP normalization with observation, while 4 (6%) required anterior chamber washout with no other glaucoma surgery. Patients with ocular hypertension had an average maximum IOP=33.4 mm Hg at a median follow-up of 21 days, with most patients maintaining normal IOP at all follow-up time points. Visual acuity improved over time with median acuity of hand motions preoperatively, and 20/60 at 12 and 36 months. Ocular hypertension is a significant complication after open-globe injury that sometimes requires surgical intervention. Predictive factors can alert physicians to monitor for elevated IOP in the first month after trauma. Most patients with traumatic ocular hypertension had improved visual acuity and IOP normalization over time.

  1. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT. Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8. Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years all blood donors (n=53729 were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87% were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260 were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1 and HBV NAT yield (n=2 was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment.

  2. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  3. Longterm treatment with endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan and iloprost improves fingertip blood perfusion in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Ruaro, Barbara; Pizzorni, Carmen; Ravera, Francesca; Smith, Vanessa; Zampogna, Giuseppe; Paolino, Sabrina; Seriolo, Bruno; Cimmino, Marco; Sulli, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the longterm effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonism on peripheral blood perfusion (PBP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Twenty-six patients with SSc already receiving cyclic intravenous iloprost (ILO) for severe Raynaud phenomenon were enrolled. Thirteen patients continued the treatment for a further 3 years (ILO group) and 13 patients, because of the appearance of digital ulcers, received in addition bosentan (BOS; 125 mg twice/day) for 3 years (ILO + BOS group). Both PBP at fingertips and nailfold microangiopathy were evaluated yearly by laser Doppler flowmetry and nailfold videocapillaroscopy, respectively. A progressive significant increase of PBP was observed in the ILO + BOS group during the 3 followup years (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0002, p = 0.01, respectively). In contrast, an insignificant progressive decrease of PBP was observed in the ILO group. Difference of perfusion between the PBP evaluations at basal temperature and at 36 °C (to test capillary dilation capacity), was found progressively decreased during the 3-year followup only in the ILO group (p = 0.05, p = 0.26, p = 0.09, respectively). A progressive increase of nailfold capillary number was observed only in the ILO + BOS group after 2 and 3 years of followup (p = 0.05). Longterm treatment of SSc patients with ET-1 antagonism, in combination with ILO, seems to increase fingertip blood perfusion, as well as both capillary dilation capacity and number.

  4. GRAFTING OF SULFOBETAINE ONTO A POLYURETHANE SURFACE TO IMPROVE BLOOD COMPATIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuan; You-ling Yuan; Jian Shen; Si-tong Lin; Wei Zhu; Jiang-lin Fang

    2003-01-01

    On the molecular level, it is believed that polymers containing zwitterionic structures should be compatible with blood. In this work polyurethane films were grafted with sulfobetaine by a three-step procedure. In the first step, the films'surfaces were treated with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in toluene at 50℃ in the presence of di-n-butyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. The extent of the reaction was monitored by ATR-IR spectra; a maximum number of free NCO groups was obtained after a reaction time of 90 min. In the second step, the hydroxyl groups of N,Ndimethylethylethanolamine (DMEA) were allowed to react in toluene with NCO groups bound on the surface. In the third step, sulfobetaines were formed on the surface through the ring-opening reaction between tertiary amine of DMEA and 1,3-propanesultone (PS). The surfaces of the films were characterized by ATR-IR and XPS showing that the grafted surfaces were composed of sulfobetaine. The results of the contact angle measurement show that the surface was strongly hydrophlic.The platelet adhesion test demonstrated that the films grafted with sulfobetaine have excellent blood compatibility.

  5. Improved determination of vascular blood-flow shear rate using Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farison, James B.; Begeman, Garett A.; Salles-Cunha, Sergio X.; Beebe, Hugh G.

    1997-05-01

    Shear rate has been linked to endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, neointimal hyperplasia, poststenotic dilation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. In vivo studies of shear rate have been limited in humans due to the lack of a truly accurate noninvasive method of measuring blood flow. In clinical vascular laboratories, the primary method of wall shear rate estimation is the scaled ratio between the center line systolic velocity and the local arterial radius. The present study compares this method with the shear rate calculated directly from data collected using a Doppler ultrasound scanner. Blood flow in the superficial femoral artery of 20 subjects was measured during three stages of distal resistance. Analysis and display programs were written for use with the MATLAB image processing software package. The experimental values of shear rate were calculated using the formal definition and then compared to the standard estimate. In all three states of distal resistance, the experimental values were significantly higher than the estimated values by a factor of approximately 1.57. These results led to the conclusion that the direct method of measuring shear rate is more precise and should replace the estimation model in the clinical laboratory.

  6. Generalization of geometrical flux maximizing flow on Riemannian manifolds for improved volumetric blood vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation.

  7. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength.

  8. OCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF SILICONE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamran Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silicone oil (SO is an invaluable tool in the management of complex retinal detachments (RDs. Injection of silicone oil is associated with a variety of ocular complications specially when it is kept for a long time and its removal is endangering retinal re-detachment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of different ocular complications associated with silicone oil injection in our setup. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Vitreo-retina division of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2014 to June 2014. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study who underwent pars-planavitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil injection for complex retinal detachments. The patients who had reached between 3 months & 6 months of their postoperative period and were presenting with some complications related to silicone oil injection were included in the study. Their records were reviewed and pre-operative data were collected regarding state of the eye preoperatively. Then the post-operative complications were noted. The descriptive and analytical statistics of different variables were measured using SPSS-17.0 software. Results: Out of thirty patients included in our study 23 (76.7% were male and 7 (23.3% were female. The mean age was 21.53 ± 16.004 years and range was 66 years. The mean pre-operative intra-ocular pressure ( IOP was 14.0 ± 2.150 mmHg and range 8 mmHg and the mean post-operative IOP was 24.93 ± 13.889 mmHg and range 45 mmHg (p=0.001. The pre-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 12 (40% patients and was present in 18 (60% patients and post-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 24 (80% patients and was present in 6 (20% patients (p=0.004; McNemar test. Band keratopathy was seen in 8 (26.7% and corneal decompensation in 2 (6.7% patients. Emulsification of silicone oil was seen in 14 (46.7% patients. Rubeosisiridis was present in 2

  9. Measurement of retinal blood flow in the rat by combining Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with fundus imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Vietauer, Martin; Knopf, Corinna; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Reitsamer, Herbert; Gröschl, Martin; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Vilser, Walthard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    A wide variety of ocular diseases are associated with abnormalities in ocular circulation. As such, there is considerable interest in techniques for quantifying retinal blood flow, among which Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be the most promising. We present an approach to measure retinal blood flow in the rat using a new optical system that combines the measurement of blood flow velocities via Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and the measurement of vessel diameters using a fundus camera-based technique. Relying on fundus images for extraction of retinal vessel diameters instead of OCT images improves the reliability of the technique. The system was operated with an 841-nm superluminescent diode and a charge-coupled device camera that could be operated at a line rate of 20 kHz. We show that the system is capable of quantifying the response of 100% oxygen breathing on the retinal blood flow. In six rats, we observed a decrease in retinal vessel diameters of 13.2% and a decrease in retinal blood velocity of 42.6%, leading to a decrease in retinal blood flow of 56.7%. Furthermore, in four rats, the response of retinal blood flow during stimulation with diffuse flicker light was assessed. Retinal vessel diameter and blood velocity increased by 3.4% and 28.1%, respectively, leading to a relative increase in blood flow of 36.2%;. The presented technique shows much promise to quantify early changes in retinal blood flow during provocation with various stimuli in rodent models of ocular diseases in rats.

  10. Increasing time interval and decreasing allergen dose interval improves ex vivo desensitization of human blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting Christensen, Sara K; Krohn, Inge Kortekaas; Thuraiaiyah, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desensitization is a method for inducing temporary tolerance to allergen. The mechanism underlying desensitization is yet to be established. METHODS: Basophil granulocytes in whole blood from grass pollen allergic subjects were desensitized ex vivo by sequential addition of increasing...... allergen concentrations. At each step basophil activation (CD193(+) CD63(+) ) was monitored with and without (background activation) allergen challenge at optimal concentration. The sequential desensitization protocol was compared to a single-dose desensitization protocols with threshold and subthreshold...... allergen concentrations. Incubation intervals and allergen concentrations were varied in order to optimise the protocol. RESULTS: Sequential desensitization effectively reduced basophil response. The single-dose subthreshold protocol and single-dose threshold protocols did not reduce basophil activation...

  11. Cultural Considerations: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Means for Improving Blood Pressure Control among Hispanic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela K. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and its prevention and treatment remain a priority for the medical community. Ethnic variations account for some differences in the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure (BP control rates among Hispanics, indicating the need for culturally appropriate management models. Aggressive treatment strategies are key to achieving optimal BP control in high-risk Hispanic patients. Hypertension in this ethnic group continues to be a major health concern. Of note, when provided access to comprehensive care, Hispanics demonstrate similar response rates to treatment as the majority of non-Hispanic whites. This highlights the importance of effective, culturally responsive hypertension management among high-risk Hispanic patients for achieving observable, positive health outcomes.

  12. Demodex treatment in external ocular disease: the outcomes of a Tasmanian case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen G; Oakley, Carmen L; Tan, Andrea; Vote, Brendan J

    2016-10-01

    Demodex species (spp.) have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of blepharitis. This study aims to correlate improvement in symptoms of external ocular disease with treatment of underlying Demodex spp. This is a prospective, observational case series of patients with chronic external ocular disease. Demodicosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of epilated eyelashes. The main outcome measure was response to the treatment (5 % tee tree oil) in regard to change in subjective symptoms utilising a symptom-based patient questionnaire assessment. Overall patients had a good response to the treatment in terms of improvement or resolution of symptoms, with 91 % of patients reporting at least some improvement in symptoms. The treatment of underlying Demodex spp. appears to result in improvement of symptoms in patients with long standing external ocular disease and underlying Demodex spp. infestation.

  13. Racket sports. An ocular hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinger, P F; Tolpin, D W

    1978-06-16

    Eighty-two injuries secondary to the racket sports were studied during a 15-month period. Ordinary glasses provided considerable protection in the play of tennis and badminton, but not in the play of squash and racquet ball. Plastic safety lenses (USA Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye ,nd Face Protection, approved Sept 18, 1968 by the USA Standards Institute [ANSI Z87.1-1968]) mounted in a sturdy frame (industrial or athletic) or an eye protector are necessary for squash and racquet ball. Contact lenses provide no ocular protection. Males suffered more serious injuries than females, but injuries were not related to the age or experience of the players. Eye protection is recommended for the racket sports.

  14. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  15. Neurosurgical applications of ocular pneumoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, W F

    1981-05-01

    Ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG), a semiautomated form of suction ophthalmodynamometry, was used to evaluate and follow 15 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy and two patients in whom gradual carotid artery occlusion was performed for inoperable intracranial aneurysm. Postoperative corrected ophthalmic arterial pressures (COAP's) on the operated side in the carotid endarterectomy patients averaged 12.5 mm Hg higher than before surgery, the standard deviation being 4.9 mm Hg for clinically stable patients. There was no significant change in COAP on the contralateral side. Several problems were encountered in closing down carotid clamps, the most potentially serious being a precipitous fall in COAP with the final adjustment. The current uses of OPG and similar techniques are reviewed, and potential neurosurgical applications are discussed.

  16. WATER EXTRACT OF SWEET POTATO LEAF IMPROVED LIPID PROFILE AND BLOOD SOD CONTENT OF RATS WITH HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sumardika

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food stuffs with high flavonoids content  are believed to prevent various diseases caused by oxidative stress because of its antioxidants effect.  Purple sweet potato leaves have been proved containing high flavonoids, and can be developed very easily. To prove antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of the water extract of purple sweet potato leaves, one research was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. The study design was randomized control group pre- and post-test.  Twenty adult male wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 rats. Both groups of rats were given high-cholesterol diet for three months to induce dyslipidemia. Control group of 10 rats were given only high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the treatment group also treated with purple sweet potato leaf water extract with a dose of 6 cc per day divided into two doses. Before treatment and after treatment, lipid profile and blood SOD levels were measured. The results showed a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol significantly in the treated group (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group there was also an increase in HDL cholesterol and blood SOD which was significantly differ than the control group (P = 0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of water extract of purple sweet potato leaves can improve the lipid profile and increase blood SOD of rat given high-cholesterol diet.

  17. Characterization and localization of the rabbit ocular calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-receptor component protein (RCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, M I; Dahl, G P; Dickerson, I M

    2000-04-01

    To determine whether the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor component protein (RCP), a novel signal transduction molecule, is required for CGRP signaling in the eye and to determine potential ocular sites of CGRP action. The cDNA for the rabbit ocular RCP homologue was cloned using a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Function of the rabbit ocular RCP was assessed using a sensitive oocyte-based assay, which utilizes the protein kinase A (PKA)-sensitive cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a sensor of cAMP formation. RCP expression in the rabbit eye was localized using immunohistochemistry. A 2063-bp cDNA for the rabbit ocular RCP was cloned and sequenced. Expression of the rabbit RCP cDNA confers CGRP responsiveness in a sensitive oocyte-based assay. Antisense oligonucleotides made to the ocular RCP abolishes CGRP responsiveness of ciliary body and iris mRNA in the oocyte-CFTR assay. Localization of RCP protein in the rabbit eye using immunohistochemistry demonstrated RCP immunoreactivity in the ciliary body and iris blood vessels, as well as in layers of the ciliary epithelium. The rabbit ocular RCP appears to be required for signal transduction at ocular CGRP receptors and is localized to sites previously reported to bind CGRP, which affect intraocular pressure and neurogenic inflammation.

  18. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, Constance H

    2011-10-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe, complex forms of the condition as patients with the milder forms of SAR and PAR will rarely present to a hospital outpatient clinic. There is a real need for the development of validated questionnaires specifically addressing ocular allergy. There are no widely accessible studies examining prevalence of the complex forms of ocular allergy (AKC, VKC) in Asia Pacific region. This review will provide an overview of ocular allergy, its classification, clinical presentation and differential diagnosis, and will also discuss what is known about the epidemiology of ocular allergy in the

  19. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2015-10-01

    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  20. Toxocariosis Ocular en Menores de Edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ocampo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariosis es una geohelmintiosis producida por la ingestión de
    huevos de Toxocara canis y T. catis, cuyos hospederos definitivos son el perro y el gato. En el humano las larvas producen el Síndrome de Migración Larvaria Visceral y Ocular; en este último produce una enfermedad grave que puede semejar un retinoblastoma (1,2. Los niños son más susceptibles a adquirir esta infección (3. Nuestro objetivo es determinar la frecuencia de toxocariosis ocular en menores de edad con sintomatología ocular.

  1. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  2. [Penetrating ocular trauma with intraocular foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, O; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Gutu, Tatiana; Cristescu, T R; Coman, Corina

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 65 years old pacient which was admitted for the sudden decrease of visual acuity in the left eye, accompanied by ocular pain and conjunctival hiperemia, simptoms appeared after an ocular trauma. After the clinical and paraclinical examination we determined the diagnosis of OS: Penetrating ocular trauma with retention of a foreign body; posttraumatic cataract. Surgical treatement was warrented and we performed OS : Facoemulsification + PFK implant in sulcus + 23 Ga posterior vitrectomy + peeling of the posterior hyaloid membrane + extraction of the foreign body + LASER endofotocoagulation + transscleral cryotherapy + SF6 gas injection. The post-operatory evolution was favorable.

  3. Improving Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and High Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Elliott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus and symptomatic coronary artery disease are also likely to be hypertensive and, overall, are at very high cardiovascular (CV risk. This paper reports the findings of a posthoc analysis of the 1113 patients with diabetes mellitus in the ACTION trial: ACTION itself showed that outcomes in patients with stable angina and hypertension were significantly improved when a long-acting calcium channel blocking drug (nifedipine GITS was added to their treatment regimens. This further analysis of the ACTION database in those patients with diabetes has identified a number of practical therapeutic issues which are still relevant because of potential outcome benefits, particularly in relation to BP control. For example, despite background CV treatment and, specifically, despite the widespread use of ACE Inhibitor drugs, the addition of nifedipine GITS was associated with significant benefits: improvement in BP control by an average of 6/3 mmHg and significant improvements in outcome. In summary, this retrospective analysis has identified that the addition of nifedipine GITS resulted in improved BP control and significant outcome benefits in patients with diabetes who were at high CV risk. There is evidence to suggest that these findings are of direct relevance to current therapeutic practice.

  4. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)] Brewer, William E. [Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, 4416 Broad River Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  5. [Impact of follow-up loss over visual deficiency in open-globe ocular trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Gómez, Virgilio; García-Rubio, Yatzul Zuhaila; Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros Razo

    2013-01-01

    Open-globe ocular trauma causes visual deficiency; calculating the magnitude of the latter often misses the estimation in patients without follow-up. to identify the modification of the postoperative proportion of visual deficiency in open-globe ocular trauma, which would introduce considering the proportion estimated in patients without follow-up. Non-interventional, retrospective, longitudinal, analytical study. Visual outcome in eyes with open-globe trauma, with and without follow-up, was calculated using the Ocular Trauma Score. The observed postoperative proportion of visual deficiency was identified in eyes with follow-up; in eyes without follow-up, the postoperative proportion of visual deficiency was estimated using an analysis of scenarios: best (Ocular Trauma Score), mean (that of eyes with follow-up) and worst (last observation/no visual improvement). The estimated proportion of visual deficiency was added to that observed in eyes with follow-up, and the resulting proportion was compared with that expected in the sample, using the Ocular Trauma Score (χ(2)). 104 eyes, 70 without follow-up and 34 without it. In eyes with follow-up the expected proportion of visual deficiency was 58.6%, and the observed one was 71.4% (p = 0.1); the estimated proportion of visual deficiency in eyes without follow-up was 76.5%. The resulting postoperative proportion of visual deficiency in the sample would be 73.1%, which would overcome that expected by the Ocular Trauma Score (59.6%, p = 0.04). In open-globe ocular trauma, the efficacy of surgery to reduce the proportion of visual deficiency would decrease with regard to the standard expected by the Ocular Trauma Score, if the deficiency estimated in eyes without follow-up were considered.

  6. Color record in self-monitoring of blood glucose improves glycemic control by better self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akiko; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Honda, Ikumi; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Norio; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Hosoda, Kiminori; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-07-01

    Color affects emotions, feelings, and behaviors. We hypothesized that color used in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is helpful for patients to recognize and act on their glucose levels to improve glycemic control. Here, two color-indication methods, color record (CR) and color display (CD), were independently compared for their effects on glycemic control in less frequently insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty outpatients were randomly allocated to four groups with 2×2 factorial design: CR or non-CR and CD or non-CD. Blood glucose levels were recorded in red or blue pencil in the CR arm, and a red or blue indicator light on the SMBG meter was lit in the CD arm, under hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, respectively. The primary end point was difference in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in 24 weeks. Secondary end points were self-management performance change and psychological state change. HbA1c levels at 24 weeks were significantly decreased in the CR arm by -0.28% but were increased by 0.03% in the non-CR arm (P=0.044). In addition, diet and exercise scores were significantly improved in the CR arm compared with the non-CR arm. The exercise score showed significant improvement in the CD arm compared with the non-CD arm but without a significant difference in HbA1c reduction. Changes in psychological states were not altered between the arms. CR has a favorable effect on self-management performance without any influence on psychological stress, resulting in improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients using less frequent insulin injection. Thus, active but not passive usage of color-indication methods by patients is important in successful SMBG.

  7. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine does not improve blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; De Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with hypertension, which is one of the intermediary mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and telemedicine support on blood pressure (BP) reduction in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. A multi-center randomized controlled trial that compared standard CPAP care and CPAP care and a telemedicine intervention. Sleep clinics in France. 107 adult (18-65 years old) OSA patients (AHI > 15 events/h) with a high cardiovascular risk (cardiovascular SCORE > 5% or secondary prevention). Patients were randomized to either standard care CPAP (n = 53) or CPAP and telemedicine (n = 54). Patients assigned to telemedicine were equipped with a smartphone for uploading BP measurements, CPAP adherence, sleepiness, and quality of life data; in return, they received pictograms containing health-related messages. The main outcome was home self-measured BP and secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk evolution, objective physical activity, CPAP adherence, sleepiness and quality of life. Self-measured BP did not improve in either group (telemedicine or standard care). Patients in primary prevention showed greater BP reduction with CPAP treatment than those in secondary prevention. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine alone did not improve blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. This study emphasizes the need for diet and physical activity training programs in addition to CPAP when aiming at decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226641.

  8. [Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2017-06-08

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.

  9. Aliskiren improves blood pressure control and prevents cardiac damage in high-risk hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, A; Montemurro, D; Zuin, M; Schiavon, L; Zorzan, S; Chondrogiannis, S; Ferretti, A; Ramazzina, E; Rubello, D

    2013-08-01

    Longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy, safety and the effect on cardiac damage of Aliskiren, administered to a group of high-risk hypertensive patients with mild impairment of renal function and uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite a two-drug antihypertensive treatment. One hundred and six patients (56 men and 50 females) aged 61.9±12.7 years, were assigned to receive Aliskiren 150-300 mg once-daily for 12 months. Clinic BP measurements were taken at every follow-up visit (1st, 6th and 12th month), while biochemical tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 24-hours ambulatory BP measurements (ABMP) and echocardiography were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Analysis of variance for repeated measures compared BP, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and eGFR values changes. A significant reduction (all P0.05). Putative adverse events caused withdrawal of 7 subjects (6 for gastrointestinal disturbances, 1 for alopecia). Aliskiren was effective in decreasing both clinical and ABPM values and in reducing LVMI in both genders without any influence on eGFR. The treatment resulted safe, even in combination with ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. A significant reduction in the use of concomitant antihypertensive drugs was observed.

  10. Association of multimodal treatment-induced improvements in stress, exercise volume, nutrition, and weight with improved blood pressure in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that obesity, physical inactivity, anxiety (psychological tension), and a poor diet are associated with high blood pressure (BP). Although medication is the treatment of choice, behavioral methods might also improve BP in individuals with both prehypertension and hypertension. Severely obese women from the southeast USA (N = 155; M(age) = 45 years; M(body mass index) (BMI) = 41 kg/m(2)) that fulfilled criteria for either prehypertension (n = 96) or hypertension (n = 59) volunteered for a Young Men's Christian Association-based exercise and nutrition support treatment that also included instruction in stress-management methods. Significant (p values of ≤0.001) within-group improvements over 26 weeks in tension, overall mood, exercise volume, fruit and vegetable consumption, BMI, and systolic and diastolic BP were found. There were significant (p values of exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI, and systolic and diastolic BP improvements. Multiple regression analyses, separately entering changes in tension and overall mood along with changes in volume of exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, and BMI, explained 19 and 20 % of the variances in systolic BP, respectively, (p values of <0.001) and 8 % of the variances, each (p values of ≤0.02), in diastolic BP. In each multiple regression equation, improvements in the psychological factors of tension and overall mood demonstrated the greatest independent contribution to the variances accounted for in BP improvements. The ability of nonpharmaceutical, behavioral methods to improve BP in women with prehypertension and hypertension was suggested, with changes in the psychological factors of tension and overall mood appearing to be especially salient. Practical applications of findings were suggested.

  11. An Ocular Protein Triad Can Classify Four Complex Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, J. J. W.; Beretta, L.; Nierkens, S.; van Leeuwen, R.; ten Dam-van Loon, N. H.; Ossewaarde-van Norel, J.; Bartels, M. C.; de Groot-Mijnes, J. D. F.; Schellekens, P.; de Boer, J. H.; Radstake, T. R. D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Retinal diseases generally are vision-threatening conditions that warrant appropriate clinical decision-making which currently solely dependents upon extensive clinical screening by specialized ophthalmologists. In the era where molecular assessment has improved dramatically, we aimed at the identification of biomarkers in 175 ocular fluids to classify four archetypical ocular conditions affecting the retina (age-related macular degeneration, idiopathic non-infectious uveitis, primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment) with one single test. Unsupervised clustering of ocular proteins revealed a classification strikingly similar to the clinical phenotypes of each disease group studied. We developed and independently validated a parsimonious model based merely on three proteins; interleukin (IL)-10, IL-21, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that could correctly classify patients with an overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of respectively, 86.7%, 79.4% and 92.5%. Here, we provide proof-of-concept for molecular profiling as a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the care for patients with retinal conditions. PMID:28128370

  12. Prosthetic Management of a patient with an Ocular Defect

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    S.A.Gangadhar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prosthesis is an artificial substitute that is implanted into, or integrated onto a human body part to replace the missing natural organ, for the purpose of restoring a specific function or a group of related functions so that the patient may return to normal life as quickly as possible. The replaced function doesn’t necessarily have to be related to life support, but often is. The agony overthe loss of a body part such as an eye, ear, nose or a finger has a crippling effect on the psychology and behavior of a person. Prosthesis is probably the only alternative in such cases to help and rehabilitate such patients. Fabricating an ocular prosthesis in heat-polymerizing acrylic resin material(resin requiring external heat for curing for an ocular defect is undoubtedly a challenging attempt as we have to replace a vital organ with an artificial prosthesis so as to improve the psychological and social well being of the patient. A case of a patient treated with custom-made ocular prosthesis is presented here.

  13. An Ocular Protein Triad Can Classify Four Complex Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, J. J. W.; Beretta, L.; Nierkens, S.; van Leeuwen, R.; Ten Dam-van Loon, N. H.; Ossewaarde-van Norel, J.; Bartels, M. C.; de Groot-Mijnes, J. D. F.; Schellekens, P.; de Boer, J. H.; Radstake, T. R. D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Retinal diseases generally are vision-threatening conditions that warrant appropriate clinical decision-making which currently solely dependents upon extensive clinical screening by specialized ophthalmologists. In the era where molecular assessment has improved dramatically, we aimed at the identification of biomarkers in 175 ocular fluids to classify four archetypical ocular conditions affecting the retina (age-related macular degeneration, idiopathic non-infectious uveitis, primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment) with one single test. Unsupervised clustering of ocular proteins revealed a classification strikingly similar to the clinical phenotypes of each disease group studied. We developed and independently validated a parsimonious model based merely on three proteins; interleukin (IL)-10, IL-21, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that could correctly classify patients with an overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of respectively, 86.7%, 79.4% and 92.5%. Here, we provide proof-of-concept for molecular profiling as a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the care for patients with retinal conditions.

  14. Chronic Angiotensin-(1-7) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Fed Mice Independent of Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian M; Otero, Yolanda F; Bracy, Deanna P; Wasserman, David H; Biaggioni, Italo; Arnold, Amy C

    2016-05-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) improves glycemic control in animal models of cardiometabolic syndrome. The tissue-specific sites of action and blood pressure dependence of these metabolic effects, however, remain unclear. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing peripheral glucose delivery. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were placed on standard chow or 60% high-fat diet for 11 weeks. Ang-(1-7) (400 ng/kg per minute) or saline was infused subcutaneously during the last 3 weeks of diet, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at the end of treatment. High-fat fed mice exhibited modest hypertension (systolic blood pressure: 137 ± 3 high fat versus 123 ± 5 mm Hg chow;P=0.001), which was not altered by Ang-(1-7) (141 ± 4 mm Hg;P=0.574). Ang-(1-7) did not alter body weight or fasting glucose and insulin in chow or high-fat fed mice. Ang-(1-7) increased the steady-state glucose infusion rate needed to maintain euglycemia in high-fat fed mice (31 ± 5 Ang-(1-7) versus 16 ± 1 mg/kg per minute vehicle;P=0.017) reflecting increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, with no effect in chow-fed mice. The improved insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice was because of an enhanced rate of glucose disappearance (34 ± 5 Ang-(1-7) versus 20 ± 2 mg/kg per minute vehicle;P=0.049). Ang-(1-7) enhanced glucose uptake specifically into skeletal muscle by increasing translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the sarcolemma. Our data suggest that Ang-(1-7) has direct insulin-sensitizing effects on skeletal muscle, independent of changes in blood pressure. These findings provide new insight into mechanisms by which Ang-(1-7) improves insulin action, and provide further support for targeting this peptide in cardiometabolic disease.

  15. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mady

    2015-01-01

    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  16. The origin of ocular microtremor in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spauschus, A; Marsden, J; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R; Brown, P

    1999-06-01

    A novel technique for the study of human eye movements was used to investigate the frequency components of ocular drift and microtremor in both eyes simultaneously. The tangential components of horizontal eye accelerations were recorded in seven healthy subjects using light-weight accelerometers mounted on scleral contact lenses during smooth pursuit movements, vestibulo-ocular reflexes and eccentric gaze with and without fixation. Spectral peaks were observed at low (up to 25 Hz) and high (60-90 Hz) frequencies. A multivariate analysis based on partial coherence analysis was used to correct for head movement. After correction, the signals were found to be coherent between the eyes over both low- and high-frequency ranges, irrespective of task, convergence or fixation. It is concluded that the frequency content of ocular drift and microtremor reflects the patterning of low-level drives to the extra-ocular muscle motor units.

  17. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

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    Priscilla Makunyane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  18. Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpa-archa, Sukhum; Lee, Joan J; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.

  19. [Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachement, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who develop increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  20. Ocular morbidity in leprosy patients with lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, S; Robertson, S J; Rao, P S S

    2009-01-01

    Lagophthalmos is a well known complication in leprosy due to the involvement of seventh cranial nerve resulting in incomplete closure of the eyelids. The real magnitude of ocular morbidity as a consequence of lagophthalmos is unknown, as several ocular complications can occur independently due to involvement of the fifth (trigeminal) nerve or due to secondary infection. Therefore, a study was designed to carefully examine the eyes of 100 consecutive leprosy patients with lagophthalmos seeking treatment at a leprosy referral centre in Delhi. Among the eyes examined, 145 had lagophthalmos. The symptomatology and anterior-posterior chamber morbidity in eyes with lagophthalmos were significantly higher as compared to unaffected eyes. Significantly, higher morbidity was seen regardless of sex or type of leprosy or deformity. Capacity building of the health professionals regarding ocular morbidity and increased emphasis on the importance of self care among patients can significantly reduce ocular morbidity.

  1. Ocular lesions in free-living raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C J; Kern, T J; McKeever, K; McKeever, L; MacCoy, D

    1982-12-01

    In a retrospective study, records of 931 raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine and to the Owl Rehabilitation Research Foundation were evaluated to determine the prevalence, cause, and distribution of ocular lesions. Some form of ocular lesion was identified in 135 (14.5%) birds. Of these, 90% were the result of physical injury. Collisions accounted for 33% of ocular lesions; gunshot wounds accounted for 11%. Unilateral lesions were more common than bilateral lesions, with the anterior segment being most frequently involved. Hyphema was the most common clinical finding. In a prospective study involving raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic from 1980-1982, it was found that 17 of 61 birds (28%) had some form of ocular lesion. The higher prevalence in this study was attributed to a lower proportion of juvenile cases and to increased detection of subtle lesions, especially those involving the posterior segment.

  2. Use of CD25 as an immunohistochemical marker for acquired ocular toxoplasmosis

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    Cristina Miyamoto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior infectious uveitis worldwide. It is often impossible to determine its congenital or acquired nature. Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in peripheral blood has been described as a possible marker for acquired toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis cases using CD25 as a marker for the expression of interleukin-2. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleated globes from ten immunocompetent patients with clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were evaluated. Four patients had the acquired form of ocular toxoplasmosis (positive IgM while six were IgM negative and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis. Histopathological slides were reviewed for the extension of the retinal necrosis, number of toxo cysts, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction, the presence of T and B cells within the choroid and the IL-2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies was performed to observe the expression of CD4, CD8, CD20, CD25, and CD68. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation disclosed no differences between acquired and the other ocular toxoplasmosis cases regarding the characteristics studied. However, CD25 showed a higher expression of IL-2 on the 4 acquired cases of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the remainders. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the use of CD25 as a marker for interleukin-2 could differentiate acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  3. T1w dark blood imaging improves detection of contrast enhancing lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Schneider, Tanja; Sedlacik, Jan; Kutzner, Daniel; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Heesen, Christoph; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the sensitivity for detection of contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) in T1-weighted scans is essential for diagnostics and therapy decisions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity of T1w MPRAGE scans in comparison to T1w dark blood technique (T1-DB) for CEL in MS. 3T MR imaging was performed in 37 MS patients, including T2-weighted imaging, T1w MPRAGE before and after gadolinium injection (unenhanced-T1 and T1-CE) and T1-DB imaging. After gadolinium application, the T1-DB scan was performed prior to T1-CE. From unenhanced-T1 and T1-CE scans, subtraction images (T1-SUB) were calculated. The number of CEL was determined separately on T1-CE and T1-DB by two raters independently. Lesions only detected on T1-DB scans then were verified on T1-SUB. Only lesions detected by both raters were included in further analysis. In 16 patients, at least one CEL was detected by both rater, either on T1-CE or T1-DB. All lesions that were detected on T1-CE were also detected on T1-DB images. The total number of contrast enhancing lesions detected on T1-DB images (n = 54) by both raters was significantly higher than the corresponding number of lesions identified on T1-CE (n = 27) (p = 0.01); all of these lesions could be verified on SUB images. In 21 patients, no CEL was detected in any of the sequences. The application of T1-DB technique increases the sensitivity for CEL in MS, especially for those lesions that show only subtle increase in intensity after Gadolinium application but remain hypo- or iso-intense to surrounding tissue.

  4. Genetic enhancement of microsomal epoxide hydrolase improves metabolic detoxification but impairs cerebral blood flow regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowsky, Anne; Haenel, Karen; Bockamp, Ernesto; Heck, Rosario; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Mule, Nandkishor; Kindler, Diana; Rudin, Markus; Arand, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a detoxifying enzyme for xenobiotic compounds. Enzymatic activity of mEH can be greatly increased by a point mutation, leading to an E404D amino acid exchange in its catalytic triad. Surprisingly, this variant is not found in any vertebrate species, despite the obvious advantage of accelerated detoxification. We hypothesized that this evolutionary avoidance is due to the fact that the mEH plays a dualistic role in detoxification and control of endogenous vascular signaling molecules. To test this, we generated mEH E404D mice and assessed them for detoxification capacity and vascular dynamics. In liver microsomes from these mice, turnover of the xenobiotic compound phenanthrene-9,10-oxide was four times faster compared to WT liver microsomes, confirming accelerated detoxification. mEH E404D animals also showed faster metabolization of a specific class of endogenous eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Significantly higher DHETs/EETs ratios were found in mEH E404D liver, urine, plasma, brain and cerebral endothelial cells compared to WT controls, suggesting a broad impact of the mEH mutant on endogenous EETs metabolism. Because EETs are strong vasodilators in cerebral vasculature, hemodynamics were assessed in mEH E404D and WT cerebral cortex and hippocampus using cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Basal CBV0 levels were similar between mEH E404D and control mice in both brain areas. But vascular reactivity and vasodilation in response to the vasodilatory drug acetazolamide were reduced in mEH E404D forebrain compared to WT controls by factor 3 and 2.6, respectively. These results demonstrate a critical role for mEH E404D in vasodynamics and suggest that deregulation of endogenous signaling pathways is the undesirable gain of function associated with the E404D variant.

  5. Positional changes of the ocular organs during craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Miho; Ishikawa, Aoi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2017-03-13

    The present study aimed to describe the positional changes of the ocular organs during craniofacial development; moreover, we examined the relationships among the ocular organs and other internal structures. To do this, we traced the positions of the ocular organs in 56 human early fetal samples at different stages of development using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The eyes were located on the lateral side in the ventral view at Carnegie stage (CS) 16, and then changed their positions medially during development. The eyes remained in the neurocranium until CS17. However, the eyes changed their positions medially and caudally in the viscerocranium after CS18. The positional relationship between the eyes and pituitary gland changed in the lateral view as development progressed. Specifically, they were close to each other at CS17, but moved apart during the later stages of development. These positional changes were also demonstrated quantitatively with morphometric analyses. Based on the present data, the positional changes of the eyes can be categorized into phases, as follows: phase 1, dramatic positional changes (early fetal period until CS23); and phase 2, mild positional changes (stabilized; early fetal period after CS23). Notably, all absolute lengths measured in the present study linearly increased as the crown-rump length increased irrespective of the phase, while features of the measured angles and ratios differentially changed in phases 1 and 2. The present data may help improve our understanding of both the normal and abnormal development of the ocular organs and craniofacial area. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients of Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

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    SM Kashfi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to an increase in diabetes prevalence, and the likelihood of ocular complications among them, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors and incidence of the ocular complications in patients of Nader Kazemi, Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and the influence of factors such as age, sex, types of diabetes, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, methods of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered on them.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. patients having type II diabetic have more ocular complications comparing with patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job (P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes (P<0. 001, education (P<0. 001, family history of diabetes (P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. However, other risk factors such as hypertension,gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, educating diabetics’ patients can have a significant influence in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  7. Cisticercosis ocular Ocular cysticercosis: presentation of one case

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    David Botero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cisticerco retiniano, tratado sin éxito con praziquantel, quien a los cinco meses del tratamiento presentó fibrosis y desprendimiento de la retina. Se realizó intervención quirúrgica y se encontró el cisticerco vivo. Desde antes de la operación el paciente había perdido la visión por el ojo afectado. Se hace una revisión sobre oftalmocisticercosis y se recomienda tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno y no usar los antihelmínticos con efecto sobre los cisticercos, como son praziquantel y albendazol.

    One case of ocular cysticercosis with retinal involvement, in which praziquantel treatment was ineffective, is presented. Five months after the medical treatment the patient presented with retinal detachment and fibrosis, loss of vision through the affected eye and at that time the parasite was observed alive. Surgical intervention was performed and the recovered cysticercus showed viability. A review on ophtalmocysticercosis is presented and recommendations are made to treat these cases by early surgery without prior administration of anticysticercus drugs such as praziquantel or albendazole.

  8. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  9. A case report of ocular toxocariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azira NMS; Zeehaida M

    2011-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis). We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.

  10. A case report of ocular toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NMS Azira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis. We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a 9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.

  11. Study of Ocular Changes in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    O K Radhakrishnan; Debapriya Datta; Jyoti Yadav; Priti Kumari; Vasundhara Phillips; Nimrita Nagdev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In pregnancy, women undergo a tremendous number of systemic and ocular changes. Physiological changes occur in the cardiovascular, hormonal, metabolic, hematologic and immunologic systems. Hormonal changes are among the most prominent systemic changes in pregnant women with the placenta, maternal endocrine glands and the fetal adrenal glands combining their productivity to make a high-powered hormone factory. Aims: To evaluate the various ocular changes taking place in pregnancy...

  12. Study of Ocular Changes in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    O K Radhakrishnan; Debapriya Datta; Jyoti Yadav; Priti Kumari; Vasundhara Phillips; Nimrita Nagdev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In pregnancy, women undergo a tremendous number of systemic and ocular changes. Physiological changes occur in the cardiovascular, hormonal, metabolic, hematologic and immunologic systems. Hormonal changes are among the most prominent systemic changes in pregnant women with the placenta, maternal endocrine glands and the fetal adrenal glands combining their productivity to make a high-powered hormone factory. Aims: To evaluate the various ocular changes taking place in pregnancy...

  13. Ocular teratogens: old acquaintances and new dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, A; Mulvihill, A

    2009-06-01

    Recent research into animal studies has contributed significantly to understanding the pathophysiology of some well-known teratogens, such as alcohol. Techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and retinal synaptogenesis studies, have helped determine the specific areas in the developing brain and ocular structures, which are targeted by various teratogens. In this article, we also highlight a few newer agents, such as benzodiazepines, with potential for ocular malformation and morbidity in the developing foetus.

  14. Improved Methodology for Assessment of mRNA Levels in Blood of Patients with FMR1 Related Disorders

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    Godler David E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA in blood have been implicated in RNA toxicity associated with a number of clinical conditions. Due to the extensive inter-sample variation in the time lapse between the blood collection and RNA extraction in clinical practice, the resulting variation in mRNA quality significantly confounds mRNA analysis by real-time PCR. Methods Here, we developed an improved method to normalize for mRNA degradation in a sample set with large variation in rRNA quality, without sample omission. Initially, RNA samples were artificially degraded, and analyzed using capillary electrophoresis and real-time PCR standard curve method, with the aim of defining the best predictors of total RNA and mRNA degradation. Results We found that: (i the 28S:18S ratio and RNA quality indicator (RQI were good predictors of severe total RNA degradation, however, the greatest changes in the quantity of different mRNAs (FMR1, DNMT1, GUS, B2M and GAPDH occurred during the early to moderate stages of degradation; (ii chromatographic features for the 18S, 28S and the inter-peak region were the most reliable predictors of total RNA degradation, however their use for target gene normalization was inferior to internal control genes, of which GUS was the most appropriate. Using GUS for normalization, we examined in the whole blood the relationship between the FMR1 mRNA and CGG expansion in a non-coding portion of this gene, in a sample set (n = 30 with the large variation in rRNA quality. By combining FMR1 3' and 5' mRNA analyses the confounding impact of mRNA degradation on the correlation between FMR1 expression and CGG size was minimized, and the biological significance increased from p = 0.046 for the 5' FMR1 assay, to p = 0.018 for the combined FMR1 3' and 5' mRNA analysis. Conclusion Our observations demonstrate that, through the use of an appropriate internal control and the direct analysis of multiple sites of target mRNA, samples that

  15. Hibernation-Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    had more severe outcomes and measures . Therefore, improved outcomes are not associated with a higher dose of BHB/M and in fact would appear...animals survived until end of experiment (Figure 1).   4   Figure 1. Kaplan Meier Curve for observation of Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD...2X or 4X BHB/M 0 10 20 30 40 50 Ba se lin e Sh oc k 35 LR 1 FR 2 FR 1 90 FR 7 FR 2 0 BHB-2X (n=6) BHB-4X (n=5) BH B co nc en tr at io n

  16. Knowledge and attitude of dental surgeons in India toward ocular complications of intra-oral local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kavitha; Kumar, Vinod; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Ocular disturbances such as blurring of vision, mydriasis, palpebral ptosis, diplopia, ptosis, enophthalmos, miosis, and blindness (temporary or permanent) are rare complications due to intra-oral local anesthesia. Currently, the guidelines to dentists on preventing and caring for such ocular problems are lacking. Hence, we evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward ocular complications of intra-oral anesthesia as a means to assess the need for such guidelines. A cross-sectional prospective survey targeting dentists was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Totally 500 standardized self-administered questionnaires were sent out by E-mail to practicing dentists or academicians. In total, 390 replies were received, and the data were analyzed. About 39% of graduates and 14% postgraduate dentists knew about ocular complications. Journals were the leading source of information among both graduates and postgraduate dentists. 8.3% graduates and 17.6% postgraduate dentists encountered ocular complications. Interestingly most of the graduates and postgraduates responded that ocular complications are underreported in the literature. 90.5% graduates and 84.3% postgraduates are in the opinion that more research should be carried on ocular complications. 98.3% postgraduates and 97.3% graduates favored the prevention of ocular complications. The dentist's knowledge about ocular complications due to intra-oral anesthesia in our study group is not adequate and needs improvement. Although the awareness and practice of taking preventive measures are satisfactory, there is a need for specific guidelines to dentists in identifying and clinically managing ocular complications of intra-oral anesthesia.

  17. Changes in ocular flow induced by hypo- and hypercapnia relate to static visual acuity in humans

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    Nami Someya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the change in ocular blood flow, induced by hypo- and hypercapnia, is related to static visual acuity. Eleven healthy subjects (26±5 years underwent three treatments. A three-treatment three-period crossover design was used. In the hypocapnia treatment (HYPO, the subjects controlled their minute ventilation (VE to a target of 25 L/min for 6 min. In the hypercapnia treatment (HYPER, the subjects inspired high-fraction CO2 gas (FICO2 = 4% for 6 min. In the control treatment (CON, VE was not manipulated. We measured choroidal and retinal blood flow by laser speckle flowmetry as ocular blood flow, and static visual acuity using the Landolt C chart. End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 differed significantly among HYPO, HYPER and CON (21±1, 48±1, and 42±1 mmHg, respectively. Retinal blood flow decreased significantly from the baseline in HYPO (-22±5%, but increased significantly in HYPER (+3±9% compared to CON. Decimal visual acuity was significantly lower in HYPO than in the CON (0.21±0.1 vs. 0.24±0.1 P<0.05. These results suggest that changes in ocular blood flow induced by changes in arterial CO2 partial pressure influences visual acuity.

  18. Antibiotic resistance in ocular bacterial pathogens

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    S Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the eye are common and ophthalmologists are spoilt for choice with a variety of antibiotics available in the market. Antibiotics can be administered in the eye by a number of routes; topical, subconjunctival, subtenon and intraocular. Apart from a gamut of eye drops available, ophthalmologists also have the option of preparing fortified eye drops from parenteral formulations, thereby, achieving high concentrations; often much above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, of antibiotics in ocular tissues during therapy. Antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens is increasing in parallel with the increase seen over the years in bacteria associated with systemic infections. Although it is believed that the rise in resistant ocular bacterial isolates is linked to the rise in resistant systemic pathogens, recent evidence has correlated the emergence of resistant bacteria in the eye to prior topical antibiotic therapy. One would like to believe that either of these contributes to the emergence of resistance to antibiotics among ocular pathogens. Until recently, ocular pathogens resistant to fluoroquinolones have been minimal but the pattern is currently alarming. The new 8-fluoroquinolone on the scene-besifloxacin, is developed exclusively for ophthalmic use and it is hoped that it will escape the selective pressure for resistance because of lack of systemic use. In addition to development of new antibacterial agents, the strategies to halt or control further development of resistant ocular pathogens should always include judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of human, animal or plant diseases.

  19. Dendrimer based nanotherapeutics for ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Siva Pramodh

    PAMAM dendrimers are a class of well-defined, hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers that are being investigated for ocular drug and gene delivery. Their favorable properties such as small size, multivalency and water solubility can provide significant opportunities for many biologically unstable drugs and allows potentially favorable ocular biodistribution. This work exploits hydroxyl terminated dendrimers (G4-OH) as drug/gene delivery vehicles that can target retinal microglia and pigment epithelium via systemic delivery with improved efficacy at much lower concentrations without any side effects. Two different drugs Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) conjugated to G4-OH dendrimers showed tailorable sustained release in physiological relevant solutions and were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Dendrimer-TA conjugates enhanced the solubility of TA and were 100 fold more effective at lower concentrations than free TA in its anti-inflammatory activity in activated microglia and in suppressing VEGF production in hypoxic RPE cells. Dendrimers targeted activated microglia/macrophages and RPE and retained for a period of 21 days in I/R mice model. The relative retention of intravitreal and intravenous dendrimers was comparable, if a 30-fold intravenous dose is used; suggesting intravenous route targeting retinal diseases are possible with dendrimers. D-NAC when injected intravenously attenuated retinal and choroidal inflammation, significantly reduced (˜73%) CNV growth at early stage of AMD in rat model of CNV. A combination therapy of D-NAC + D-TA significantly suppressed microglial activation and promoted CNV regression in late stages of AMD without causing side-effects. G4-OH was modified with linker having minimal amine groups and incorporation of TA as a nuclear localization enhancer resulted in compact gene vectors with favorable safety profile and achieved high levels of transgene expression in hard to transfect human retinal pigment

  20. Symptomatic relief precedes improvement of myocardial blood flow in patients under spinal cord stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulousakis Athanassios

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord electrical stimulation (SCS has shown to be a treatment option for patients suffering from angina pectoris CCS III-IV although being on optimal medication and not suitable for conventional treatment strategies, e.g. CABG or PTCA. Although many studies demonstrated a clear symptomatic relief under SCS therapy, there are only a few short-term studies that investigated alterations in cardiac ischemia. Therefore doubts remain whether SCS has a direct effect on myocardial perfusion. Methods A prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS on myocardial ischemia in patients with refractory angina pectoris and coronary multivessel disease was designed. Myocardial ischemia was measured by MIBI-SPECT scintigraphy 3 months and 12 months after the beginning of neurostimulation. To further examine the relation between cardiac perfusion and functional status of the patients we measured exercise capacity (bicycle ergometry and 6-minute walk test, symptoms and quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ], as well. Results 31 patients (65 ± 11 SEM years; 25 male, 6 female were included into the study. The average consumption of short acting nitrates (SAN decreased rapidly from 12 ± 1.6 times to 3 ± 1 times per week. The walking distance and the maximum workload increased from 143 ± 22 to 225 ± 24 meters and 68 ± 7 to 96 ± 12 watt after 3 months. Quality of life increased (SAQ significantly after 3 month compared to baseline, as well. No further improvement was observed after one year of treament. Despite the symptomatic relief and the improvement in maximal workload computer based analysis (Emory Cardiac Toolbox of the MIBI-SPECT studies after 3 months of treatment did not show significant alterations of myocardial ischemia compared to baseline (16 patients idem, 7 with increase and 6 with decrease of ischemia, 2 patients dropped out during initial test phase

  1. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  2. Pre- and post-processing filters for improvement of blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2000-01-01

    with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The exact extent of the vessel and the true velocities are thereby known. Velocity estimates were obtained by employing Kasai's autocorrelator on the data. The post-processing filter was used on the computed 2D velocity map. An improvement of the RMS error...... velocity in the vessels. Post-processing is beneficial to obtain an image that minimizes the variation, and present the important information to the clinicians. Applying the theory of fluid mechanics introduces restrictions on the variations possible in a flow field. Neighboring estimates in time and space...... should be highly correlated, since transitions should occur smoothly. This idea is the basis of the algorithm developed in this study. From Bayesian image processing theory an a posteriori probability distribution for the velocity field is computed based on constraints on smoothness. An estimate...

  3. Doppler Endoscopic Probe Monitoring of Blood Flow Improves Risk Stratification and Outcomes of Patients With Severe Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dennis M; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Ohning, Gordon V; Ghassemi, Kevin; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S; Sedarat, Alireza; Jutabha, Rome; Gornbein, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    For 4 decades, stigmata of recent hemorrhage in patients with nonvariceal lesions have been used for risk stratification and endoscopic hemostasis. The arterial blood flow that underlies the stigmata rarely is monitored, but can be used to determine risk for rebleeding. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether Doppler endoscopic probe monitoring of blood flow improves risk stratification and outcomes in patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In a single-blind study performed at 2 referral centers we assigned 148 patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (125 with ulcers, 19 with Dieulafoy's lesions, and 4 with Mallory Weiss tears) to groups that underwent standard, visually guided endoscopic hemostasis (control, n = 76), or endoscopic hemostasis assisted by Doppler monitoring of blood flow under the stigmata (n = 72). The primary outcome was the rate of rebleeding after 30 days; secondary outcomes were complications, death, and need for transfusions, surgery, or angiography. There was a significant difference in the rates of lesion rebleeding within 30 days of endoscopic hemostasis in the control group (26.3%) vs the Doppler group (11.1%) (P = .0214). The odds ratio for rebleeding with Doppler monitoring was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.143-0.8565) and the number needed to treat was 7. In a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ulcers or other lesions, Doppler probe guided endoscopic hemostasis significantly reduced 30-day rates of rebleeding compared with standard, visually guided hemostasis. Guidelines for nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding should incorporate these results. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00732212 (CLIN-013-07F). Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood Pressure Lowering and Safety Improvements With Liver Angiotensinogen Inhibition in Models of Hypertension and Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Adam E; Yeh, Steve T; Graham, Mark J; Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Prakash, Thazha P; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2017-09-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade. AGT ASOs which target multiple systemic sites of AGT versus an N-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated AGT ASO that targets the liver were compared with captopril and losartan. Spontaneously hypertensive rats fed an 8% NaCl diet, a model of malignant hypertension resistant to standard RAAS inhibitors, demonstrated robust and durable blood pressure reductions with AGT ASO treatments, which was not observed with standard RAAS blockade. Studies in rat models of acute kidney injury produced by salt deprivation revealed kidney injury with ASO treatment that reduced kidney-expressed AGT, but not in animals treated with the N-acetylgalactosamine AGT ASO despite comparable plasma AGT reductions. Administration of either captopril or losartan also produced acute kidney injury during salt deprivation. Thus, intrarenal RAAS derived from kidney AGT, and inhibited by the standard of care, contributes to the maintenance of renal function during severe RAAS challenge. Such improvements in efficacy and tolerability by a liver-selective AGT inhibitor could be desirable in individuals not at their blood pressure goal with existing RAAS blockade. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Improved assay for differential diagnosis between Pompe disease and acid α-glucosidase pseudodeficiency on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Shohei; Katafuchi, Tatsuya; Okada, Yuya; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Endo, Fumio; Okuyama, Torayuki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kroos, Marian A; Verheijen, Frans W; Reuser, Arnold J J; Okumiya, Toshika

    2011-05-01

    The high frequency (3.3-3.9%) of acid α-glucosidase pseudodeficiency, c.[1726G>A; 2065G>A] homozygote (AA homozygote), in Asian populations complicates newborn screening for Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency) on dried blood spots, since AA homozygotes have a considerably low enzyme activity. We observed that hemoglobin in the enzyme reaction solution strongly interferes with the fluorescence of 4-methylumbelliferone released from 4-methylumbelliferyl α-D-glucopyranoside (4MU-αGlc) by acid α-glucosidase. Therefore, we have searched for a method to effectively eliminate hemoglobin in the reaction solution. Hemoglobin precipitation with barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate (Ba/Zn method) carried out after the enzyme reaction considerably enhances the fluorescence intensity while it does not reduce the intensity to any extent as can occur with conventional deproteinization agents like trichloroacetic acid. The Ba/Zn method greatly improved the separation between 18 Japanese patients with Pompe disease and 70 unaffected AA homozygotes in a population of Japanese newborns in the assay with 4MU-αGlc on dried blood spots. No overlap was observed between both groups. We further examined acid α-glucosidase activity in fibroblasts from 11 Japanese patients and 57 Japanese unaffected individuals including 31 c.[1726G; 2065G] homozygotes, 18 c.[1726G; 2065G]/[1726A; 2065A] heterozygotes and 8 AA homozygotes to confirm that fibroblasts can be used for definitive diagnosis. The patients were reliably distinguished from three control groups. These data provide advanced information for the development of a simple and reliable newborn screening program with dried blood spots for Pompe disease in Asian populations.

  6. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP) Latino: results of a pilot study of lifestyle intervention for lowering blood pressure in Latino adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Rocha-Goldberg, María; Corsino, Leonor; Batch, Bryan; Voils, Corrine I.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a culturally tailored behavioral intervention for improving hypertension-related health behaviors in Hispanic/Latino adults. Design Feasibility pilot study in a community health center and a Latino organization in Durham, North Carolina (NC). Intervention The culturally adapted behavioral intervention consisted of 6 weekly group sessions incorporating motivational interviewing techniques. Goals included weight loss if overweight, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, and increased physical activity. Participants were also encouraged to monitor their daily intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy and fat, and to record physical activity. Cultural adaptations included conducting the study in familiar places, using Spanish-speaking interventionist, culturally-appropriate food choices, and physical activity. Main outcomes Systolic blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), exercise, and dietary pattern were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Qualitative evaluations of the recruitment process and the intervention were also conducted. Results There were 64 potential participants identified via health care provider referrals (33%), printed media (23%), and direct contact (44%). Seventeen participants completed the intervention and had main outcome data available. Participants “strongly agreed/ agreed” that the group sessions provided them with the tools they needed to achieve weight loss, blood pressure control, and the possibility of sustaining the lifestyle changes after completing the intervention. At the end of the intervention, all physiological, diet, and exercise outcomes were more favorable, with the exception of fat. After 6 weeks, systolic blood pressure decreased an average of −10.4 ± 10.6 mmHg, weight decreased 1.5 ± 3.2 lbs, BMI decreased 0.3 ± 0.5, and physical activity increased 40 minutes per week. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lifestyle

  7. A CLINICAL STUDY OF LIMBAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN VARIOUS OCULAR SURFACE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the various causes of limbal stem cell deficiency, to assess signs and symptoms in ocular surface disorder and improvement following stem cell transplantation, to carry out limbal stem cell transplantation in various ocular surface disorders and to assess various intraoperative and postoperative complications following stem cell transplantation. METHODS: This study included 40 cases of ocular surface disorders treated with limbal autograft transplantation. Patients were recorded in a predesigned proforma, including the detailed history and complete ophthalmological examination. All cases of ocular surface disorders were treated with conjunctivo-limbal autograft transplantation under peribulbar and facial anaesthesia. RESULT: Maximum number of patients belong to age group 30-40 years. Males were more commonly affected by ocular surface disorders than females. (1.8:1. various causes of limbal stem cell deficiency were reviewed. The most common etiology associated with limbal stem cell deficiency was pterygia (60% followed by vascularised leucomatous corneal opacity (20%, chemical burns (15% and epitheliopathy (5%. Most common symptoms reported by patients were redness (100%, foreign body sensation (90%, watering (85% and photophobia (50%. Most common signs found were conjunctival congestion (90%, corneal vascularization (70%, conjunctivalisation (70% and epithelial defects (30%. 72.5% of patients reported increased ocular comfort. Postoperative incidence of redness was reduced from 90% to 20%, watering from 85% to 15% and photophobia from 50% to 25%. Improvement in signs was noted as decrease in conjunctival congestion from 90% to 22.2%, vascularisation from 70% to 35%, conjunctivalisation from 70% to 21.5% and epithelial defects from 30% to 16.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Use of autologous limbal transplantation with corneal and conjunctival tissue as a vehicle was useful for ocular surface reconstruction in

  8. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  9. Application of organic acid salts and high-pressure treatments to improve the preservation of blood sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana M; Santos, Eva M; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Blood sausages are traditional products in many parts of the world. In most cases, a very short shelf-life limits their consumption to the areas in which they are produced. In this work, different mild preservation methods were applied to Morcilla de Burgos, a Spanish blood sausage, consisting of a range of organic acid salts (OAS) and high-pressure processing (HPP), with the aim of increasing its shelf-life. In the first experiment, three batches of morcillas were produced using three different commercial OAS-PL (3% potassium lactate), PL+SL (3% potassium and sodium lactate) and PL+SD (2.5% potassium lactate and sodium diacetate)-together with a control batch and were stored under chill conditions (4 degrees C) for 35 days. In a further experiment, vacuum-packaged morcillas were treated at three different pressure levels-300, 500 and 600MPa-for 10min, and stored under chill conditions for 28 days. In both batches, a sensory difference test was performed on day 1 after treatment and the morcilla samples were subjected to microbiological and sensory analysis after each week in storage. The results suggest that, in both cases, an addition of PL+SL and the application of 600MPa for 10min increases the shelf-life of the morcillas by 15 days. Once again, it is evident that the initial opportunities for contamination play a very important role in improving the shelf-life of food products.

  10. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay. III. Improvement to subpicogram sensitivity and application to blood levels in cyclic cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schams, D. (Insitut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, FRG)

    1983-01-01

    An improved RIA for measurement of oxytocin in blood is described by using an extraction method with SEP-PAK C/sub 18/ cartridges, which allows also concentration of the sample, a new antiserum with a higher sensitivity to standard oxytocin and preparation of the standard curve in buffer. The lower limit of assay sensitivity was 0.25 pg/tube, corresponding to 0.25-1.0 pg/ml plasma depending on the amount of plasma extracted. Hence, it was no problem to measure oxytocin basal concentrations in peripheral blood