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Sample records for improves intravaginal ejaculatory

  1. [Rehabilitation for intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction with using a masturbation aid].

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    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Aoki, Hiroaki; Nishio, Koujiro; Sato, Ryo; Ashizawa, Yoshio; Yagi, Hiroshi; So, Shigehiro; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Recently the incidence of intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction is increasing among infertile couples in Japan. Some unusual ways of masturbation and psychogenic issues were reported to cause this disorder. Patients, who had done masturbation in an unusual way for long time since their adolescence, were difficult to gain normal intravaginal ejaculation by the behavior therapy which was used for erectile dysfunction. We, therefore, used a masturbation aid (TENGA) for rehabilitation of ejaculation to overcome this condition. From January, 2010 through March, 2011, a total of 16 patients with intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction underwent rehabilitation of ejaculation using TENGA. Patients' satisfaction and achievement of intravaginal ejaculation were evaluated by the questionnaire. Twelve patients (75%) could ejaculate in the masturbation aid (TENGA). Five patients (31%) succeeded to ejaculate in the partner's vagina after rehabilitation. A masturbation aid (TENGA) was a useful tool to correct the way of masturbation and achieve normal intravaginal ejaculation. This masturbation aid can be one of the effective options for the treatment of intravaginal ejaculatory dysfunction.

  2. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

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    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    Complaints of premature ejaculation (PE) and its repercussions are culture-dependent. To report the measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the impact of PE in Kermanshah, Iran. From November 1996 through October 2008, 3,458 patients presented to us with self-diagnosed PE. In the first visit, after obtaining a psychosocial and sexual history, PE-specific bother was self-rated by the patients and the patients were advised to measure their IELTs over the next 2-3 weeks. In the second visit, the measured IELTs were reported by the patients. Patients' measured IELT and bother score. Age range was 17-80 years (mean 34.1, standard deviation [SD] 9.1, median 32). Sixty-five percent were married. Primary and secondary PE was reported by 2,105 (60.8%) and 1,353 (39.1%) patients, respectively. Occasional PE was reported by 36 (0.01%). Of those with multiple partners, 6% had partner-specific PE. IELT distribution was positively skewed. Anteportal ejaculation was reported by 97 (2.8%). In 3,458 self-reported PE patients, IELT was 1-15 seconds in 542 (15.7%), 16-30 seconds in 442 (12.8%), 31-60 seconds in 978 (28.3%), > 1 2 5 minutes in 136 (3.9%). IELTs of IELT and bother (r = -0.607) was highly negative, with shorter IELTs being correlated with more bother. Six hundred forty-three patients (18.6%) always consumed opium to lengthen their IELTs. All 21 patients who started to use Tramadol as a PE treatment became addicted to it. Of 168 divorced couples due to PE, 23 divorced because the sexually dissatisfied wives became involved in extramarital affairs. Applying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for PE and a cutoff IELT point of IELTs of longer than 2 minutes, the patients with occasional PE, and the patients who reported no personal bother, of 3,458 self-reported PE patients, 2,571 (74.3%) had PE. Including the 97 patients with anteportal ejaculation, arithmetic mean IELT in 2,571 patients was 45.87 seconds, SD 36.1, median

  3. Is there a correlation between intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and enuresis? An exploratory study.

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    Koyuncu, Hakan; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Karacay, Safak; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yencilek, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. Monosymptomatic enuresis (ME) is nocturnal bed wetting, without any daytime symptoms. Recent clinical studies report an association between lifelong PE and ME. The purpose of this study was to compare the intravaginal ejaculatory time (IELT) between lifelong PE in men with and without ME. The goal was to determine if there is an association between the severity of ME and of IELT. A total of 137 men with lifelong PE were included in this study. Subjects were asked if they had childhood ME. The characteristics and mean IELTs of patients with and without ME were compared using the student's t-test, and the correlation between severity of ME and IELT was assessed with trend test. Of the 137 lifelong PE patients, 57 reported ME. There was a strong negative correlation in patients with ME between the severity of enuresis and IELT, with IELT being shorter in patients with severe ME. A strong correlation between IELT and the severity of ME suggests a common underlying mechanism. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and elucidate the exact pathophysiology.

  4. The impact of ejaculatory dysfunction upon the sufferer and his partner.

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    Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2016-08-01

    Ejaculatory function cannot be evaluated outside the dyadic process and without taking into account the men's and women's cognition of the condition and how their subjective perception impacts on the evaluation of the relationship and sexual quality. Although the distress of the sufferer and his partner has been a motivating factor in leading men with ejaculatory dysfunction to seek medical help, few objective or prospective evaluations of the effects on the couple have been reported. Specialized literature has been dealing with ejaculatory disorders in a heterogeneous manner. Comparatively, there are far more studies on premature ejaculation (PE) than on delayed ejaculation (DE) and even fewer studies on other male orgasm disorders. Therefore, the review focuses on the literature of the two most studied ejaculatory disorders. The matter presented in this article can also be considered for other ejaculatory disorders, since all of them relate to a failure of control, changing the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), with consequences for men and their partners. There are multiple psychological explanations as to why a man develops PE or DE. Unfortunately, none of the theories evolve from evidence-based studies. The common final pathway of these factors is the irrational fear of ejaculating intravaginally. These sexual disorders may also cause personal distress for the sexual partner and decreased sexual satisfaction for the couple. An association between pre-existing anxiety disorders and sexual performance anxiety has been found in men and couples with ejaculatory dysfunction. This could reflect a process in which pre-existing anxiety triggers sexual dysfunction, causing performance anxiety and leading to a vicious cycle: anxiety, sexual dysfunction, more anxiety. Men with DE are similar to men with other sexual dysfunctions. They show the same elevated level of sexual dissatisfaction and they also show lower levels of coital frequency. To a lower extent

  5. The diagnostic value of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

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    Kam, Sung Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2011-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male ejaculation disorder. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the DSM-IV-TR criteria in diagnostic PE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the PEDT and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). (i) Korean validation of PEDT: data was collected from men interviewed by one of the two clinical experts, who made a diagnostic of present or absence of PE, using DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 103 patients with PE and 100 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the PEDT; and (ii) The correlation between IELT and PEDT: 200 participants were enrolled and each participant was asked to make out PEDT. All participants were requested to measure IELT. Validity and reliability of the PEDT and its association with IELT. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 115.37 ± 78.14 seconds. The number of men reporting IELTs of 2 minutes were 28 (28.6%), 29 (29.6%), and 41 (41.8%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score was calculated as 0.93, showing adequate internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.72 and the correlation coefficients of the total score was 0.88. (P IELT showed an adequate negative correlation. (ρ = -0.77, P IELT ≤ 2 minutes) and IELT showed a negative correlation. (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.0001) The PEDT was highly effective in detecting the presence of PE. The result of our study supports its validity as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

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    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of 2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of PEDT is a

  7. [Qilin Pills for obstructive azoospermia after ejaculatory duct reconstruction].

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    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Ping; Ren, Fei-Qiang; Chang, De-Gui; Yu, Xu-Jun; Zhang, Pei-Hai

    2016-09-01

    To observe the clinical effect of Qilin Pills in the treatment of severe oligozoospermia after microsurgical ejaculatory duct reconstruction for obstructive azoospermia. We retrospectively analyzed 75 cases of obstructive azoospermia treated by ejaculatory duct reconstruction followed by administration of Qilin Pills. The patients were divided into a Qilin group (n=42) and a control group (n=33) postoperatively, treated with Qilin Pills and placebo, respectively. After 3 months of medication, we compared the sperm quality between the two groups of patients. After 3 months' treatment, all the patients experienced remarkable improvement in sperm quality (P0.05). The total effectiveness rate was higher in the Qilin group than in the controls (88.1% vs 72.7%), but with no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Qilin Pills are fairly effective in improving the quantity of sperm in obstructive azoospermia patients after ejaculatory duct reconstruction.

  8. The relationship between self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and International Prostate Symptom Score in middle-aged men complaining of ejaculating prematurely in China.

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    Zhang, Xiansheng; Tang, Dongdong; Xu, Chuan; Gao, Pan; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-03-01

    Some factors associated with the four premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes have been studied, but the association between International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the four PE syndromes has not been investigated. We performed this study to evaluate the association between IPSS and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in men with the four PE syndromes. From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 690 men aged 40-59 years complaining of ejaculating prematurely and another 452 male healthy subjects of the same age without these complaints were included in this study. Men with the complaints of ejaculating prematurely were classified as one of the four PE syndromes: lifelong PE, acquired PE (APE), variable PE, and subjective PE. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire including information on demographics, medical and sexual history (e.g., self-estimated IELT), IPSS, and International Index of Erectile Function-5. Associations between IPSS and self-estimated IELT in middle-aged men with the four PE syndromes. Men complaining of ejaculating prematurely reported higher IPSS (11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 5.5 ± 3.3 ) and shorter self-estimated IELT (2.1 ± 1.6 minutes vs. 4.8 ± 3.3) than men without complaints (P men with the four PE syndromes showed significant correlations with IPSS (P men with PE complaints (adjusted r = -0.378, P men with APE (adjusted r = -0.502, P Men complaining of ejaculating prematurely reported worse IPSS than men without these complaints. Self-estimated IELT was negatively associated with IPSS in men complaining of ejaculating prematurely, and the correlation was the strongest in men with APE. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Ejaculatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Møhl, Bo; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . The psychosexual interview revealed no major psychosexual disturbances and concluded that the pain was of somatic origin. All patients with ejaculatory pain had experienced major negative life changes and deterioration in their overall quality of life and sexual function as a result of the hernia operation...

  10. Investigation of ejaculatory disorder by silodosin in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia

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    Sakata Koichi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the ejaculatory disorder caused by silodosin in the prostatic hyperplasia patients who carry out sexual actions (sexual intercourse, masturbation. Method The subjects of this study were 91 patients who had been clinically diagnosed to have LUTS/BPH at this hospital, who were administered silodosin at 4 mg twice a day, and who gave response to a questionnaire survey related to ejaculatory disorder. Sexual intercourse and masturbation were regarded as sexual actions in this study. Results Ejaculatory disorder occurred in 38 (42% of the 91 silodosin administration cases. Forty (44% of the 91 patients answered that they carried out sexual actions after oral intake of silodosin. When the investigation was conducted only in those who exercised sexual actions, ejaculatory disorder was observed in 38 (95% of these 40 patients, indicating a high incidence. When asked if disturbed by the ejaculatory disorder, 29 (76% of the 38 patients who had ejaculatory disorder answered yes. Oral silodosin was discontinued due to the ejaculatory disorder in 2 (5% of these patients. On the whole, the discontinuation rate of oral silodosin was 2% (2/91 patients. Conclusion It was demonstrated that the administration of silodosin induced ejaculatory disorder at a high incidence. Since it is possible that the high frequency of ejaculatory disorder by silodosin may reduce QOL, it is considered necessary to provide sufficient information related to ejaculatory disorder at the time of treatment with silodosin.

  11. Ejaculatory Function After Permanent 125I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyghe, Eric; Delannes, Martine; Wagner, Fabien M.; Delaunay, Boris; Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J. Yeung; Plante, Pierre; Soulie, Michel; Thonneau, Patrick; Bachaud, Jean Marc

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  12. Patient?reported ejaculatory function and satisfaction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Chul Cho; Jung Kwon Kim; Sang Hoon Song; Sung Yong Cho; Sang Wook Lee; Soo Woong Kim; Jae-Seung Paick

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate perceived ejaculatory function/satisfaction before treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to identify associations between specific categories of ejaculatory dysfunctions (EjDs) and LUTS. A total of 1574 treatment?na?ve men with LUTS/BPH were included in this study. All patients underwent routine evaluation for LUTS/BPH including the International Index of Erectile Function and a 5?item questionnaire developed to assess ejaculatory volume/force/pain/satisfaction/latency time. Patients who had sexual intercourse over the past 4 weeks were classified as sexually active group. A total of 783 patients were categorized as sexually active group. Decreased ejaculatory volume and force were reported by 53.4% and 55.7% of 783 sexually active men, respectively. There was a strong correlation between ejaculatory volume and force. Ejaculatory pain/discomfort, premature ejaculation (PE), and delayed ejaculation (DE) were reported in 41.0%, 16.3%, and 41.4% of the patients, respectively. Over 40.0% of men without decreased ejaculation volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function, whereas approximately 6.0% of men with decreased volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function. About 30.0% of men with decreased volume/force had orgasmic dysfunction, while approximately 10.0% of men without decreased volume/force did. Decreased ejaculatory volume or force was associated with LUTS severity after adjusting for other influential factors including testosterone level, erectile function, and prostate size on ultrasonography, but PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort was not. In conclusion, a considerable portion of men with LUTS/BPH appear to have a variety of EjDs. Ejaculatory volume/force and satisfaction/orgasm do not always appear to be concordant. Ejaculatory volume or force is independently associated with LUTS severity, whereas PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort is not.

  13. Patient-reported ejaculatory function and satisfaction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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    Cho, Min Chul; Kim, Jung Kwon; Song, Sang Hoon; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate perceived ejaculatory function/satisfaction before treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to identify associations between specific categories of ejaculatory dysfunctions (EjDs) and LUTS. A total of 1574 treatment-naïve men with LUTS/BPH were included in this study. All patients underwent routine evaluation for LUTS/BPH including the International Index of Erectile Function and a 5-item questionnaire developed to assess ejaculatory volume/force/pain/satisfaction/latency time. Patients who had sexual intercourse over the past 4 weeks were classified as sexually active group. A total of 783 patients were categorized as sexually active group. Decreased ejaculatory volume and force were reported by 53.4% and 55.7% of 783 sexually active men, respectively. There was a strong correlation between ejaculatory volume and force. Ejaculatory pain/discomfort, premature ejaculation (PE), and delayed ejaculation (DE) were reported in 41.0%, 16.3%, and 41.4% of the patients, respectively. Over 40.0% of men without decreased ejaculation volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function, whereas approximately 6.0% of men with decreased volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function. About 30.0% of men with decreased volume/force had orgasmic dysfunction, while approximately 10.0% of men without decreased volume/force did. Decreased ejaculatory volume or force was associated with LUTS severity after adjusting for other influential factors including testosterone level, erectile function, and prostate size on ultrasonography, but PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort was not. In conclusion, a considerable portion of men with LUTS/BPH appear to have a variety of EjDs. Ejaculatory volume/force and satisfaction/orgasm do not always appear to be concordant. Ejaculatory volume or force is independently associated with LUTS severity, whereas PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort is not.

  14. Effect of tamsulosin on ejaculatory function in BPH/LUTS

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    Song, Sang Hoon; Son, Hwancheol; Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, Sae Woong; Moon, Du Geon; Moon, Ki Hak; Park, Kwangsung; Park, Jong Kwan; Lee, Sung-Won; Hyun, Jae Seog; Park, Nam Cheol

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact on ejaculatory function of tamsulosin (0.2 mg) given once daily (OD) for 12 weeks and to identify risk factors for ejaculatory dysfunction in patients undergoing this treatment. Males with an International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 were enrolled in this study. All participants completed questionnaires, including the IPSS and the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ), and serum prostate-specific antigen, transrectal ultrasound and uroflowmetry with post-void residual were measured. After initiating 0.2 mg OD tamsulosin, patients were re-evaluated on the fourth and twelfth weeks of medication. The chi-squared test, the independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare means. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio for all risk factors. A total of 177 men constituted the study cohort. No significant difference was observed between baseline and follow-up for the erectile function, ejaculatory function, satisfaction, sexual activity and desire domains (EFD, EjFD, SDA and ADD) or for erectile or ejaculatory bother mean scores. After 12 weeks, the overall incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) was 13.4%. Incidences of the seven different types of EjD (decreased frequency, delay, dryness, decreased strength/force, decreased volume, decreased pleasure and pain at ejaculation) were 2.4%, 3.1%, 3.9%, 3.9%, 6.3%, 7.1% and 3.1%, respectively. Baseline EjFD scores were higher for IPSS responders than for non-responders (26.09 vs. 24.06, P=0.03). An EjFD score reduction was more frequent in IPSS responders. The incidence of EjD was small, but not negligible and was more frequent in patients with less lower urinary tract symptoms, a smaller prostate, higher baseline MSHQ totals and higher EjFD scores. PMID:21785445

  15. The ejaculatory biology of leafcutter ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Boer, Susanne; Stürup, Marlene; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2015-01-01

    understanding of the fundamental biology of ejaculate production, transfer and physiological function remains extremely limited. We studied the ejaculation process in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica and found that it starts with the appearance of a clear pre-ejaculatory fluid (PEF) at the tip...

  16. Premature ejaculation

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    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Premature ejaculation.

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    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  18. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

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    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  19. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

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    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (PIELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men (not significant). The

  20. "Ejaculatory disorders and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists therapy: clinical and experimental researches"

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    Lania Caterina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the use of the α-adrenergic receptor antagonists in the BPH therapy may induce ejaculatory disorder. A review of clinical literature shows a greater incidence of ejaculatory disorder during the use of tamsulosin compared with alfuzosin. Anejaculation has been until now referred to retrograde ejaculation due to relaxation of prostatic and bladder neck smooth muscle tone. In a recent researches was evaluated the effect of tamsulosin and alfuzosin on rat vas deferent "in vitro", concluding that tamsulosin may "cause ejaculatory dysfunction by altering the progression and emission of sperm". An abnormal increase of contraction would be the cause of ejaculatory disorder. The aim of our paper is to compare human and rat vas deferens contractile activity and to evaluate with a clinical study if tamsulosin causes retrograde ejaculation disorder. Methods We have revaluated the human and rat vas deferens contractile activity in vitro according to our experience and literature. We have also performed a clinical study on 10 patients (48–72 y affected by anejaculation. Post-coital urine was examined to search spermatozoa. Results Human and rat vas deferens activity is not comparable. Contractile activity induced by norepinephrin after tamsulosin incubation in rat prostatic vas deferens strips is similar to the contractile activity evoked by norepinephrin in human strips. Spermatozoa were found in post coital urine of 6 patients. Conclusion In our opinion the treatment with tamsulosin may induce retrograde ejaculation but not other ejaculatory disorder due to abnormal sperm progression.

  1. Effect of tadalafil 5mg daily treatment on the ejaculatory times, lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

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    Karabakan, Mehmet; Keskin, Ercument; Akdemir, Serkan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a 5mg daily tadalafil treatment on the ejaculation time, erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with erectile dysfunction. A total of 60 patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were retrospectively evaluated using the international index of erectile function questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS). After the patients were treated with 5mg tadalafil once a day for three months, their erection, ejaculation and LUTS were assessed again. The fasting levels of blood glucose, total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were measured. The independentsamples t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of the patients. The mean age of the 60 participants was 50.4±7.9 and the mean baseline serum total testosterone, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were 444.6±178.6ng dL-1, 188.7±29.6mg/dL-1,104 (80-360) mg dL-1, respectively. The mean baseline scores were 2.2±1.4 min for IELT, 9.5±3.7 for IIEF-5 and 14.1±4.5 for IPSS. Following the three-month daily 5mg tadalafil treatment, the scores were found to be 3.4±1.9 min, 16.1±4.7, and 10.4±3.8 for IELT, IIEF and IPSS, respectively. When the baseline and post-treatment scores were compared, a statistically significant increase was observed in the IELTs and IIEF-5 values whereas there was a significant decrease in IPSS (p<0.01). A daily dose of 5mg tadalafil can be safely used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and LUTS, that prolongs the ejaculatory latency time. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  2. Fine structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae).

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    Shen, Jian; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-08-01

    Male adults of Panorpidae possess a special sperm pump, through which the males transfer liquid sperm to the females. However, the structures of the sperm pump and the transfer mechanism have not been satisfactorily elucidated hitherto. In this paper the structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ejaculatory sac is located between the basal end of the paired vasa deferentia and the aedeagus, comprising a small anterior part and a large posterior part. The anterior part is simple and functions only as a channel for sperm transfer. The epithelial cells of the large posterior part likely have secretory functions. The sperm pump is formed by the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac and derivates of the genital field, which enclose the pumping chamber, a piston and the associated muscles. The orifice of the ejaculatory duct lies ventrad of the piston. The piston of the sperm pump is heavily sclerotized and controlled by two antagonistic muscle pairs. A pair of simple tubular accessory glands opens to the pumping chamber. Two well-developed sex pheromone glands are located on the ventral side of the ejaculatory sac, and are composed of two fan-shaped lamellae. The epithelium of the sex pheromone glands is single-layered, and forms densely filamentous processes. The ejaculation mechanism is briefly discussed based on the morphology of ejaculatory sac and sperm pump. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivations for Intravaginal Product Use among a Cohort of Women in Los Angeles.

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    Joelle M Brown

    Full Text Available Intravaginal practices-including behaviors such as intravaginal cleansing and insertion of products-have been linked to a number of adverse reproductive health outcomes, including increased risk for bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV. Currently, little is known about the motivations for intravaginal practices among women in the United States. The objective of this study was to identify and describe motivations for intravaginal washing and intravaginal insertion of products among women of differing ages and racial/ethnic groups.Between 2008 and 2010, we enrolled a convenience sample of sexually active women aged 18-65 years living in Los Angeles recruited through community education and outreach activities in HIV/AIDS service organizations, women's health clinics, community-based organizations, and HIV testing sites. At the enrollment visit, women completed a self-administered, computer-assisted questionnaire covering demographics, sexual behaviors, intravaginal practices, and motivations for intravaginal practices over the past month and past year.We enrolled 141 women; 34% of participants were Caucasian, 40% African American, and 26% Latina. Peri-sexual intravaginal washing was common in all groups, whether to clean up after sex (70% or to prepare for sex (54%. African American women were more likely to report learning to wash intravaginally from their mothers compared to Latina or Caucasian women (70% vs. 49%, P = 0.04. Sixty-one percent of African American women reported using a douching device over the past year compared to 41% of Latina and 40% of Caucasian women (p = 0.02. Younger women were more likely to report that their male partners wanted them to wash intravaginally than older women (77% vs. 24%, P<0.01, and more likely to report the removal of odors as a motive than older women (65% vs. 40%, P = 0.04. The most commonly used intravaginal products included sexual lubricants, petroleum jelly, body lotions

  4. Effect of tadalafil 5mg daily treatment on the ejaculatory times, lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction

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    Mehmet Karabakan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a 5mg daily tadalafil treatment on the ejaculation time, erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients with erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were retrospectively evaluated using the international index of erectile function questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS. After the patients were treated with 5mg tadalafil once a day for three months, their erection, ejaculation and LUTS were assessed again. The fasting levels of blood glucose, total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were measured. The independent-samples t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of the patients. Results The mean age of the 60 participants was 50.4±7.9 and the mean baseline serum total testosterone, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were 444.6±178.6ng dL-1, 188.7±29.6mg/dL-1,104 (80-360 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean baseline scores were 2.2±1.4 min for IELT, 9.5±3.7 for IIEF-5 and 14.1±4.5 for IPSS. Following the three-month daily 5mg tadalafil treatment, the scores were found to be 3.4±1.9 min, 16.1±4.7, and 10.4±3.8 for IELT, IIEF and IPSS, respectively. When the baseline and post-treatment scores were compared, a statistically significant increase was observed in the IELTs and IIEF-5 values whereas there was a significant decrease in IPSS (p<0.01. Conclusion A daily dose of 5mg tadalafil can be safely used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and LUTS, that prolongs the ejaculatory latency time.

  5. Ejaculatory frequency and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: Findings from a case-control study.

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    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Pedersen, John; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2017-08-01

    Recent literature reports inverse associations with ejaculator frequency and prostate cancer (PC). We sought to explore the relationship between ejaculatory frequency from ages 20 to 50 and subsequent development of aggressive PC. We conducted a case-control study sampling 2,141 men from private urology practices in Victoria, Australia. Cases were defined as men with high grade or high stage PC and controls being biopsy negative men. Ejaculation frequency recalled at age decades 20, 30, and 40 second was assessed by questionnaire. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (ORs). An inverse association with ejaculatory frequency at age 30 to 39 was observed (OR per 5-unit increase per week = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.96) but not at ages 20 to 29 (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.89-1.14) or ages 40 to 49 (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12). This result differed between men with new sexual partners after age 30 (OR = 0.77, P = 0.009) and those with no new partners (OR = 0.97, P = 0.8) though the test for a difference between these estimates was not significant (P = 0.11). We found only weak evidence of an inverse association between ejaculatory frequency in the fourth decade of life and advanced PC, which was not significantly modified by number of new sexual partners. No relationship was found for ejaculatory frequency in the third and fifth decades of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The office management of ejaculatory disorders.

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    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE), delayed ejaculation (DE), anejaculation (AE) and retrograde ejaculation (RE) are four main ejaculatory disorders (EjDs) observed in clinical practice. Despite their high prevalence, EjDs remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Primary care physicians should incorporate the discussion of sexual health topics into routine visits to facilitate EjD diagnosis and treatment. Because the causes of EjDs are multifactorial, the management of EjDs is etiology-specific and may require a holistic approach. Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the only drug approved for on-demand treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. In clinical practice, scheduled follow-up visits, risk factor treatment, appropriate dose escalation, adequate sexual attempts, patient education, and partner involvement are critical factors responsible for optimal overall management of PE and dapoxetine treatment outcomes.

  7. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

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    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  8. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.

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    Nicola Low

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I(2 values 0.0%-16.1%. Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.83, insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.71, and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47. Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001 or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001, respectively.This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase

  9. The sexual cascade and the rise of pre-ejaculatory (Darwinian) sexual selection, sex roles, and sexual conflict.

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    Parker, Geoff A

    2014-08-21

    After brief historic overviews of sexual selection and sexual conflict, I argue that pre-ejaculatory sexual selection (the form of sexual selection discussed by Darwin) arose at a late stage in an inevitable succession of transitions flowing from the early evolution of syngamy to the evolution of copulation and sex roles. If certain conditions were met, this "sexual cascade" progressed inevitably, if not, sexual strategy remained fixed at a given stage. Prolonged evolutionary history of intense sperm competition/selection under external fertilization preceded the rise of advanced mobility, which generated pre-ejaculatory sexual selection, followed on land by internal fertilization and reduced sperm competition in the form of postcopulatory sexual selection. I develop a prospective model of the early evolution of mobility, which, as Darwin realized, was the catalyst for pre-ejaculatory sexual selection. Stages in the cascade should be regarded as consequential rather than separate phenomena and, as such, invalidate much current opposition to Darwin-Bateman sex roles. Potential for sexual conflict occurs throughout, greatly increasing later in the cascade, reaching its peak under precopulatory sexual selection when sex roles become highly differentiated. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Orgasm is preserved regardless of ejaculatory dysfunction with selective α1A-blocker administration

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    Kobayashi, K; Masumori, N; Kato, R; Hisasue, S; Furuya, R; Tsukamoto, T

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ejaculatory dysfunction induced with a selective α1A-blocker influenced orgasm. Fifteen healthy male volunteers took silodosin or a placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. We investigated the ejaculatory volume before and after administration of the agents. After each ejaculation, participants self-reported the answers to an original questionnaire, which was about discomfort on ejaculation, orgasm and satisfaction with the discomforting ejaculation. All participants on silodosin had a complete lack of seminal emission and expulsion. All participants felt orgasm in spite of a complete lack of seminal emission. Of the 15, 12 (80%) who had a somewhat uncomfortable feeling during orgasm were dissatisfied with this feeling, although 9 of the 12 reported that its degree was mild. Orgasm is preserved regardless of the loss of seminal emission with silodosin administration. Although most participants reported mild discomfort during orgasm, they were greatly dissatisfied with the loss of seminal emission. PMID:19536124

  11. Orgasm is preserved regardless of ejaculatory dysfunction with selective alpha1A-blocker administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Masumori, N; Kato, R; Hisasue, S; Furuya, R; Tsukamoto, T

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ejaculatory dysfunction induced with a selective alpha1A-blocker influenced orgasm. Fifteen healthy male volunteers took silodosin or a placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. We investigated the ejaculatory volume before and after administration of the agents. After each ejaculation, participants self-reported the answers to an original questionnaire, which was about discomfort on ejaculation, orgasm and satisfaction with the discomforting ejaculation. All participants on silodosin had a complete lack of seminal emission and expulsion. All participants felt orgasm in spite of a complete lack of seminal emission. Of the 15, 12 (80%) who had a somewhat uncomfortable feeling during orgasm were dissatisfied with this feeling, although 9 of the 12 reported that its degree was mild. Orgasm is preserved regardless of the loss of seminal emission with silodosin administration. Although most participants reported mild discomfort during orgasm, they were greatly dissatisfied with the loss of seminal emission.

  12. Less invasive causal treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation: a case report, literature review and suggestion of a CT- or MRI-guided intervention

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    Ole Kayser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Uni- or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO is a rare but correctable cause of infertility, chronic pelvic pain and postejaculatory pain. EDO is a congenital or acquired condition, it is the underlying cause of infertility in approximately 5% of infertile men. If acquired, the etiology often remains unresolved, but prostatitis or urethritis with post-inflammatory adhesion of the duct walls seems to be a common underlying pathomechanism. Although a certain constellation of physicochemical semen parameters may lead to correct diagnosis, EDO often resembles a diagnosis by exclusion. Imaging of acquired EDO remains a challenge and the established surgical therapy, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts (TURED, leads to a low rate of natural conception and a high rate of complications such as reflux of urine and epididymitis. We present a case of a male with suspected EDO who underwent a combined approach to both, semi-invasive diagnosis and therapy by transrectal puncture of the seminal vesicles and antegrade balloon-dilation of the ejaculatory ducts. Possibilities and pitfalls of this procedure are described and the literature is reviewed. Furthermore, we suggest a CT- or MRI-guided, percutaneous intervention for treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation and demonstrate initial steps of this procedure with a body donor. We call this new procedure PTED (percutaneous transgluteal ejaculatory ductoplasty.

  13. Compartmental transport model of microbicide delivery by an intravaginal ring

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    Geonnotti, Anthony R.; Katz, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Topical antimicrobials, or microbicides, are being developed to prevent HIV transmission through local, mucosal delivery of antiviral compounds. While hydrogel vehicles deliver the majority of current microbicide products, intravaginal rings (IVRs) are an alternative microbicide modality in preclinical development. IVRs provide a long-term dosing alternative to hydrogel use, and might provide improved user adherence. IVR efficacy requires sustained delivery of antiviral compounds to the entire vaginal compartment. A two-dimensional, compartmental vaginal drug transport model was created to evaluate the delivery of drugs from an intravaginal ring. The model utilized MRI-derived ring geometry and location, experimentally defined ring fluxes and vaginal fluid velocities, and biophysically relevant transport theory. Model outputs indicated the presence of potentially inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds along the entire vaginal canal within 24 hours following IVR insertion. Distributions of inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds were substantially influenced by vaginal fluid flow and production, while showing little change due to changes in diffusion coefficients or ring fluxes. Additionally, model results were predictive of in vivo concentrations obtained in clinical trials. Overall, this analysis initiates a mechanistic computational framework, heretofore missing, to understand and evaluate the potential of IVRs for effective delivery of antiviral compounds. PMID:20222027

  14. Intravaginal hormonal contraception for women of reproductive age with excessive body mass

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    I. B. Gridina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of disadvantages inherent in all oral hormonal contraceptives: need for daily administration, fluctuations of hormone levels throughout the day, metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, the effect of the first passage through the liver. All this became a prerequisite to the creation of prolonged oral hormonal methods of contraception, which would be devoid of these shortcomings. One of such method of hormonal contraception is intravaginal hormonal system. The aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of its use in women of reproductive age with overweight. 43 women were included. State of lipid metabolism, changes of the hemostatic system, blood pressure and weight fluctuations in the past 6 months of using intravaginal hormonal contraceptive system were studied. Results. It is established that hormonal intravaginal contraceptive ring gives minimal metabolic effects. Conclusion. This suggests that this ring can be used successfully in patients with excessive body mass, because there is no effect of the ring on hemostasis, lipid metabolism and body weight.

  15. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

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    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intravaginal insertion in KwaZulu Natal: sexual practices and preferences in the context of microbicide gel use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gafos, M.; Mzimela, M.; Sukazi, S.; Pool, R.; Montgomery, C.; Elford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Intravaginal insertion is often associated with the concept of ‘dry’ sex. All HIV-prevention microbicides tested to date have been vaginally applied lubricant-based gels. In this paper, we examine whether the use of intravaginal insertions could be in conflict with the introduction of vaginal

  17. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus: a modified surgical technique in a young myelomeningocele patient

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    Verguts, Jasper; Roovers, Jan-Paul; de Ridder, Dirk; Coremans, Georges; Deprest, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of uterine prolapse in a young woman, treated by posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus as a feasible and safe surgical procedure. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty is commonly used to correct vaginal vault prolapse, but may be a valuable alternative to

  18. A Rare Cause of Scrotal Mass in a Newborn: Antenatal Intravaginal Testicular Torsion

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    Ahmet Ali Tuncer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intravaginal testicular torsion is a very rare pathology in the neonatal period. However, it is the most common type of torsion in puberty. In this article, we present a male patient with testicular hyperemia and a mass in the testis. Ultrasonography revealed intravaginal testicular torsion and absence of testicular blood flow. This paper aims to draw attention to the importance of neonatal examination for the presence of testicular torsion which is a rare pathology in newborns with scrotal colour change or presence of an abnormal mass.

  19. Preservation of Ejaculatory and Erectile Function after Radical Cystectomy for Urothelial Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    Treating cancer patients, sexual issues should not be forgotten. With increasing survival from urologic cancer, quality of life and quality of sexuality have became very important targets in treating those patients. Fertility to those patients who desire fatherhood is sometimes more important than cancer morbidity, especially young patients in the rural areas in our country, to the extent that they may refuse the operation. We describe a new technique to preserve the erectile function and antegrade ejaculation after radical cystectomy. Patients and Methods: Seven potent men with a median age of 40 years (range 35-50) presented with invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the lateral or the anterior bladder wall. All patients wished to preserve the ejaculatory function and fertility potential. We described the surgical technique of nerve sparing radical cystectomy with preservation of the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, whole prostate and neurovascular bundles. The follow up period ranged from six months to three years (mean 20 months) to assess recurrence, erectile function and ejaculatory function. Erectile function is normal in all patients with satisfactory sexual intercourse. Antegrade ejaculation was documented in six cases. One of them fathered a child. No local or distant recurrence was detected in the seven patients at the last follow-up. The technique of radical cystectomy (with preservation of the vas deferens, whole prostate and seminal vesicle) is a good option in selected young men with bladder carcinoma in whom preservation of fertility is desirable

  20. Pregnancy outcome of home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage

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    Kaberi Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR with intravaginal insemination (IVI by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s: Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s: Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage.

  1. Pregnancy Outcome of Home Intravaginal Insemination in Couples with Unconsummated Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaberi; Singla, Bhavana

    2017-01-01

    Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR) with intravaginal insemination (IVI) by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s): Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s): Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage. PMID:29430157

  2. Effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the female sexual function in postmenopausal women: ERC-230 open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Derogatis, Leonard; Girard, Ginette; Ayotte, Normand; Gallagher, John; Cusan, Leonello; Archer, David F; Portman, David; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Côté, Isabelle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2016-03-01

    Intravaginal DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone), the exclusive precursor of androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal women, has previously been shown to improve all the domains of sexual function by a strictly local action in the vagina. The well recognized female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in the present study. The long-term effect of 52-week treatment with daily intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA was evaluated on the various domains of female sexual function using the FSFI questionnaire at baseline, Week 26 and Week 52. One hundred and fifty-four postmenopausal women with at least one mild to severe symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and who have completed the FSFI questionnaire at baseline and at least one post-baseline timepoint were included in the analysis. The FSFI domains desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were increased by 28%, 49%, 115%, 51%, 41% and 108%, respectively (p<0.0001 for all parameters) at 52 weeks vs. baseline, while the total score was increased from 13.4±0.62 at baseline to 21.5±0.82 (+60%, p<0.0001) at 52 weeks. As the serum levels of DHEA and all its metabolites, including estradiol and testosterone, show no meaningful change, the present clinical data indicate a stimulatory effect of intravaginal DHEA through a strictly local action in agreement with the preclinical data showing that the androgens made locally from DHEA in the vagina induce an increase in local nerve density.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteria from vaginitis associated with intravaginal implants in ewes following estrus synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Otávio de Paula Vasconcelos; Felipe Zandonadi Brandão; Gabriel Martins; Bruno Penna; Joanna Maria Gonçalves de Souza-Fabjan; Walter Lilenbaum

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the presence of vaginitis and the bacterial load associated with different intravaginal implants in ewes. Twenty-four Dorper and crossbred ewes were allocated into three groups and received intravaginal implant containing 0.3g progesterone (CIDR(r)), 60mg MAP or sponges without progesterone (CONTROL) for six days. Then, CIDR and MAP treated-ewes received 12.5mg dinoprost and 300IU eCG. Vaginal mucus samples were collected at four times: before device insertion, ...

  4. Polyurethane intravaginal ring for controlled delivery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kavita M; Pearce, Serena M; Poursaid, Azadeh E; Aliyar, Hyder A; Tresco, Patrick A; Mitchnik, Mark A; Kiser, Patrick F

    2008-10-01

    Women-controlled methods for prevention of male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV-1 are urgently needed. Providing inhibitory concentrations of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors to impede the replication of the virus in the female genital tissue offers a mechanism for prophylaxis of HIV-1. To this end, an intravaginal ring device that can provide long duration delivery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1, was developed utilizing a medical-grade polyether urethane. Monolithic intravaginal rings were fabricated and sustained release with cumulative flux linear with time was demonstrated under sink conditions for a period of 30 days. The release rate was directly proportional to the amount of drug loaded. Another release study conducted for a week utilizing liposome dispersions as sink conditions, to mimic the partitioning of dapivirine into vaginal tissue, also demonstrated release rates constant with time. These results qualify polyether urethanes for development of intravaginal rings for sustained delivery of microbicidal agents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  5. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8(+) T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M; Mosmann, Tim R

    2009-04-14

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8(+) T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APCs) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8(+) T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination.

  6. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8+ T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2010-01-01

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8+ T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APC) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8+ T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination. PMID:19428849

  7. Intravaginal lactic Acid bacteria modulated local and systemic immune responses and lowered the incidence of uterine infections in periparturient dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilan Deng

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1 one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1; 2 one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2, and 3 one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR. The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA. Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows.

  8. Externally placed vs intravaginally positioned radio frequency coils for quantitative spin-spin relaxometry of ovarian follicular fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarty, G.E.; Baerwald, A.R.; Loewy, J.; Pierson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate different imaging protocols, especially with respect to radio frequency (RF) receiver coil location, for Their suitability in providing least squares derived quantitative T 2 values of ovarian follicular fluid for investigations of basic ovarian physiology. Methods: The ovaries of 10 women were imaged via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using externally positioned and intravaginally placed RF receiver coils. Half-Fourier acquisition with single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), multiple-echo T 2 , Dixon, turbo spin-echo, and 3-dimensional (3D) fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) and time-reversed FISP (PSIF) sequences were used. Quantitative T 2 nuclear spin relaxation rate information from the ovarian follicles between data acquired with the external and intravaginal coils were compared. Additionally, the amount of ovarian follicle and corpora lutea structural detail visible was qualitatively assessed. Results: The T 2 computations indicated that there was no difference in the follicular fluid T 2 values or in the heterogeneity (spatial variance) of the T 2 values between data acquired with the external RF coil and date acquired with the intravaginal RF coil. The best sequences for the visualization of ovarian internal structure were the 3D PSIF sequences and the multiple-echo T 2 -weighted images, confirming our earlier imaging work on excised cow ovaries. Conclusion: It is best to use an externally placed RF coil for quantitative MRI study of ovarian physiology given the lack of difference in quantitative T 2 information and the difficulty associated with imaging the ovaries using an intravaginal RF probe. (author)

  9. A step-wise approach to sperm retrieval in men with neurogenic anejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Normal fertility is dependent on intravaginal delivery of semen through ejaculation. This process is highly dependent on an intact ejaculatory reflex arc, which can be disrupted through any type of trauma or disease causing damage to the CNS and/or peripheral nerves. Neurogenic anejaculation...... is most commonly associated with spinal cord injury. This aetiology is especially relevant because most men with spinal cord injuries are injured at reproductive age. Assisted ejaculation in the form of penile vibratory stimulation is the first choice for sperm retrieval in such patients because...

  10. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D.; Miller, Lynn J.; Wiley, Michael R.; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C.; Norris, Sarah L.; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Kimmel, Adrienne E.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Valdez, Stephanie M.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Principe, Lucia M.; Bellanca, Stephanie A.; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H.; Pratt, William D.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M. Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present. PMID:28548637

  11. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D; Miller, Lynn J; Wiley, Michael R; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C; Norris, Sarah L; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Kimmel, Adrienne E; Bloomfield, Holly A; Valdez, Stephanie M; Sprague, Thomas R; Principe, Lucia M; Bellanca, Stephanie A; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H; Pratt, William D; Palacios, Gustavo F; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

  12. Evaluation of the acceptability of intravaginal prasterone ovule administration using an applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, Marlene; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Zerhouni, Jaâfar; Côté, Isabelle; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Moyneur, Erick; Balser, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the acceptability of the intravaginal administration of ovules/suppositories of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone) for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia who were administered daily for 12 weeks intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA or placebo. There were a total of 373 women in the per-protocol population who responded to the questionnaire for both treatment groups. While it was planned that the applicator would be evaluated as suitable if at least 80% of participants have a global score  ≤ 2 units, 99% and 100% of participants had a score  ≤ 2 units in the placebo and DHEA groups, respectively, for the global score (mean of 5 questions). When asked about like and dislike the technique of drug administration, 284 comments were positive, while 114 women gave no comment. About 92-94% of women indicated that they were very confident to be able use the applicator successfully in the future. The survey shows a high degree of satisfaction and of confidence to use the applicator successfully in the future.

  13. Intra-vaginal Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles as Novel Immunoprotective Agents against Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Thessicar E.; Hadigal, Satvik R.; Yakoub, Abraam; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Bhattacharya, Palash; Haddad, Christine; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Adelung, Rainer; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all efforts to generate an effective protection against the life-long, recurrent genital infections caused by Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) have failed. Apart from sexual transmission, the virus can also be transmitted from mothers to neonates, and is a key facilitator of HIV co-acquisition. Here, we uncover a nanoimmunotherapy using specially designed Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles (ZOTEN) with engineered oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that ZOTEN, when used intravaginally as a microbicide, is an effective suppressor of HSV-2 genital infection in female BALB/c mice. The strong HSV-2 trapping ability of ZOTEN significantly reduced the clinical signs of vaginal infection and effectively decreased animal mortality. In parallel, ZOTEN promoted the presentation of bound HSV-2 virions to mucosal antigen presenting cells, enhancing T cell- mediated and antibody-mediated responses to the infection, and thereby, suppressing a re-infection. We also found that ZOTEN exhibits strong adjuvant-like properties, which is highly comparable to alum, a commonly used adjuvant. Overall, our study provides very first evidence for the protective efficacy of an intravaginal microbicide/vaccine or microbivac platform against primary and secondary female genital herpes infections. PMID:27183601

  14. Engineering a degradable polyurethane intravaginal ring for sustained delivery of dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Kavita M; Poursaid, Azadeh E; Karra, Prasoona; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Aliyar, Hyder A; Kiser, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    We describe the engineering of a degradable intravaginal ring (IVR) for the delivery of the potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine. The degradable polymer used in fabricating the device incorporated poly(caprolactone) ester blocks in a poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol ABA type polyurethane backbone. The polymer was designed to maintain its structure for 1 month during usage and then degrade in the environment post-disposal. In vitro release of dapivirine showed zero-order kinetics for up to 1 month and significant levels of drug release into engineered vaginal tissue. The mechanical properties of the degradable IVR were comparable to those of a widely used contraceptive intravaginal ring upon exposure to simulated vaginal conditions. Incubation under simulated vaginal conditions for a month caused minimal degradation with minimal effect on the mechanical properties of the ring and polymer. The cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug-loaded IVRs against Vk2/E6E7 human vaginal epithelial cells, Lactobacillus jensenii, and engineered vaginal tissue constructs showed the degradable polyurethane to be non-toxic. In vitro evaluation of inflammatory potential monitored through the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MIP-3α when engineered EpiVaginal™ tissue was incubated with the polyurethanes suggested that the degradable polyurethane was comparable to commercial medical grade polyurethane. These results are encouraging for further development of this degradable IVR for topical vaginal delivery of microbicides.

  15. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Koltun, William; Vachon, Andrée; Young, Douglas; Frenette, Louise; Portman, David; Montesino, Marlene; Côté, Isabelle; Parent, Julie; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of superficial cells increased by 8.44% over placebo (P < 0.0001), vaginal pH decreased by 0.66 pH unit over placebo (P < 0.0001), and pain at sexual activity decreased by 1.42 severity score unit from baseline or 0.36 unit over placebo (P = 0.0002). On the other hand, moderate to severe vaginal dryness present in 84.0% of women improved at 12 weeks by 1.44 severity score unit compared to baseline, or 0.27 unit over placebo (P = 0.004). At gynecological evaluation, vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color all improved by 86% to 121% over the placebo effect (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons with placebo). Serum steroid levels remained well within the normal postmenopausal values according to the involved mechanisms of intracrinology. The only side effect reasonably related to treatment is vaginal discharge due to melting of the vehicle at

  16. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  17. Novel intravaginal nanomedicine for the targeted delivery of saquinavir to CD4+ immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sidi Yang,1,2 Yufei Chen,1,2 Kaien Gu,1,2 Alicia Dash,1,2 Casey L Sayre,1 Neal M Davies,1 Emmanuel A Ho1,2 1Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory for Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an intravaginal nanomedicine for the active targeted delivery of saquinavir (SQV to CD4+ immune cells as a potential strategy to prevent or reduce HIV infection. The nanomedicine was formulated into a vaginal gel to provide ease in self-administration and to enhance retention within the vaginal tract. SQV-encapsulated nanoparticles (SQV-NPs were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA and conjugated to antihuman anti-CD4 antibody. Antibody-conjugated SQV-NPs (Ab-SQV-NPs had an encapsulation efficiency (EE% of 74.4% ± 3.7% and an antibody conjugation efficiency (ACE% of 80.95% ± 1.10%. Over 50% of total loaded SQV was released from NPs over 3 days. NPs were rapidly taken up by Sup-T1 cells, with more than a twofold increase in the intracellular levels of SQV when delivered by Ab-SQV-NPs in comparison to controls 1 hour post-treatment. No cytotoxicity was observed when vaginal epithelial cells were treated for 24 hours with drug-free Ab-NPs (1,000 µg/mL, 1% HEC placebo gel (200 mg/mL, or 1% HEC gel loaded with drug-free Ab-NPs (5 mg NPs/g gel, 200 mg/mL of gel mixture. Overall, we described an intravaginal nanomedicine that is nontoxic and can specifically deliver SQV into CD4+ immune cells. This platform may demonstrate potential utility in its application as postexposure prophylaxis for the treatment or reduction of HIV infection, but further studies are required. Keywords: nanoparticles, saquinavir, antibody conjugation, intravaginal gel, HIV/AIDS, microbicide

  18. Unexpected Inflammatory Effects of Intravaginal Gels (Universal Placebo Gel and Nonoxynol-9 on the Upper Female Reproductive Tract: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith-McCune

    Full Text Available Intravaginal anti-HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. Our objective was to study the effects of intravaginal gels on the immune microenvironment of the cervix and uterus. In this randomized crossover study, 27 healthy female volunteers used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 (N9 gel as a "failed" microbicide or the universal placebo gel (UPG as a "safe" gel (intervention cycles, or nothing (control cycle from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase. At a specific time-point following ovulation, all participants underwent sample collection for measurements of T-cell phenotypes, gene expression, and cytokine/chemokine protein concentrations from 3 anatomic sites above the vagina: the cervical transformation zone, the endocervix and the endometrium. We used hierarchical statistical models to estimate mean (95% CI intervention effects, for N9 and UPG relative to control. Exposure to N9 gel and UPG generated a common "harm signal" that included transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory genes chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20 (macrophage inflammatory factor-3alpha and interleukin 8 in the cervix, decreased protein concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators glycodelin-A and osteopontin in the endometrium. These results need to be replicated with a larger sample, but underscore the need to consider the effects of microbicide agents and gel excipients on the upper female reproductive tract in studies of vaginal microbicides.

  19. High Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Reproductive Tract of Women with BV and Engaging in Intravaginal Douching: A Cross-Sectional Study of Participants in the Women Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Brown, Megan R; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Roach, Margaret; Fichorova, Raina N; Jones, Deborah L; Pahwa, Savita; Fischl, Margaret A

    2017-04-01

    High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the United States, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV + and 27 high-risk HIV - ) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs). BV was assessed using the Nugent score. Inflammatory cytokines in the CVLs (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], interferon [IFN]α2, chemokine C ligand 5 (CCL5), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor [SLPI]) were measured. Fourteen (19%) women reported intravaginal douching; 24 (33%) had BV. BV, intravaginal douching, and HIV were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines. After controlling for demographic and risk factors and HIV status, women who had BV and douched had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than those without BV and who did not douche, or who only had BV or only douched. These findings suggest that BV and douching are associated with greater mucosal inflammation and may facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Although longitudinal studies are needed to determine temporal associations and causality, interventions to decrease rates of intravaginal douching and BV could significantly decrease women's risks of acquiring STIs and HIV and limit the spread of HIV.

  20. Post operative high dose rate intravaginal irradiation in endometrial cancer: a safe and effective outpatient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peter; Gibbons, Susan; Vicini, Frank; Weiner, Sheldon; Dmuchowski, Carl; Mele, Beth; Brabbins, Donald; Jennings, John; Gustafson, Gary; Martinez, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our experience with out patient high dose rate (HDR) intravaginal irradiation given post-operatively in endometrial cancer to assess local control, survival, and toxicity when used alone or in combination with external beam irradiation. Methods and Materials: From (12(88)) to (12(92)), 78 patients underwent TAH/BSO and received post-operative HDR intravaginal irradiation for endometrial cancer. Pathologic stage distribution was IB/IC: 56%, II: 22%, III: 22%. Adjuvant therapy was given in one of three schemes: HDR vaginal radiation alone (6 weekly fractions of 500 cGy prescribed 5 mm from the applicator surface treating the upper 4 cm of the vagina), pelvic irradiation with vaginal HDR (500 cGy x 4 weekly fractions) or whole abdomen/pelvic irradiation (WAPI) with vaginal HDR treatment (500 cGy x 3 weekly fractions). Prior to the first HDR vaginal treatment, a simulation with placement of vaginal apex metallic markers was performed to assure proper positioning of the intravaginal cylinders. Pelvic midline blocking was designed from the HDR intravaginal simulation films. The 55 patients who underwent combined external beam irradiation/brachytherapy received a median dose to the pelvis of 5040 cGy (range 25.2-51.6 Gy), and a median total vaginal dose of 5060 cGy (range 30.0-57.6 Gy). Results: Median follow-up is 37 months (range 6-73 months). Local control (vaginally) is 98.7%. The one vaginal failure was in the distal vagina, outside the treatment volume. All other failures (4) were distant with the vagina controlled [3 intra-abdominal and one bone/intra-abdominal]. For stages I and II, the disease free survival is 92.8%. For stage III the disease free survival is 86.5%. Median overall time to failure is 14.3 months (range 8.5-18.6 months). In terms of acute toxicity, no grade 3-4 acute toxicity of the vagina or bladder was seen. However, 9% acute GI toxicity was encountered. Chronic grade 1-2 toxicities included: vaginal 21.8% (foreshortening and

  1. Uso de un dispositivo intravaginal para el control del estro en yeguas

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Oscar R; de la Vega, Adolfo C; L. Cruz, María

    2002-01-01

    Un dispositivo intravaginal de uso bovino (PRID) conteniendo progesterona de lenta liberación, fue evaluado en once yeguas de la raza Peruano de Paso con el fin de sincronizar sus celos. El dispositivo fue instalado tal como es presentado comercialmente para bovinos y se mantuvo in situ por un lapso de doce días, al cabo de los cuales fue retirado sin mayores complicaciones. Manifestaciones de celo fueron observadas a las 24 h después del retiro del PRID, con su más alta incidencia (50%) a la...

  2. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: Key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide...

  4. Juvenile allergic urethritis with urethro-ejaculatory reflux presenting as acute intermittent bilateral testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat

    2015-07-06

    We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Transport and Biodistribution of Dendrimers Across Human Fetal Membranes: Implications for Intravaginal Administration of Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoge, Anupa R.; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Asad, Abbas; Kannan, Sujatha; Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2010-01-01

    Dendrimers are emerging as promising topical antimicrobial agents, and as targeted nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Topical intravaginal antimicrobial agents are prescribed to treat the ascending genital infections in pregnant women. The fetal membranes separate the extra-amniotic space and fetus. The purpose of the study is to determine if the dendrimers can be selectively used for local intravaginal application to pregnant women without crossing the membranes into the fetus. In the present study, the transport and permeability of PAMAM (poly(amidoamine)) dendrimers, across human fetal membrane (using a side-by-side diffusion chamber), and its biodistribution (using immunofluorescence) are evaluated ex-vivo. Transport across human fetal membranes (from the maternal side) was evaluated using Fluorescein (FITC), an established transplacental marker (positive control, size~ 400 Da) and fluorophore-tagged G4-PAMAM dendrimers (~ 16 kDa). The fluorophore-tagged G4-PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, MALDI TOF-MS and HPLC analysis. Transfer was measured across the intact fetal membrane (chorioamnion), and the separated chorion and amnion layers. Over a five hour period, the dendrimer transport across all the three membranes was less than transport of FITC was relatively fast with as much as 49% transport across the amnion. The permeability of FITC (7.9 × 10-7 cm2/s) through the chorioamnion was 7-fold higher than that of the dendrimer (5.8 × 10-8 cm2/s). The biodistribution showed that the dendrimers were largely present in interstitial spaces in the decidual stromal cells and the chorionic trophoblast cells (in 2.5 to 4 h) and surprisingly, to a smaller extent internalized in nuclei of trophoblast cells and nuclei and cytoplasm of stromal cells. Passive diffusion and paracellular transport appear to be the major route for dendrimer transport. The overall findings further suggest that entry of drugs conjugated to dendrimers would be

  6. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Antonio L; Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6-152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  7. Transport and biodistribution of dendrimers across human fetal membranes: implications for intravaginal administration of dendrimer-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoge, Anupa R; Navath, Raghavendra S; Asad, Abbas; Kannan, Sujatha; Kim, Chong J; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2010-06-01

    Dendrimers are emerging as promising topical antimicrobial agents, and as targeted nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Topical intravaginal antimicrobial agents are prescribed to treat the ascending genital infections in pregnant women. The fetal membranes separate the extra-amniotic space and fetus. The purpose of the study is to determine if the dendrimers can be selectively used for local intravaginal application to pregnant women without crossing the membranes into the fetus. In the present study, the transport and permeability of PAMAM (poly (amidoamine)) dendrimers, across human fetal membrane (using a side by side diffusion chamber), and its biodistribution (using immunofluorescence) are evaluated ex-vivo. Transport across human fetal membranes (from the maternal side) was evaluated using Fluorescein (FITC), an established transplacental marker (positive control, size approximately 400 Da) and fluorophore-tagged G(4)-PAMAM dendrimers (approximately 16 kDa). The fluorophore-tagged G(4)-PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, MALDI TOF MS and HPLC analysis. Transfer was measured across the intact fetal membrane (chorioamnion), and the separated chorion and amnion layers. Over a 5 h period, the dendrimer transport across all the three membranes was less than dendrimer (5.8 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s). The biodistribution showed that the dendrimers were largely present in interstitial spaces in the decidual stromal cells and the chorionic trophoblast cells (in 2.5-4 h) and surprisingly, to a smaller extent internalized in nuclei of trophoblast cells and nuclei and cytoplasm of stromal cells. Passive diffusion and paracellular transport appear to be the major route for dendrimer transport. The overall findings further suggest that entry of drugs conjugated to dendrimers would be restricted across the human fetal membranes when administered topically by intravaginal route, suggesting new ways of selectively delivering therapeutics to the mother

  8. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  9. On-demand Modafinil Improves Ejaculation Time and Patient-reported Outcomes in Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuken, Murat; Kiremit, Murat Can; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of modafinil on the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Treatment-naïve lifelong PE patients were included in this proof-of-concept study. Self-estimated IELTs of the patients were recorded and the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) questionnaire was administered before the initiation of on-demand modafinil 100 mg treatment. At the end of 1 month of treatment, self-estimated IELTs were recorded again, along with posttreatment PEP outcomes. Overall, 55 lifelong PE patients with a mean age of 35.07 ± 7.80 (range: 22-58) years were enrolled. Modafinil treatment modestly increased the mean IELT at the end of 1 month (24.82 ± 16.10 seconds vs 49.82 ± 31.46 seconds, P = .0001). Moreover, at the end of 1 month, patients reported in the PEP questionnaire better control over ejaculation (0.75 ± 0.67 vs 1.35 ± 0.91, P = .0001), improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse (0.98 ± 0.78 vs 1.40 ± 0.85, P = .0001), lesser personal distress (0.42 ± 0.69 vs 0.89 ± 1.01, P = .0001), and reduced interpersonal difficulty (1.69 ± 1.48 vs 1.95 ± 1.47, P = .0001). In an uncontrolled proof-of-concept study of men with treatment-naïve lifelong PE where IELT was self-reported without a stopwatch, modest improvements of both IELT and patient-reported outcome measures were observed. Future controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Onset and duration of ejaculatory suppression effect of tamsulosin in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakdichod Kimsakulvech

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The duration of ejaculatory suppression of alpha adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin, TAM was investigated in goats. Five males were injected intramuscularly with TAM 80 μg/kg (179.8 nmol/kg. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina with estrous female goats and the semen quality and libido score were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 9 h post TAM injection. Two replicates were carried out in the study. Heart rates were also measured before the injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that the libido score was not affected by TAM. At 1 h post injection, the highest percentage of suppressed ejaculation (80% was recorded and this effect was maintained for up to 3 h post injection (60%. Thereafter the percentage of suppressed ejaculation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 at 6 h (20% and ejaculation was completely recovered at 9 h post injection. The semen characteristics of the collectable semen, semen volume and number of spermatozoa were lowest at 1 h and 3 h, thereafter they suddenly increased at 6 h and the significantly highest peak was noted at 9 h post injection. TAM injection suppressed goat ejaculation within 1 h and the duration was maintained up to 3 h post injection.

  11. Gluteo-vaginal fistula after posterior intravaginal slingplasty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michael; Teyssedre, Jacques; Staerman, Frederic

    2009-07-01

    In patients with posthysterectomy prolapse of the vaginal vault, the posterior intravaginal slingplasty (posterior IVS, Tyco Healthcare, USA) has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vaginal vault suspensions. The goal of this technique is to recreate the uterosacral ligaments and to reinforce the rectovaginal fascia with the use of prosthetic material. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with a history of 27 months of perineal suppurative discharge after she underwent a vaginal vault prolapse and rectocele repair using a posterior IVS (Tyco Healthcare, USA). The IVS tape was reinforced by interposing a rectovaginal monofilament polypropylene mesh (Parietex, Sofradim, France). Imaging studies and surgical exploration confirmed infection of the IVS mesh with the formation of a gluteo-vaginal fistula while the rectovaginal mesh was intact.

  12. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Probiotic Given Intravaginally for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Ann E.; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M.; Fredricks, David N.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Czaja, Christopher A.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E.

    2011-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (LACTIN-VÜ, Osel, Inc.) for prevention of recurrent UTI (rUTI) in pre-menopausal women, LACTIN-V was safe, well tolerated, and associated with a reduction in rUTI.

  13. The 5-HT₁A receptor CG polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; van Schaik, R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199; Waldinger, Marcel D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163958564

    INTRODUCTION: Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteria from vaginitis associated with intravaginal implants in ewes following estrus synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Otávio de Paula Vasconcelos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the presence of vaginitis and the bacterial load associated with different intravaginal implants in ewes. Twenty-four Dorper and crossbred ewes were allocated into three groups and received intravaginal implant containing 0.3g progesterone (CIDR(r, 60mg MAP or sponges without progesterone (CONTROL for six days. Then, CIDR and MAP treated-ewes received 12.5mg dinoprost and 300IU eCG. Vaginal mucus samples were collected at four times: before device insertion, at the day of its removal, 24 and 48 hours after. The samples were cultured and the colonies were counted (CFU/mL and identified. The results obtained from the counting of CFU mL-1 were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis H test, with P0.05 in comparison with MAP and CIDR-treated ewes. During the occurrence of vaginitis, the predominant isolates belonged to the coliform group, mainly Escherichia coli (72.7%. Such infection was not determined by the members of the vaginal microbiota that were present before implant insertion and normal microbiota was restored between 24 to 48 hours after insert removal.

  15. The 5-HT₁A receptor CG polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K. C.; van Schaik, R.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D.

    2014-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and 5-HT₂C

  16. Intravaginal boric acid: is it an alternative therapeutic option for vaginal trichomoniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Nicola; Ross, Jonathan

    2017-12-09

    Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Current guidance in the UK is to treat TV with a nitroimidazole antibiotic. The high prevalence of TV, high rate of antibiotic resistance and limited tolerability to nitroimidazoles suggest that alternative treatment regimens are needed. Intravaginal boric acid (BA) has been used safely for the treatment of candida vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, and in vitro studies suggest BA is active against TV. We review the evidence for the efficacy of BA in patients with TV. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, HMIC and BNI and Grey literature databases, The Cochrane Library, Trial Registers, conference abstracts and proceedings were searched. Inclusion criteria were women aged 16 years or over with microbiological confirmation of TV infection and using BA as treatment. There were no restrictions on language, publication date or study design. The in vitro evidence for BA activity against TV was also reviewed. No randomised controlled trials or case series were found. Four case reports demonstrated TV clearance with BA using a variety of dose regimens (dose 600 mg alternate nights to 600 mg two times per day; duration 1-5 months). In vitro studies suggest that BA has activity against TV which is independent of its effect on pH. Further evaluation of BA for the treatment of uncomplicated TV is required, but it may be useful when therapeutic options are limited. If shown to be safe and effective, intravaginal BA might provide a well-tolerated alternative anti-infective treatment which reduces community exposure to systemic antibiotics. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism is Associated with the Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time in Dutch Men with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K. C.; Bakker, Steven C.; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Touw, Daan J.; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central

  18. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    INTRODUCTION: Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central

  19. Intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto; Garcia, Patricia J; Thomas, Katherine K; Catlin, Mary; Holmes, King K

    2004-12-01

    We compared metronidazole 0.75% gel (containing 37.5 mg metronidazole per dose) with ovules containing metronidazole 500 mg and nystatin 100,000 U, for intravaginal treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). In a single-blinded trial, symptomatic women with BV by both Amsel and Nugent criteria were randomly assigned to gel or ovules, once nightly for 5 nights, and asked to return 3 times after treatment. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Of 151 women with BV by both criteria at enrollment, 138 (91%) returned at least once. Product limit estimates for persistence or recurrence of BV at 14, 42, and 104 days were 20% (95% CI 10%-29%), 38% (95% CI 25%-48%), and 52% (95% CI 37%-63%) after gel treatment, and 4% (95% CI 0%-9%), 17% (95% CI 7%-26%), and 33% (95% CI 21%-46%) after ovule treatment ( P = .01). Among women without BV at first follow-up, subsequent intercourse without condoms independently predicted subsequent recurrence ( P Metronidazole/nystatin ovules were significantly more effective than metronidazole gel. Unprotected sex predicted recurrence after initial improvement.

  20. Efficiency of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with type III prostatic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Cem Kadioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common male sexual disorder is premature ejaculation as it affects 30-40% of sexually active men. Various studies showed that the correlation of prostatic inflammation and chronic bacterial prostatitis with premature ejaculation is present in more than half of the sufferers. These studies also show that more than 85% of prostatic inflammation cases was shown to be caused by chronic prostatitis in the premature ejaculation patient group. Even though this relation is evident, the effect of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with chronic prostatitis has only recently being investigated extensively. In this study, 36 men suffering from secondary premature ejaculation who were included the study. These patients had no erectile dysfunction problems and were included in the study after they timed intravaginal ejaculatory latency in their last 3 intercourses to see that time was less than 2 minutes in each trial. To evaluate the prostatic inflammation, diagnosis was made by identifying 10 or more white blood cells per high power field in expressed prostatic secretions. 22 of 36 premature ejaculation patients in our study had more than 10 white blood cells in thier expressed prostatic secretions and were diagnosed to have prostatic inflammation. The other 14 patients were included in the study as the control group. Following one month antibiotic treatment 78% patients in the study group returned with the information that all 3 of their last intercourses ended with more than 2 minutes of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time while none of the control group reported similarly. No side effects were reported by any of the patients due to antibiotic usage. Our study shows that patients with PE that may benefit from month-long quinolone antibiotic therapy can be screened for by checking their expressed prostatic secretions under a microscope in the office. A more accurate definition of premature ejaculation, a scale for

  1. Intravaginal administration of metformin hydrochloride loaded cationic niosomes amalgamated with thermosensitive gel for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Neetu; Sodhi, Rupinder Kaur; Bajaj, Lotika; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katare, Om Prakash; Madan, Jitender

    2016-08-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MTF-HCl) is extensively recommended by physicians for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Mechanistically, MTF-HCl activates AMP-dependent kinase-α (AMPK-α) pathway to decrease the glucose production, enhances fatty acid oxidation and elevates the uptake of glucose in tissues. However, despite favourable physicochemical properties, oral administration of MTF-HCl is associated with impaired bioavailability (50-60%), lactic-acidosis and frequent dosing (500mg 2-3 times a day) in PCOS that ultimately influence the patient compliance. Therefore, in present investigation, MTF-HCl loaded unmodified and cationic small unilamellar niosomes were separately amalgamated with thermosensitive gel (MTF-HCl-SUNs-Gel and MTF-HCl-C-SUNs-Gel) for the treatment of PCOS through vaginal route of administration. MTF-HCl-SUNs and MTF-HCl-C-SUNs were separately prepared by reverse phase evaporation method. The nanovesicle size and zeta-potential of MTF-HCl-C-SUNs were measured to be 210.3±14.8-nm (Ptreatment of PCOS rats under scheduled dose-dosage regimen with oral MTF-HCl solution, intravaginal MTF-HCl-SUNs-Gel and intravaginal MTF-HCl-C-SUNs-gel exhibited remarkable alterations, recruitment and development of normal follicles in addition to normalization of level of various hormones in PCOS. In conclusion, MTF-C-SUNs-Gel has paved the way for developing intravaginal dosage form of MTF-HCl for the treatment of PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ischiorectal abscess and ischiorectal-vaginal fistula as delayed complications of posterior intravaginal slingplasty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heidi Wen-Chu; Guess, Marsha K; Connell, Kathleen A; Bercik, Richard S

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic meshes have been used extensively to augment surgical management of pelvic organ prolapses. Posterior intravaginal sling (IVS) is a technique used for correcting vaginal vault/apical prolapse, posterior vaginal prolapse or rectocele. There are limited data on long-term safety of this procedure. In a subanalysis of the IVS tapes from the SUSPEND trial performed secondary to the large number of patients with complications of suburethral sling erosions after IVS, it was noted that the sling erosion tended to have a delayed presentation secondary to poor incorporation of the mesh. A 48-year-old woman with cystocele, uterine prolapse and rectocele had undergone total vaginal hysterectomy, mesh-augmented anterior repair, posterior colporrhaphy and posterior intravaginal slingplasty (IVS) in July 2005. Thirty months after the surgery, she presented with gradual symptoms of copious vaginal discharge for several weeks followed by constant right buttock pain and swelling. Examination was notable for intact mesh with no signs of erosion and a 3-cm induration deep within the right buttock. Computed tomography suggested a pelvic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right ischiorectal fossa abscess and a vaginal fistula. The patient underwent sling excision, right ischiorectal fossa exploration and vaginal fistula repair. A fistulous tract was found to extend along the intact sling from the vaginal epithelium toward the right ischiorectal fossa. At 2 months' followup, there were no recurrences or other complications. This is the first report of a delayed complication of an ischiorectal abscess associated with an ischiorectal-vaginal fistula that presented 30 months after the placement of a posterior IVS.

  3. Effects of Tadalafil 5 mg Dosed Once Daily in Men with Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Onen, Efe; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Otunctemur, Alper; Cekmen, Mustafa; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Ozbek, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of 5 mg tadalafil once daily in men with premature ejaculation (PE). Thirty married men with lifelong PE and 30 healthy men as control group were included in this study. All the patients received 5 mg tadalafil once a day for a month. The international index of erectile function questionnaire and intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE profile were recorded before and after treatment. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. The mean baseline IELTs was 40.8 ± 8.1 s in the PE group and 196.5 ± 26.2 s in the control group. After treatment in the PE group, the mean IELTs values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. At the end of 4 weeks, in the PE group, the mean IELT values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. Baseline serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were 27.3 ± 1.7 in the PE group and in the 31.1 ± 1.4 healthy control groups. After treatment, NO levels were increased from baseline. We consider that 5 mg tadalafil once daily is safety and effective for the treatment of PE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Balancing the efficacy and safety of misoprostol: a meta-analysis comparing 25 versus 50 micrograms of intravaginal misoprostol for the induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, K; Sanchez-Ramos, L; Kaunitz, A M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal dose of misoprostol for the induction of labour remains uncertain. To compare the efficacy and safety of 25 versus 50 micrograms of intravaginal misoprostol tablets for the induction of labour and cervical ripening. We performed electronic and manual searches to identify relevant randomised trials. The efficacy outcomes assessed were rates of vaginal delivery within 24 hours, delivery within one dose, and oxytocin augmentation, and interval to delivery. The safety outcomes assessed were incidences of tachysystole, hyperstimulation, caesarean delivery, cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal heart rate (FHR), operative vaginal delivery, abnormal 5-minute Apgar score, abnormal cord gas values, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and meconium passage. Thirteen studies (1945 women) were included. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects and random-effects models. We found that 25 micrograms was less efficacious, with lower rates of delivery after one dose (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39-0.88) and vaginal delivery within 24 hours (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.96), and with increased rates of oxytocin augmentation (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36-1.75). We noted an improved safety profile with 25 micrograms, however, with decreased rates of tachysystole (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.35-0.61), hyperstimulation (RR 0.5; 95% CI 0.31-0.78), caesarean deliveries for non-reassuring FHR (RR 0.67; 95% CI 0.52-0.87), NICU admissions (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.4-0.98), and meconium passage (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Although 50 micrograms of intravaginal misoprostol may be more efficacious, safety concerns make the 25-microgram dose preferable. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199; Waldinger, Marcel D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163958564

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene

  6. Control, communication and monitoring of intravaginal drug delivery in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Peter S; Künnemeyer, Rainer; Bunt, Craig R; Carnegie, Dale A; Rathbone, Michael J

    2004-09-10

    We present the design of an electronically controlled drug delivery system. The intravaginally located device is a low-invasive platform that can measure and react inside the cow vagina while providing external control and monitoring ability. The electronics manufactured from off the shelf components occupies 16 mL of a Theratron syringe. A microcontroller reads and logs sensor data and controls a gascell. The generated gas pressure propels the syringe piston and releases the formulation. A two way radio link allows communication between other devices or a base station. Proof of principle experiments confirm variable-rate, arbitrary profile drug delivery qualified by internal sensors. A total volume of 30 mL was dispensed over a 7-day-period with a volume error of +/- 1 mL or +/- 7% for larger volumes. Delivery was controlled or overridden via the wireless link, and proximity to other devices was detected and recorded. The results suggest that temperature and activity sensing or social grouping determined via proximity can be used to detect oestrus and trigger appropriate responses.

  7. Analytical Method Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Stability-Indicating Study of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Intravaginal Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medroxyprogesterone acetate is widely used in veterinary medicine as intravaginal dosage for the synchronization of breeding cycle in ewes and goats. The main goal of this study was to develop reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of medroxyprogesterone acetate in veterinary vaginal sponges. A single high-performance liquid chromatography/UV isocratic run was used for the analytical assay of the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone. The chromatographic system consisted of a reverse-phase C18 column as the stationary phase and a mixture of 60% acetonitrile and 40% potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as the mobile phase; the pH was adjusted to 5.6. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were also performed to evaluate the stability-indicating properties and specificity of the method. Medroxyprogesterone was eluted at 5.9 minutes. The linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 0.0576 to 0.1134 mg/mL ( R 2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification was shown to be 3.9 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy ranges were found to be %RSD <0.2 and 98% to 102%, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone capacity factor value of 2.1, tailing factor value of 1.03, and resolution value of 3.9 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results, a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone in vaginal sponges. This analytical method is the only available method to analyse medroxyprogesterone in veterinary intravaginal dosage form.

  8. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  9. Safety and availability of dapivirine (TMC120) delivered from an intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J; Variano, B; Coplan, P; Van Roey, J; Douville, K; Rosenberg, Z; Temmerman, M; Verstraelen, H; Van Bortel, L; Weyers, S; Mitchnick, M

    2009-05-01

    Vaginal delivery of 200 mg or 25 mg dapivirine from intravaginal rings (IVRs) was evaluated over a 7-day period in two phase 1 safety trials (IPM001 and IPM008, respectively) in a total of 25 healthy women 19 to 46 years of age. The IVR was generally safe and well tolerated with similar adverse events observed in the placebo and dapivirine groups. Across both studies, dapivirine concentrations in vaginal fluids measured at the introitus, cervix, and ring area were within the mean range of 0.7-7.1 microg/ml. Mean dapivirine concentrations in vaginal and cervical tissues on day 7 were 0.3-0.7 microg/g in IPM001 and 1.5-3.5 microg/g in IPM008. Mean plasma concentrations of dapivirine were Dapivirine from both IVRs was successfully distributed throughout the lower genital tract at concentrations >1000x the EC(50) against wild-type HIV-1 (LAI) in MT4 cells suggesting that IVR delivery of microbicides is a viable option meriting further study.

  10. Engineering a segmented dual-reservoir polyurethane intravaginal ring for simultaneous prevention of HIV transmission and unwanted pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Clark

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on women prompt the investigation of prevention strategies to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV. Long-acting drug delivery systems that simultaneously protect womenfrom sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancy could be important tools in combating the pandemic. We describe the design, in silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-reservoir intravaginal ring that delivers the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and the contraceptive levonorgestrel for 90 days. Two polyether urethanes with two different hard segment volume fractions were used to make coaxial extruded reservoir segments with a 100 µm thick rate controlling membrane and a diameter of 5.5 mm that contain 1.3 wt% levonorgestrel. A new mechanistic diffusion model accurately described the levonorgestrel burst release in early time points and pseudo-steady state behavior at later time points. As previously described, tenofovir was formulated as a glycerol paste and filled into a hydrophilic polyurethane, hollow tube reservoir that was melt-sealed by induction welding. These tenofovir-eluting segments and 2 cm long coaxially extruded levonorgestrel eluting segments were joined by induction welding to form rings that released an average of 7.5 mg tenofovir and 21 µg levonorgestrel per day in vitro for 90 days. Levonorgestrel segments placed intravaginally in rabbits resulted in sustained, dose-dependent levels of levonorgestrel in plasma and cervical tissue for 90 days. Polyurethane caps placed between segments successfully prevented diffusion of levonorgestrel into the tenofovir-releasing segment during storage.Hydrated rings endured between 152 N and 354 N tensile load before failure during uniaxial extension testing. In summary, this system represents a significant advance in vaginal drug delivery technology, and is the first in a new class of long-acting multipurpose prevention drug delivery systems.

  11. An intravaginal ring that releases the NNRTI MIV-150 reduces SHIV transmission in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Rachel; Mawson, Paul; Derby, Nina; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Menon, Radhika; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Aravantinou, Meropi; Seidor, Samantha; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M

    2012-09-05

    Microbicides may prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women; however, determining the optimal means of delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients remains a major challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaginal gel containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 partially protected macaques from SHIV-RT (simian/HIV reverse transcriptase) infection, and the addition of zinc acetate rendered the gel significantly protective. We test the activity of MIV-150 without the addition of zinc acetate when delivered from either ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or silicone intravaginal rings (IVRs). MIV-150 was successfully delivered, because it was detected in vaginal fluids and tissues by radioimmunoassay in pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, EVA IVRs significantly protected macaques from SHIV-RT infection. Our results demonstrate that MIV-150-containing IVRs have the potential to prevent HIV infection and highlight the possible use of IVRs for delivering drugs that block HIV and other STIs.

  12. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  13. Safety and efficacy of vardenafil versus sertraline in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomised, prospective and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, M J; Klotz, T; Roth, S; Lümmen, G; Sommer, F

    2009-06-01

    We investigated safety and efficacy of vardenafil and sertraline in premature ejaculation (PE). Seventy-two men graded their primary PE on a scale of 0-8 (0 = almost never, 8 = almost always). Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) was measured. Patients were included if they scored their PE as 4 or greater and their IELTs were less than 1.30 min. After 6 weeks of behavioural psychosexual therapy, 49 patients still had a PE of 4 or greater and an IELT less than 1.30 min and they were randomised: 6 weeks vardenafil (10 mg) or sertraline (50 mg). After a wash-out phase for 1 week, medication was changed in a cross-over design. Initially, all 72 men with PE received behavioural therapy. Twenty-three men were satisfied with treatment and excluded. The remaining 49 men graded their PE as 5.94 +/- 1.6 and IELT was 0.59 min and patients were randomised. Four men discontinued the study. Vardenafil improved PE grading: 2.7 +/- 2.1 (P IELT increased to 5.01 +/- 3.69 (P IELT 3.12 +/- 1.89 (P < 0.001) with sertraline. It is concluded that vardenafil and sertraline are useful agents in the pharmacological treatment of PE.

  14. Determination of Prognostic Factors for Vaginal Mucosal Toxicity Associated With Intravaginal High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Patients With Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahng, Agnes Y.; Dagan, Avner; Bruner, Deborah W.; Lin, Lilie L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the patient- and treatment-related prognostic factors associated with vaginal toxicity in patients who received intravaginal high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for endometrial cancer. Secondary goals of this study included a quantitative assessment of optimal dilator use frequency and a crude assessment of clinical predictors for compliant dilator use. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymph node dissection and adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy between 1995 and 2009 at the Hospital of University of Pennsylvania. The most common treatment regimen used was 21 Gy in three fractions (71 patients). Symptoms of vaginal mucosal toxicity were taken from the history and physical exams noted in the patients’ charts and were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v. 4.02. Results: The incidence of Grade 1 or asymptomatic vaginal toxicity was 33% and Grade 2–3 or symptomatic vaginal toxicity was 14%. Multivariate analysis of age, active length, and dilator use two to three times a week revealed odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.013), 3.96 (p = 0.008), and 0.17 (p = 0.032) respectively. Conclusion: Increasing age, vaginal dilator use of at least two to three times a week, and shorter active length were found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of vaginal stenosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings.

  15. Determination of Prognostic Factors for Vaginal Mucosal Toxicity Associated With Intravaginal High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Patients With Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Agnes Y.; Dagan, Avner [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lin, Lilie L., E-mail: lin@xrt.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the patient- and treatment-related prognostic factors associated with vaginal toxicity in patients who received intravaginal high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for endometrial cancer. Secondary goals of this study included a quantitative assessment of optimal dilator use frequency and a crude assessment of clinical predictors for compliant dilator use. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymph node dissection and adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy between 1995 and 2009 at the Hospital of University of Pennsylvania. The most common treatment regimen used was 21 Gy in three fractions (71 patients). Symptoms of vaginal mucosal toxicity were taken from the history and physical exams noted in the patients' charts and were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v. 4.02. Results: The incidence of Grade 1 or asymptomatic vaginal toxicity was 33% and Grade 2-3 or symptomatic vaginal toxicity was 14%. Multivariate analysis of age, active length, and dilator use two to three times a week revealed odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.013), 3.96 (p = 0.008), and 0.17 (p = 0.032) respectively. Conclusion: Increasing age, vaginal dilator use of at least two to three times a week, and shorter active length were found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of vaginal stenosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings.

  16. Resultados preliminares de cultivo intravaginal de ovocitos-inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (INVO-ICSI), en el centro de fertilidad procrear

    OpenAIRE

    Hilario, Roly; Dueñas, Julio; Gonzales, Max; García, Javier; Romero, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer los resultados preliminares de tasa de embarazo por transferencia en las pacientes en quienes se realizó cultivo intravaginal de ovocitos-inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (INVO-ICSI) en un centro de fertilidad. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo de una serie de casos. Institución: Centro de Fertilidad Procrear, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Parejas con tratamiento de infertilidad. Intervenciones: Se analizó todos los 13 procedimientos de INVO-ICSI realizados en 12 pac...

  17. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a prevalent state of dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with wide-ranging impact on human reproductive health. Based on recent insights in community ecology of the vaginal microbiome, we hypothesize that sustained vaginal DL-lactic acid enrichment will enhance the recruitment of lactobacilli, while counteracting bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. We therefore aimed to develop an intravaginal device that would be easy to insert and remove, while providing sustained DL-lactic acid release into the vaginal lumen. The final prototype selected is a vaginal ring matrix system consisting of a mixture of ethylene vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer loaded with 150 mg DL-lactic acid with an L/D-lactic acid ratio of 1:1. Preclinical safety assessment was performed by use of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test, a non-vertebrate assay to evaluate vaginal mucosal irritation, which revealed no irritation. Clinical safety was evaluated in a phase I trial with six healthy nulliparous premenopausal volunteering women, with the investigational drug left in place for 7 days. Colposcopic monitoring according to the WHO/CONRAD guidelines for the evaluation of vaginal products, revealed no visible cervicovaginal mucosal changes. No adverse events related to the investigational product occurred. Total release from the intravaginal ring over 7 days was estimated through high performance liquid chromatography at 37.1 (standard deviation 0.9) mg DL-lactic acid. Semisolid lactic acid formulations have been studied to a limited extent in the past and typically consist of a large volume of excipients and very high doses of lactic acid, which is of major concern to mucosal safety. We have documented the feasability of enriching the vaginal environment with pure DL-lactic acid with a prototype intravaginal ring. Though the efficacy of this platform remains to be established possibly requiring further development, this approach may offer a

  18. Concentrations of Dapivirine in the Rhesus Macaque and Rabbit following Once Daily Intravaginal Administration of a Gel Formulation of [14C]Dapivirine for 7 Days▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nuttall, Jeremy P.; Thake, Daryl C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Ferkany, John W.; Romano, Joseph W.; Mitchnick, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivir...

  19. Intravaginal ring delivery of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor TMC 120 as an HIV microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, A David; Malcolm, R Karl; Morrow, Ryan J; Toner, Clare F; McCullagh, Stephen D

    2006-11-15

    TMC 120 (Dapivirine) is a potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is presently being developed as a vaginal HIV microbicide. To date, most vaginal microbicides under clinical investigation have been formulated as single-dose semi-solid gels, designed for application to the vagina before each act of intercourse. However, a clear rationale exists for providing long-term, controlled release of vaginal microbicides in order to afford continuous protection against heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and to improve user compliance. In this study we report on the incorporation of various pharmaceutical excipients into TMC 120 silicone, reservoir-type intravaginal rings (IVRs) in order to modify the controlled release characteristics of the microbicide. The results demonstrate that TMC 120 is released in zero-order fashion from the rings over a 28-day period and that release parameters could be modified by the inclusion of release-modifying excipients in the IVR. The hydrophobic liquid excipient isopropyl myristate had little effect on steady-state daily release rates, but did increase the magnitude and duration of burst release in proportion to excipient loading in the IVR. By comparison, the hydrophobic liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) had little effect on TMC 120 release parameters. A hydrophilic excipient, lactose, had the surprising effect of decreasing TMC 120 burst release while increasing the apparent steady-state daily release in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on previous cell culture data and vaginal physiology, TMC120 is released from the various ring formulations in amounts potentially capable of maintaining a protective vaginal concentration. It is further predicted that the observed release rates may be maintained for at least a period of 1 year from a single ring device. TMC 120 release profiles and the mechanical properties of rings could be modified by the physicochemical nature of hydrophobic and hydrophilic excipients

  20. Emerging treatments for premature ejaculation: focus on dapoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne JG Hellstrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wayne JG HellstromChief, Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is a common problem in men worldwide. It has a significant impact on affected men and their partners in terms of self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their sexual relationships, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Psychological therapies may achieve short-term improvements, but there are limited data on the long-term success of these methods. Oral therapy with long-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs improves intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, but these agents are designed to be administered daily and may be associated with unwanted sexual side effects and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI that can be taken as needed (prn by men with PE. It has been studied in five separate multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving more than 6000 men with PE. In four studies that evaluated IELT as an endpoint (N = 4843, dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg prn achieved statistically significant increases in IELT versus placebo. Dapoxetine also showed statistically significant improvements in perceived control over ejaculation, PE-related personal distress, and other patient-reported outcomes in all five trials. Dapoxetine treatment is generally well-tolerated, with low incidences of discontinuation syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and treatment-emergent mood symptoms. The most common adverse events with dapoxetine included nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and somnolence.Keywords: dapoxetine, discontinuation syndrome, premature ejaculation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  1. Static and dynamic MRI of a urinary control intra-vaginal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubon, A.J.; Boncoeur-Martel, M.P.; Juhan, V.; Rouanet, J.P.; Courtieu, C.R.; Thurmond, A.S.; Aubas, P.; Mares, P.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe by MRI, in dynamic conditions at rest and straining, the anatomical modifications induced by a commercially available intravaginal device (IVD) aimed at relieving female stress urinary incontinence. Ten female patients complaining of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) had pelvic MRI with static and dynamic sequences, without and with a self-inserted IVD. We studied positions and angulations of the IVD in the pelvis. Paired t-test allowed comparisons of: position of the bladder neck; urethral angulation with the pubis axis; position of the urethra; and posterior urethro-vesical angle (PUVA) without and with IVD. At rest, in ten of ten cases IVD laid cranial to the pubo-rectal muscle; with an average angulation of 95 ± 10 with the pubis axis, laterally tilted in three of ten cases. In maximum straining with IVD bladder neck descent was lower by an average of 5.2 ± 3.1 mm (p = 0.001), pubo-urethral angle opening was smaller by an average of 22 ± 20 (p = 0.015), and bladder neck to pubis distance was shorter by an average of 5.7 ± 4 mm. Posterior urethro-vesical angle was not significantly modified. Dynamic MRI allowed a non-invasive assessment of the mode of action of an IVD. The main modifications were a support of the bladder base and bladder neck, with a superior displacement of the urethra toward the pubis. (orig.)

  2. Static and dynamic MRI of a urinary control intra-vaginal device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maubon, A.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Department of Radiology, CHU Dupuytren, Limoges (France); Boncoeur-Martel, M.P. [Department of Radiology, CHU Dupuytren, Limoges (France); Juhan, V.; Rouanet, J.P. [Department of Medical Imaging, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Courtieu, C.R. [Department of Gynecology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. H. U., F-30029 Nimes (France); Thurmond, A.S. [Women' s Imaging, Meridian Park Hospital, Portland, OR (United States); Aubas, P. [Department of Medical Information, Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, F-34295 Montpellier (France); Mares, P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. H. U., F-30029 Nimes (France)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe by MRI, in dynamic conditions at rest and straining, the anatomical modifications induced by a commercially available intravaginal device (IVD) aimed at relieving female stress urinary incontinence. Ten female patients complaining of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) had pelvic MRI with static and dynamic sequences, without and with a self-inserted IVD. We studied positions and angulations of the IVD in the pelvis. Paired t-test allowed comparisons of: position of the bladder neck; urethral angulation with the pubis axis; position of the urethra; and posterior urethro-vesical angle (PUVA) without and with IVD. At rest, in ten of ten cases IVD laid cranial to the pubo-rectal muscle; with an average angulation of 95 {+-} 10 with the pubis axis, laterally tilted in three of ten cases. In maximum straining with IVD bladder neck descent was lower by an average of 5.2 {+-} 3.1 mm (p = 0.001), pubo-urethral angle opening was smaller by an average of 22 {+-} 20 (p = 0.015), and bladder neck to pubis distance was shorter by an average of 5.7 {+-} 4 mm. Posterior urethro-vesical angle was not significantly modified. Dynamic MRI allowed a non-invasive assessment of the mode of action of an IVD. The main modifications were a support of the bladder base and bladder neck, with a superior displacement of the urethra toward the pubis. (orig.)

  3. Changes in the prostacyctin sensitivity of thrombocytes after intravaginal radium irradiation of patients with corpus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate, to what extent the platelet sensitivity in comparison to prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) should be seen as a responsible factor in the increase of the thrombosis rate. For this blood was examined from 22 patients with corpus carcinoma who had received an intravaginal Radium implant with a radiation dose of 960 mgeh to over 24 h. These patients were compared to a control group of 21 clinically healthy women. Even before the radiation therapy there was an increased aggregation rate of the thrombocytes in the carcinoma patients as well as a reduced sensitivity to PGI 2 . Under irradiation there was an even greater decrease in the sensitivity of the thrombocytes to PGI 2 . The aggregation speed increase statistically significantly and the number of thrombocytes decreased during the Radium irradiation. After the giving of heparin the sensitivity of the thrombocytes to PGI 2 sank strongly. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Development of polyether urethane intravaginal rings for the sustained delivery of hydroxychloroquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Traore, Yannick Leandre; Li, Amanda; Fowke, Keith R; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties and direct anti-HIV activity. In this study, we describe for the first time the fabrication and in vitro evaluation of two types of intravaginal ring (IVR) devices (a surfaced-modified matrix IVR and a reservoir segmental IVR) for achieving sustained delivery (>14 days) of HCQ as a strategy for preventing male-to-female transmission of HIV. Both IVRs were fabricated by hot-melt injection molding. Surface-modified matrix IVRs with polyvinylpyrrolidone or poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings exhibited significantly reduced burst release on the first day (6.45% and 15.72% reduction, respectively). Reservoir IVR segments designed to release lower amounts of HCQ displayed near-zero-order release kinetics with an average release rate of 28.38 μg/mL per day for IVRs loaded with aqueous HCQ and 32.23 μg/mL per day for IVRs loaded with HCQ mixed with a rate-controlling excipient. Stability studies demonstrated that HCQ was stable in coated or noncoated IVRs for 30 days. The IVR segments had no significant effect on cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, or colony formation of vaginal and ectocervical epithelial cells. Both IVR systems may be suitable for the prevention of HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25336923

  5. Segmented polyurethane intravaginal rings for the sustained combined delivery of antiretroviral agents dapivirine and tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd J; Gupta, Kavita M; Fabian, Judit; Albright, Theodore H; Kiser, Patrick F

    2010-02-19

    Dual segment polyurethane intravaginal rings (IVRs) were fabricated to enable sustained release of antiretroviral agents dapivirine and tenofovir to prevent the male to female sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. Due to the contrasting hydrophilicity of the two drugs, dapivirine and tenofovir were separately formulated into polymers with matching hydrophilicity via solvent casting and hot melt extrusion. The resultant drug loaded rods were then joined together to form dual segment IVRs. Compression testing of the IVRs revealed that they are mechanically comparable to the widely accepted NuvaRing IVR. Physical characterization of the individual IVR segments using wide angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry determined that dapivirine and tenofovir are amorphous and crystalline within their polymeric segments, respectively. In vitro release of tenofovir from the dual segment IVR was sustained over 30 days while dapivirine exhibited linear release over the time period. A 90 day accelerated stability study confirmed that dapivirine and tenofovir are stable in the IVR formulation. Altogether, these results suggest that multisegment polyurethane IVRs are an attractive formulation for the sustained vaginal delivery of drugs with contrasting hydrophilicity such as dapivirine and tenofovir. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve for treatment of symptomatic premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Prologo, J; Snyder, Laura L; Cherullo, Edward; Passalacqua, Matthew; Pirasteh, Ali; Corn, David

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate expansion of image-guided interventional cryoablation techniques usually employed for pain management to address the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of treatment for a urologic condition with otherwise limited treatment options, premature ejaculation (PE). Prospective institutional review board approval was obtained, and 24 subjects with PE were enrolled. All patients underwent unilateral percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN). Postprocedural intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE Profile (PEP) results served as outcome variables. In addition, subjects were asked whether they would have the procedure done again based on their experience at the 180- and 360-day marks. The technical success rate was 100%. Baseline average IELT was 54.7 seconds ± 7.8 (n = 24), which increased to a maximum of 256 seconds ± 104 (n = 11; P = .241) by day 7 and decreased to 182.5 seconds ± 87.8 (n = 6; P = .0342) by day 90. The mean IELT remained at 182.5 seconds ± 27.6 at day 180 (n = 23; PIELTs significantly improved at 180 and 360 days, and 83% of subjects reported that they would undergo the procedure again if given the same opportunity. There were no procedure-related complications. CT-guided percutaneous unilateral cryoablation of the DPN is a feasible, safe, single-day outpatient procedure for the treatment of symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Mashingaidze, Felix; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Buchmann, Eckhart; Maharaj, Vinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    The past decade has seen several effective anti-HIV-1 agent discoveries, yet microbicides continue to disappoint clinically. Our review expounds the view that unsatisfactory microbicide failures may be a result of inefficient delivery systems employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide success, wherein vaginal microenvironmental factors including pH should be maintained at HIV-1 prohibitive acidic levels simultaneously to ward off other sexually transmitted diseases, which compromise vaginal epithelial barrier properties. Furthermore, choice of receptors to target both on HIV-1 and on target cells is vital in deterring transmission. Appropriate modeling of virus-target cell interactions as well as targeting early stages of the HIV-1 infection accompanied by computation and delivery of appropriate microbicide quantities could revolutionize microbicide research, ultimately delivering a female-controlled HIV-1 prevention modality appropriately. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of interview mode on assessments of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Oakley, Lisa P; Rosen, Raymond; Pollack, Lance M

    2013-01-01

    In a randomized experiment (N = 249; age 50 + years), this study examined if self-reports of erectile dysfunction (ED) and ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) symptomatology were influenced by the mode of interview administration (computer-assisted self-interview [CASI], audio computer-assisted self-interview [ACASI], or computer-assisted personal interview [CAPI; involving an interviewer]). This study also examined if mode moderated person variables hypothesized to impact self-reports (social desirability, age, or depressive mood). No main or moderating effects of mode were found for self-reports of EjD symptoms. However, mode effects on reports of ED symptoms were observed, and these moderated age and social desirability effects on self-reports. Significantly more older (relative to younger) men reported high levels of ED symptoms when interview administration was by a live interviewer (CAPI) than with self-administration. Alternatively, significantly more younger men reported high levels of ED symptoms when administration was by an interviewer (CAPI) or by ACASI (vs. CASI). The Mode × Social Desirability effects were complex (see the Discussion section), showing hypothesized effects under ACASI and CAPI conditions, but an opposite effect under the CASI condition. The stability of self-reported ED symptoms did not vary by mode (based on test-retest comparisons); test-retest was significantly higher for EjD symptoms within the ACASI condition. The impact of mode of administration on self-reports of ED/EjD symptoms is less predictable and dramatic than one might conclude from prior research with other types of self-report outcomes. The findings are consistent with a small, but growing, body of studies that illustrate highly situational effects of interviewing, which may depend on a complex interplay between modes, person variables, and the interview topic/target items. Self-administered methods, in particular, may not be a universal solution to response bias.

  9. Comparison of paroxetine and dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip Simsek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dapoxetine hydrochloride is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and the first drug approved for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE. Our objective in this study was to characterize the efficacy of on-demand dapoxetine (30 and 60 mg and daily paroxetine (20 mg usage in treating PE. We conducted a 1 month study involving a total of 150 patients. Patients were divided into three groups of 50. Group 1 were treated with on-demand dapoxetine (30 mg, Group 2 with on-demand dapoxetine (60 mg and Group 3 with daily paroxetine (20 mg. Our outcome measurement was increased from baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT after treatment. The IELT increased from baseline to posttreatment by 117%, 117% and 170% in the paroxetine group (P 0.05, while the 60 mg dapoxetine group had a larger posttreatment IELT increase compared with the 30 mg dapoxetine (P < 0.05 and paroxetine (P < 0.01 groups. Dapoxetine (60 mg 1-3 h before planned intercourse is a very effective treatment modality for PE. However, an on-demand dose of 30 mg dapoxetine is no more effective than the currently prescribed paroxetine treatment.

  10. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  11. MIV-150-containing intravaginal rings protect macaque vaginal explants against SHIV-RT infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Louise A; Barnable, Patrick; Mawson, Paul; Seidor, Samantha; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Fernández-Romero, José A; Cooney, Michael L; Roberts, Kevin D; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Robbiani, Melissa; Teleshova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that intravaginal rings (IVRs) containing 100 mg of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 significantly protect macaques against a chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus that expresses the HIV-1 HxB2 reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) when present before and after vaginal challenge. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the pharmacodynamics (PD) of MIV-150 in vaginal fluids (VF) and in ectocervical and vaginal tissues following 100-mg MIV-150 IVR exposure and to (ii) gain more insight whether pharmacokinetics (PK) of MIV-150 can predict PD. MIV-150 in VF collected at 1 day and 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection in vaginal biopsy specimens from untreated animals (not carrying IVRs) in a dose-dependent manner. Previous PK studies demonstrated a significant increase of ectocervical and vaginal tissue MIV-150 concentrations 14 days versus 1 day post-IVR insertion, with the highest increase in vaginal tissue. Therefore, we tested PD of MIV-150 in tissues 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion. Ex vivo SHIV-RT infection of vaginal, but not ectocervical, tissues collected 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion was significantly inhibited compared to infection at the baseline (prior to MIV-150 IVR exposure). No changes in vaginal and ectocervical tissue infection were observed after placebo IVR exposure. Overall, these data underscore the use of the ex vivo macaque explant challenge models to evaluate tissue and VF PK/PD of candidate microbicides before in vivo animal efficacy studies. The data support further development of MIV-150-containing IVRs.

  12. Gluteo-vaginal sinus formation complicating posterior intravaginal slingplasty followed by successful IVS removal. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikos, Themistoklis; Tsalikis, Tryfon; Papanikolaou, Alexios; Pournaropoulos, Fotios; Bontis, John N

    2008-03-01

    Posterior intravaginal slingplasty (IVS) is a technique used for the treatment of apical prolapse. Type III meshes have been mostly used with this technique. In this article, a case of bilateral gluteo-vaginal sinus tract formation that complicated a posterior vaginal slingplasty with a type III mesh is presented. At 3 months follow-up, the patient complained for bulking through the vagina, continuous offensive vaginal discharge, and constant pain at the buttocks. She had prolapse recurrence, and there was defective healing at the gluteal entry points of the posterior IVS. Ten months after the initial surgery, she underwent a laparotomic subtotal hysterectomy and sacrocervicopexy with prolene type I mesh. At the same time, the posterior mesh was removed allowing the surgeon to discover communication of the canal of the mesh extending from gluteal incisions to the vagina epithelium. The sinus tract was managed surgically with excision of the surrounding tissues. There was no recurrence or other complications at 2 months follow-up.

  13. Different amounts of ejaculatory activity, a natural rewarding behavior, induce differential mu and delta opioid receptor internalization in the rat's ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-12-06

    Opioid receptors internalize upon specific agonist stimulation. The in vivo significance of receptor internalization is not well established, partly due to the limited in vivo models used to study this phenomenon. Ejaculation promotes endogenous opioid release which activates opioid receptors at the brain, including the mesolimbic system and medial preoptic area. The objective of the present work was to analyze if there was a correlation between the degree of in vivo mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) internalization in the ventral tegmental area and the execution of different amounts of ejaculatory behavior of male rats. To this aim, we analyzed the brains of rats that ejaculated once or six successive times and of sexually exhausted rats with an established sexual inhibition, using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results showed that MOR and DOR internalization increased as a consequence of ejaculation. There was a relationship between the amount of sexual activity executed and the degree of internalization for MOR, but not for DOR. MOR internalization was larger in rats that ejaculated repeatedly than in animals ejaculating only once. Significant DOR internalization was found only in animals ejaculating once. Changes in MOR, DOR and beta arrestin2 detection, associated to sexual activity, were also found. It is suggested that copulation to satiety might be useful as a model system to study the biological significance of receptor internalization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Safety and pharmacokinetics of dapivirine delivery from matrix and reservoir intravaginal rings to HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene; Smythe, Shanique; Young, Katherine; Malcolm, Karl; McCoy, Clare; Rosenberg, Zeda; Romano, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Vaginal microbicides for the prevention of HIV transmission may be an important option for protecting women from infection. Incorporation of dapivirine, a lead candidate nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery may increase microbicide product adherence and efficacy compared with conventional vaginal formulations. Twenty-four healthy HIV-negative women 18-35 years of age were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to dapivirine matrix IVR, dapivirine reservoir IVR, or placebo IVR. Dapivirine concentrations were measured in plasma and vaginal fluid samples collected at sequential time points over the 33-day study period (28 days of IVR use, 5 days of follow-up). Safety was assessed by pelvic/colposcopic examinations, clinical laboratory tests, and adverse events. Both IVR types were safe and well tolerated with similar adverse events observed in the placebo and dapivirine groups. Dapivirine from both IVR types was successfully distributed throughout the lower genital tract at concentrations over 4 logs greater than the EC50 against wild-type HIV-1 (LAI) in MT4 cells. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were significantly higher with the matrix than reservoir IVR. Mean plasma concentrations of dapivirine were <2 ng/mL. These findings suggest that IVR delivery of microbicides is a viable option meriting further study.

  15. Effect of body condition score and reuse of progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices on conception rate following timed artificial insemination in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L L; Ferreira, A P; Vale, W G; Serique, L R; Neves, Kal; Morini, A C; Monteiro, B M; Minervino, Ahh

    2018-06-01

    This study had the aim of investigating the efficiency of timed artificial insemination (TAI) through the progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID), used in new condition and for the second and third times in Nelore cows. The effects of device reuse and body condition score (BCS) on the conception rate (CR) were evaluated in 1,122 multiparous Nelore cows (mean BCS of 2.7 ± 0.4), which were randomly distributed into three groups that received new (n = 330), once (n = 439) and twice used (n = 353) PRID. Among the 1,122 females that underwent TAI, 573 became pregnant, thus representing an overall CR of 51.06%. Cows with BCS between 2.75 and 4.0 had greater (p conditions, animals with BCS greater than 2.5 had a higher CR, and the CR decreased proportionally with the number of times that the PRID had been used. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of serum d-Norgestrel in women following oral and intravaginal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Hiroi, M.; Goebelsmann, U.; Brenner, P.F.; Lumkin, M.E.; Mishell, D.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for measuring d-Norgestrel (d-Ng) in serum has been developed utilizing petroleum ether extraction, an antiserum raised against d-Norgestrel-3-(0-carboxymethyl) oxime-epsilon-aminocaproic acid--boxine serum albumin, d-Norgestrel-3-(0-carboxymethyl) imino-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine, and dextran-coated charcoal separation. Control serum blanks were undetectable, 6 pg of d-Ng was measurable in 0.1 ml of serum with a high reliability, and intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.4 and 4.9 percent, respectively. d-Ng added to control serum was quantitatively recovered. This RIA proved to be highly specific for d-Ng, cross-reacting less than 0.01 percent with 1-Ng and some 4 to 8 percent with 5α- and 5β-tetrahydro-d-Ng. Serum d-Ng levels measured in 3 women after ingestion of 75 μg of dl-Ng rose to 1.5 to 2 ng/ml within 1/2 to 2-3 hours after oral intake and fell rapidly thereafter to 0.2 to 0.4 ng/ml within 24 hours. Insertion of Silastic intravaginal rings (IVRs), containing 50 or 100 mg of dl-Ng, into 3 women for periods of 3 weeks resulted in a rapid rise of serum d-Ng after insertion. Serum d-Ng levels were highest 24 to 48 hours after the first insertion of each IVR, reaching peak levels of about 5 and 7 to 11 ng/ml, respectively, and declined gradually during the ensuing 15 to 20 days to some 30 to 40 percent of the peak serum d-Ng concentration. Serum d-Ng levels attained after IVR reinsertion remained relatively constant at 1 to 3 ng/ml during each subsequent cycle in all subjects and fell rapidly after each IVR removal. Serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations, measured about 3 times a week in these patients, indicated that ovulation was consistently inhibited

  17. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not associated with serum testosterone levels in this study; thus, routine androgen evaluation is not indicated in these men. This large systematic analysis attempted to objectively assess the ejaculation latency in men with self

  18. A novel intravaginal ring to prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, HPV, and unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaonkar, Shweta R; Wesenberg, Asa; Wilk, Jolanta; Seidor, Samantha; Mizenina, Olga; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Zhang, Shimin; Levendosky, Keith; Kenney, Jessica; Aravantinou, Meropi; Derby, Nina; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Kumar, Narender; Roberts, Kevin; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M

    2015-09-10

    Women urgently need a self-initiated, multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that simultaneously reduces their risk of acquiring HIV-1, HSV-2, and HPV (latter two associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition) and prevents unintended pregnancy. Here, we describe a novel core-matrix intravaginal ring (IVR), the MZCL IVR, which effectively delivered the MZC combination microbicide and a contraceptive. The MZCL IVR contains four active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): MIV-150 (targets HIV-1), zinc acetate (ZA; targets HIV-1 and HSV-2), carrageenan (CG; targets HPV and HSV-2), and levonorgestrel (LNG; targets unintended pregnancy). The elastomeric IVR body (matrix) was produced by hot melt extrusion of the non-water swellable elastomer, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA-28), containing the hydrophobic small molecules, MIV-150 and LNG. The solid hydrophilic core, embedded within the IVR by compression, contained the small molecule ZA and the macromolecule CG. Hydrated ZA/CG from the core was released by diffusion via a pore on the IVR while the MIV-150/LNG diffused from the matrix continuously for 94 days (d) in vitro and up to 28 d (study period) in macaques. The APIs released in vitro and in vivo were active against HIV-1ADA-M, HSV-2, and HPV16 PsV in cell-based assays. Serum LNG was at levels associated with local contraceptive effects. The results demonstrate proof-of-concept of a novel core-matrix IVR for sustained and simultaneous delivery of diverse molecules for the prevention of HIV, HSV-2 and HPV acquisition, as well as unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurman AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Ries Thurman, Meredith R Clark, Jennifer Hurlburt, Gustavo F Doncel CONRAD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs. IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not

  20. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  1. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  2. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction: II. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Gruenwald, Ilan; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Lowenstein, Lior; Pyke, Robert E; Reisman, Yakov; Revicki, Dennis A; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio

    2016-12-01

    The second article in this series, Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction, focuses on measurement of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Together with the design of appropriate phase I to phase IV clinical trials, the development, validation, choice, and implementation of valid PRO measurements-the focus of the present article-form the foundation of research on treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions. PRO measurements are assessments of any aspect of a patient's health status that come directly from the patient (ie, without the interpretation of the patient's responses by a physician or anyone else). PROs are essential for assessing male and female sexual dysfunction and treatment response, including symptom frequency and severity, personal distress, satisfaction, and other measurements of sexual and general health-related quality of life. Although there are some relatively objective measurements of sexual dysfunction (ie, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, frequency of sexual activity, etc), these measurements do not comprehensively assess the occurrence and extent of sexual dysfunction or treatment on the patient's symptoms, functioning, and well-being. Data generated by a PRO instrument can provide evidence of a treatment benefit from the patient's perspective. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfonate-modified phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles as a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics: improved stability, mucin-dependent release and effective intravaginal placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ChunYan; Huang, ZhiGang; Liu, ZheShuo; Ci, LiQian; Liu, ZhePeng; Liu, Yu; Yan, XueYing; Lu, WeiYue

    Effective interaction between mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and mucin is the basis of effective local placement of drugs to play its therapeutic role after mucosal administration including vaginal use, which especially requires prolonged drug presence for the treatment of gynecological infectious diseases. Our previous report on phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles (PBNPs) demonstrated their strong interaction with mucin and mucin-sensitive release profiles of the model protein therapeutics interferon (IFN) in vitro, but their poor stability and obvious tendency to aggregate over time severely limited future application. In this study, sulfonate-modified PBNPs (PBNP-S) were designed as a stable mucoadhesive drug delivery system where the negative charges conferred by sulfonate groups prevented aggregation of nanoparticles and the phenylboronic acid groups ensured effective interaction with mucin over a wide pH range. Results suggested that PBNP-S were of spherical morphology with narrow size distribution (123.5 nm, polydispersity index 0.050), good stability over a wide pH range and 3-month storage and considerable in vitro mucoadhesion capability at vaginal pH as shown by mucin adsorption determination. IFN could be loaded to PBNP-S by physical adsorption with high encapsulation efficiency and released in a mucin-dependent manner in vitro. In vivo near-infrared fluorescent whole animal imaging and quantitative vaginal lavage followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay of IFN demonstrated that PBNP-S could stay in the vagina and maintain intravaginal IFN level for much longer time than IFN solution (24 hours vs several hours) without obvious histological irritation to vaginal mucosa after vaginal administration to mice. In summary, good stability, easy loading and controllable release of protein therapeutics, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesive properties and local safety of PBNP-S suggested it as a promising nanoscale mucoadhesive drug delivery

  5. A long-acting integrase inhibitor protects female macaques from repeated high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Yueh, Yun Lan; Spreen, William R; St Bernard, Leslie; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Rodriguez, Kristina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Ford, Susan; Mohri, Hiroshi; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2015-01-14

    Long-acting GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) is a strand transfer inhibitor of the HIV/SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) integrase and was shown to be an effective preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent in a low-dose intrarectal SHIV (simian-human immunodeficiency virus) rhesus macaque challenge model. We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. When Depo-Provera-treated female rhesus macaques were dosed with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) monthly, systemic and tissue drug concentrations were lower than previously observed in male rhesus macaques. GSK744 concentrations were fivefold lower on average in cervical tissues than in rectal tissues. Eight female rhesus macaques were treated with GSK744 LA at week 0, and four female rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals received a high-dose challenge of SHIV162P3 at week 1. No infection was detected in GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques, whereas viremia was detected 1 to 2 weeks after SHIV challenge in all control animals. The GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were given a second administration of drug at week 4 and further challenged at weeks 5 and 7. GSK744 LA treatment protected six of eight female rhesus macaques against three high-dose SHIV challenges, whereas all control animals became infected after the first challenge (P = 0.0003, log-rank test). These results support further clinical development of GSK744 LA for PrEP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Premature ejaculation results from partners' mismatch: development and validation of index of intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Wen, Y; Jiang, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, B

    2016-05-01

    Mismatch of partners in premature ejaculation (PE) regarding intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is usually neglected. Here we proposed the concept and evaluated the use of index of IELT (IIELT) as an objective diagnostic tool for PE. Data from 103 self-reporting PE patients and 59 normal controls were collected. The expected IELTs of both the male and female partners were provided by each participating couple in two questionnaires. IIELT=stopwatch IELT/(1/2 the male's expected IELT+1/2 the female's expected IELT). The stopwatch IELTs were 1.74±1.4 min (PE group) and 14.45±11.0 min (control group), PIELTs were 15.65±8.7 min (men) and 14.16±6.9 min (women) in the PE group, and 21.3±16.1 min (men) and 20.04±13.47 min (women) in the control group, P<0.05. The calculated IIELTs were 0.14±0.12 (PE group) and 0.83±0.60 (control group), P<0.05. The best cut-off point was 0.658, the Youden index was 0.652, sensitivity was 0.991, specificity was 0.661, positive predictive probability was 83.46% and negative predictive probability was 97.6%. We concluded that IIELT was an integrated measurement of the couples' sexual equilibrium and demonstrated that it provided a simple and objective screening indicator for diagnosing self-reported PE.

  8. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated with M. whitei and E. capensis, aloe and pumpkin seeds showing an increase in sexual performance in terms of intromissions and ejaculatory latency which also improved sexual sensation and coupulatory efficiency. The formulations of plants under investigation showed significant aphrodisiac properties.

  9. Prospective, Randomized, Multinational Study of Prostatic Urethral Lift Versus Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, Jens; Barber, Neil J; Speakman, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered the gold standard for male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, TURP may lead to sexual dysfunction and incontinence, and has a long recovery period. Prostatic urethral...... lift (PUL) is a treatment option that may overcome these limitations. OBJECTIVE: To compare PUL to TURP with regard to LUTS improvement, recovery, worsening of erectile and ejaculatory function, continence and safety (BPH6). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial...... at 10 European centers involving 80 men with BPH LUTS. INTERVENTION: PUL or TURP. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The BPH6 responder endpoint assesses symptom relief, quality of recovery, erectile function preservation, ejaculatory function preservation, continence preservation...

  10. Validity of the patient-reported Clinical Global Impression of Change as a measure of treatment response in men with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; Brock, Gerald B; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Aquilina, Joseph W; Rothman, Margaret; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Bull, Scott

    2010-06-01

    The Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) measures have high utility in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether the CGIC is valued for assessing premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms and/or the relationship between CGIC and other validated PE patient-reported measures. The study aims to assess the validity of the patient-reported CGIC measure in men with PE and to examine the relationship between CGIC ratings and assessments of control, satisfaction, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Data from a randomized, double-blind, 24-week phase 3 trial in 1,162 men with PE who received dapoxetine (30 mg or 60 mg) or placebo on demand provided the basis for the analysis. Patients were ≥18 years, in a stable monogamous relationship for ≥6 months, met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for PE for ≥6 months, and had an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤2 minutes in ≥75% of intercourse episodes. The CGIC asked patients to rate improvement or worsening of their PE compared with the start of the study using a 7-point response scale; other patient-reported measures were control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, interpersonal difficulty, and personal distress related to ejaculation. Stopwatch-measured IELT was recorded. Associations between CGIC and change in other measures at study end point were assessed. The magnitude of IELT increased for each category of improvement on the CGIC: 1.63, 4.03, and 7.15 minutes for slightly better, better, and much better, respectively. Higher CGIC ratings were correlated with greater improvement in control (r = 0.73), satisfaction (r = 0.62), greater reduction in distress (r = -0.52), and interpersonal difficulty (r = -0.39). Total variance accounted for was 57.4%: control (48.7%), satisfaction (4.5%), IELT (2.8%), and distress (1.15%). The analyses support the validity of the CGIC measure in men with PE. The CGIC

  11. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  12. Intravaginal cytomegalovirus (CMV challenge elicits maternal viremia and results in congenital transmission in a guinea pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleiss Mark R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare intravaginal (ivg and subcutaneous (sc administration of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV in pregnant and non-pregnant guinea pigs. These studies tested the hypotheses that ivg infection would elicit immune responses, produce maternal viremia, and lead to vertical transmission, with an efficiency similar to the traditionally employed sc route. Results Four groups of age- and size-matched guinea pigs were studied. Two groups were pregnant, and two groups were not pregnant. Animals received 5x105 plaque-forming units (PFU of a GPCMV reconstituted from an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC construct containing the full-length GPCMV genome. Seroconversion was compared by IgG ELISA, and viremia (DNAemia was monitored by PCR. In both pregnant and non-pregnant animals, sc inoculation resulted in significantly higher serum ELISA titers than ivg inoculation at 8 and 12 weeks post-infection. Patterns of viremia (DNAemia were similar in animals inoculated by either sc or ivg route. However, in pregnant guinea pigs, animals inoculated by both routes experienced an earlier onset of DNAemia than did non-pregnant animals. Neither the percentage of dead pups nor the percentage of GPCMV positive placentas differed by inoculation route. Conclusions In the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection, the ivg route is as efficient at causing congenital infection as the conventional but non-physiologic sc route. This finding could facilitate future experimental evaluation of vaccines and antiviral interventions in this highly relevant animal model.

  13. Investigating the feasibility of temperature-controlled accelerated drug release testing for an intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R; Klein, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if temperature can be utilized to accelerate drug release from Nuvaring®, a reservoir type intravaginal ring based on polyethylene vinyl acetate copolymer that releases a constant dose of contraceptive steroids over a duration of 3 weeks. The reciprocating holder apparatus (USP 7) was utilized to determine real-time and accelerated etonogestrel release from ring segments. It was demonstrated that drug release increased with increasing temperature which can be attributed to enhanced drug diffusion. An Arrhenius relationship of the zero-order release constants was established, indicating that temperature is a valid parameter to accelerate drug release from this dosage form and that the release mechanism is maintained under these accelerated test conditions. Accelerated release tests are particularly useful for routine quality control to assist during batch release of extended release formulations that typically release the active over several weeks, months or even years, since they can increase the product shelf life. The accelerated method should therefore be able to discriminate between formulations with different release characteristics that can result from normal manufacturing variance. In the case of Nuvaring®, it is well known that the process parameters during the extrusion process strongly influence the polymeric structure. These changes in the polymeric structure can affect the permeability which, in turn, is reflected in the release properties. Results from this study indicate that changes in the polymeric structure can lead to a different temperature dependence of the release rate, and as a consequence, the accelerated method can become less sensitive to detect changes in the release properties. When the accelerated method is utilized during batch release, it is therefore important to take this possible restriction into account and to evaluate the accelerated method with samples from non

  14. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-02-01

    The intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) behaves in a skewed manner and needs the appropriate statistics for correct interpretation of treatment results. To explain the rightful use of geometrical mean IELT values and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT because of the positively skewed IELT distribution. Linking theoretical arguments to the outcome of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and modern antidepressant study results. Geometric mean IELT and fold increase of geometrical mean IELT. Log-transforming each separate IELT measurement of each individual man is the basis for the calculation of the geometric mean IELT. A drug-induced positively skewed IELT distribution necessitates the calculation of the geometric mean IELTs at baseline and during drug treatment. In a positively skewed IELT distribution, the use of the "arithmetic" mean IELT risks an overestimation of the drug-induced ejaculation delay as the mean IELT is always higher than the geometric mean IELT. Strong ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to a strong positively skewed IELT distribution, whereas weak ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to (much) less skewed IELT distributions. Ejaculation delay is expressed in fold increase of the geometric mean IELT. Drug-induced ejaculatory performance discloses a positively skewed IELT distribution, requiring the use of the geometric mean IELT and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT.

  15. An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the

  16. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second international society for sexual medicine ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  17. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-07-01

    Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. To provide a definition for lifelong premature ejaculation that is based on epidemiological evidence including the neurobiological and psychological approach. We used the 0.5 and 2.5 percentiles as accepted standards of disease definition in a skewed distribution. We applied these percentiles in a stopwatch-determined intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of 491 nonselected men from five different countries. The practical consequences of 0.5% and 2.5% cutoff points for disease definition were taken into consideration by reviewing current knowledge of feelings of control and satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory performance of the general male population. Literature arguments to be used in a proposed consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation. The stopwatch-determined IELT distribution is positively skewed. The 0.5 percentile equates to an IELT of 0.9 minute and the 2.5 percentile an IELT of 1.3 minutes. However, there are no available data in the literature on feelings of control or satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory latency time in the general male population. Random male cohort studies are needed to end all speculation on this subject. Exact stopwatch time assessment of IELT in a multinational study led us to propose that all men with an IELT of less than 1 minute (belonging to the 0.5 percentile) have "definite" premature ejaculation, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes (between 0.5 and 2.5 percentile) have "probable" premature ejaculation. Severity of premature ejaculation (nonsymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe) should be defined in terms of associated psychological problems. We define lifelong premature ejaculation as a neurobiological dysfunction with an unacceptable increase of risk to

  18. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, J.F.; Abalos, M.C.; Acuña, F.A.; Virgili, R.; Requena, F.; Cancino, A.K.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i) DIB 0.5® and ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD) number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05) by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively). In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas. (Author)

  19. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafuri Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE, also referred to as early ejaculation (EE or rapid ejaculation (RE, affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of premature ejaculation. A randomized double blind study of fixed dose on-demand use of citalopram was performed in Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was consisted of 80 married patients diagnosed with PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients received 20mg citalopram, and group 2 consisting of 38 patients received placebo four hours before intercourse for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of treatment course. The mean IELT increased from 66.78±36.94 to 80.85±43.05 seconds in group 1 and from 63.44±33.16 to 65.71±34.26 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.000. Mean CIPE score increased 1.14±1.04 and 0.52±0.50 in group 1 and 2 respectively (P = 0.002. The patients treated with on demand citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in IELT and CIPE score compared to the patients receiving placebo. It seems that citalopram may be an effective treatment of premature ejaculation with on-demand usage. However further studies are warranted.

  20. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the efficacy of circumcision for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J-D; Jiang, H-S; Zhu, L-L; Zhang, Z; Chen, H; Dai, Y-T

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and mechanism of circumcision in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) with redundant prepuce, we enrolled a total of 81 PE patients who received circumcision. The patients' ejaculatory ability and sexual performances were evaluated before and after circumcision by using questionnaires (Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), Chinese Index of PE with 5 questions (CIPE-5) and International Index of Erectile function- 5 (IIEF-5)). Furthermore, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) including dorsal nerve (DNSEP) and glans penis (GPSEP) of the patients were also measured. The mean IELTs of preoperation and post operation were 1.10±0.55 and 2.48±2.03 min, respectively (PIELT after operation was 2.16 min, compared with the baseline 1.07 min before the operation, the fold increase of the IELT was 2.02. Compared with the uncircumcised status, scores of CIPE-5 showed a significant increase after circumcision (P<0.001). The mean latencies (and amplitudes) of GPSEP and DNSEP were 38.1±4.0 ms (3.0±1.9 uV) and 40.5±3.4 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) before circumcision, respectively; and 42.8±3.3 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) and 40.5±4.1 ms (2.4±1.2 uV) in the follow-up end point after circumcision. Only the latencies of GPSEP showed significant prolongation before and after circumcision (P<0.001). The ejaculation time improvement after circumcision is so small, and equal to placebo response, therefore it could not be interpreted as a therapeutic method in men with PE.

  1. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety of Pod-Intravaginal Rings Delivering the Monoclonal Antibody VRC01-N for HIV Prophylaxis in a Macaque Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunxia; Gunawardana, Manjula; Villinger, Francois; Baum, Marc M; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Moench, Thomas R; Zeitlin, Larry; Whaley, Kevin J; Bohorov, Ognian; Smith, Thomas J; Anderson, Deborah J; Moss, John A

    2017-07-01

    The broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) VRC01, capable of neutralizing 91% of known human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates in vitro , is a promising candidate microbicide for preventing sexual HIV infection when administered topically to the vagina; however, accessibility to antibody-based prophylactic treatment by target populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other underdeveloped regions may be limited by the high cost of conventionally produced antibodies and the limited capacity to manufacture such antibodies. Intravaginal rings of the pod design (pod-IVRs) delivering Nicotiana -manufactured VRC01 (VRC01-N) over a range of release rates have been developed. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety of VRC01-N pod-IVRs were evaluated in a rhesus macaque model. The devices sustained VRC01-N release for up to 21 days at controlled rates, with mean steady-state VRC01-N levels in vaginal fluids in the range of 10 2 to 10 3 μg g -1 being correlated with in vitro release rates. No adverse safety indications were observed. These findings indicate that pod-IVRs are promising devices for the delivery of the candidate topical microbicide VRC01-N against HIV-1 infection and merit further preclinical evaluation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Relationship between non-genital tender point tenderness and intra-vaginal muscle pain intensity: Ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, Nancy; BROWN, Candace; BACHMANN, Gloria; WAN, Jim; WOOD, Ronald; ULRICH, Dagny; BACHOUR, Candi; FOSTER, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder; both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intra-vaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps to define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these two conditions. Objective 1) correlate pain intensity during the non-genital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, 2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. Study Design Ninety-two subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (Numerical rating scale> 1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point non-genital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intra-vaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of non-genital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance

  4. March 2010 Final for Publicat...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    in men with azoospermia due to ejaculatory duct obstruction or to congenital absence of the seminal vesicles. One-third of azoospermics have obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts and 10% of azoospermics have congenital absence of the seminal vesicle. Our study shows that TCSF correlates strongly with motile density in ...

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P effects were not consistently assessed but where reported were generally mild. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and topical severance secret cream in improving IELT and other outcomes. However, results are based on clinically

  6. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M; Fredricks, David N; Roberts, Pacita L; Czaja, Christopher A; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E

    2011-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among women and frequently recur. Depletion of vaginal lactobacilli is associated with UTI risk, which suggests that repletion may be beneficial. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (Lactin-V; Osel) for prevention of recurrent UTI in premenopausal women. One hundred young women with a history of recurrent UTI received antimicrobials for acute UTI and then were randomized to receive either Lactin-V or placebo daily for 5 d, then once weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were followed up at 1 week and 10 weeks after intervention and for UTIs; urine samples for culture and vaginal swabs for real-time quantitative 16S ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction for L. crispatus were collected. Recurrent UTI occurred in 7/48 15% of women receiving Lactin-V compared with 13/48 27% of women receiving placebo (relative risk [RR], .5; 95% confidence interval, .2-1.2). High-level vaginal colonization with L. crispatus (≥10(6) 16S RNA gene copies per swab) throughout follow-up was associated with a significant reduction in recurrent UTI only for Lactin-V (RR for Lactin-V, .07; RR for placebo, 1.1; P < .01). Lactin-V after treatment for cystitis is associated with a reduction in recurrent UTI. Larger efficacy trials of this novel preventive method for recurrent UTI are warranted. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION. NCT00305227.

  7. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID containing the same dose (0.5 g of progesterone (P4 on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0 with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i DIB 0.5® and ii Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9 and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05 by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively. In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas.

  8. Circulating progesterone dynamics after intravaginal instillation of prostaglandin-F2α to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Giordano, J O

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate circulating progesterone (P4) concentration dynamics and test the feasibility of inducing luteal regression after intravaginal (IVG) instillation of the PGF2α analogue dinoprost (PGF) in lactating dairy cows. In two experiments, cows were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol to induce the formation of a corpus luteum (CL). Cows with at least one functional (P4 ≥1 ng/mL) CL ≥15 mm 7.5 days after Ovsynch remained in the studies. In experiment 1, cows (n = 31) were stratified by parity group and received 5 mL of saline IVG (SAL-IVG, n = 6), 25 mg of PGF intramuscular (IM) (PGF25-IM, n = 7), 25 mg of PGF IVG (PGF25-IVG, n = 6), 50 mg of PGF IVG (PGF50-IVG, n = 6), and 125 mg of PGF IVG (PGF125-IVG, n = 6). Experiment 2 was conducted to test the hypothesis that IVG instillation of two 25 mg doses of PGF 12 hours apart would be more effective than a 25- or 50-mg dose in a single application. Cows (n = 32) were stratified by parity and received SAL-IVG (n = 7), PGF25-IM (n = 7), PGF25-IVG (n = 6), and PGF50-IVG (n = 6) as in experiment 1, whereas another group received two IVG instillations of 25 mg of PGF 12 hours apart (PGF25-2X-IVG, n = 6). Blood was collected at -1 hour, every 6 hours from 0 hour to 24 hours, and every 12 hours up to 96 hours after treatment (trt). In experiment 1, there was an effect of trt (P cows in the SAL-IVG group from 12 to 96 hours after trt. Although an initial decline in P4 concentrations was induced in all PGF-treated cows, some cows in the IVG-treated groups presented a rebound in plasma P4, indicating CL recovery. More cows in the PGF25-IVG and PGF125-IVG groups than in the PGF50-IVG and PGF25-IM groups presented CL recovery, suggesting that greater doses of PGF may not necessarily improve CL regression. In experiment 2, there was an effect of trt (P Cows in the PGF25-2X-IVG group had a P4 profile that was similar to that of cows in the PGF25-IM group and

  9. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm 2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P pain

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE PROGESTERONA INTRAVAGINAL POST INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL PARA REDUCIR LA MUERTE EMBRIONARIA EN VACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio Macias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la administración de un dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona post IATF sobre la reducción de la muerte embrionaria, el cual se aplicó siete días después de la inseminación. Se utilizaron 40 vacas de aptitud cárnica de cruza mestiza Senangus x Brahman de dos-cuatro partos. Se realizó ecografía transrectal (Aquilla Vet 7.5 MHZ previo a la sincronización. Se efectuó el inicio de ésta con el dispositivo CIDR 1.38 g progesterona. Después de siete días de la inseminación se colocó el dispositivo usado a 20 animales tratamiento y se lo mantuvo durante 10 días. Se realizó tomas de muestras de sangre para medir los niveles de P4. Estas fueron tomadas a cinco animales del grupo tratamiento en el día que se reinsertó el dispositivo, 5 días después y al retiro. Las muestras revelaron niveles altos de progesterona que oscilaron entre 7.87 hasta 19.4 ng/mL. Se diagnosticó gestación a los 30 y 60 días. Se realizó un análisis costo beneficio al tratamiento. En los resultados se encontró una relación entre los tratamientos y la preñez a los 30 días (p=0.053; la relación del costo beneficio se manifestó económicamente viable con la aplicación de progesterona, ya que por cada dólar invertido se genera como ganancia 23 ctvs de dólar. Se concluye que la aplicación de progesterona reduce la muerte embrionaria hasta los 30 días post inseminación.

  11. Sulfonate-modified phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles as a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics: improved stability, mucin-dependent release and effective intravaginal placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CY

    2016-11-01

    IFN demonstrated that PBNP-S could stay in the vagina and maintain intravaginal IFN level for much longer time than IFN solution (24 hours vs several hours without obvious histological irritation to vaginal mucosa after vaginal administration to mice. In summary, good stability, easy loading and controllable release of protein therapeutics, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesive properties and local safety of PBNP-S suggested it as a promising nanoscale mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics. Keywords: mucoadhesion, phenylboronic acid, stability, controlled-release, protein therapeutics, nanoparticles

  12. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. A novel treatment modality in patients with premature ejaculation resistant to conventional methods: the neuromodulation of dorsal penile nerves by pulsed radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal, Seref; Goktas, Serdar; Ergin, Atilla; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Atim, Abdulkadir; Tahmaz, Lutfi; Dayanc, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem experienced by men, and it affects 20%-30% of them. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective treatment for a wide range of pain conditions. We used PRF to treat PE by desensitizing dorsal penile nerves in patients resistant to conventional treatments. Fifteen patients with a lifelong history of PE, defined as an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of IELT and sexual satisfaction score (SSS; for patients and their partners) were obtained. The mean IELTs before and 3 weeks after procedure were 18.5 +/- 17.9 and 139.9 +/- 55.1 seconds, respectively. Side effects did not occur. Mean SSSs of patients before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5, and mean SSSs of partners before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively. In all cases, IELT and SSS were significantly increased (P < .05). None of the patients or their wives reported any treatment failure during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 +/- 1.9 months. It is early to conclude that this new treatment modality might be used widely for the treatment of PE; however, because it is an innovative modality, placebo-controlled studies (eg, sham procedure), with larger numbers of patients and including assessment of penile sensitivity (eg, biothesiometry), are needed.

  14. [Efficacy of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-xin; Lu, Qing-ge

    2015-05-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 120 patients with secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE were randomly assigned to groups A (aged [35.5 ± 5.4] yr), B (aged [36.2 ± 5.7] yr), and C (aged [35.2 ± 5.3] yr) in the ratio of 1:1:1 to receive Qilin Pills (once 6 g, bid), sertraline (once 50 mg, qd), and Qilin Pills plus sertraline, respectively, all for 4 weeks. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were obtained before and after medication and at 1 month after drug withdrawal, and comparative analyses were made among the three groups of patients. The IELT was dramatically prolonged in groups A, B, and C after treatment ([3.23 ± 1.84], [3.87 ± 2.43], and [5.92 ± 3.11] min) and at 1 month after drug withdrawal ([1.85 ± 1.27], [1.52 ± 1.06], and [ 4.26 ± 1.88 ] min) as compared with the baseline ([0.88 ± 0.45], [0.84 ± 0.47], and [0.85 ± 0.50] min) (P Pills combined with sertraline has a definite efficacy in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE and therefore deserves wide clinical application.

  15. Ovarian dynamics in response to two modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocols designed for use in Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Atkinson, P C; Satake, N; Boe-Hansen, G; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the ovarian response of Brahman heifers to two modified ovulation synchronisation protocols developed to increase the proportion of normal synchronous ovulations. Experiment 1 characterised the growth of the ovulatory follicle in heifers (n=19) treated with an intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) and oestradiol benzoate (ODB), to determine the optimal time to induce ovulation. Using the findings from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 investigated the effect of reducing the duration of IPRD insertion and increasing the interval from IPRD removal to ODB treatment (modified protocol 1 - OPO-6; n=20), and omitting ODB treatment at the time of IPRD insertion (modified protocol 2 - PO-6; n=20). An IPRD (0.78 g progesterone) was inserted at Day 0 (OPO-8) or Day 2 (OPO-6 and PO-6) and all heifers also received 1 mg ODB i.m. Day 8: IPRD removed + 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24 h (OPO-8) and 36 h (OPO-6 and PO-6) post IPRD removal: 1 mg ODB i.m. Fixed-time AI (FTAI) occurred at 54 h for OPO-8 and 72 h for OPO-6 and PO-6, post IPRD removal. After IPRD treatment all OPO-6 and OPO-8 heifers initiated a new follicular wave whereas 25% of PO-6 heifers failed. Diameter of the dominant follicle was larger at FTAI in the PO-6 (11.34 ± 0.50 mm) compared to the OPO-8 protocol (9.74 ± 0.51 mm; P<0.05), but similar to the OPO-6 protocol (10.52 ± 0.51 mm). Proportion of ovulations occurring 12 h prior and 24 h post FTAI was similar for the PO-6 (80%) and OPO-6 (75%) protocols but numerically lower in the OPO-8 heifers (60%). The apparent improvement in ovarian response in heifers treated with the modified protocols needs to be confirmed in larger field studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. AB022. The psyche of male sexual difficulties related to related to the partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikan, P. Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    routine sexual performance is the demand from wife to perform at a fixed date during the ovulation time. Significant proportion of the sexual dysfunctions are also related to the interpersonal relationship issues. Desire and frequency of sexual episodes and erectile and ejaculatory functions suffer a dip when anger, emotional injury or disappointment and frustration accumulate and linger in the couples’ relationship. Resentment works against intimacy and trust. Some men are more sensitive and averse towards partners’ body image, odor and excessive lubrication or more frequent demands for sexual intimacy. Such men tend to avoid or may fail when attempting sex with the partner. Some others are able to get full erection during self-masturbation but could not achieve erectile capacity for intravaginal intercourse or ejaculation. Some men also shut off completely their interest for sexual engagement after witnessing a spontaneous abortion or a delivery of the baby. Some other situation where men buckled themselves from engaging in sexual activity include: after being belittled about sexual performance or hinted that penis is not up to the mark in size; wife being very shy and not reciprocating sexual desire or interest or dominant in the power play; chronic illnesses, pelvic prolapse and incontinence in partner, etc. Men who are used to unusual masturbatory technique and ejaculation also find themselves suffering from intravaginal anejaculation. Each and every couples are different. Treatment approaches should be individualistic and global with sex therapy, pharmacotherapy and hormonal adjustment if necessary.

  17. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: The embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J.; Francis, Suzanna C.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. PMID:24565154

  18. Removal of foreskin remnants in circumcised adults for treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Namavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Premature ejaculation (PE is the most prevalent sexual dysfunction in every country. There are many types of treatment, but the main limitation of medical treatment for premature ejaculation is recurrence after withdrawal of medicine. The prepuce is a specific erogenous zone that contains a rich and complex network of nerves. Circumcision radically desensitizes the penis, but incomplete circumcision may cause premature ejaculation. We evaluate the effect of removal of foreskin remnants in adults on PE. Materials and Methods : The sensitive area of penile skin and the remaining parts of foreskin in adult men were recognized in 47 selective patients. Under local anesthesia, the remnant parts of foreskin were incised and removed. They were asked to fill the investigating questionnaire about the changes of intravaginal latency ejaculatory time (IVELT, patients and their sexual partners′ satisfaction with sexual life, control over ejaculation, and penile sensitivity, before and after treatment. Results : There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases after operation. IVELT significantly increased from 64.25 before surgery to 731.49 sec after surgery (P<0.001. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction in both the patient and his partner significantly increased (P<0.001. After surgery, 95.7% of men had better control over their ejaculation. This surgery significantly decreased sensitivity of penis (P<0.001, but it did not change glans penis insensitivity. Conclusions : These results indicate that removal of foreskin remnants in adults is an effective modality in selective patients of PE.

  19. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  20. A cross-sectional study of bacterial vaginosis, intravaginal practices and HIV genital shedding; implications for HIV transmission and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Chisembele, Maureen; Malupande, Emeria; Arheart, Kristopher; Fischl, Margaret; Jones, Deborah L

    2015-11-09

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission, and intravaginal practices (IVP) are an important risk factor for developing BV. The relationship between IVP, BV and HIV lower genital shedding, responsible for HIV transmission, has not been examined in women receiving antiretrovirals in Zambia. Cross-sectional study. Community Health Center in Lusaka, Zambia. Participants were HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy and engaging in IVP (n=128). Participants completed audio computer-administered self-interviews to assess IVP and underwent a vaginal examination. BV was diagnosed using Nugent criteria. HIV-1 lower genital shedding was assessed by measuring HIV-1 RNA in cervicovaginal lavages. Most women engaged in IVP daily (114, 89.0%) and 81 (63.3%) of the participants had BV. HIV-1 genital shedding was detected in 18 (14.2%) participants. BV was associated with daily use of IVP (prevalence ratio, PR=4.58, CI 1.26 to 16.64, p=0.02) and weekly use of traditional medicines for IVP (PR=1.33, CI 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.02). The only factor associated with HIV-1 lower genital shedding was plasma viraemia (PR=4.61, CI 2.02 to 10.54, pHIV shedding. Despite the frequency of IVP and high prevalence of BV, plasma viraemia was the primary factor associated with HIV lower genital shedding. These findings support early initiation of antiretrovirals as an HIV prevention tool. Given adverse health outcomes associated with BV, the association between frequent IVP and BV, and the powerful local norms and traditions encouraging IVP, there is a need for studies assessing culturally tailored interventions to decrease BV in high-prevalence settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Prostatic urethra malformation associated with retrograde ejaculation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Aiming; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-12-21

    Retrograde ejaculation can have anatomical, neurogenic, or pharmacological causes. Among these factors, malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause. We describe a 29-year-old Han Chinese man with absence of his verumontanum combined with ejaculatory duct cysts, and no other cause for ejaculatory dysfunction. His verumontanum was replaced by a deep groove adjacent to his bladder neck, which could significantly influence bladder neck contraction. In addition, the large cysts in the ejaculatory duct could obstruct the anterior outlet of his prostatic urethra and prevent seminal fluid flow in an anterograde direction. There are few reports of retrograde ejaculation associated with congenital malformations of the posterior urethra. Malformations associated with bladder neck laxity and increased tone of the prostatic urethral outlet can contribute to retrograde ejaculation. Malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause of retrograde ejaculation, and can be difficult to treat.

  2. Effects of Herbal vigRX on Premature Ejaculation: A randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghafuri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective :   "nWe conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study todetermine the efficacy of an herbal sexual supplement (vigRX on premature ejaculation (PE. Method: "nA randomized double blind study was conducted on a fixed dose of herbal vigRX at Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample consisted of 85 married patients diagnosed withprimary PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Each patient underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist, using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Each patient was evaluated by researchers to exclude the organic sexual dysfunctions. The patients were randomly assigned in to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients receiving placebo, and group 2 consisting of 43 patients receiving 540 mg herbal vigRX for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of the drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of the treatment course. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (15th version.      Results: "nThe mean IELT increased 22.4 and 32.0 seconds in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively after the treatment course. The mean IELT differences between the two groups was not significant. The mean CIPE score increased 2.40 and 4.37 in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively .The mean CIPE score differences between the two groups was not significant.No side effect was reported by the subjects in neither groups during the treatment course. "nConclusion: Although the improvement in IELT and CIPE scores in the herbal vigRX group was more than the placebo group, this difference was not statistically significant. The increasing of IELT and CIPE score in the placebo group may be due to the placebo effects. Further studies with higher vigRX doses, greater sample size

  3. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  4. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G. McMahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aimml To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994-2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1-3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged > 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all. The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg, dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg, and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg, and evaluation of validated rated scales

  5. α1-Blockers in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Is Silodosin Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Cruz, Francisco; Fusco, Ferdinando

    2017-01-01

    Available α1-blockers (ABs) have different profiles of receptor selectivity. Silodosin exhibits the highest selectivity for the α 1A adrenergic receptor. This pharmacological feature couples with a singular urodynamic and clinical profile. The magnitude of bladder outlet obstruction improvement in patients receiving silodosin is higher if compared to other ABs. From a clinical point of view, current evidence suggests an advantage in favor of silodosin in terms of nocturia improvement and cardiovascular safety. The incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction with silodosin is higher compared to other Abs.

  6. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: the embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Francis, Suzanna C

    2014-02-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  8. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  9. High resolution MR imaging of the anal sphincter using an intravaginal surface coil; Hochaufloesende Magnetresonanztomographie des Analsphinkters mit einer intravaginalen Oberflaechenspule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany); Franz, H. [Frauenklinik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany); Lobinger, B. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany); Claussen, C.D. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    MR imaging was performed using a 1.0 T unit. In 10 females (6 nullipara, one primipara without and three primipara with postpartum faecal incontinence) a surface coil, originally designed for endorectal use, was placed into the vagina. Transverse oblique T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo and double echo turbo spin echo sequences with T{sub 2}- and proton density-weighting were acquired parallel to the puborectal, rectococcygeal and anorectal planes. Three readers analysed the images in consensus. The anatomic structures of the external and internal sphincter as well as the mucosa were differentiated in all cases with a good contrast. The best results were yielded by the proton density weighting. In one case of faecal incontinence a sphincter defect after repair of a complete rupture of the anal sphincter was shown. In another case irregularities in the structure of the external sphincter and perineum were visualised. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) wurde an einem 1,0-Tesla-Geraet durchgefuehrt. Bei 10 Frauen (6 Nulliparae, eine Primipara ohne und drei Primiparae mit postpartaler Stuhlinkontinenz) wurde eine Oberflaechenspule, die urspruenglich zur endorektalen Anwendung konzipiert war, intravaginal eingefuehrt. Es wurden T{sub 1}-gewichtete Spin-Echo-Sequenzen sowie Doppel-Echo-Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequenzen mit T{sub 2}- und Protonendichtegewichtung parallel zur puborektalen, rektokokzygealen und anorektalen Ebene akquiriert. Drei Auswerter analysierten die Aufnahmen im Konsensmodus. Die anatomischen Strukturen des Musculus sphincter ani externus und internus sowie die Mukosa konnten in allen Faellen gut differenziert werden. Das beste Ergebnis wurde mit der Protonendichte-Gewichtung erzielt. In einem Fall von Stuhlinkontinenz zeigte sich ein kombinierter Defekt des M. sphincter ani internus und externus nach Naht eines Dammrisses III. Grades. In einem weiteren Fall waren Irregularitaeten im Perineum und externen Sphinkteranteil darzustellen. (orig./MG)

  10. Applied biotechnology for improving fertility of herds in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Dick, A.R.; Murray, R.; Ramos, G.; Balbiani, G.; Maciel, M.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find methods to shorten the calving to conception interval of dairy cattle in Argentina, three research projects were carried out: (1) use of hormonal treatments in the early post-partum period to increase fertility in non-cycling cows; (2) treatments to increase the fertility of cycling cows; and (3) management systems to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection. In non-cycling cows, fewer services per conception and earlier pregnancies were obtained when a progesterone suppository was placed intravaginally (PRID treatment) 24-31 days post-partum. No statistical reduction in days open was observed, however, because of the great variability in response within groups. GnRH injection given 24 and 25 days post-partum did not improve reproductive indices. In cycling cows, clitoral massage after AI did not enhance fertility, while GnRH 14 days post-service resulted in pregnancy rates of 68.4% compared with 25% in the control group. In an attempt to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection successive periods of either 10 or 14 days of 'heat' observation followed by similar periods of no observation, combined with the systematic use of an oestrus synchronizer (cloprostenol), resulted in the same reproductive performance as in control cows observed continuously but with a saving of 50% in time spent in oestrus detection. In a seasonally bred herd, a reduction of 12 days in interval to conception and subsequent improvement in milk produced in the following season were obtained by synchronizing oestrus at the start of the breeding season with a norgestomet implant followed by a prostaglandin injection one day before implant removal. In repeat breeders, a second implant 9 days and 21 days later was found to be effective. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. In vivo evaluation of a mucoadhesive polymeric caplet for intravaginal anti-HIV-1 delivery and development of a molecular mechanistic model for thermochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndesendo, Valence M K; Choonara, Yahya E; Meyer, Leith C R; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate a mucoadhesive caplet resulting from a polymeric blend (polymeric caplet) for intravaginal anti-HIV-1 delivery. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, ethylcellulose, poly(vinylalcohol), polyacrylic acid and modified polyamide 6, 10 polymers were blended and compressed to a caplet-shaped device, with and without two model drugs 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and microscopic analysis were carried out on the caplets employing temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. In vitro and in vivo drug release analyses as well as the histopathological toxicity studies were carried out on the drug-loaded caplets. Furthermore, molecular mechanics (MM) simulations were carried out on the drug-loaded caplets to corroborate the experimental findings. There was a big deviation between the Tg of the polymeric caplet from the Tg's of the constituent polymers indicating a strong interaction between constituent polymers. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of specific ionic and non-ionic interactions within the caplet. A controlled near zero-order drug release was obtained for AZT (20 d) and PSS (28 d). In vivo results, i.e. the drug concentration in plasma ranged between 0.012-0.332 mg/mL and 0.009-0.256 mg/mL for AZT and PSS over 1-28 d. The obtained results, which were corroborated by MM simulations, attested that the developed system has the potential for effective delivery of anti-HIV-agents.

  12. The 5-HT₁A receptor C(1019)G polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; van Schaik, R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-06-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and 5-HT₂C hypofunction. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT₁A receptor gene (HTR₁A)-C(1019)G promoter polymorphism and IELT in men with LPE. This polymorphism is known to increase 5-HT1A receptor expression. A prospective study was conducted in 54 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for HTR₁A gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of C and G variants of HTR₁A polymorphism were determined. Association between CC, CG, and GG genotypes and the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, HTR₁A polymorphism. In this cohort of men with LPE, the geometric mean IELT was 23.8 s. Of the 54 men, the CC, CG and GG genotype frequency for the C(1019)G polymorphism of the 5-HT₁A gene was 33%, 43% and 24%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT for the CC, CG and GG genotypes were 14.5, 27.7 and 36.0 s, respectively (p=0.019). Compared to GG and CG genotypes, men with CC genotype had a 250% and 190% shorter ejaculation time, respectively. HTR₁A gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with CC genotype have shorter IELTs than men with GG and CG genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recombinant polymorphic membrane protein D in combination with a novel, second-generation lipid adjuvant protects against intra-vaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Wayne; Brown, Naj; Brzozowski, Andrzej M; Coler, Rhea; Reed, Steve; Carter, Darrick; Bland, Martin; Kaye, Paul M; Lacey, Charles J N

    2016-07-29

    The development of a chlamydial vaccine that elicits protective mucosal immunity is of paramount importance in combatting the global spread of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infections. While the identification and prioritization of chlamydial antigens is a crucial prerequisite for efficacious vaccine design, it is likely that novel adjuvant development and selection will also play a pivotal role in the translational potential of preclinical Ct vaccines. Although the molecular nature of the immuno-modulatory component is of primary importance, adjuvant formulation and delivery systems may also govern vaccine efficacy and potency. Our study provides the first preclinical evaluation of recombinant Ct polymorphic membrane protein D (rPmpD) in combination with three different formulations of a novel second-generation lipid adjuvant (SLA). SLA was rationally designed in silico by modification of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a TLR4 agonistic precursor molecule currently in Phase II clinical development. We demonstrate robust protection against intra-vaginal Ct challenge in mice, evidenced by significantly enhanced resistance to infection and reduction in mean bacterial load. Strikingly, protection was found to correlate with the presence of robust anti-rPmpD serum and cervico-vaginal IgG titres, even in the absence of adjuvant-induced Th1-type cellular immune responses elicited by each SLA formulation, and we further show that anti-rPmpD antibodies recognize Ct EBs. These findings highlight the utility of SLA and rational molecular design of adjuvants in preclinical Ct vaccine development, but also suggest an important role for anti-rPmpD antibodies in protection against urogenital Ct infection. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel multipurpose pod-intravaginal ring for the prevention of HIV, HSV, and unintended pregnancy: Pharmacokinetic evaluation in a macaque model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James M; Moss, John A; Srinivasan, Priya; Butkyavichene, Irina; Gunawardana, Manjula; Fanter, Rob; Miller, Christine S; Sanchez, Debbie; Yang, Flora; Ellis, Shanon; Zhang, Jining; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Kapoor, Amita; Baum, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs) delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) can potentially increase product adherence by offering protection against multiple vaginally transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Here we describe a coitally independent, long-acting pod-IVR MPT that could potentially prevent HIV and HSV infection as well as unintended pregnancy. The pharmacokinetics of MPT pod-IVRs delivering tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate (TAF2) to prevent HIV, acyclovir (ACV) to prevent HSV, and etonogestrel (ENG) in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE), FDA-approved hormonal contraceptives, were evaluated in pigtailed macaques (N = 6) over 35 days. Pod IVRs were exchanged at 14 days with the only modification being lower ENG release rates in the second IVR. Plasma progesterone was monitored weekly to determine the effect of ENG/EE on menstrual cycle. The mean in vivo release rates (mg d-1) for the two formulations over 30 days ranged as follows: TAF2 0.35-0.40; ACV 0.56-0.70; EE 0.03-0.08; ENG (high releasing) 0.63; and ENG (low releasing) 0.05. Mean peak progesterone levels were 4.4 ± 1.8 ng mL-1 prior to IVR insertion and 0.075 ± 0.064 ng mL-1 for 5 weeks after insertion, suggesting that systemic EE/ENG levels were sufficient to suppress menstruation. The TAF2 and ACV release rates and resulting vaginal tissue drug concentrations (medians: TFV, 2.4 ng mg-1; ACV, 0.2 ng mg-1) may be sufficient to protect against HIV and HSV infection, respectively. This proof of principle study demonstrates that MPT-pod IVRs could serve as a potent biomedical prevention tool to protect women's sexual and reproductive health and may increase adherence to HIV PrEP even among younger high-risk populations.

  15. Novel multipurpose pod-intravaginal ring for the prevention of HIV, HSV, and unintended pregnancy: Pharmacokinetic evaluation in a macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Smith

    Full Text Available Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs can potentially increase product adherence by offering protection against multiple vaginally transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Here we describe a coitally independent, long-acting pod-IVR MPT that could potentially prevent HIV and HSV infection as well as unintended pregnancy. The pharmacokinetics of MPT pod-IVRs delivering tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate (TAF2 to prevent HIV, acyclovir (ACV to prevent HSV, and etonogestrel (ENG in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE, FDA-approved hormonal contraceptives, were evaluated in pigtailed macaques (N = 6 over 35 days. Pod IVRs were exchanged at 14 days with the only modification being lower ENG release rates in the second IVR. Plasma progesterone was monitored weekly to determine the effect of ENG/EE on menstrual cycle. The mean in vivo release rates (mg d-1 for the two formulations over 30 days ranged as follows: TAF2 0.35-0.40; ACV 0.56-0.70; EE 0.03-0.08; ENG (high releasing 0.63; and ENG (low releasing 0.05. Mean peak progesterone levels were 4.4 ± 1.8 ng mL-1 prior to IVR insertion and 0.075 ± 0.064 ng mL-1 for 5 weeks after insertion, suggesting that systemic EE/ENG levels were sufficient to suppress menstruation. The TAF2 and ACV release rates and resulting vaginal tissue drug concentrations (medians: TFV, 2.4 ng mg-1; ACV, 0.2 ng mg-1 may be sufficient to protect against HIV and HSV infection, respectively. This proof of principle study demonstrates that MPT-pod IVRs could serve as a potent biomedical prevention tool to protect women's sexual and reproductive health and may increase adherence to HIV PrEP even among younger high

  16. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  17. Relation of size of seminal vesicles on ultrasound to premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myriad biological factors have been proposed to explain premature ejaculation (PE. However, data correlating PE with seminal vesicles (SVs are sparse. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the size of SV and PE. The cross-sectional study included 44 outpatients with PE and 44 volunteers without PE, and the size of SV was compared. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the International Index of Erectile Function-15, and the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index were used for assessment of symptoms. Compared to the control group, the PE group had significantly higher mean anterior-posterior diameter (APD of SV (P < 0.001. The optimal mean APD of SV cutoff level was 9.25 mm for PE. In the PE group, PEDT was also higher with a mean APD of SV ≥9.25 mm compared with mean APD of SV <9.25 mm. PEDT was significantly correlated with the mean APD of SV (r = 0.326, P = 0.031. The seminal plasma proteins were compared between six PE and six matched control cases by mass spectrometry and it was shown that 102 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated. Among them, GGT1, LAMC1, and APP were significantly higher in the PE group. These results indicated that men with a larger mean APD of SV might have a higher PEDT score. Transrectal ultrasound of SV should be considered in the evaluation of patients with premature ejaculation. SV might be a potential target for the treatment of patients with PE and ultrasound change in SV.

  18. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT): linguistic validity of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Jin, Yan; Yang, Qi; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-09-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to standardize the diagnosis of PE and has been applied in many countries. However, a linguistic validation of the Chinese version of PEDT does not exist. This study aims to undertake the Chinese validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and clinical expert diagnosis of PE. A Chinese version of PEDT was confirmed by andrologist and bilingual linguist. Participants were recruited among seven different communities of Shanghai from 2011 to 2012, and their information regarding self-reported PE, self-estimated IELT, expert diagnosis of PE, and PEDT scores were collected. Validity of the PEDT and its association with clinical expert diagnosis of PE and self-estimated IELT were analyzed. A total of 143 patients without PE (mean age 55.11 ± 7.65 years) and 100 men with PE (mean age 53.07 ± 8.08 years) were enrolled for validation. Of the patients in PE group, the number of men reporting self-estimated IELTs of ≤1, 1-2, and >2 minutes were 34 (34.0%), 22 (22.0%), and 44 (44.0%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score (α = 0.77) showed adequate internal consistency, and the test-retest correlation coefficients of each item (r ≥ 0.70, P IELT (ρ = -0.396, P IELT ≤1 minute). The Chinese version of PEDT is valid in screening the presence of PE among Chinese men. The PEDT showed an adequate negative correlation with self-estimated IELT and an excellent concordance with clinician diagnosis of PE. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  20. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  1. Improvement of abnormal vaginal flora in Ugandan women by self-testing and short use of intravaginal antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Donders, F; Pinget, J; Vandevelde, I; Michiels, T; Byamughisa, J

    2017-04-01

    The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p vaginal microbiome composition of women with disturbed vaginal microflora. As African women have high prevalences of BV, AV, and AVF, this approach could improve their odds to prevent health-compromising complications. Further studies assessing direct health outcomes are needed to substantiate this.

  2. Role of dopamine D4 receptors in copulatory behavior: Studies with selective D4 agonists and antagonists in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Contini, Andrea; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Argiolas, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine influences the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual behavior, by acting on receptors of the D2 family (D2, D3 and D4) and in particular of the D2 subtype, although evidence for a role of D4 receptors in erectile function and copulatory behavior is also available. In order to clarify such a role of D4 receptors, the effect of selective D4 receptor agonists and antagonists on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats in classic copulation tests with a receptive female, was compared with that of apomorphine and haloperidol, a classic dopamine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. PD-168,077 (0.05-0.2mg/kg) and ABT-724 (0.01-0.04mg/kg), two selective D4 receptor agonists, given subcutaneously, improved dose-dependently copulatory behavior as shown by the decrease of mount frequency and post ejaculatory interval induced by PD-168,077, and of mount frequency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory and inter intromission intervals induced by ABT-724, and by the increase of ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by both drugs. Conversely, L-745,870 (1-5mg/kg), a selective D4 receptor antagonist, given intraperitoneally, impaired dose-dependently copulatory behavior, as shown by the increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies, mount frequency, post ejaculatory interval and the decrease in ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by this drug. L-745,870 (5mg/kg) administered before PD-168,077 (0.2mg/kg) or ABT-724 (0.04mg/kg), also abolished completely the facilitatory effects of both PD-168,077 and ABT-724 on sexual behavior. These results confirm the involvement of D4 receptors in specific aspects of male rat copulatory behavior that overlap only partially with those influenced by apomorphine and haloperidol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas associated with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-duration intravaginal foreign bodies are a rare entity, but may cause serious complications to the bladder or rectum. We describe a 22-year-old woman who presented with a calcified pelvic mass caused by a long-duration intravaginal foreign body complicated by perforation into the bladder and rectum.

  4. Combined Vesicovaginal and Rectovaginal Fistulas Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-duration intravaginal foreign bodies are a rare entity, but may cause serious complications to the bladder or rectum. We describe a 22-year-old woman who presented with a calcified pelvic mass caused by a long-duration intravaginal foreign body complicated by perforation into the bladder and rectum.

  5. Improvement of sexual function in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia by pharmacologic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH causes disorders of voiding and sexual function. Pharmacologic therapy reduces symptoms of voiding thus impacting sexual function. Objective. To determine sex life status in men with BPH before and after pharmacologic treatment adapted to achieve satisfactory sexual function. Methods. We studied 117 sexually active BPH patients, not previously treated for BPH. After clinical examinations, symptoms of voiding, sexual and ejaculatory function were measured using standardized IPSS, IIEF and MSHQ-EjD questionnaires. After obtaining patients’ personal opinion about the importance of their sex life, therapy was chosen and possible side effects explained. Three groups of 39 patients each were formed. The first group was treated with alpha-blocker, tamsulosin, the second with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, finasteride, while the third group was administered a combination therapy. The complete examination procedure was repeated after 3 and 6 months of therapy. Results. The average age of patients was 61.34±3.04 years. Eighty-seven percent reported that their sex life was important to a certain degree. Satisfaction with their sex life was reported by 47% of patients before treatment and by 67% of respondents 6 months after treatment. Questionnaire scores indicated general improvement of sexual function in all groups, which was statistically significant compared to baseline only in the group on tamsulosin alpha-blocker (2.95±7.81; p=0.028. The overall satisfaction with sex life as a component of sexual function, improved significantly in the group on the combined therapy (0.78±1.81; p=0.012. Conclusion. Before BPH treatment sexual function should be assessed and therapy customized to the patient’s expectations. Side effects of drugs should be presented especially to patients who emphasize the importance of sex life. In the manifested stages of the disease overall satisfaction with sex life may be

  6. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  7. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  8. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong

    1994-01-01

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system

  9. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  10. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in persistent hemospermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Adilson

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present the spectrum of abnormalities found at endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI), in patients with persistent hemospermia. Materials and methods: A review of E-MRI findings observed in 86 patients with persistent hemospermia was performed and results compared with those reported in the literature. Follow-up was possible in 37 of 86 (43%) patients with hemospermia. Results: E-MRI showed abnormal findings in 52 of 86 (60%) patients with hemospermia. These findings were: a) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, isolated (n = 11 or 21%) or associated with complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 10 or 19.0%); b) hemorrhagic chronic seminal vesiculitis, isolated (n = 14 or 27%) or associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory ducts (n = 2 or 4 %); c) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory duct (n = 4 or 7.7%) or within seminal vesicle (n = 4 or 7.7%); d) non-complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 6 or 11.5%); and e) prostate cancer (n = 1 or 2%). Successful treatment was more frequent in patients with chronic inflammatory and/or obstructive abnormalities. Conclusion: E-MRI should be considered the modality of choice, for the evaluation of patients with persistent hemospermia. (author)

  11. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in persistent hemospermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prando, Adilson [Vera Cruz Hospital, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To present the spectrum of abnormalities found at endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI), in patients with persistent hemospermia. Materials and methods: A review of E-MRI findings observed in 86 patients with persistent hemospermia was performed and results compared with those reported in the literature. Follow-up was possible in 37 of 86 (43%) patients with hemospermia. Results: E-MRI showed abnormal findings in 52 of 86 (60%) patients with hemospermia. These findings were: a) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, isolated (n = 11 or 21%) or associated with complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 10 or 19.0%); b) hemorrhagic chronic seminal vesiculitis, isolated (n = 14 or 27%) or associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory ducts (n = 2 or 4 %); c) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory duct (n = 4 or 7.7%) or within seminal vesicle (n = 4 or 7.7%); d) non-complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 6 or 11.5%); and e) prostate cancer (n = 1 or 2%). Successful treatment was more frequent in patients with chronic inflammatory and/or obstructive abnormalities. Conclusion: E-MRI should be considered the modality of choice, for the evaluation of patients with persistent hemospermia. (author)

  12. The sperm pump of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng (Mecoptera: Bittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong-Hua; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2015-11-01

    The males of antliophoran insects usually use a sperm pump to transfer liquid sperm into the reproductive tract of the female. However, the fine structure of the sperm pump and its ejaculatory mechanism has not been thoroughly clarified in many groups of Mecoptera. In this paper, the structure of the sperm pump was investigated in the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sperm pump mainly consists of a piston fused with a piston-carrying sclerite, a pumping chamber enclosed by the genital folds, which comprises the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac, an ostial sclerite, a phallobase, and other associated structures and muscles. The piston crown plays a major role in the piston movement. The ostial sclerite serves as a discharge valve and is controlled by two antagonistic muscles. No depressor muscles were found attached to the piston. The sperm pumping activity is mainly controlled by the combination of the levator of the piston and the retractor and protractor of the ostial sclerite. The ejaculatory mechanism and phylogenetic significance are briefly discussed based on the structure of the sperm pump. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preclinical evaluation of magainin-A as a contraceptive antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Aranha; Manjramkar, Dhananjay D; Reddy, Venkatarami K

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and contraceptive efficacy of magainin-A in monkeys. Controlled laboratory study. Department of Immunology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai, India. Male and female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Animals were treated intravaginally with 1 mg of magainin-A before attempted conception, as well as daily for 14 days to assess local and systemic toxicity. Suitability of magainin-A for the control of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Complete sperm immobilization was observed within 20 seconds after the exposure to magainin-A (800-1,000 microg) in vitro. Intravaginal administration of 1 mg of magainin-A blocked conception in monkeys. When magainin-A was administered intravaginally for 14 consecutive days, no treatment-related abnormalities were observed in menstrual cycle length, vaginal epithelial cell morphology, and hematologic/serum biochemical profiles. The peptide inhibited the growth of sexually transmitted infection-causing pathogens but not HIV-1 and HIV-2. Magainin-A can be used as an effective and safe intravaginal contraceptive compound with additional protection against sexually transmitted infection-causing pathogens.

  14. Cervical HSV-2 infection causes cervical remodeling and increases risk for ascending infection and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Devin; Poncil, Sharra; Patterson, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth before 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Cervical viral infections have been established as risk factors for PTB in women, although the mechanism leading to increased risk is unknown. Using a mouse model of pregnancy, we determined that intra-vaginal HSV2 infection caused increased rates of preterm birth following an intra-vaginal bacterial infection. HSV2 infection resulted in histological changes in the cervix mimicking cervical ripening, including significant collagen remodeling and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis. Viral infection also caused aberrant expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor in the cervical epithelium. Further analysis using human ectocervical cells demonstrated a role for Src kinase in virus-mediated changes in estrogen receptor and hyaluronic acid expression. In conclusion, HSV2 affects proteins involved in tissue hormone responsiveness, causes significant changes reminiscent of premature cervical ripening, and increases risk of preterm birth. Studies such as this improve our chances of identifying clinical interventions in the future. PMID:29190738

  15. The nonnucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor MIV-160 delivered from an intravaginal ring, but not from a carrageenan gel, protects against simian/human immunodeficiency virus-RT Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinou, Meropi; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Calenda, Giulia; Mawson, Paul; Abraham, Ciby J; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Villegas, Guillermo; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Piatak, Michael; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    We previously showed that a carrageenan (CG) gel containing 50 μM MIV-150 (MIV-150/CG) reduced vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT infection of macaques (56%, p>0.05) when administered daily for 2 weeks with the last dose given 8 h before challenge. Additionally, when 100 mg of MIV-150 was loaded into an intravaginal ring (IVR) inserted 24 h before challenge and removed 2 weeks after challenge, >80% protection was observed (p<0.03). MIV-160 is a related NNRTI with a similar IC(50), greater aqueous solubility, and a shorter synthesis. To objectively compare MIV-160 with MIV-150, herein we evaluated the antiviral effects of unformulated MIV-160 in vitro as well as the in vivo protection afforded by MIV-160 delivered in CG (MIV-160/CG gel) and in an IVR under regimens used with MIV-150 in earlier studies. Like MIV-150, MIV-160 exhibited potent antiviral activity against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. However, formulated MIV-160 exhibited divergent effects in vivo. The MIV-160/CG gel offered no protection compared to CG alone, whereas the MIV-160 IVRs protected significantly. Importantly, the results of in vitro release studies of the MIV-160/CG gel and the MIV-160 IVR suggested that in vivo efficacy paralleled the amount of MIV-160 released in vitro. Hundreds of micrograms of MIV-160 were released daily from IVRs while undetectable amounts of MIV-160 were released from the CG gel. Our findings highlight the importance of testing different modalities of microbicide delivery to identify the optimal formulation for efficacy in vivo.

  16. Premature ejaculation: challenging new and the old concepts [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odunayo Kalejaiye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation remains a difficult condition to manage for patients, their partners, and the clinician. Whilst prevalence rates are estimated to be 20–40%, determining a diagnosis of premature ejaculation is difficult, as the definition remains both subjective and ill-defined in the clinical context. As our understanding of the ejaculatory pathway has improved, new opportunities to treat the condition have evolved with mixed results. In this review, we explore some of these controversies surrounding the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition and discuss potential novel therapeutic options.

  17. Dapoxetine: a new option in the medical management of premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological consequences. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common, effective and safe. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill an unmet treatment need. The objective of this article is to review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. MEDLINE, Web of Science, PICA, EMBASE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings were searched for publications or abstracts published during the period 1993–2012 that used the word ‘dapoxetine’ in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase I, II and III studies, independent postmarketing and pharmacovigilance efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Dapoxetine is a potent SSRI which is administered on demand 1–3 h prior to planned sexual contact. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation, and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in five industry-sponsored randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged at least 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine versus placebo (all p <0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg

  18. A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Tamarind seed in Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Homayuonfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This randomized clinical trial was aimed to evaluate the effect of oral use of tamarind seed powder as an herbal product in patients affected by premature ejaculation (PE. Materials and Methods: In this study, 75 patients randomized in tamarind group (25 patients received daily 130 mg tamarind seed powder, paroxetine group (25 patients received daily 20 mg paroxetine, and placebo group (25 patients. Patients received the treatment regimen for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT. The secondary outcomes were PE diagnostic tool score, sexual function using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF, and complications. Studied sexual functions include erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. Results: The mean of IELT in tamarind, paroxetine, and placebo groups at baseline was 35.2 ± 26.5, 38 ± 27.6, and 44 ± 34.9 s and at the end of study was 49.5 ± 48.2, 147.4 ± 209.6, and 46.9 ± 37.6 s, respectively, which in paroxetine group significantly increased compared to other groups. IIEF scores for orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction for paroxetine after treatment significantly increased than that of other groups. The differences between tamarind and placebo groups for studied variables were not statistically significant. The mean of increases in IELT for tamarind, paroxetine, and placebo groups was 14.35 ± 34.3, 109.4 ± 213.4, and 2.9 ± 9.3 s, respectively, which in paroxetine group was significantly higher than other groups and in tamarind group was significantly higher than placebo. Conclusions: Paroxetine was significantly better than tamarind seed powder and placebo although side effect in paroxetine was more frequent. IELT significantly more increased in tamarind group compared to placebo.

  19. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy KC Janssen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s (P = 0.03. It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  1. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  2. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  3. Concentrations of Dapivirine in the Rhesus Macaque and Rabbit following Once Daily Intravaginal Administration of a Gel Formulation of [14C]Dapivirine for 7 Days▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Jeremy P.; Thake, Daryl C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Ferkany, John W.; Romano, Joseph W.; Mitchnick, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine (∼0.1 mg/ml [15 μCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of μg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, ≥2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application. PMID:18086845

  4. Intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) generates a functional effector memory T cell population that persists in the murine genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vera A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2010-12-01

    Although the female genital tract is the main portal of entry for sexually transmitted infections in women, we still have limited understanding of the generation, maintenance and characteristics of memory T cells in the local tissue. Here, we utilized a mouse model of intravaginal HSV-2 infection and tetramers against the immunodominant HSV glycoprotein B epitope recognized by CD8+ T cells to examine the generation, maintenance and characteristics of anti-HSV memory T cells in the genital tract following acute infection. Our results show that the highest percentage of HSVgB-specific CD8+ T cells was found in the genital tract compared to the spleen or iliac lymphnode. Indeed, although the actual number of CD8+ T cells contracted following viral clearance, approximately one quarter of the CD8+ population that remained in the genital tissue was HSVgB-specific. Memory gB-tetramer+CD8 T cells in the genital tract were positive for CD127 and KLRG1 and negative for CD62L and CCR7, thus confirming that HSV-specific CD8 cells were effector memory T cells that lack the capacity for homing to lymphoid tissues. Functionally, both memory CD8+ and CD4+ HSV-specific populations in the genital tract produced IFNγ when stimulated in vitro and CD4+ cells also produced TNFα. Genital HSVgB-specific memory T cells expressed tissue-homing integrins CD103 (αE integrin) and CD49a (VLA-1 or α1 integrin). Our findings suggest that HSV-specific memory T cells are retained in the genital tract, poised to act as an early line of defense against future virus encounter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy K.C. Janssen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods: We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF. The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results: The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions: Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT.

  6. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  7. Imaging of obstructive azoospermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornud, F. [Clinique Radiologique, 15 Avenue Robert Schuman, F-75 007 Paris (France)]|[Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Belin, X. [Clinique Radiologique, 15 Avenue Robert Schuman, F-75 007 Paris (France)]|[Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Delafontaine, D. [Medicine de la Reproduction, 8 rue Jean Richepin, F-75 016 Paris (France); Amar, T. [Uro-Andrologist, 19 Avenue Victor Hugo, F-75016, Paris (France); Helenon, O. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France); Moreau, J.F. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Necker, 169 rue de Sevres, F-75 015 Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Obstructive azoospermia represents approximately 10 % of cases of male hypofertility. It is classified according to the volume of ejaculate. When the latter is normal a proximal obstruction is suspected. Scrotal sonography can help to detect dilation of the epididymal head when clinical findings are equivocal. Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is suspected when the volume of ejaculate is low. The use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) plays a major role in the investigation of these patients, and endorectal MRI is a very useful adjunct in selected cases. The most common cause of EDO is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, which is now thought to be a genital form of cystic fibrosis in 80 % of cases. Consequently, a definitive diagnosis must be made before any attempt at in vitro fertilization. TRUS accurately visualizes abnormalities of the caudal junction of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles, yielding a definitive diagnosis without scrototomy. Other causes of EDO are congenital cysts compressing the distal part of the ejaculatory ducts and inflammatory distal stenosis. The former are accurately identified by TRUS, but the latter give more or less marked signs of obstruction which are only of value in azoospermic patients with a low-volume ejaculate. More invasive imaging is required to diagnose partial obstruction of the ED. Surgical vasography is still the reference, but puncture of the seminal vesicles under TRUS guidance is an attractive alternative, as it permits aspiration of seminal fluid (to seek motile sperm) and vasography without scrototomy. Lastly, endorectal MRI well assesses the relationships between the proximal prostatic urethra and the posterior wall of the ejaculatory ducts, which need to be precisely known when endoscopic resection of the ejaculatory ducts is planned. (orig.). With 9 figs.

  8. Imaging of obstructive azoospermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornud, F.; Belin, X.; Delafontaine, D.; Amar, T.; Helenon, O.; Moreau, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Obstructive azoospermia represents approximately 10 % of cases of male hypofertility. It is classified according to the volume of ejaculate. When the latter is normal a proximal obstruction is suspected. Scrotal sonography can help to detect dilation of the epididymal head when clinical findings are equivocal. Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is suspected when the volume of ejaculate is low. The use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) plays a major role in the investigation of these patients, and endorectal MRI is a very useful adjunct in selected cases. The most common cause of EDO is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens, which is now thought to be a genital form of cystic fibrosis in 80 % of cases. Consequently, a definitive diagnosis must be made before any attempt at in vitro fertilization. TRUS accurately visualizes abnormalities of the caudal junction of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles, yielding a definitive diagnosis without scrototomy. Other causes of EDO are congenital cysts compressing the distal part of the ejaculatory ducts and inflammatory distal stenosis. The former are accurately identified by TRUS, but the latter give more or less marked signs of obstruction which are only of value in azoospermic patients with a low-volume ejaculate. More invasive imaging is required to diagnose partial obstruction of the ED. Surgical vasography is still the reference, but puncture of the seminal vesicles under TRUS guidance is an attractive alternative, as it permits aspiration of seminal fluid (to seek motile sperm) and vasography without scrototomy. Lastly, endorectal MRI well assesses the relationships between the proximal prostatic urethra and the posterior wall of the ejaculatory ducts, which need to be precisely known when endoscopic resection of the ejaculatory ducts is planned. (orig.). With 9 figs

  9. Fine Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Reproductive Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Vigoder, Felipe M.; Bruno, Rafaela V.; Soares, Maurilio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. Results The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Conclusion Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing

  10. Fine structure of the male reproductive system and reproductive behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Bretas, Jorge A C; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Bruno, Rafaela V; Soares, Maurilio J

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing sexual mating frequency of

  11. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis prevents vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, vaginal transmission now accounts for more than half of newly acquired HIV-1 infections. Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. Given the importance of this route of transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of humanized mice to intravaginal HIV-1 infection.We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice susceptible to intravaginal infection by HIV-1. Effects of HIV-1 infection include CD4+ T cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT that closely mimics what is observed in HIV-1-infected humans. We also show that pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs is a highly effective method for preventing vaginal HIV-1 transmission. Whereas 88% (7/8 of BLT mice inoculated vaginally with HIV-1 became infected, none of the animals (0/5 given pre-exposure prophylaxis of emtricitabine (FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF showed evidence of infection (Chi square = 7.5, df = 1, p = 0.006.The fact that humanized BLT mice are susceptible to intravaginal infection makes this system an excellent candidate for preclinical evaluation of both microbicides and pre-exposure prophylactic regimens. The utility of humanized mice to study intravaginal HIV-1 transmission is particularly highlighted by the demonstration that pre-exposure prophylaxis can prevent intravaginal HIV-1 transmission in the BLT mouse model.

  12. Dynamic clinical measurements of voluntary vaginal contractions and autonomic vaginal reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, Paul M A; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2014-12-01

    The vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists and might be involved in the pathophysiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of a canalicular vaginal "sphincter mechanism" by measuring intravaginal pressure at different levels of the vaginal canal during voluntary pelvic floor contractions and during induced reflexive contractions. Sixteen nulliparous women, without sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor trauma, were included in the study. High-resolution solid-state circumferential catheters were used to measure intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions at different levels in the vaginal canal. Voluntary intravaginal pressure measurements were performed in the left lateral recumbent position only, while reflexive intravaginal pressure measurements during slow inflation of a vaginal balloon were performed in the left lateral recumbent position and in the sitting position. Intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions were the main outcome measures. In addition, a general demographic and medical history questionnaire was administered to gain insight into the characteristics of the study population. Fifteen out of the sixteen women had deep and superficial vaginal high-pressure zones. In one woman, no superficial high-pressure zone was found. The basal and maximum pressures, as well as the duration of the autonomic reflexive contractions significantly exceeded the pressures and the duration of the voluntary contractions. There were no significant differences between the reflexive measurements obtained in the left lateral recumbent and the sitting position. The two high-pressure zones found in this study, as a result of voluntary contractions and, even more pronounced

  13. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W

    2007-06-01

    The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.

  14. Chronic fluoxetine inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat: reversal with oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J M; Binik, Y M; Pfaus, J G

    1999-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used widely in the treatment of depression, progressively inhibit sexual orgasm in many patients and induce a transient inhibition of sexual desire. We attempted to model the effects of these drugs in sexually experienced male rats during tests of copulation in bilevel chambers. These chambers allow the study of both appetitive and consummatory sexual responses of male rats. Males were treated daily with fluoxetine hydrochloride (0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and tested for sexual behavior with receptive females at 4-day intervals. Rats were treated with oxytocin (200 ng/kg) or saline after ejaculations had decreased. Fluoxetine decreased ejaculatory responses of male rats in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but left the copulatory efficiency of the males intact. In contrast, conditioned level changing, a measure of appetitive sexual excitement, was inhibited following acute and chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg, although tolerance may have developed to the effect of 5 mg/kg. Subsequent administration of oxytocin restored the ejaculatory response but not the measure of sexual excitement to baseline levels. The reversal by oxytocin of the fluoxetine-induced deficit in ejaculations is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin suppresses ejaculatory mechanisms by interrupting the action of oxytocin, which normally accompanies sexual behavior. Co-administration of oxytocin may help to alleviate the predominant sexual side effect of serotonin reuptake blockers.

  15. Transrectal Ultrasonographic Findings of Obstructive Male Infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Il; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Park, Heung Il; Park, Kwang Seong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the transrectal ultrasound in infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. We performed transrectal US in 26 infertile patients in whom obstructive lesions of sperm transport system were suspected in physical examination and laboratory data. 7.0 MHz transrectal transducer was used and the content of analysis of sonographic findings was the presence of vas deferens, seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. Also, we measured the width of seminal vesicle and diameter of ejaculatory duct. Transrectal US revealed an accurate diagnosis in 12 infertile men who had obstructive lesions and associated abnormalities in distal sperm transport system, two of congenital bilateral absence of the vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, two of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens and seminal vesicle, three of dilatation of seminal vesicles, and five of dilatation of ejaculatory ducts and proximal ducts. The other 14 patients who had normal findings on transrectal US were revealed to have testicular failure (10 patients) and obstruction of proximal sperm transport system (4 patients) which were beyond the field-of-view of transrectal US. Transrectal US is the useful diagnostic method for the evaluation of infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. It can possibly decrease the need for the invasive vasography and may be helpful in the guidance of appropriate management of male infertility

  16. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data...... appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have...... as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less...

  17. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...

  18. Psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire for patients who undergo anterior urethral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Sanz, I; Martín-Way, D; Flores-Martín, J; Expósito-Ruiz, M; Vicente-Prados, J; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Tinaut-Ranera, J; Cózar-Olmo, J M

    2016-06-01

    To translate into Spanish and validate the Urethral Stricture Surgery Patient-Reported Outcome Measure (USS-PROM) questionnaire, assessing its psychometric properties and determining its suitability for clinical use in our community. We also assessed the potential changes in ejaculatory function using the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MSHQ-EjD). A systematic translation of the British version was performed. Patients scheduled for anterior urethral stricture surgery between September 2014 and September 2015 were prospectively included in the study. All patients completed the questionnaire before and after the surgery. We conducted an in-depth psychometric study of the questionnaire. We assessed the responses of a total of 40 patients. The questionnaire showed its validity, presenting an excellent negative correlation between the voiding symptom scores and the maximum flow (r=-0.6, P<.001), and also showed significant improvement in the EQ5D-VAS (visual analogue scale) and the time trade-off. For internal consistency, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.701. For the test-retest reliability, the overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.974, and the ICC for each item separately ranged from 0.799 to 0.980. We observed significant improvement in all items regarding urinary symptoms and health-related quality of life (P<.001), thereby demonstrating the response capacity to changing the questionnaire. There were no significant changes in the MSHQ-EjD. The Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire is a valid instrument for quantifying changes in voiding symptoms and the health-related quality of life of patients undergoing anterior urethral surgery. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Transurethral deroofing of midline prostatic cyst for subfertile men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.B. Cornel (Erik); G.R. Dohle (Gert); E.J. Meuleman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated the efficacy of transurethral deroofing of a midline prostatic cyst in subfertile men with one or more of the following semen abnormalities: decreased ejaculatory volume, decreased sperm motility and oligo- or azoospermia. Results from treatment

  20. Circulating progesterone concentrations in nonlactating Holstein cows during reuse of intravaginal progesterone implants sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Oliveira, L H; Guardieiro, M M; Drum, J N; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) treated with 2 types of intravaginal implants containing either 1.0 or 1.9 g of P4 either at the first use or during reuse of the implants after sanitizing the implant by autoclave or chemical disinfection. In a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and 2 replicates, every cow underwent 2 of 6 treatments. Two sources of P4 [controlled internal drug release (1.9 g of P4) from Zoetis (São Paulo, Brazil), and Sincrogest (1.0 g of P4) from Ourofino (Cravinhos, Brazil)] and 3 types of processing, new (N), reused after autoclave (RA), and reused after chemical disinfection (RC), were used. After inducing luteolysis to avoid endogenous circulating P4, the cows were randomized in 1 of 6 treatments (1.9 g of N, 1.9 g of RA, 1.9 g of RC, 1.0 g of N, 1.0 g of RA, and 1.0 g RC). Cows were treated with the implants for 8 d and during this period blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc-Mixed and the mean ± standard error of the mean P4 concentrations were calculated using the Proc-Means procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No interaction between treatments was observed. Comparing types of implant, average P4 concentrations during treatments were greater for 1.9 g than 1.0 g (1.46 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL). When types of processing were compared, average P4 concentrations did not differ between autoclaved and new inserts (1.46 vs. 1.37 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively), but both were greater than chemically disinfected implants (1.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL). Within 1.9-g P4 inserts, P4 concentrations from autoclaved implants were greater than new, which were greater than chemically disinfected (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 vs. 1.21 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively). For 1.0-g P4 implants, P4 concentrations from autoclaved did not differ

  1. Anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohl, D.A.; Quallich, S.A.; Brackett, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Anejaculatory infertility is a challenge for the treating physician. Accurate diagnosis and choice of treatment plan must carefully proceed to maximize success rates while maintaining cost-effectiveness. In this article the authors review ejaculatory infertility evaluation and treatment Udgivelse...

  2. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...

  3. Imaging the male reproductive tract: current trends and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Spermon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The male reproductive system encompasses several organs: the testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. The function of this system is to accomplish reproduction. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), are

  4. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  7. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperito...... December 2011; doi:10.1038/aja.2011.70....

  8. Seksuelle dysfunktioner hos maend, der er behandlet for testikelkraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2007-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have a higher risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunctions compared with healthy males. The causality is not clear. In this paper we assess sexual dysfunction in the different treatment modalities based on primarily 1 meta-analysis and 11 original...

  9. Coitus Interruptus: Are there spermatozoa in the pre-ejaculate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, and Google Scholar search engines. Literature reviewed included reviews, and original articles that evaluated the presence of spermatozoa in the pre-ejaculatory fluid. Articles reporting about coitus interruptus as a method of contraception were also reviewed.

  10. An instrument to assess the dynamic characteristics of the circumvaginal musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M C; Abrams, R; McKey, P L

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an intravaginal balloon device (IVBD) and an improved method for measuring the dynamic characteristics of circumvaginal muscle (CVM) contractions. The IVBD measurement system may be used in research on women's health problems related to the pelvic floor musculature. The system is independent of examiner judgment and variability, and measurement conditions are carefully controlled. In an initial trial using the device with 20 volunteers, aged 22 to 58 years, the maximal pressure developed during strong CVM contractions was measured with the subjects supine. Subjects were asked to repeat the contraction while they contracted abdominal muscles. The length of time a submaximal contraction could be held was also measured. Test-retest reliability, determined by repeating each experiment, revealed significant correlations in maximal pressure attained, r = .85, p less than .03. A t test demonstrated no significant difference between the variables with and without the use of abdominal muscles, indicating the contraction of abdominal muscles did not affect intravaginal pressure when assessed with the IVBD. A weak correlation between length of time a submaximal contraction could be held and age of subject was found, r = -.44, p less than .06, but no pressure variable was correlated with age or parity, a possible effect of the small sample in this study.

  11. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosana C.P.; Neto, José A.; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S. S.; Santos, Dislene N.; Oliveira, Cassius J.V.; Prado, Márcio J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with HTLV-1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Methods Open clinical trial with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises and intravaginal/intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. Results The mean age was 54±12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (pPhysiotherapy was effective in cases of HTLV-1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. PMID:26724409

  12. Hormonal treatment before and after artificial insemination differentially improves fertility in subpopulations of dairy cows during the summer and autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Voet, H; Reznikov, D; Wolfenson, D; Roth, Z

    2014-12-01

    Reduced conception rate (CR) during the hot summer and subsequent autumn is a well-documented phenomenon. Intensive use of cooling systems can improve summer and autumn reproductive performance, but is unable to increase CR to winter and spring levels. We examined whether combined hormonal treatments--to increase follicular turnover before artificial insemination (AI) and progesterone supplementation post-AI--might improve fertility of cooled cows during the summer and autumn. The experiment was conducted from July to November in 3 commercial herds in Israel and included 707 Holstein cows at 50 to 60 d in milk (DIM). Cows were hormonally treated to induce 2 consecutive 9-d cycles, with GnRH administration followed by PGF2α injection 7 d later, followed by an intravaginal insert containing progesterone on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 14 d. Both untreated controls (n=376) and treated cows (n=331) were inseminated following estrus, and pregnancy was determined by palpation 42 to 50 d post-AI. First-AI CR data revealed a positive interaction between treatment and cows previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease [odds ratio (OR) 2.24]. Interaction between treatment and low body condition score tended to increase the probability of first-AI CR (OR 1.95) and increased pregnancy rate at 90 DIM (OR 2.50) and at 120 DIM (OR 1.77). Low milk production increased the probability of being detected in estrus at the end of synchronization within treated cows (OR 1.67), and interacted with treatment to increase probability of pregnancy at 90 DIM (OR 2.39) relative to control counterparts. It is suggested that when administered with efficient cooling, combined hormonal treatment in specific subgroups of cows, that is, those previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease or those with low body condition score or low milk yield might improve fertility during the summer and autumn. Integration of such an approach into reproductive management during the hot seasons might improve

  13. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results

  14. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  15. [Intravaginal treatment of colpitis maculosa with an oestriol-containing vaginal cream (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, A; Kofler, K; Baumgarten, K; Endl, J; Schmidt, J; Tatschl, S

    1981-12-11

    43 patients with colpitis maculosa (average age 60.2 years) were selected for an open control therapeutic study with Ortho-Gynest vaginal cream (Ortho-Cilag). The cream contains 0.5 mg of oestriol per single applicator filling. The treatment lasted from 3 to 4 weeks, success being evaluated by clinical documentation and cytological evaluation of vaginal smears before and after treatment. 10 patients (23.3%) were treated successfully, 29 (67.4%) showed a distinct improvement both clinically and cytologically, whilst the remaining 4 (9.3%) showed only moderate improvement. Hence, 39 patients (90.7%) were classified as having been successfully or partly successfully treated. Severe symptoms disappeared completely or were greatly alleviated in 91.4% cases. Moderate symptoms vanished in 59.7%. 58.1% showed a complete normalisation of the former atrophic vaginal skin. Blood spotting and reddening of the vaginal wall vanished completely. A change from dry to moist vagina occurred in 77.3% patients. Discharge vanished completely in 80.6% cases. No untoward side effects were recorded.

  16. Dhatakyadi Varti - An effective local treatment for Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy): A standard controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nilofar Mohamad Shafi; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are more prone to vulvovaginitis which is a great challenge for obstetricians today. In Ayurveda , Upapluta Yonivyapad described by Acharya Charaka , Sharangadhara , and both Vagbhata can be compared to vulvovaginitis during pregnancy. The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Dhatakyadi Varti in the management of Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy). A total of 80 female patients in the age group of 19-40 years were registered and divided into two groups. In Group A ( n = 46), Dhatakyadi Varti was inserted intravaginally, and in Group B ( n = 34), Clingen vaginal suppository was inserted intravaginally once at bed time for 14 days. The effect of therapy was assessed on the basis of relief in subjective and objective criteria, i.e., vaginal smear test. In subjective parameters, such as Yoni Srava , Yoni Kandu , Yoni Vedana , Yoni Daha and Yoni Daurgandhya , better result was observed in trial Group A receiving Dhatakyadi Varti . Highly significant relief ( P < 0.001) was observed in fungal infection, and significant relief ( P = 0.005) was observed in Gram - negative bacterial infection and pus cells in Group A. In Group A, 34.88% patients had complete remission, marked improvement was found in 34.88% cases, and only 2.32% patients remained unchanged, while in Group B, 33.33% patients reported complete remission, marked improvement was found in 10% cases, and 20% patients remained unchanged. It was concluded from the clinical trial that Dhatakyadi Varti is highly effective in reducing subjective and objective variables of Upapluta Yonivyapad and can be introduced as a safe herbal therapy of vaginal discharge during pregnancy.

  17. Post Ejaculatory Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) On Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eectile/sexual functions including libido, erection frquency, masturbation ability, pattern of ejaculation, and pattern of erection lost were noted during audiovisual sexual stimulation in 50 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and in 50 non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with and without an ...

  18. User evaluations offer promise for pod-intravaginal ring as a drug delivery platform: A mixed methods study of acceptability and use experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Getz, Melissa L; Dawson, Lauren; Guillen, Melissa; Ramirez, Jaime J; Baum, Marc M; Vincent, Kathleen L

    2018-01-01

    Effective HIV prevention requires efficient delivery of safe and efficacious drugs and optimization of user adherence. The user's experiences with the drug, delivery system, and use parameters are critical to product acceptability and adherence. Prevention product developers have the opportunity to directly control a drug delivery system and its impact on acceptability and adherence, as well as product efficacy. Involvement of potential users during preclinical design and development can facilitate this process. We embedded a mixed methods user evaluation study into a safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) trial of a pod-intravaginal ring delivering antiretroviral agents. Women enrolled in two cohorts, ultimately evaluating the safety/PK of a pod-IVRs delivering TDF-alone, TDF-FTC, and/or TDF-FTC-MVC. A 7-day use period was targeted for each pod-IVR, regardless of drug or drug combination. During the clinical study, participants provided both quantitative (i.e., survey) and qualitative (i.e., in-depth interview) data capturing acceptability, perceptibility, and adherence behaviors. Initial sexual and reproductive health history surveys, daily diaries, a final acceptability and willingness to use survey, and a qualitative in-depth interview comprised the user evaluation data for each pod-IVR experienced by the participants. Overall, the majority of participants (N = 10) reported being willing to use the pod-IVR platform for HIV prevention should it advance to market. Confidence to use the pod-IVR (e.g., insertion, removal) was high. There were no differences noted in the user experience of the pod-IVR platform; that is, whether the ring delivered TDF-alone, TDF-FTC, or TDF-FTC-MVC, users' experiences of the ring were similar and acceptable. Participants did report specific experiences, both sensory and behavioral, that impacted their use behaviors with respect to the ring, and which could ultimately impact acceptability and adherence. These experiences, and user

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 Attenuate Gardnerella vaginalis-Infected Bacterial Vaginosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Choi, Su-Young; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-23

    Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta ® ) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression ( p < 0.05). Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line) and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina.

  20. Evaluation of the antifertility effect of magainin-A in rabbits: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V R; Manjramkar, D D

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and contraceptive potential of magainin-A in rabbits. Controlled laboratory study. Department of Immunology, Institute for Research in Reproduction, Mumbai, Parel, India. Forty-eight female New Zealand white rabbits. The effect of magainin-A on sperm motility (in vitro and in vivo studies) and on vaginal epithelium (histologic study) was assessed along with serum and liver biochemical profiles. Suitability of magainin-A for contraceptive use. Magainin-A arrested sperm motility, and 1 mg of magainin-A administered intravaginally blocked conception. No histopathologic abnormalities in the vaginal tissue or any changes in serum biochemical profiles were observed. Magainin-A may be used as an effective and safe intravaginal contraceptive compound that also has antibacterial properties.

  1. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F

    2015-11-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of Sexual Disorders in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Vaccaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I such as Sildenafil (Viagra, intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM. Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.

  3. Cloacal morphology of Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815), Aves tinamiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C A; Mahecha, G A

    1996-10-01

    Cloacae of male Nothura maculosa (spotted tinamous) were dissected and studied with routine histological and histochemical techniques. In the cloaca of this species the following cranio-caudally oriented regions can be recognized: the coprodeum, the urodeum and the proctodeum, separated by the coprourodeal and the uroproctodeal folds respectively. The coprodeum is an abrupt dilatation of the rectum which receives the ureters, contrary to other birds in which they open into the urodeum. The urodeum is the smallest compartment of the cloaca. Its wall presents the paracloacal vascular bodies and the ductus deferens receptacles which open into the ejaculatory fossa through a pair of papillae. The ejaculatory fossa forms the ventral floor of the urodeum and is characterized by the presence of a secretory epithelium and a lamina propria showing rich vascularization. The proctodeum is connected to the exterior through the cloacal opening and ventrally it presents the phallic structures and the proctodeal lamella. Its dorsolateral wall forms the cloacal bursa, its mucosa shows morphological variations depending on the degree of regression. Enclosing the uroproctodeal wall are the cloacal sphincter muscle and the skin.

  4. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25 μg of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 ± 7.61 hours versus 18.40 ± 8.02 hours (p<0.01. The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley’s catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour.

  5. A three-dimensional muscle activity imaging technique for assessing pelvic muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.

    2010-11-01

    A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.

  6. Effect of ascorbic acid on the conception rate of Yankasa ewes after estrus synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Omontese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid (AA on the conception rates in ewes following progestin treatments. Yankasa ewes (n = 64 were equally allocated into two groups. One group was treated with controlled internal drug-released (CIDR intravaginal devices, the other with 45 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA intravaginal sponges. After withdrawal of pro­gestin, ewes that exhibited estrus were further allocated into four subgroups for the administration of AA during estrus expression: CIDR control (CDNN, n = 12, CIDR plus AA (CDAA, n = 11, FGA control (FGNN, n = 13, and FGA plus AA (FGAA, n = 12. Estrus detection and natural mating were carried out with sexually active rams. The proportion of ewes in estrus did not differ between subgroups. The interval from withdrawal of devices to onset of estrus was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter in the FGA than in the CIDR group (30.35 ± 2.72 and 48.56 ± 7.52 hours, respectively. The duration of induced estrus did not differ (p < 0.05 between treatments (FGA 37.22 ± 4.22 and CIDR 39.75 ± 2.51 hours. Conception rates were comparable between subgroups. We therefore concluded that the administration of AA at sponge withdrawal did not improve the conception rate in Yankasa ewes treated with progestins.

  7. Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing.

  8. SOME PARASITIC WORMS IN FRESHWATER FISHES AND FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and on the other hand to forms in freshwater fishes of the Indo-Malaysian region, it would ... about 25 p.m in total length, of which the sickle-shaped terminal structure .... The ejaculatory duct is short and runs from the genital ...... This larva appears to be very common in C. gariepinus collected ..... Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.

  9. Comparison of fluorgestone and medroxyprogesterone intravaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for synchronizing oestrus in lactating Saanen goats was investigated during the transition from non-breeding to natural breeding season. Does were treated for 11 days with 60 mg MAP (n=19) or 40 mg FGA (n=24) sponges.

  10. Pharmacological/dynamic rehabilitative behavioural therapy for premature ejaculation: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mantovani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Premature ejaculation (PE is a sexual disorder characterised by excessive rapidity of orgasm. It is defined as either primary (60%, present since the onset of sexual activity, or secondary (40%, manifesting later in life. To date, dapoxetine is the only preparation approved for the on-demand treatment of PE. However, side effects, costs associated with the treatment of chronic PE, drug dependence and its variable effectiveness leads to a not insignificant drop-out rate. Dynamic rehabilitative/behavioural therapy may be a viable therapeutic option, working alongside pharmacological treatment, as long as the participation and involvement of both the individual and the couple is optimal. Materials and methods: 18 patients were enrolled, aged between 25 and 55 (mean: 40, all with primary PE, free of comorbidities and with their partners involved. Six patients were prescribed 30 mg dapoxetine two hours before sexual relations for 3 months (group A; 6 patients began the dynamic rehabilitative treatment (group B; 6 other couples were assigned to pharmacological treatment in association with dynamic rehabilitative behavioural treatment for 3 months (group C. Division of subjects was carried out by simple randomisation, excluding patients with a short frenulum, phimosis, ED, chronic prostatitis or experiencing results from previous treatment. Results: Outcomes of treatment were evaluated at the end of the 3 months of treatment and 3 months after discontinuing treatment. In Group A 75% of patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group B 25% patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group C 75% of patients were cured 3 months and 50% at 6 months. "Cured" means a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT score reduced from an average of 12 to an average of 6 and Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT values from < 1 to > 6 minutes. Conclusions: the integration of pharmacological treatment with dynamic

  11. Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can result in various medical, psychological and sexual dysfunctions (SD) if not properly managed. SD in men is a common under-appreciated complication of diabetes. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of SD among diabetic patients in Tema, Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years) visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study. Results Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%), non-sensuality (74.5%), dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%), non-communication (70.8%) and impotence (67.9%). Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6%) and avoidance (42.7%) were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c), FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference. Conclusion SD rate from this study is high but similar to

  12. Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpong Charity

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can result in various medical, psychological and sexual dysfunctions (SD if not properly managed. SD in men is a common under-appreciated complication of diabetes. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of SD among diabetic patients in Tema, Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study. Results Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%, non-sensuality (74.5%, dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%, non-communication (70.8% and impotence (67.9%. Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6% and avoidance (42.7% were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c, FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference. Conclusion SD rate from this study is high

  13. Dhatakyadi Varti – An effective local treatment for Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy): A standard controlled randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nilofar Mohamad Shafi; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women are more prone to vulvovaginitis which is a great challenge for obstetricians today. In Ayurveda, Upapluta Yonivyapad described by Acharya Charaka, Sharangadhara, and both Vagbhata can be compared to vulvovaginitis during pregnancy. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Dhatakyadi Varti in the management of Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy). Materials and Methods: A total of 80 female patients in the age group of 19–40 years were registered and divided into two groups. In Group A (n = 46), Dhatakyadi Varti was inserted intravaginally, and in Group B (n = 34), Clingen vaginal suppository was inserted intravaginally once at bed time for 14 days. The effect of therapy was assessed on the basis of relief in subjective and objective criteria, i.e., vaginal smear test. Results: In subjective parameters, such as Yoni Srava, Yoni Kandu, Yoni Vedana, Yoni Daha and Yoni Daurgandhya, better result was observed in trial Group A receiving Dhatakyadi Varti. Highly significant relief (P < 0.001) was observed in fungal infection, and significant relief (P = 0.005) was observed in Gram - negative bacterial infection and pus cells in Group A. In Group A, 34.88% patients had complete remission, marked improvement was found in 34.88% cases, and only 2.32% patients remained unchanged, while in Group B, 33.33% patients reported complete remission, marked improvement was found in 10% cases, and 20% patients remained unchanged. Conclusion: It was concluded from the clinical trial that Dhatakyadi Varti is highly effective in reducing subjective and objective variables of Upapluta Yonivyapad and can be introduced as a safe herbal therapy of vaginal discharge during pregnancy. PMID:29200747

  14. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected With Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosana C P; Neto, José A; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S; Santos, Dislene N; Oliveira, Cassius J V; Prado, Márcio J; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Open clinical trial was conducted with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises, and intravaginal or intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. The mean age was 54 ± 12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia, and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (P Physiotherapy was effective in cases of human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, and improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of three methods of synchronization on estrus induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three methods of synchronization on estrus induction and ... Due to the importances of estrus synchronization in sheep reproduction and fertility, the ... sponges (medroxyprogesterone) and controlled intravaginal drug-releasing ...

  16. Radiation dose delivered to the proximal penis as a predictor of the risk of erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Valicenti, Richard; DiEva, Kelly; Houser, Christopher; Pequignot, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Purpose/objective: In this study, we evaluated in a serial manner whether radiation dose to the bulb of the penis is predictive of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory difficulty (EJ), and overall satisfaction with sex life (quality of life) by using serial validated self-administered questionnaires. Methods and materials: Twenty-nine potent men with AJCC Stage II prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy alone to a median dose 72.0 Gy (range: 66.6-79.2 Gy) were evaluated by determining the doses received by the penile bulb. The penile bulb was delineated volumetrically, and the dose-volume histogram was obtained on each patient. Results: The median follow-up time was 35 months (range, 16-43 months). We found that for D 30 , D 45 , D 60 , and D 75 (doses to a percent volume of PB: 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75%), higher than the corresponding median dose (defined as high-dose group) correlated with an increased risk of impotence (erectile dysfunction firmness score = 0) (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 8.6, p = 0.008; and OR = 6.9, p = 0.015, respectively). Similarly, for EJD D 30 , D 45 , D 60 , and D 75 , doses higher than the corresponding median ones correlated with worsening ejaculatory function score (EJ = 0 or 1) (OR = 8, p = 0.013; OR = 8, p 0.013; OR = 9.2, p = 0.015; and OR = 8, p = 0.026, respectively). For quality of life, low (≤median dose) dose groups of patients improve over time, whereas high-dose groups of patients worsen. Conclusions: This study supports the existence of a penile bulb dose-volume relationship underlying the development of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Our data may guide the use of inverse treatment planning to maximize the probability of maintaining sexual potency after radiation therapy

  17. Vaginal practices among women at high risk of HIV infection in Uganda and Tanzania: recorded behaviour from a daily pictorial diary.

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    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravaginal practices (IVP are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African and have been implicated as risk factors for HIV acquisition. However, types of IVP vary between populations, and detailed information on IVP among women at risk for HIV in different populations is needed. We investigated IVP among women who practice transactional sex in two populations: semi-urban, facility workers in Tanzania who engage in opportunistic sex work; and urban, self-identified sex workers and bar workers in Uganda. The aim of the study was to describe and compare IVP using a daily pictorial diary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred women were recruited from a HIV prevention intervention feasibility study in Kampala, Uganda and in North-West Tanzania. Women were given diaries to record IVP daily for six weeks. Baseline data showed that Ugandan participants had more lifetime partners and transactional sex than Tanzanian participants. Results from the diary showed that 96% of Tanzanian participants and 100% of Ugandan participants reported intravaginal cleansing during the six week study period. The most common types of cleansing were with water only or water and soap. In both countries, intravaginal insertion (e.g. with herbs was less common than cleansing, but insertion was practiced by more participants in Uganda (46% than in Tanzania (10%. In Uganda, participants also reported more frequent sex, and more insertion related to sex. In both populations, cleansing was more often reported on days with reported sex and during menstruation, and in Uganda, when participants experienced vaginal discomfort. Participants were more likely to cleanse after sex if they reported no condom use. CONCLUSIONS: While intravaginal cleansing was commonly practiced in both cohorts, there was higher frequency of cleansing and insertion in Uganda. Differences in IVP were likely to reflect differences in sexual behaviour between populations, and may warrant

  18. Lesson learned and dispelled myths: three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Kurt T; Pretorius, E Scott; Malamud, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina demonstrates that the cross section can be a "W," rather than an "H," and that intravaginal gel can ascend into the endocervix and presumably into the endometrium.

  19. THE METHOD OF MANAGEMENT WOMEN WITH ISTHMIC-CERVICAL INSUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Сергеевна Воронцова

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isthmic-cervical insufficiency (ICI is one of the most common causes of spontaneous premature births. In II trimester of pregnancy in the structure of miscarriages, the share of ICI accounts for about 40 % of cases. The purpose – evaluate the effectiveness of the complex method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency. Materials and methods. A simple, open, prospective, randomized study was performed on the basis of the City Clinical Perinatal Center in Omsk. Under observation, there were 60 patients aged 18-40 years in gestation period of 13-33 weeks 6 days with a proven diagnosis of «isthmic-cervical insufficiency». The main group included 30 patients who received treatment with a new combined method: the obstetric pessary «CVK», which differs from the analogues by a more anatomical ellipsoidal form and an increased number of perforations to improve the outflow of vaginal secretions in combination with intravaginal injection of micronized progesterone in a dosage of 100 mg 2 times a day and a drug normalizing the biocenosis of the vagina, as a lyophilized culture of lactobacilli L. casei rhamnosus Doderleini in a dosage of 340 mg, 1 capsule intravaginally at night 2 times a week. The comparison group consisted of 30 patients who received treatment: obstetric silicone pessary + micronized progesterone at a dosage of 200 mg per day intravaginally. The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth were evaluated. Results. The total number of premature births in the main group was 4 (13.3 % compared to 12 (40 % in the comparison group (p = 0,023. Based on the results of the study, a statistically significant reduction in patients with recurrent vaginal flora (p = 0,0001 was obtained and, due to a decrease in this indicator, a general decrease in the number of women with complications of pregnancy was registered (p = 0,019. The conclusion. The proposed method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency is more effective

  20. Control of the estrous cycle to improve fertility for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Larson, J E; Marquezini, G; Stevenson, J S

    2010-04-01

    Early estrus-synchronization protocols focused on regressing the corpus luteum (CL) with an injection of PGF(2alpha) followed by detection of estrus or involved the use of exogenous progestins that prevent estrus from occurring. Later, protocols combining the use of PGF(2alpha) and exogenous progestins were developed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was utilized to control follicular waves, synchronize ovulation, or to luteinize large dominant follicles. Our research aimed to develop reliable protocols that 1) relied solely on fixed-timed AI (TAI); 2) required a maximum of 3 animal handlings, and 3) were successful in estrous-cycling and noncycling females. In cows, insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert during the 7-d interval between the initial GnRH and PGF(2alpha) injections enhanced pregnancy rates by 9 to 10%. In a multi-location study, a TAI protocol yielded pregnancy rates similar to a protocol involving detection of estrus plus a fixed-time clean-up AI for females not detected in estrus (54 vs. 58%, respectively, for cows and 53 vs. 57%, respectively, for heifers). Initiation of estrous cycles in noncycling cows is likely the primary manner in which beef producers may improve fertility in response to estrus synchronization and TAI protocols. Treatment of noncycling females with progesterone and GnRH increases the percentage of cycling females and improves fertility to a TAI, but inducing cyclicity with hCG failed to enhance fertility in TAI protocols. Supplementing progesterone after TAI failed to increase pregnancy rates in beef cattle. In contrast, administration of hCG 7 d after TAI induced an accessory CL, increased progesterone, and tended to enhance pregnancy rates. Development of TAI protocols that reduce the hassle factors associated with ovulation synchronization and AI provide cattle producers efficient and effective tools for capturing selective genetic traits of economic consequences. Location variables, however, which may include

  1. Follicular and ovulatory responses of the right versus left ovaries to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... left ovaries to eCG treatment in Shall Iranian ewes ... The estrous cycles of 32 adult Shall Iranian ewes were synchronized by CIDR during breeding period. ... hormone; CIDR, progesterone-releasing intravaginal device.

  2. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS cows in experiment 1 initiated on Day -18, and on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of eCG or no treatment. Ovarian structures were determined in a subset of cows (n = 31) on Days -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, and on Day 10. Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. The results indicated that in experiment 1, plasma progesterone was higher in treated than nontreated (control cows) during the first 14 days (P = 0.0001). The extended progesterone treatment increased the size of the largest follicle between Days -23 and Day -5 (Group by Day, P = 0.04) and tended to increase the size of the dominant follicle from Day -5 to Day -1 (Group by Day, P = 0.06). There was no effect of metabolic status or interaction between metabolic status and day on follicular growth. In experiment 2, extended progesterone treatment tended to increase the

  3. Topical herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccination with human papillomavirus vectors expressing gB/gD ectodomains induces genital-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells and reduces genital disease and viral shedding after HSV-2 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Schiller, John T

    2015-01-01

    No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8(+) T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic disease caused by

  4. Subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas de Souza; Meira Junior, Enoch Brandão de Souza; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Lima, Svetlana; Santos, Thiago; Kussler, Arieli; Foditsch, Carla; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Oikonomou, Georgios; Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert Owen; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes

  5. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  6. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Campbell

    Full Text Available Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  7. Follicular dynamics, circulating progesterone, and fertility in Holstein cows synchronized with reused intravaginal progesterone implants that were sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Nascimento, A B; Drum, J N; Spies, C; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    This experiment aimed to compare circulating progesterone (P4), follicular dynamics, and fertility during reuse of intravaginal P4 implants that were sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection in lactating Holstein cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). For this, 123 primiparous and 226 multiparous cows from 2 farms, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 163.9 ± 141.9 d in milk, 35.7 ± 11.3 kg of milk/d, and a body condition score of 2.9 ± 0.5, were enrolled in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a completely randomized design and each cow received a reused implant (1.9 g of P4; previously used for 8 d) that was either autoclaved (AUT; n = 177) or chemically disinfected (CHEM; n = 172) on d -10. Also on d -10, cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 100 μg of GnRH. On d -3, cows received 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF 2α ). A second PGF 2α was given on d -2, along with 1 mg of estradiol cypionate and P4 implant removal. Cows received FTAI on d 0. A subset of cows (n = 143) was evaluated by ultrasound on d -10, -8, -6, -3, -2, 0, and 5 to identify ovarian structures, and blood was sampled on d -10, -3, and -2 for P4 concentrations by RIA. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed at d 32 and 60. Statistical analyses was performed using PROC-MIXED for continuous variables and PROC-GLIMMIX of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) for binomial variables. The treatments did not differ in circulating P4 on d -10 or -3, but P4 was greater on d -2 in CHEM cows. Ovulation to the treatments on d -10 was associated with lower circulating P4 on d -10 (2.0 vs. 3.1 ng/mL) and resulted in greater P4 on d -3 (4.0 vs. 2.4 ng/mL) and more cows with a corpus luteum on d -3 (100 vs. 40%) than nonovulating cows. Cows that ovulated to d -10 treatments were more likely to have a synchronized new follicular wave (97.9 vs. 63.2%) and had an earlier wave emergence (1.9 vs. 2.6 d), resulting in less cows ovulating a persistent follicle

  8. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  9. Sildenafil in the Treatment of SSRI-Induced Sexual Dysfunction: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Damis, Marina; Patel, Yatin; Simpson, George M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a well-documented side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Commonly reported side effects include erectile impotence, anorgasmia, ejaculatory delay, pain, loss of sensation, and decreased pleasure. Early reports of the reversal of sexual dysfunction after using sildenafil in male and female patients receiving various types and dosages of SSRIs are promising and prompted this study. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of oral sildenafil ...

  10. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtain...

  11. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFDARIAN

    breeding season), 180 Karakul ewes were stratified based on age and body weight ... on day 12; T2 - insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug releasing device .... Due to the presence of unbalanced data, the effect of replicate was analysed ...

  12. Pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions are prevalent in female chronic pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, S; Thomsen, Thordis; Jaszczak, Poul P.

    2014-01-01

    with CPP and age-matched pain-free controls using multiple standardized intravaginal examination measures recommended by the International Continence Society. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based and controlled study with randomly selected participants among women in Denmark. We reported...

  13. Comparing the Efficacy and Side Effects of Trans-Cervical Catheter and Vaginal Misoprostol on Cervical Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mallah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of labor induction is extremely dependent on the state of the cervix. There are various methods available in modern obstetrics practice for ripening the cervix, such as intravaginal prostaglandins and mechanical devices like transcervical catheters. Although plenty of studies have already compared the two methods for the unripened cervices, more studies are warranted in nulliparous patients only. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol tablets with transcervical Foley catheter for cervical ripening in nulliparous patients. Methods & Materials: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 nulliparous candidates for labor induction were recruited from two teaching centers in Tabriz within a 17-month period of time. All the enrolled cases had a live singleton fetus with cephalic presentation at term (≥37 weeks, on-admission Bishop Score≤4, intact membranes and reactive non-stress test results. They were randomly assigned to two equal age-matched groups receiving either intravaginal misoprostol (25 microgram, n=59, or transcervical insertion of 16F Foley catheter (n=60. Results: One time successful induction (i.e. successful induction after a single insertion of misoprostol, or expulsion of transcervical Foley catheter within 12 h of insertion was achieved in all the patients without employment of other methods such as use of syntocinon. Misoprostol was more effective in terms of induction-to-cervical ripening interval (15.16±3.59 h vs. 18.30±1.59 h; p<0.001. Tachysystole, on the other hand, was significantly more frequent in the misoprostol receivers (25.4% vs. 0%; p<0.001. The two groups were comparable for the rate of cesarean section (misoprostol, 37.3%; Folly catheter, 30%; p=0.40. Comparing the two groups, there was no significant difference with regard to change in Bishop Score (misoprostol, 1.90±0.54 h-1; Folly catheter, 1.89±0.74 h-1; p=0.95 and miscellaneous pregnancy-related and fetal

  14. Toll-Like Receptors and Cytokines as Surrogate Biomarkers for Evaluating Vaginal Immune Response following Microbicide Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana M. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical microbicides are intended for frequent use by women in reproductive age. Hence, it is essential to evaluate their impact on mucosal immune function in the vagina. In the present study, we evaluated nisin, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP, for its efficacy as an intravaginal microbicide. Its effect on the vaginal immune function was determined by localizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs-3, 9 and cytokines (IL-4, 6 , 10 and TNF-α in the rabbit cervicovaginal epithelium following intravaginal administration of high dose of nisin gel for 14 consecutive days. The results revealed no alteration in the expression of TLRs and cytokines at both protein and mRNA levels. However, in SDS gel-treated group, the levels were significantly upregulated with the induction of NF-κB signalling cascade. Thus, TLRs and cytokines appear as sensitive indicators for screening immunotoxic potential of candidate microbicides.

  15. Toll-like receptors and cytokines as surrogate biomarkers for evaluating vaginal immune response following microbicide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sadhana M; Aranha, Clara C; Mohanty, Madhu C; Reddy, K V R

    2008-01-01

    Topical microbicides are intended for frequent use by women in reproductive age. Hence, it is essential to evaluate their impact on mucosal immune function in the vagina. In the present study, we evaluated nisin, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP), for its efficacy as an intravaginal microbicide. Its effect on the vaginal immune function was determined by localizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs-3, 9) and cytokines (IL-4, 6 , 10 and TNF-alpha) in the rabbit cervicovaginal epithelium following intravaginal administration of high dose of nisin gel for 14 consecutive days. The results revealed no alteration in the expression of TLRs and cytokines at both protein and mRNA levels. However, in SDS gel-treated group, the levels were significantly upregulated with the induction of NF-kappaB signalling cascade. Thus, TLRs and cytokines appear as sensitive indicators for screening immunotoxic potential of candidate microbicides.

  16. Expression of P-cadherin identifies prostate-specific-antigen-negative cells in epithelial tissues of male sexual accessory organs and in prostatic carcinomas. Implications for prostate cancer biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, A. P.; Harner, G. D.; Knudsen, K. A.; McBrearty, F. X.; Grujic, E.; Salazar, H.; Han, A. C.; Keshgegian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cadherins constitute a family of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules the individual members of which are essential for the sorting of cells into tissues during development. In this study, we examined the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and P-cadherin in tissues obtained from radical prostatectomies. Epithelial cells of prostatic glands, ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. P-cadherin was expressed in epithelial cells of the seminal ...

  17. Sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury–A narrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Sunilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Spinal cord injury and sexual functioning affects a large segment of the male Indian population, yet most current research focuses on quantitative measurement with the emphasis on ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasm impairment, incontinence, and other physiological dysfunction. Further research is needed to address the subjective accounts of patients themselves with respect to the emotional and social impact of sexual disability. This would help to identify the best possible outcomes for both treatment and rehabilitation.

  18. Impact of currently marketed tampons and menstrual cups on Staphylococcus aureus growth and TSST-1 production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonfoux, Louis; Chiaruzzi, Myriam; Badiou, Cédric; Baude, Jessica; Tristan, Anne; Thioulouse, Jean; Muller, Daniel; Prigent Combaret, Claire; Lina, Gérard

    2018-04-20

    Fifteen currently marketed intravaginal protection products (11 types of tampon and four menstrual cups) were tested by the modified tampon sac method to determine their effect on Staphylococcus aureus growth and toxic shock toxin 1 (TSST-1) production. Most tampons reduced S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production, with differences based on brand and composition, and S. aureus growth was higher in de-structured than in unaltered tampons. We observed higher S. aureus growth and toxin production in menstrual cups than in tampons, potentially due to the additional air introduced to the bag by cups, with differences based on cup composition and size. Importance Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but severe disease. It occurs in healthy women vaginally colonized by Staphylococcus aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 using intravaginal protection such as tampons or menstrual cups. Intravaginal protection induces TSS production by collecting catamenial products which act as a growth medium for S. aureus Previous studies have evaluated the impact of tampon composition on S. aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, but they are not recent and did not include menstrual cups. This study demonstrates that highly reproducible results for S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production can be obtained using a simple protocol that reproduces the physiological conditions of tampon and cup usage as closely as possible, providing recommendations for tampon or cup use to both manufacturers and consumers. Notably, our results do not show that menstrual cups are safer than tampons and suggest that they require similar precautions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) behaves in a skewed manner and needs the appropriate statistics for correct interpretation of treatment results. AIMS: To explain the rightful use of geometrical mean IELT values and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT because

  20. Reproductive performance and mortality rate in Menz and Horro sheep following controlled breeding in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhan, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous

  1. Safety and efficacy of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug dapoxetine in delaying ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 212 potent men with PE were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg orally dapoxetine (group 1, N=106) twice daily or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, N=106) during a 12-week period for each agent. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, geometric mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, primary outcome measure), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The efficacy of two treatments was assessed every 2 weeks during treatment, at the end of study, and in 3-month follow-up after cessation of treatment. We measured geometric mean IELT. Thus, the IELT values were logarithmically transformed before statistical analysis, and the results are reported as fold increases from baseline with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The independent sample two-tailed t-test was used to compare the IELTs. At the end of 12-week treatment, the dapoxetine group had a 2.9- (95% CI, 1.84-4.16) fold increase of the geometric mean IELT, while after placebo the geometric mean IELT did not increase significantly (1.4-fold increase; 95% CI, 0.84-1.63) (p=0.001). The mean weekly intercourse episodes increased from pretreatment values of 1.16 and 1.14 to 2.2 and 1.4, for dapoxetine and placebo, respectively (p=0.04). Baseline mean intercourse satisfaction domain values of IIEF, 12 and 11, reached to 16 and 10 at the 12-week treatment in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.04). At the end of 3-month follow-up period, the geometric mean IELT in dapoxetine and placebo group demonstrated 1.4- (95% CI, 0.66-1.46) and 1.3- (95% CI, 0.77-1.63) fold increase, respectively (p=0.1). Three-month intercourse satisfaction domain value of IIEF was 11 in group 1 and 10 in group 2 (p=0.1). Mean number of adverse events was 19 for dapoxetine and 7 for

  2. Sexual dysfunction among diabetics and its impact on the SQoL of their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiredu, W K B A; Alidu, H; Amidu, N; Obirikorang, C; Gyasi-Sarpong, C K; Bawah, A T; Dapare, P P M; Luuse, A T

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) has long been known to affect a significant number of people worldwide with serious implications and limitations on sexual expression and fulfillment. This may affect the sexual quality of life (SQoL) of individuals and their partners. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients and their partners who visited the Tema General Hospital. A total of 130 and 116 diabetic males and females and their partners were interviewed. Male and female diabetic participants and partners were evaluated using the Golombuk Rust Inventory for Sexual Satisfaction-Male (GRISS-M)/SQoL-M and GRISS-Female/SQoL-F, respectively. For the diabetic males, the mean age and duration of diabetes (DOD) was 63.04±10.85 and 8.38±6.53 years, respectively, and that of the diabetic females was 56.98±9.42 and 6.11±5.31 years, respectively. Diabetic male participants with SD were significantly older and had a longer duration of diabetes. The mean SQoL and SQoL-Partner (SQoL-P) recorded for the diabetic males and their partners was 42.29±30.88 and 52.86±15.26, respectively. The mean SQoL and SQoL-P recorded for the diabetic females and their partners was 57.73±14.91 and 64.97±19.68, respectively. Diabetic males who had impotence had female partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores, and similar results were recorded for those who had premature ejaculation, nonsensuality, avoidance and dissatisfaction problems. Female diabetics who had nonsensuality, avoidance and infrequency had male partners who recorded significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Female diabetics with higher perceptions of what an adequate intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) should be had male partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Ageing and DOD are more likely to affect the sexual functioning of diabetic males than females. SD in diabetics with problems of impotence/vaginismus, premature ejaculation/anorgasmia, nonsensuality and avoidance has an adverse effect on the SQo

  3. Avaliação da qualidade de vida e da perda urinária de mulheres com bexiga hiperativa tratadas com eletroestimulação transvaginal ou do nervo tibial Evaluation of quality of life and loss urine of women with overactive bladder treated with intravaginal or tibial nerve electro stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra de Menezes Franco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio clínico prospectivo comparativo que objetivou comparar os efeitos do tratamento com eletroestimulação transvaginal (ET e do nervo tibial (ENT sobre a qualidade de vida (QV e queixas de perda urinária em mulheres com bexiga hiperativa. Participaram 42 pacientes com bexiga hiperativa ou incontinência urinária (IU mista e foram divididas para tratamento com ET ou ENT. A QV foi avaliada pelo questionário de QV genérico, o Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 e um questionário específico para IU, o Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL. Os relatos de perdas urinárias e incômodos ocasionados foram avaliados, respectivamente, por meio do diário miccional de 24 horas e Escala Visual Analógica (EVA. O tratamento foi realizado uma vez por semana, totalizando doze semanas. O grupo da ENT teve melhora significativa em três domínios do I-QOL, na EVA, que avaliou o grau de incômodo causado pela IU e em quatro aspectos do diário miccional. No grupo de ET houve melhora significativa de dois domínios do SF-36, três domínios do I-QOL, na EVA e em quatro aspectos do diário. Houve melhora da QV em ambos os grupos, assim como uma diminuição das queixas de perda urinária, entretanto, o grupo que recebeu ET obteve melhora nos escores em dois domínios do questionário de QV genérico após o tratamento, que teve limitação por aspectos físicos e limitação por aspectos emocionais. O que não ocorreu com o grupo de ENT.This is a prospective comparative clinical study. This study aimed to compare the effects of intravaginal electrical stimulation therapy (IS and the tibial nerve (TNS on quality of life (QOL and complaints of urinary incontinence in women with overactive bladder. Participants 42 patients with overactive bladder or urinary incontinence (UI mix and were divided for treatment with IS or TNS. To assess QOL we used a generic QOL questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 and

  4. Stress urinary incontinence: effect of pelvic muscle exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, K. L.; McKey, P. L.; Bishop, K. R.; Kloen, P.; Verheul, J. B.; Dougherty, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty women with stress urinary incontinence diagnosed by urodynamic testing participated in a 6-week pelvic muscle exercise program. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercise program, with or without an intravaginal balloon, on urinary leakage as determined by a

  5. NKT cell activation by local α-galactosylceramide administration decreases susceptibility to HSV-2 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie Beck; Jensen, Simon Kok; Hansen, Anne Louise

    2015-01-01

    . The marine sponge derived lipid αGalCer has recently been demonstrated as a specific agonist for activation of human and murine NKT cells. In the present study we investigated the applicability of αGalCer pre-treatment for immune protection against intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection. We found that C57BL/6 WT mice...... that received local pre-treatment with αGalCer prior to intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection had a lower mean disease score, mortality and viral load in the vagina following infection, compared to mice that did not receive αGalCer pre-treatment. Further, we found increased numbers of CD45 and NK1.1 positive cells...... in vaginal tissue and elevated levels of IFN-γ in the vaginal tissue and in vaginal fluids 24h after αGalCer pre-treatment. Collectively our data demonstrate a protective effect of αGalCer induced activation of NKT cells in the innate immune protection against viral infection....

  6. Transcervical embryo recovery in Saanen goats | Lima-Verde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg ...

  7. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations.

  8. Aphrodisiac effect of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides in sexually impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-05-01

    The phytochemical constituents of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. Ex Bth. and its aphrodisiac activity on male rat sexual behavior and reproductive hormones in paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction were evaluated. The extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and the reference herbal drug PowmaxM (7.14 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats, once daily for 5 days, and their sexual behavior parameters were monitored and computed. The serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) were determined at the end of treatment period. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, phenolics, saponins, and tannins. Mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculatory frequency (EF), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were reduced significantly (preversed the paroxetine-mediated alterations in MF, IF, EF, mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculatory latency (EL), postejaculatory interval (PEI), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations dose-dependently. The reversal of the male sexual behavior parameters by the extract compared well (psexual competence in sexually impaired rats possibly by increasing sexual drive through enhanced reproductive hormones concentration, particularly testosterone, thus supporting the folkloric claim of the plant for the management of sexual disorder in males.

  9. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  10. Short-term effects of crossover treatment with silodosin and tamsulosin hydrochloride for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakita, Hideshi; Yokoyama, Eiji; Onodera, Yasutada; Utsunomiya, Takuji; Tokunaga, Masatoshi; Tojo, Takanori; Fujii, Noriteru; Yanada, Shuichi

    2010-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of silodosin and tamsulosin in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by a randomized crossover method. BPH patients with the complaint of LUTS were included in this study, and were randomly divided into two groups: a silodosin-preceding group (4 weeks of twice-daily administration of silodosin at 4 mg, followed by 4 weeks of once-daily administration of tamsulosin at 0.2 mg) or a tamsulosin-preceding group (4 weeks' administration of tamsulosin, followed by 4 weeks' administration of silodosin). No drug withdrawal period was provided when switching the drug. In the first treatment period, both drugs significantly improved the International Prostate Symptom Score total score, but the improvement by silodosin was significantly superior to that by tamsulosin. After crossover treatment, significant improvement was observed only with silodosin treatment. Moreover, intergroup comparison of changes revealed that silodosin showed significant improvement of straining and nocturia with first and crossover treatments, respectively, compared with tamsulosin. Silodosin also significantly improved quality of life (QOL) score in both treatment periods, while tamsulosin significantly improved QOL score only in the first treatment period. The most frequent adverse drug reaction was ejaculatory disorder with silodosin; however, the incidence of dizziness with silodosin was similar to that with tamsulosin. In BPH/LUTS patients, silodosin exhibits excellent efficacy in improving subjective symptoms in both initial and crossover treatment, and it appears to improve the QOL of patients. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long.standing intra.vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6.year.old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a ...

  12. Evaluation of local tolerance of the antiretroviral spermicide (WHI-07)-loaded gel-microemulsion in the porcine female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2008-04-01

    The local tolerance of the antiretroviral spermicide, WHI-07 (5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate)-loaded gel-microemulsion was evaluated in a physiologically relevant and sensitive porcine model. Gilts (Duroc) in nonestrus stages of the reproductive cycle received either a single or a daily intravaginal application of 2.0% WHI-07 via a gel-microemulsion for 6 days. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid was obtained for up to 72 h after a single exposure and the cellular profile and levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) were quantitated by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence-based multiplex immunoassay, respectively. The reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, uteri and Fallopian tubes) harvested on day 7 was scored histologically for evidence of mucosal irritation using a new scoring criterion for ten histological endpoints that reflect pathological changes in the epithelial/ subepithelial and vascular/perivascular compartments. When compared with irritant reactions caused by the detergent-type spermicide, benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the scatter profile of CVL immune cells and basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in CVL fluid were unaffected by intravaginal exposure to 2% WHI-07. Unlike BZK, endpoint histology of the proximal and distal regions of the reproductive tract from gilts treated with 2.0% WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion for 6 days did not result in mucosal irritation or alteration in the epithelium, subepithelium/lamina propria, vessels/perivascular tissues and underlying/surrounding muscles. Based on surrogate markers for inflammation, leukocyte profile and histologic data for local tolerance, repeated intravaginal administration of WHI-07 via gel-microemulsion as a prophylactic contraceptive is unlikely to cause vaginal irritation.

  13. r. J. Anint. Sci. 10, 65-68 (t980) THE SYNCHRONISATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. A/'r. J. Anint. Sci. 10, 65-68 (t980). THE SYNCHRONISATION OF OESTRUS IN SHEEP. 3. THE USE OF INTRAVAGINAL PROGESTAGEN AND/OR PROSTAGLANDIN. Reteipt qf' MS 2 I -05- 1979. J.P.C. Greyling* and J.M. van der Westhuysen. Departrnent Hunton ancl Animal Ph.t'siolog-t', L,nit,. Stellenbosch ...

  14. A new leech species of Semiscolex (Arhynchobdellida: Semiscolecidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico Especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Semiscolex (Arhynchobdellida: Semiscolecidae) del lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2006-01-01

    Semiscolex lamothei sp. nov. from Catemaco lake, Veracruz, México, is described based on the examination of 18 specimens. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1/2 + 5 + 1/2 annuli between gonopores. The new species has morphological features previously not described for any other member of the genus, such as well-developed ejaculatory bulbs and postcaeca in the posterior part of the crop. This is the first record of the genus and the family in the norther...

  15. Application of shRNA-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based gene therapy for HSV-2-induced genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Xiang, Yang; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo; Shao, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hong; Li, Manmei; Guan, Ming; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    HSV-1-based vectors have been widely used to achieve targeted delivery of genes into the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to use shRNA-containing HSV-1-based gene delivery system for the therapy of HSV-2 infection. Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and scored daily for 100 days for the severity of vaginal disease. HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 was applied intravaginally daily between 8 and 14 days after HSV-2 challenge. Delivery of HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 had no effect on the onset of disease and acute virus shedding in animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in both the cumulative recurrent lesion days and the number of days with recurrent disease. Around half of the animals in the HSV-2 shRNA group did not develop recurrent disease 100 days post HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 particles are effective in reducing the recurrence of genital herpes caused by HSV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Laminaria Japonica in intracavitary radiation therapy when anesthesia is contraindicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeples, W.J.; Given, F.T. Jr.; Bakri, Y.N.

    1983-01-01

    Laminaria tents have been used to dilate the cervix for interruption of pregnancy and other intrauterine procedures. Their use is presented in 5 patients with cervical and endometrial carcinoma where general anesthesia was contraindicated. Cervical dilation was sufficient with a single Laminaria to carry out intrauterine and intravaginal instrumentation for radiation therapy with no local or general anesthesia

  17. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexualbehavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have beeninvestigated.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. Thecontrol group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimentalgroups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changesin testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mountlatency (ML, intromission latency (IL, post ejaculatory interval (PEI, mount frequency (MF,ejaculatory latency (EL, intromission frequency (IF, copulatory efficacy (CE and intercopulatoryinterval (ICI.Results: The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg leadacetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same dosesof lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group.No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CEin the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the controlgroup. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kglead acetate compared to the control group.Conclusion: It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activitiesand the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydigcells following lead acetate poisoning.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  20. Carcinoma of the endometrium prognostic factors and treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Dattatreyudu

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This course will review current staging, prognostic factors, treatment options, rationale and management strategies for patients with endometrial carcinoma. Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common gynecological malignancy in the U.S. About 40,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The majority of the patients at the time of diagnosis have early stage disease. Staging of endometrial cancer has been modified three times by FIGO over the past 25 years. Materials and Methods: Various treatment options will be reviewed and current available literature on results and complications of various treatments will be discussed. The standard treatment for operable patients with carcinoma of the endometrium is total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingoopherectomy with regional lymph node staging. There is considerable controversy regarding the role of radiation as an adjuvant treatment. Various combinations of surgery and radiation have been used in the past. With better knowledge and understanding of the natural history of the disease and significance of prognostic factors, three different risk groups have been identified; low risk, intermediate risk, high risk. Postoperative radiation has been shown to decrease local failures and improve survival in the majority of the intermediate risk group and high risk group of patients. There is considerable controversy on the role of intravaginal radiation. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the use of High Dose Rate fractionated intravaginal treatment. Results: The results of combined surgery and radiation treatment have been very satisfactory with associated minimal complication rate. The long term published data on results and complications will be discussed. Conclusion: Various treatment strategies for different prognostic groups will be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of low dose rate versus high dose rate brachytherapy, intracavitary versus external beam radiation therapy will be

  1. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  2. Topical SMIP-7.7, a toll-like receptor 7 agonist, protects against genital herpes simplex virus type-2 disease in the guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Earwood, Julie; Clark, Jennifer R; Li, Yongkai; Mishra, Pranab; Li, Chun; Nayak, Bishnu P; Miller, Andrew T; Wu, Tom Y-H; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M

    2014-04-11

    Development of more effective therapies for genital herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infections remains a priority. The toll-like receptors (TLR) are attractive targets for the immunomodulation of primary and recurrent genital herpes infection. The guinea pig model of genital HSV-2 disease was therefore used to evaluate the efficacy of a new TLR-7 agonist, SMIP-7.7. The effects of SMIP-7.7 at concentrations between 0.90% and 0.09% were compared to the vehicle control or Aldara(®) (3M Health Care Limited, Northridge, CA, USA) as treatment for genital HSV-2 infections. Following intravaginal inoculation of Hartley guinea pigs with 10(6) pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intravaginally beginning at 36 h post-infection. Animals were evaluated for acute disease, acute virus replication, recurrent disease and shedding, as well as infection of the dorsal root ganglia. Treatment with SMIP-7.7 significantly decreased mean total lesion scores during primary infection (all doses, P<0.01 compared with vehicle control, and similar to Aldara(®)). Vaginal virus titres were reduced in treated animals compared with vehicle control (P<0.001 for each treatment versus vehicle control on day 4). Treatment with SMIP-7.7 also significantly decreased the number of recurrent lesion days, the number of days with recurrent virus shedding and the infection of the dorsal root ganglia compared to the vehicle control, and was similar to Aldara(®). As opposed to Aldara(®), SMIP-7.7 did not induce fever or weight loss during treatment. SMIP-7.7 improves the outcome of primary and recurrent HSV-2 disease comparable to Aldara(®) but without some of the side effects associated with Aldara(®).

  3. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment. Both in vitro and in vivo models have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents. Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter, pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count, Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein. This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.

  5. Copulatory behaviour of the vlei rat Otomys irroratus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-10-22

    Oct 22, 1996 ... intromission at a mean time of 181.1 s (± 30.3). Mean duration of tests was 64.8 min (± 2.4), and males ejaculated a mean of. 6.8 (± 0.4) times during tests. The copulatory pattern was characterized by no lock, intra-vaginal thrusting, multiple ..... wood rals (l'~ieoloma aih(f?ula) and golden mice (Ochrotomys.

  6. Inhibition of HIV transmission in human cervicovaginal explants and humanized mice using CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lee Adam; Trifonova, Radiana; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Basar, Emre; McKernan, Shannon; Xu, Zhan; Seung, Edward; Deruaz, Maud; Dudek, Tim; Einarsson, Jon Ivar; Yang, Linda; Allen, Todd M.; Luster, Andrew D.; Tager, Andrew M.; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Lieberman, Judy

    2011-01-01

    The continued spread of the HIV epidemic underscores the need to interrupt transmission. One attractive strategy is a topical vaginal microbicide. Sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice can be inhibited by intravaginal siRNA application. To overcome the challenges of knocking down gene expression in immune cells susceptible to HIV infection, we used chimeric RNAs composed of an aptamer fused to an siRNA for targeted gene knockdown in cells bearing an aptamer-binding receptor. Here, we showed that CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras (CD4-AsiCs) specifically suppress gene expression in CD4+ T cells and macrophages in vitro, in polarized cervicovaginal tissue explants, and in the female genital tract of humanized mice. CD4-AsiCs do not activate lymphocytes or stimulate innate immunity. CD4-AsiCs that knock down HIV genes and/or CCR5 inhibited HIV infection in vitro and in tissue explants. When applied intravaginally to humanized mice, CD4-AsiCs protected against HIV vaginal transmission. Thus, CD4-AsiCs could be used as the active ingredient of a microbicide to prevent HIV sexual transmission. PMID:21576818

  7. An update on post-ejaculatory remodeling of the sperm surface before mammalian fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B. M.; Boerke, A.

    2016-01-01

    The fusion of a sperm with an oocyte to form new life is a highly regulated event. The activation-also termed capacitation-of the sperm cell is one of the key preparative steps required for this process. Ejaculated sperm has to make a journey through the female uterus and oviduct before it can

  8. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal no camundongo BALB/c com diferentes quantidades de T. foetus, em dois grupos experimentais. O Grupo A foi tratado com 5µg de 3-benzoato de beta estradiol, para sincronizar o estro, 48 h antes da inoculação vaginal com T. foetus, e o Grupo B foi inoculado durante o estro natural. O efeito do 3-benzoato de beta estradiol decresceu gradualmente. A totalidade dos animais ciclaram regularmente após 5-7 dias pós-tratamento. Após a primeira semana pós-infecção, todos os animais foram amostrados durante 34 semanas, para avaliar o andamento da infeção vaginal e o estádio de cío. O Grupo A apresentou 93,6% de animais infetados e o Grupo B 38%. Com diferentes dosagens de T. foetus se obteve a instalação e persistência da infecção vaginal durante 34 semanas. Embora tenham-se registrados diferentes comportamentos entre cada um dos lotes dos Grupos A e B, não houveram diferenças significativas entre as doses infectantes. O tratamento com 3-benzoato de beta estradiol teve efeito favorável na instalação da infecção (P<0,0001, porém não teve influência na persistência (P= 0,1097. Em função dos resultados obtidos, apresenta-se um modelo experimental em camundongo, adequado para aprofundar estudos sobre mecanismos de patogenicidade, resposta imune, avaliação protetora de imunógenos e o efeito terapêutico de fármacos.

  9. Exogenous progesterone treatment during pregnancy for increasing milk production and growth of kids of Etawa grade goat

    OpenAIRE

    I-Ketut Sutama; I-G.M Budiarsana; Supriyati; Hastono

    2012-01-01

    Naturally, progesterone in ruminant is mainly produced by corpus luteum and it is reponsible for maintaining pregnancy, and affecting udder development and milk production. Exogenous progesterone treatment is expected to give similar positive effect on milk production as the endogenous progesterone does. Fourty mature Etawa grade (PE) does were synchronized for oestrus using Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) followed by natural mating. Does then were treated with CIDR intravaginally, as...

  10. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Troyer, Sara; Berri, Sally; Narayana, Vrinda; Meirowitz, Amichay; Roberson, Peter L.; Montie, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  11. The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzalez, Joshua; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm. Contemporary data on pelvic floor anatomy and function as they relate to the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions were reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between the male pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory/orgasmic dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, respectively. Evidence suggests a close relationship between the pelvic floor and male sexual dysfunction and a potential therapeutic benefit from pelvic floor therapy for men who suffer from these conditions. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a necessary tool in a more comprehensive bio-neuromusculoskeletal-psychosocial approach to the treatment of male sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. Results: At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (pIELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE. PMID:29850442

  13. New strategies for local treatment of vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José

    2015-09-15

    Vaginal infections are extremely prevalent, particularly among women of reproductive age. Although they do not result in high mortality rates, these infections are associated with high levels of anxiety and reduction of quality of life. In most cases, topical treatment of vaginal infections has been shown to be at least as effective as oral treatment, resulting in higher local drug concentrations, with fewer drug interactions and adverse effects. Furthermore, the emergence of microbial resistance to chemotherapeutics and the difficulties in managing infection recurrences sustain the need for more effective local treatments. However, conventional dosage forms have been associated with low retention in the vagina and discomfort. Formulation strategies such as the development of bioadhesive, thermogelling systems and microtechnological or nanotechnological approaches have been proposed to improve delivery of traditional drugs, and other treatment modalities such as new drugs, plant extracts, and probiotics are being studied. This article reviews the recent strategies studied to improve the treatment and prevention of the commonest vaginal infections-namely, vaginal bacteriosis, aerobic vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidosis, and trichomoniasis-through the intravaginal route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  15. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Doug Wagner

    Full Text Available Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, interleukin-1α (IL1A, interleukin-1β (IL1B, calprotectin (S100A8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF. GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that

  16. Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D'Agata, Rosario; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n = 25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n = 25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1 h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony.

  17. Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D' Agata, Rosario [Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Calogero, Aldo E., E-mail: acaloger@unict.it [Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n = 25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n = 25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1 h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony.

  18. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a monopolar nonablative radiofrequency device for the improvement of vulvo-vaginal laxity and urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalji, Shelena; Lozanova, Paula

    2017-06-01

    Vaginal childbirth, natural process of aging, congenital factors, and surgical interventions are considered the main causes of vulvo-vaginal laxity driven by changes in collagen and elastin fibers. This causes a loss of strength and flexibility within the vaginal wall. As a result, women may experience lack of sensation and stress urinary incontinence (SUI)-the condition of involuntary loss of urine associated with activities that cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure (eg, sneezing, coughing, and lifting). Both vaginal laxity and urinary incontinence significantly affect patients' quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of a noninvasive radiofrequency device when used to treat SUI and vulvo-vaginal laxity through its heating effect which stimulates collagen and elastin fibers. Twenty-seven women (average age 44.78±10.04 years) with indications of mild/moderate SUI as well as vulvo-vaginal laxity were treated with a monopolar radiofrequency device. The treatment course consisted of three once-a-week sessions. Each session included intravaginal treatment followed by treatment of labia majora and the perineum. Improvement in the SUI condition was evaluated by applying the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF). Data were collected at the baseline, after the last treatment and at 1-month follow-up visit. Vaginal laxity was assessed by subjective vulvo-vaginal laxity questionnaire (VVLQ). Data were collected before the 1st treatment and during the 1-month follow-up visit. Patient's satisfaction was recorded using a satisfaction questionnaire. Data were collected after the last treatment and at the 1-month follow-up visit. Any adverse events related to the treatments were monitored. On a scale of 0 to 5, the average frequency of urine leak improved from "2-3 times a week" (2.15±1.03 points prior to treatment) to "once a week" (1.00±0.78 points post

  19. COMPARISON OF MISOPROSTOL AND MISOPROSTOL WITH ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE IN SECOND TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Sivakumar; Nalina. S; Rukkayal Fathima; Rekha Radha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To compare the efficacy and side effect profile of vaginal misoprostol versus misoprostol and isosorbide mononitrate in enhancing cervical ripening in second trimester pregnancy termination. METHODS It is a random clinical trial done in 100 patients for mid trimester termination of pregnancy (between 12 and 24 weeks of gestational age). They were divided into two groups: Group A Combination of 400 mcg of misoprostol and 40 mg of ISMN placed intravaginally. Repe...

  20. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To...

  1. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  2. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L. M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  3. Neyrodoz in the treatment of secondary premature ejaculation in patients with chronic prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is the type of sexual dysfunction, which is characterized by constant or nearly constant uncontrolled ejaculation before vaginal penentration or within minutes of the start of sexual intercourse, that causing a feeling of sexual dissatisfaction and leading to sexual frustration among the partners. It has been shown that the antimicrobial and antiinflammatory therapy of chronic prostatitis (CP increases the duration of sexual intercourse and improves the control over the ejaculation. PE in the patients with CP may be an independent sexual disorder that may require a specific correction. Antidepressants are the first line of drugs in the treatment of PE according to the recommendations of the European Association of Urology. However, some patients refuse to intake this medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Neyrodoz in the treatment of PE in patients with CP.Materials and methods. The study included 32 patients (mean age 37.5 years who have had complains on PE after the treatment of CP. All the patients were randomly selected into two groups. 1st – basic group (n = 15 and 2nd – control group (n = 17.The first group patients intook Neyrodoz 2 capsules twice a day. The second group got placebo in the same dose during 30 days.Results. The time of intravaginal latency increased from 40,8 ± 9,9 (25–56 to180,1± 41,2 (120–240 seconds in patients of the 1st group after the therapy. The score of tool-PEDT decreased from 15,8 ± 3,1 (11–20 to 3,9 ± 2,9 (0–8. The visual analogue scale (VAS symptoms improved from 8,6 ± 1,4 (6–10 to 2,5 ± 2,1 (0–5. The time of intravaginal latency increased from 38,4 ± 10,0 (25–59 to 40,7 ± 7,4 (35–59 seconds in 14 of 17 men in the second group of patients. The score of tool-PEDT decreased from 15,6 ± 2,8 (11–20 to 14,3 ± 2,7 (12–19. The VAS symptoms improved from 8,9 ± 1,3 (6–10 to 8,5 ± 1,7 (6–10.Conclusions

  4. Novel Role for Interleukin-17 in Enhancing Type 1 Helper T Cell Immunity in the Female Genital Tract following Mucosal Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Puja; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Vitali, Danielle; Stämpfli, Martin R; Kaushic, Charu

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by CD4 + T cells in HSV-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A plays an important role in enhancing antiviral T helper type 1 (T h 1) responses in the female genital tract (FGT) and is essential for effective protection conferred by HSV-2 vaccination. While IL-17A did not play a critical role during primary genital HSV-2 infection, seen by lack of differences in susceptibility between IL-17A-deficient ( IL-17A -/- ) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, it was critical for mediating antiviral responses after challenge/reexposure. Compared to WT mice, IL-17A -/- mice (i) infected intravaginally and reexposed or (ii) vaccinated intranasally and challenged intravaginally demonstrated poor outcomes. Following intravaginal HSV-2 reexposure or challenge, vaccinated IL-17A -/- mice had significantly higher mortality, greater disease severity, higher viral shedding, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vaginal secretions. Furthermore, IL-17A -/- mice had impaired T h 1 cell responses after challenge/reexposure, with significantly lower proportions of vaginal IFN-γ + CD4 + T cells. The impaired T h 1 cell responses in IL-17A -/- mice coincided with smaller populations of IFN-γ + CD4 + tissue resident memory T (T RM ) cells in the genital tract postimmunization. Taken together, these findings describe a novel role for IL-17A in regulating antiviral IFN-γ + T h 1 cell immunity in the vaginal tract. This strategy could be exploited to enhance antiviral immunity following HSV-2 vaccination. IMPORTANCE T helper type 1 (T h 1) immunity, specifically interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells, is critical for protection against genital herpesvirus (HSV-2) infection, and

  5. Efficacy and safety of the urolift® system for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia symptoms: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Gómez-Sancha, F; Luengo-Matos, S

    2015-06-01

    Interest in having alternatives in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. To assess the efficacy and safety of the Urolift® system for treating the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Systematic review of the literature through searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, CRD, Clinical Trials and EuroScan, collecting indicators of efficacy and safety. We included 5 case series and one clinical trial. The patients' mean age ranged from 65-74.3 years, and the mean prostate volume was 41-55cm3. The mean number of Urolif® implants was 3.7-5.5. The maximum follow-up in months was 24, 12 (3 studies) and one (2 studies). Improvements were found in lower urinary tract symptoms, as measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BPHII), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) volume. Improvements were in found sexual dysfunction symptoms, as measured with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire or Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MHSQ-EjD), and in quality of life (QoL). In the clinical trial, the differences were significant for International Prostate Symptom Score, BPHII, Qmax and QoL (p<.05). The adverse effects were mild. Although the quality of evidence is low, Urolift® constitutes a good therapeutic alternative for patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. The short to medium-term results show that the technique contributes to improving lower urinary tract symptoms, with no relevant side effects, does not affect sexual function and improves quality of life. Further research is required, especially on long-term results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of breed type and lactation status on reproductive performance in Awassi ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Kridli, R.T.; Abdullah, A.Y.; Husein, M.Q.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breed types and lactation status on reproductive performance of hormonally-treated Awassi ewes. A total of 282 ewes were treated with intravaginal progestagen sponges and equine chorionic gonadotropin. Ewes were mated with fertile rams following sponge removal. Lambing rate was similar between brown-and black-faced ewes, while the percentage of multiple births, fecundity and prolificacy were greater in black-faced ewes. Lambing rate and the p...

  7. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  8. Association Between Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael H; Messore, Marisa; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-10-01

    The relation between infertility and sexual dysfunction can be reciprocal. Causes of sexual dysfunction that affect fertility include erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease (abnormal penile curvature), low libido, ejaculatory disorders in men, and genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and low sexual desire in women. To review the association between infertility and sexual dysfunction and discuss current management strategies to address sexual disorders in couples with infertility. Peer-reviewed publications from PubMed published from 1980 through February 2016 were identified that related to sexual dysfunction and infertility in men and women. Pathophysiology and management approach of erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, low libido, ejaculatory disorders in men, and GPPPD and low sexual desire in women and how each etiology contributes to sexual dysfunction and infertility in the couple. Treating the infertile couple with sexual dysfunction involves addressing underlying conditions such as psychogenic erectile dysfunction, low testosterone, Peyronie's disease in men, and GPPPD and low sexual desire in women. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction can be successfully treated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Low testosterone is often identified in men with infertility, but testosterone therapy is contraindicated in men attempting conception. Men with Peyronie's disease have a new treatment option to address their penile curvature-collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection directly into the penile plaque. GPPPD is a broad disorder that includes vulvodynia and vaginismus and can be treated with topical lubricants and moisturizers. We must address psychosocial factors in women with low sexual desire. Flibanserin and transdermal testosterone (off-label) are novel therapies for women with low sexual desire. Sexual dysfunction in a couple with infertility is a complex issue. Management of infertility and sexual dysfunction should involve appropriate

  9. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Mediated Protection Against C. trachomatis In Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Koundinya Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chambers, James P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C. trachomatis serovar D (CT-D). Immunization with rCPAF/CpG significantly reduced vaginal CT-D shedding and induced resolution of infection by day 24, compared to day 33 in CpG alone treated and challenged animals. Immunization induced robust anti-rCPAF serum IgG 2 weeks following the last immunization, and was sustained at a high level 4 weeks post challenge. Upregulation of antigen specific IFN-γ gene expression was observed in rCPAF/CpG vaccinated splenocytes. Importantly, a significant reduction in inflammation in the genital tissue in rCPAF/CpG-immunized guinea pigs compared to CpG-immunized animals was observed. Taken together, this study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of rCPAF as a vaccine candidate in a second animal model of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:27990018

  10. Outcome of treatment of upper third vaginal recurrences of cervical and endometrial carcinomas with interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charra, C.; Roy, P.; Coquard, R.; Romestaing, P.; Ardiet, J.M.; Gerard, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe an original brachytherapy technique using a dedicated intravaginal template for the treatment of vaginal vault recurrences and to evaluate the results of such a treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1978 and 1993, 78 patients with isolated recurrence of cervical or endometrial carcinoma located in the vaginal vault have been treated in Lyon. Initial treatment was surgery alone in 49 cases and irradiation with surgery in 37 cases. Treatment of the vaginal recurrence was performed with interstitial Iridium 192 brachytherapy combined with pelvic external beam radiation therapy in 34 patients. The tumor was implanted with a dedicated intravaginal plastic template. Six parallel metallic needles were implanted in the vaginal vault and afterloaded with Iridium 192 wires of 4 to 6 cm long. The mucosa of the upper half of the vagina received the same dose as the one encompassing the tumor on the 85% isodose of the Paris system. Results: At 5 years the local control rate was 70% and the overall survival rate 56%. Grade 3 complications occurred in 10% of the cases and only in patients who had received irradiation during the initial treatment of the primary tumor. Conclusions: This brachytherapy technique makes it possible to perform Iridium 192 implants in a difficult situation with a favorable long-term control rate and an acceptable rate of complications

  11. Comparative description of the use of modern methods of hormonal contraception for women with excessive body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Gridina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of reproductive health of women with excessive weight is the actual problem of nowadays and is an important direction of modern medicine. Aim. To analyze the efficiency and acceptability of oral, іntravaginal and transdermal hormonal contraceptives among women with excessive body mass. Methods and results. The tolerability and ease of use of different types of hormonal contraception have been studied in 72 women with excessive body mass to determine the reliability and acceptability of modern hormonal contraceptives. It has been investigated that the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives according to our data is 100%, none patient was registered with an unwanted pregnancy. The total subjective evaluation of all hormonal contraceptives use were positive: 78.6% of women with excessive body mass who used oral contraceptives, were satisfied with the chosen contraceptive method, 81,8% – were satisfied with intravaginal method, 59,1% – transdermal contraceptive. Conclusions. It has been found that intravaginal contraceptive is most suitable as the drug of first choice for women with overweight compared with oral and transdermal hormonal methods of contraception. This suggests that women with excessive body mass can successfully use modern methods of hormonal contraception. But it is necessary to carry out clinical supervision, during which further clarification on the use of hormonal contraception in women with excessive body mass is possible.

  12. Determination of fenticonazole in human plasma by HPLC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Mao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the determination of fenticonazole in human plasma after percutaneous and intravaginal administration. Mifepristone was used as an internal standard (IS, and simple protein precipitation by acetonitrile containing 2% acetic acid was utilized for extracting the analytes from the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column. The quantitation was performed by a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM positive ion mode using precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 455.2–199.1 for fenticonazole and m/z 430.2–372.3 for mifepristone. The validated linear ranges were 5–1000 pg/mL and 0.1–20 ng/mL fenticonazole in plasma for the methods A and B, respectively. For the two methods, the accuracy data ranged from 85% to 115%, the intra- and inter-batch precision data were less than 15%, the recovery data were more than 90%, and no matrix interference was observed. The methods A and B were successfully validated and applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of fenticonazole gel in Chinese healthy volunteers after percutaneous and intravaginal administration, respectively.

  13. Induction of synchronized oestrous in indigenous Damascus goats outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Synchronized oestrous was induced in indigenous Damascus goats, outside the breeding season, using intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), plus pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). A total of 78 female Damascus goats of mixed ages (1.5 to 5 years) were divided randomly into 2 equal groups, T and C. The females in Group T were treated with MAP for 18 days and injected intramuscularly with either 150 of 200 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas, animals in Group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced between 21 to 68 h post-sponge withdrawal in all treated animals, resulting in oestrous response of 100%. all animals in Group C were in anoestrous during the treatment period. In the Group T, conception rate and fecundity rate were 65.8% and 195.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in pregnancy duration between animals carrying singles and twins (149 versus 184.5 days, respectively). The average birth weight of kids was 3.8 kg. However, single-born kids were significantly (p < 0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (4.8 versus 3.8 kg). The results suggest that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, obtain successful pregnancy and kidding in Damascus goats outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and successful. (author)

  14. MAdCAM-1 expressing sacral lymph node in the lymphotoxin beta-deficient mouse provides a site for immune generation following vaginal herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Kelly A; Linehan, Melissa M; Ruddle, Nancy H; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2004-08-01

    The members of the lymphotoxin (LT) family of molecules play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis. Whereas LT alpha-deficient mice lack all lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, mice deficient in LT beta retain mesenteric lymph nodes and cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the generation of mucosal lymph nodes. In this study, we describe the presence of a lymph node in LT beta-deficient mice responsible for draining the genital mucosa. In the majority of LT beta-deficient mice, a lymph node was found near the iliac artery, slightly misplaced from the site of the sacral lymph node in wild-type mice. The sacral lymph node of the LT beta-deficient mice, as well as that of the wild-type mice, expressed the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 similar to the mesenteric lymph node. Following intravaginal infection with HSV type 2, activated dendritic cells capable of stimulating a Th1 response were found in this sacral lymph node. Furthermore, normal HSV-2-specific IgG responses were generated in the LT beta-deficient mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection even in the absence of the spleen. Therefore, an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the development of a lymph node associated with the genital mucosa, and such a lymph node serves to generate potent immune responses against viral challenge.

  15. Effects of fenfluramine and para-chloroamphetamine on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M M; Hall, J L; Love, R L

    1992-01-01

    The present studies have evaluated the effects of pharmacologically induced release serotonin on sexual responses of male rats during exposure to a sexually receptive female rat. Following acute administration of fenfluramine or para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), significant dose-related decreases in copulatory rate and copulatory efficiency, and increases in ejaculatory latency were observed. These effects were not observed when the animals were pretreated with LY53857, a 5-HT1c/2 antagonist. These studies indicate that acute release of serotonin evoked by these releasing agents has inhibitory effects on sexual sexual drive, capacity to achieve erection and threshold for ejaculation, and these effects are mediated by either the 5-HT1c or 5-HT2 receptor.

  16. New tentacled leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) parasitic on the starry skate Raja georgiana Norman from the Scotia Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utevsky, Andrei; Gordeev, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    A new fish leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae), a parasite of the Antarctic skate Raja georgiana Norman (Rajiformes: Rajidae) collected between the Falkland Islands and South Georgia Island in the Scotia Sea, is described and compared with related genera. Ceratobdella quadricornuta is characterised by an uncommon appearance of its anterior sucker bearing four well-developed tentacles and a unique combination of features of the reproductive and digestive systems: crop and intestine equally developed, posterior crop caeca separated; accessory glands, conductive tissue and external copulatory area lacking; common part of ejaculatory ducts (common atrium) voluminous and muscular, male copulatory bursa short, small ovisacs opening into female copulatory bursa (vagina).

  17. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE.

  18. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  19. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  20. Metronidazole hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S; Choudhury, T; Shear, N H

    1994-03-01

    To report a case of a possible hypersensitivity reaction induced by metronidazole. An Asian woman with a history of recurrent vaginitis had previously developed localized erythema while on intravaginal metronidazole and nystatin. While receiving oral metronidazole for treatment of a current bacterial vaginosis, she developed chills, fever, generalized erythema, and a rash within 60 minutes of the first dose. Treatment with diphenhydramine was instituted. The following day while in the hospital, the patient's condition worsened; she experienced shortness of breath and increased edema of the extremities. Methylprednisolone was administered with diphenhydramine and her condition improved over the next 5 days. The patient's vaginitis was treated with gentian violet and she was discharged on a tapering dosage of prednisone. Metronidazole-induced cutaneous reactions and systemic hypersensitivity reactions are reviewed. Alternatives to metronidazole and other potential cross-reactive drugs are suggested for the treatment of recurrent vaginitis. Although the patient's initial reaction to metronidazole represented a rare event, written documentation and communication in the patient's native language may have prevented the subsequent severe hypersensitivity reaction.

  1. [Ecological treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis with Bio-three].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimura, T

    1998-12-01

    Ecological treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis with a Bio-three was studied, and the following results were obtained. 1. A total of 16 women with bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis were treated with intravaginal application of 2 g of Bio-three (E. faecalis T-110, C. butyricum TO-A, B. mesentericus TO-A, pH 6.9 +/- 0.3). The effect of the treatment was evaluated 3 days after administration by monitoring the vaginal discharge and bacteriological assessment. 2. The clinical improvement was evaluated and the decreases of vaginal discharge and vaginal redness were significant and vaginal pH was lowered significantly (5.29 +/- 0.24 vs. 4.31 +/- 0.37, p vaginal discharge 35 strains of bacteria were detected, but 3 days after administration, 16/30 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 strains of Gram-negative bacteria disappeared. As for the overall bacteriological effects, 7/16 cases were eradicated, 1 case was partly eradicated, 6 cases were replaced. These findings indicated that the Bio-three therapy was effective in both clinical and bacteriological responses.

  2. Induction o.t labour with intravaginal misoprostol in the second and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the discretion of the labour ward staff, oxytocin was used to augment labour. Otherwise, an intravenous drip was not routinely inserted. If the patient was not in labour within 12 hours of receiving the last dose of misoprostol, the treatment was considered a failure. Objective. To confirm the effectiveness of misoprostol as a.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of vagina: combined surgery and radiation with preservation of genital function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.; Lewis, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A report is given of a patient treated at Memorial Hospital, New York City, by external and fractionated intravaginal radiation given after a surgical procedure that consisted of local excision of tumor, pretreatment laparotomy, and lateral ovarian transposition. The treatment plan was based on the observations that there was no evidence of local or distant spread and that the ovaries could be moved to positions where radiation exposure would not terminate their activity. The patient has survived over six years and is without evidence of recurrence

  4. Short communication: Evaluation of vaginal discharge following treatment with a progesterone insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2012-08-01

    Yellowish discharge after application of intravaginal progesterone releasing inserts is frequently observed in cows. The objective of this study was to compare the bacteriological contamination of the vagina and uterus before and after a treatment with a progesterone insert in heifers. Forty-two Holstein heifers received a progesterone releasing insert [Eazi-Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert; Pfizer Animal Health, Berlin, Germany] for 7d. The protruding tail had been removed from half of the inserts (no tail group: n=21; tail group: n=21). Nine heifers from the tail group lost the insert within the 7-d treatment interval and were excluded. Heifers identified in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 9 or 10. Vaginal discharge was scored on a 4-point scale [vaginal discharge score (VDS) 0 to 3] and vaginal swabs were taken for bacteriological examination on d 0 and 7 and the day of artificial insemination (AI). Furthermore, cytological and bacteriological samples were obtained from the uterus on d 7 and the day of AI. On d 0, coliforms and Streptococcus spp. were found in vaginal swabs of 21 heifers (64%). On d 7, all heifers showed purulent vaginal discharge (VDS 2 to 3). The VDS was higher in the tail group compared with the no tail group. Arcanobacterium pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were isolated from the vaginal swabs in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers on d 7. On the day of AI, VDS had improved to 0 or 1 in 96% of the heifers. However, A. pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were still isolated in 17 of 33 (53%) heifers from the vagina and in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers from the endometrium. Endometrial cytology revealed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in 11 heifers (6 to 32% PMN). Five samples exceeded the threshold of 5% PMN, and 2 samples exceeded the 10% PMN threshold, indicative of subclinical endometritis. In conclusion, pyogenic bacteria were found in the vagina and uterus on d 7 and the day of AI after intravaginal

  5. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  6. Maximising HIV prevention by balancing the opportunities of today with the promises of tomorrow: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Kate L; McGillen, Jessica B; Lee, Edward; Garnett, Geoff P; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-07-01

    Many ways of preventing HIV infection have been proposed and more are being developed. We sought to construct a strategic approach to HIV prevention that would use limited resources to achieve the greatest possible prevention impact through the use of interventions available today and in the coming years. We developed a deterministic compartmental model of heterosexual HIV transmission in South Africa and formed assumptions about the costs and effects of a range of interventions, encompassing the further scale-up of existing interventions (promoting condom use, male circumcision, early antiretroviral therapy [ART] initiation for all [including increased HIV testing and counselling activities], and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis [PrEP]), the introduction of new interventions in the medium term (offering intravaginal rings, long-acting injectable antiretroviral drugs) and long term (vaccine, broadly neutralising antibodies [bNAbs]). We examined how available resources could be allocated across these interventions to achieve maximum impact, and assessed how this would be affected by the failure of the interventions to be developed or scaled up. If all interventions are available, the optimum mix would place great emphasis on the following: scale-up of male circumcision and early ART initiation with outreach testing, as these are available immediately and assumed to be low cost and highly efficacious; intravaginal rings targeted to sex workers; and vaccines, as these can achieve a large effect if scaled up even if imperfectly efficacious. The optimum mix would rely less on longer term developments, such as long-acting antiretroviral drugs and bNAbs, unless the costs of these reduced. However, if impossible to scale up existing interventions to the extent assumed, emphasis on oral PrEP, intravaginal rings, and long-acting antiretroviral drugs would increase. The long-term effect on the epidemic is most affected by scale-up of existing interventions and the successful

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of vulvovaginal candidiasis identifies a role for the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincent M; Shetty, Amol C; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C; Peters, Brian M

    2015-04-21

    Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused most frequently by Candida albicans, represents a significant unmet clinical need. C. albicans, as both a commensal and a pathogenic organism, has a complex and poorly understood interaction with the vaginal environment. Understanding the complex nature of this relationship is necessary for the development of desperately needed therapies to treat symptomatic infection. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we characterized the early murine vaginal and fungal transcriptomes of the organism during VVC. Network analysis of host genes that were differentially expressed between infected and naive mice predicted the activation or repression of several signaling pathways that have not been previously associated with VVC, including NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Intravaginal challenge of Nlrp3(-/-) mice with C. albicans demonstrated severely reduced levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), alarmins, and inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (the hallmarks of VVC immunopathogenesis) in vaginal lavage fluid. Intravaginal administration of wild-type (WT) mice with glyburide, a potent inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, reduced PMN infiltration and IL-1β to levels comparable to those observed in Nlrp3(-/-) mice. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of C. albicans genes indicated robust expression of hypha-associated secreted aspartyl proteinases 4, 5, and 6 (SAP4-6), which are known inflammasome activators. Despite colonization similar to that of the WT strain, ΔSAP4-6 triple and ΔSAP5 single mutants induced significantly less PMN influx and IL-1β during intravaginal challenge. Our findings demonstrate a novel role for the inflammasome in the immunopathogenesis of VVC and implicate the hypha-associated SAPs as major C. albicans virulence determinants during vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vaginitis, most commonly caused by the fungus Candida albicans, results in significant quality-of-life issues for

  8. Amino-functionalized poloxamer 407 with both mucoadhesive and thermosensitive properties: preparation, characterization and application in a vaginal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqian Ci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of mucoadhesive properties is the major drawback to poloxamer 407 (F127-based in situ hydrogels for mucosal administration. The objective of the present study was to construct a novel mucoadhesive and thermosensitive in situ hydrogel drug delivery system based on an amino-functionalized poloxamer for vaginal administration. First, amino-functionalized poloxamer 407 (F127-NH2 was synthesized and characterized with respect to its micellization behavior and interaction with mucin. Then using acetate gossypol (AG as model drug, AG-loaded F127-NH2-based in situ hydrogels (NFGs were evaluated with respect to rheology, drug release, ex vivo vaginal mucosal adhesion, in vivo intravaginal retention and local irritation after vaginal administration to healthy female mice. The results show that F127-NH2 is capable of forming a thermosensitive in situ hydrogel with sustained drug release properties. An interaction between positively charged F127-NH2 and negatively charged mucin was revealed by changes in the particle size and zeta potential of mucin particles as well as an increase in the complex modulus of NFG caused by mucin. Ex vivo and in vivo fluorescence imaging and quantitative analysis of the amount of AG remaining in mouse vaginal lavage all demonstrated greater intravaginal retention of NFG than that of an unmodified F127-based in situ hydrogel. In conclusion, amino group functionalization confers valuable mucoadhesive properties on poloxamer 407.

  9. Development of Nanoemulsion Based Gel Loaded with Phytoconstituents for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection and in Vivo Biodistribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atinderpal Kaur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A nanoemulsion based gel containing Polyphenon 60 (P60 and cranberry (CRB has been developed to deliver via intravaginal route for the treatment of urinary tract infection. Methods: Polyphenon 60 and cranberry were loaded in a single nanoemulsion gel (NBG by ultra-sonication method and characterized for particle size, rheological properties, in vitro release and growth curve analysis. P60+CRB NBG were radiolabelled using technetium pertechnetate (99mTc to perform in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in animals. Results: The finalized NE had a droplet size of 58±1 nm. In vitro release of 90.92 ± 0.6% in 8 hr for P60 and 99.39 ± 0.5% in 6 hr for CRB was observed in simulated vaginal fluid. Growth curve of E. coli indicated the inhibitory action of nanoemulsion based gel at the fifth hour of inoculation. Gamma scintigraphy studies on female Sprague-Dawley rats showed transport of nanoemulsion based gel from the vaginal cavity into the systemic circulation. Further, biodistribution studies with radiolabelled P60+CRB NBG showed significant higher uptake of radiolabelled actives by kidney (3.20±0.16 and urinary bladder (3.64±0.29, when administered intravaginally. Conclusion: The findings suggested 99mTc-P60+CRB NBG can potentially be transported through vaginal cavity and reach the target organs and showed effective distribution in organs affected in urinary tract infection

  10. Measurement of sexual functioning after spinal cord injury: preferred instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Brackett, Nancy L; Bodner, Donald

    2009-01-01

    into male and female sexual function, male reproductive function, and female reproductive function. The instruments that have been used most frequently to measure these aspects of sexual function over the past 5 years were identified by expert consensus. Finally, these instruments were subjected...... to a critical review. RESULTS: The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the measurement of ejaculatory function and semen quality were considered appropriate measures to assess sexual responses......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of certain instruments to assess sexuality and fertility after SCI, an expert panel identified key areas to study and evaluated available instruments. These were rated according to certain predefined criteria. METHODS: The authors divided sexual issues...

  11. On the socio-sexual behaviour of the extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: an approach based on its baculum size and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abella

    Full Text Available The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain. Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males.

  12. Sexuality and body image in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Philip; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Hospital, Denmark, from 1990 to 2000 was conducted. A total of 401 survivors (mean age: 46.6years; response rate: 66%) completed questionnaires concerning sexuality and changes in body image. Based on the treatment received, patients were categorised into one of four groups: surveillance, radiotherapy......OBJECTIVE: This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs). METHODS: A long-term follow-up assessment of all testicular cancer patients treated at Aarhus University......, chemotherapy, or chemotherapy supplemented with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). RESULTS: Sexual dysfunctions were reported: 24% reduced sexual interest, 43% reduced sexual activity, 14% reduced sexual enjoyment, 18% erectile dysfunction, 7% ejaculatory problems and 3% increased sexual discomfort...

  13. On the Socio-Sexual Behaviour of the Extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: An Approach Based on Its Baculum Size and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Valenciano, Alberto; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain). Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males. PMID:24058484

  14. Comparación de dos tratamientos a base de progestágenos para la sincronización de celos ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Urete-Barrera; José Luis Porras-Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta a dos programas de sincronización de estros en 30 ovejas vacías. Materiales y métodos. Las ovejas fueron seleccionadas por ecografía y distribuidas al azar en tres grupos de 10 ovejas cada uno. Las ovejas de los grupos 1 y 2 recibieron el día 0 un implante auricular con 3 mg de Norgestomet junto con la inyección intramuscular de 1.5 mg de Norgestomet, 2.5 mg de Valerato de Estradiol y una esponja intravaginal con acetato de medroxiprogesterona respectivamente...

  15. Evaluación de diferentes tratamientos hormonales para la sincronización del estro en cabras criollas serranas durante el verano

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Rodrigo; Fernández, Jorge L; de la Vega, Adolfo C; Rabasa, Alicia E

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos tratamientos hormonales en la sincronización de celos en cabras Criollas Serranas durante el verano. El mismo se realizó con 79 hembras, con un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con los siguientes tratamientos: T1, Prostaglandina F2µ (n = 27): dos aplicaciones de 325 mg/cabra (sc) de cloprostenol, espaciadas 12 días una de otra; T2, Progestágeno (n =26): esponja intravaginal con 60 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, durante 12 d...

  16. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (pcandidiasis.

  17. Bilateral suprapubisk abscesdannelse fem år efter inkontinensoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lenette; Sander, Pia; Lose, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    recovery. As opposed to the macroporous types (e.g. tension-free vaginal tape), the microporous structure of the IVS-sling causes a higher rate of erosion and infection. Complete sling removal is important in case of IVS-complications. The monitoring of complications related to new medical devices......This report presents a case of vaginal erosion and bilateral suprabupic abscesses five years after insertion of an intravaginal slingplasty (IVS) midurethral incontinence sling in a 53-year-old female patient. Partial removal was insufficient. After complete removal, the patient achieved full...

  18. Radiation exposure to the gonads in x-ray examinations of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1978-12-01

    The measurement of the gonad dose in 95 examinations of the stomach according to the recommendations of the Society of Medical Radiology of the GDR is reported. An average of 62 mR was found in 37 intravaginal measurements. For 58 men the average dose was 6.9 mR. Moreover, the measuring results of 23 authors are tabulated. According to these gonad doses are between 10 and 830 mrads for women and between 1.2 and 230 mrads for men. Finally, data are given on the frequency of examinations of the stomach.

  19. Radiation exposure to the gonads in x-ray examinations of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement of the gonad dose in 95 examinations of the stomach according to the recommendations of the Society of Medical Radiology of the GDR is reported. An average of 62 mR was found in 37 intravaginal measurements. For 58 men the average dose was 6.9 mR. Moreover, the measuring results of 23 authors are tabulated. According to these gonad doses are between 10 and 830 mrads for women and between 1.2 and 230 mrads for men. Finally, data are given on the frequency of examinations of the stomach. (author)

  20. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (Pstress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Four cases of bowel perforation following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kobo; Take, Suguru; Suzuki, Ryoto [Yokosuka City Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kurosu, Yasuhiko; Tsuzuki, Hideshi; Amano, Sadao; Iwata, Mitsumasa; Morita, Ken

    1984-10-01

    External radiation dose exceeded 5,000 rad in three cases, and intravaginal radiation dose was 5,000 rad in one case. Radiation damage including perforation was seen in the end of ileus in one case, in the sigmoid and rectum in two cases, and in the end of ileus, sigmoid and rectum in the last case. Satisfactory results were obtained by the removal of the ileocecum in the case of the damage in the end of the ileus. However, only colostomy was performed for the damage in the sigmoid and rectum.

  2. Inseminação artificial em tempo fixo e diagnóstico precoce de gestação em vacas leiteiras mestiças Timed artificial insemination and early pregnancy diagnosis in crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio França Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, durante um ano, o desempenho reprodutivo de 94 vacas leiteiras mestiças Bos taurus x Bos indicus submetidas a um programa de reprodução assistida. Um protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi executado por meio de dispositivo intravaginal contendo progesterona e das injeções de prostaglandina F2α e de cipionato de estradiol. Por meio de ultrassonografia, entre 7 e 14 dias após as inseminações ou montas controladas, realizou-se a detecção de corpo lúteo nos ovários a fim de determinar a taxa de ovulação e, no 28º dia, fez-se o diagnóstico de gestação para cálculo da taxa de concepção. Respeitou-se um período mínimo de 34 dias após o parto antes do tratamento. Não houve influência do escore de condição corporal e da presença de corpo lúteo no início do protocolo, nem da reutilização do dispositivo intravaginal e da monta controlada ou inseminação artificial, sobre as taxas de ovulação, concepção e concepção das vacas ovuladas. As taxas de concepção e de concepção das vacas ovuladas foram afetadas negativamente pelo elevado número de dias pós-parto (DPP, ou dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano, primavera/verão. A resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo baseado no uso de progesterona, PGF2α e cipionato de estradiol é prejudicada pelo aumento dos dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano. A condição corporal não afeta a resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial, desde que as vacas tratadas apresentem escore acima de 2,25 pontos.It was evaluated, during a period of one year, the reproductive performance of 94 Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred dairy cows submitted to an assisted reproduction program. A timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol was carried out by using an intra-vaginal progesterone device containing progesterone and through injections with Prostaglandin F2α and estradiol cypionate. By using ultrasound

  3. Does quality improvement work in neonatology improve clinical outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsbury, Dan L; Clark, Reese H

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement initiatives in neonatology have been promoted as an important way of improving outcomes of newborns. The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of recent quality improvement work in improving the outcomes of infants requiring neonatal intensive care. Quality improvement collaboratives and single-center projects demonstrate improvement of clinical processes and outcomes in neonatology that impact both preterm and term infants. Declines in morbidities, resource use, and length of stay have been associated with reductions in healthcare costs. Recent quality improvement work has shown evidence of improvement in clinical outcomes in neonatal intensive care patients. These improvements have important implications for the reduction of healthcare costs in this population.

  4. Pelvic floor physical therapy: impact on quality of life 6 months after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Rachel N; Crisp, Catrina C; Novicki, Kathleen; Fellner, Angela N; Kleeman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is often used as a treatment of pelvic floor disorders and may improve function after pelvic reconstructive surgery. However, the long-term impact of this modality is not understood. This randomized controlled trial compared PFPT to the standard care in women undergoing vaginal reconstruction. The intervention group received PFPT biweekly until 12 weeks postoperatively, in conjunction with a physician assessment. Control subjects underwent a physician assessment alone at all postoperative intervals. The final follow-up was at 24 weeks. Physical examinations (pelvic organ prolapse quantification assessment), intravaginal electromyography, voiding diaries, and validated questionnaires were completed by all subjects. The primary outcome was change in the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Forty-nine women completed the study, 24 in the PFPT group and 25 in the control group. Although electromyography measures showed better muscular function in PFPT subjects after 12 weeks, at 6 months after surgery, this was no longer noted. However, quality of life parameters improved for the entire sample at 24 weeks, with no difference between groups. Positive change from 12 to 24 weeks was also documented in scores on the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (P = 0.04) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (P = 0.018), corresponding with continued improvement in bladder symptoms. Finally, Prolapse and Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 and Female Sexual Function Index scores improved between 12 and 24 weeks, suggesting better sexual function overall with time elapsed from surgery. Quality of life improves in all subjects after vaginal reconstructive surgery, with ongoing benefit between 3 and 6 months. Nevertheless, standardized PFPT was not associated with differences at 24 weeks in this cohort of women.

  5. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry; Fisscher, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    the similarities and differences between key components of continuous and collaborative improvement by assessing what is specific for continuous improvement, what for collaborative improvement, and where the two areas of application meet and overlap. The main conclusions are that there are many more similarities...... between continuous and collaborative improvement. The main differences relate to the role of hierarchy/market, trust, power and commitment to collaboration, all of which are related to differences between the settings in which continuous and collaborative improvement unfold....

  6. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradhi Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality. Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  7. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  8. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  9. Sexual function improvement in association with serum leptin level elevation in patients with premature ejaculation following sertraline treatment: a preliminary observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Long Tang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of sertraline hydrochloride on serum levels of leptin and sexual function in patients with premature ejaculation (PE. A total of 124 patients with a history of PE at least 6 months, aged 20-50 years, were treated with sertraline hydrochloride. One hundred and four age-matched normal males without a history of PE were included control subjects and were untreated. Before and after the 8 week experiment, sexual performance parameters including the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and the Chinese premature ejaculation index (CIPE were collected from both PE patients and control subjects through a questionnaire survey and analyzed. Serum levels of leptin were measured. Correlations of serum leptin with Body Mass Index (BMI were analyzed. Before sertraline treatment, serum levels of leptin were significantly higher (32.9 vs 8.8μg/L, p<0.001 but IELT and CIPE score were significantly lower (54 vs 590, p <0.001; 8.7 vs 22.3, p <0.0001 in PE patients than control subjects. After 8 weeks of treatment with sertraline, serum levels of leptinl in PE patients were decreased markedly to 8.0 μg/L, which was not significantly different from the levels in control subjects (p >0.05; and IELT and CIPE score in PE patients were increased to the values similar to those in control subjects. The sensitivity and specificity values were 87.5% and 96.3% for leptin as a diagnosis target. These observations suggest sertraline as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor may offer an effective option for treating premature ejaculation.

  10. Improving Patient Safety: Improving Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Fagan, Heather; Davis, Joshua; Savoy, Margot

    2017-12-01

    Communication among physicians, staff, and patients is a critical element in patient safety. Effective communication skills can be taught and improved through training and awareness. The practice of family medicine allows for long-term relationships with patients, which affords opportunities for ongoing, high-quality communication. There are many barriers to effective communication, including patient factors, clinician factors, and system factors, but tools and strategies exist to address these barriers, improve communication, and engage patients in their care. Use of universal precautions for health literacy, appropriate medical interpreters, and shared decision-making are evidence-based tools that improve communication and increase patient safety. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  11. Improving Earth/Prediction Models to Improve Network Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) primaryseismic network consists of a relatively small number of arrays andthree-component stations. The relatively small number of stationsin the USAEDS primary network make it both necessary and feasibleto optimize both station and network processing.Station processing improvements include detector tuning effortsthat use Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to helpjudiciously set acceptable Type 1 (false) vs. Type 2 (miss) errorrates. Other station processing improvements include the use ofempirical/historical observations and continuous background noisemeasurements to compute time-varying, maximum likelihood probabilityof detection thresholds.The USAEDS network processing software makes extensive use of theazimuth and slowness information provided by frequency-wavenumberanalysis at array sites, and polarization analysis at three-componentsites. Most of the improvements in USAEDS network processing aredue to improvements in the models used to predict azimuth, slowness,and probability of detection. Kriged travel-time, azimuth andslowness corrections-and associated uncertainties-are computedusing a ground truth database. Improvements in station processingand the use of improved models for azimuth, slowness, and probabilityof detection have led to significant improvements in USADES networkprocessing.

  12. Delaying farrowing using intravaginal devices impregnated with progestagen does not affect the proportion of piglets born alive O atraso do parto utilizando dispositivos intravaginais impregnados com progestágeno não afeta a proporção de leitões nascidos vivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Freling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of progestagen intravaginal devices (IVDs in preventing parturition in sows by determining the effect of delaying parturition on the alive/total born piglets ratio. Evaluations of IVDs containing 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g progesterone (P4 showed they were not effective in delaying parturition at any dosage tested. In a second experiment, seventy-five sows at day 112 of pregnancy were equally distributed (n=15 per group in the following treatments: prostaglandin (PGF2α; 250µg sodium cloprostenol; control group or PGF2α and simultaneous insertion of an IVD containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA for 48h. Control sows initiated labor 27.7±1.6h after PGF2α injection. The mean time (±SEM between PGF2α administration and parturition was 72.1±8.8h, 72.7±3.8h, 82.7±7.1h and 81.8±3.5h for MPA 100, 200, 400 and 800mg, respectively, differing from control group (P0.05. These findings confirm that IVDs impregnated with MPA can effectively prevent parturition in sows without affecting the alive/total born piglets ratio and therefore represent an alternative to avoid weekend farrowing in swine herds.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de dispositivos intravaginais (DIVs contendo progestágeno na prevenção do parto e determinar o efeito do atraso do parto sobre a proporção de leitões vivos/nascidos totais. DIVs contendo 0,5, 1,0 ou 1,5g de progesterona (P4 não foram eficientes na prevenção do parto em nenhuma das doses. No experimento 2, setenta e cinco porcas aos 112 dias de gestação foram equilibradamente distribuídas (n=15 por grupo nos seguintes tratamentos: prostaglandina (PGF2α; 250µg cloprostenol sódico; grupo controle ou PGF2α e simultânea inserção de DIV contendo acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por 48h. Fêmeas do grupo controle iniciaram o parto 27,7±1,6h após injeção de PGF2α. O tempo médio entre a administração de PGF2α e início do

  13. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; Boer, Harm; Fisscher, O.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of theoretical and practical knowledge has been developed on continuous improvement. However, there is still a considerable lack of empirically grounded contributions and theories on collaborative improvement, that is, continuous improvement in an inter-organizational setting. The

  14. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  15. Body packing and intra-vaginal body pushing of cocaine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Vishwajit Kishor; Chikhalkar, B G

    2018-03-01

    Drug trafficking is an international problem. The prevalence of drug trafficking and newer concealing methods has been ever increasing. Body packing is described as using the abdominal or pelvic cavity for concealing illegal drugs. Body pushers smuggle illicit drugs by inserting them into rectum or vagina. These cases are either presented to the emergency departments as Body Packer Syndrome or as asymptomatic cases for observation, detained for alleged possession of contraband substances. We report a unique case of an asymptomatic white female who was detained at Mumbai International Airport under suspicion and brought to hospital for observation. X ray and CT scan examination revealed 7 wrapped packets in gastrointestinal track and 1 large packet in vagina. A case of female body packer using multiple modalities of concealment especially in vagina is rare in India so it is becomes imperative to present this case in the light of body packing and body pushing of contraband substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proportion of populations that are overweight and obese are on the rise and generally affecting more than 50% of the adult Western male population. It is, therefore, of interest to look at possible associations between obesity and sexual function in a homogeneous population. AIM......: To examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of sexual health among Danish younger men. Questionnaires were...... the younger obese nonsmokers than obese smokers. Premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, and sexual desire disorders were all unrelated to overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) seems associated with ED among younger men aged 20-45 years. Health programs directed toward...

  17. Preejaculatory illness syndrome: Two cases of a rare psychosomatic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human ejaculation happens in the orgasmic phase of the human sexual response cycle. Among psychosomatic ejaculatory disorders that may happen before ejaculation, we present two cases of preejaculatory illness syndrome. The two cases shared common symptoms of sympathetic over activity, the sensation of impending death, and muscle atonia with subsequent failure to ejaculate. Depression, anxiety disorders, and family histories of psychiatric problems were noticed as risk factors. Medical conditions that may lead to panic attack type symptoms were eliminated before the final diagnosis. After the failure of empirical medications, symptoms became controlled with fluoxetine. Patients reported a recurrence of the symptoms on trying to stop the prescribed medication. On the last follow-up, they still take fluoxetine on a regular base with satisfactory sexual life.

  18. Re: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Sexual Function with Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fwu C-W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study authors examine the cross-sectional associations between baseline characteristics and sexual function and the longitudinal associations between change in lower urinary tract symptoms and change in sexual function among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The cross-sectional cohort included 2.916 men who completed Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI at baseline. The longitudinal cohort included 672 men who were randomized to placebo. Increased age, less education, obesity and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were found significantly associated poorer sexual drive, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory function, sexual problem assessment and overall satisfaction. However, none of these baseline characteristics predicted change in sexual function in the longitudinal cohort. The decline in sexual dysfunction associated with worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms in men assigned to placebo was small.

  19. VBAC Scoring: Successful vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section in induced labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)

  20. [Fertility after treatment with Eazi-breedTM CIDR G for 6 or 12 days outside the breeding season in Lacaune dairy sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, A; Piechotta, M; Bollwein, H; Janett, F

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the fertility after short- and long-term synchronization using a progesterone intravaginal device in Lacaune dairy sheep outside the breeding season. For the experiment 108 Lacaune sheep were treated with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G intravaginal devices (Pfizer Animal Health, Zürich) for 12 days (Group L, n = 60) or 6 days (Group K, n = 48) in combination with eCG (Group L) or with eCG and 125 μg Cloprostenol (Group K) at device removal. Thereafter the ewes were kept together with rams for 60 days, ewes in estrus were recorded and the fertility was assessed after lambing. Blood progesterone concentration was measured at device application, withdrawal and 14 days later. Results show that neither treatment nor parity had an influence on estrus rate (Group L 91.7 %, Group K 93.8 %, nulli- and pluriparous animals 96.9 % and 90.8 %, respectively). Group L showed a tendency towards a better first cycle lambing rate and a significantly (P sheep of Group K (71.7 % vs. 60.4 % and 83.3 % vs. 72.9 %). Pluriparous ewes had higher (P synchronized ewe than nulliparous sheep for the first cycle (75.0 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1) as well as for the overall service period (92.1 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1). Fourteen days after insert withdrawal progesterone concentrations were higher (P progesterone treatment and nulliparous ewes were less suitable for estrus induction outside the breeding season.

  1. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  2. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  3. "Rheum to Improve": Quality Improvement in Outpatient Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shirley L; Shojania, Kaveh G

    2017-09-01

    The commitment to improve care processes and patient outcomes is a professional mandate for clinicians and is also seen as an operational priority for institutions. Quality improvement now figures in the accreditation of training programs, specialty examinations, and hospital scorecards. Rheumatologists have traditionally focused primarily on quality problems such as guideline adherence; however, improvement goals should also include other aspects of care that are helpful to patients and are professionally rewarding for practitioners. This review makes use of improvement projects in outlining tangible tools rheumatologists can use to resolve quality concerns in their practices.

  4. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-02-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%.

  5. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1979-01-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%. (author)

  6. Somatotropina bovina recombinante en sincronización de estros y prolificidad de ovejas Pelibuey

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Pérez, G; Pérez-Hernández, P.; Vaquera-Huerta, H.; Salazar-Ortiz, J.; Sánchez-del-Real, C.; Cadena-Villegas, S.; Gallegos-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Con la finalidad de estudiar si la administración de la Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (bST) dos días antes del retiro del progestágeno, tiene efecto en la sincronización de estros, inicio del estro, fertilidad, prolificidad y tipo de parto en ovejas Pelibuey, a 180 ovejas de 4,0 ± 0,32 años de edad, se les inserto un dispositivo intravaginal impregnado con progesterona (CIDR P4 0,3 g), por nueve días. Dos días antes del retiro del dispositivo, las ovejas se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno ...

  7. Improving employee productivity through improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Serxner, Seth

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate productivity-related savings associated with employee participation in health promotion programs. Propensity score weighting and multiple regression techniques were used to estimate savings. These techniques were adjusted for demographic and health status differences between participants who engaged in one or more telephonic health management programs and nonparticipants who were eligible for but did not engage in these programs. Employees who participated in a program and successfully improved their health care or lifestyle showed significant improvements in lost work time. These employees saved an average of $353 per person per year. This reflects about 10.3 hours in additional productive time annually, compared with similar, but nonparticipating employees. Participating in health promotion programs can help improve productivity levels among employees and save money for their employers.

  8. Improving care at cystic fibrosis centers through quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynack, Nathan C; McBride, John T

    2009-10-01

    Quality improvement (QI) using a clinical microsystems approach provides cystic fibrosis (CF) centers the opportunity to make a significant positive impact on the health of their patients. The availability of center-specific outcomes data and the support of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation are important advantages for these quality improvement efforts. This article illustrates how the clinical microsystems methodology can improve care delivery and outcomes by describing the gradual application of quality improvement principles over the past 5 years by the CF team at the Lewis Walker Cystic Fibrosis Center at Akron Children's Hospital in Akron, Ohio. Using the example of a project to improve the pulmonary function of the pediatric patients at our center as a framework, we describe the QI process from the initial team-building phase, through the assessment of care processes, standardization of care, and developing a culture of continuous improvement. We outline how enthusiastic commitment from physician leadership, clinical managers and central administration, the availability of coaches, and an appreciation of the importance of measurement, patient involvement, communication, and standardization are critical components for successful process improvement. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Collaborative quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckenbaugh, Amy N; Miller, David C; Ghani, Khurshid R

    2017-07-01

    Quality improvement collaboratives were developed in many medical and surgical disciplines with the goal of measuring and improving the quality of care provided to patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of surgical quality improvement collaboratives, and in particular those aimed at improving urological care. Quality improvement collaboratives collect high-quality data using standardized methodologies, and use the data to provide feedback to physicians and practices, and then implement processes to improve patient outcomes. The largest regional collaborative in urology is the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC). Recent efforts by this group have been focused at understanding variation in care, improving patient selection for treatment, reducing treatment morbidity and measuring and optimizing technical skill. The American Urological Association has also recently launched a national quality registry (AQUA), with an initial focus on prostate cancer care. By understanding factors that result in exemplary performance, quality improvement collaboratives are able to develop best practices around areas of care with high variation that have the potential to improve outcomes and reduce costs. These developments have been made possible by the unique model offered by the collaborative structure with the goal of improving patient care at a population level.

  10. Improved core monitoring for improved plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Westinghouse has recently installed a core on-line surveillance, monitoring and operations systems (COSMOS), which uses only currently available core and plant data to accurately reconstruct the core average axial and radial power distributions. This information is provided to the operator in an immediately usable, human-engineered format and is accumulated for use in application programs that provide improved core performance predictive tools and a data base for improved fuel management. Dynamic on-line real-time axial and radial core monitoring supports a variety of plant operations to provide a favorable cost/benefit ratio for such a system. Benefits include: (1) relaxation or elimination of certain technical specifications to reduce surveillance and reporting requirements and allow higher availability factors, (2) improved information displays, predictive tools, and control strategies to support more efficient core control and reduce effluent production, and (3) expanded burnup data base for improved fuel management. Such systems can be backfit into operating plants without changing the existing instrumentation and control system and can frequently be implemented on existing plant computer capacity

  11. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. CARDOSO

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20º/6ºC and 20º/13°C and constant (6°C; 25°C temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  12. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO V. V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20masculine/6masculineC and 20masculine/13degreesC and constant (6degreesC; 25degreesC temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  13. Analysis of limited fertility in intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by electroejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Masaya; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Takeyama, Masami; Kondoh, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims:  We correlated findings in semen from patients with ejaculatory dysfunction with results of in vitro fertilization using their electroejaculated sperm. Methods and Results:  Electroejaculation was carried out in six patients with the above‐mentioned criteria for a total of eight times. Sperm was obtained in six attempts. Intracytoplasmic injection of these sperm was performed in 156 eggs. Sixty‐seven eggs were fertilized; most of these were injected with motile sperm. Two women became pregnant, both after injection with motile sperm. As previously reported, electroejaculated sperm showed low motility and a low fertilization rate, but even motile sperm had a low fertilization rate. Conclusion:  The results of the present study suggest the importance in fertilization of undetermined factors in addition to sperm motility. (Reprod Med Biol 2004; 3: 9–12) PMID:29662380

  14. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    The thesis data have been collected in the EU-sponsored project: Collaborative Improvement Tool for the Extended Manufacturing Enterprise, CO-IMPROVE. In this project four universities (Denmark, Ireland, Italy, and The Netherlands), two software vendors (Greece and Sweden) and three companies...... (Denmark, Italy and The Netherlands) each with three to five suppliers were involved. The CO-IMPROVE project and the thesis is based on “action research” and “action learning”. The main aim of the whole project is through actual involvement and actions make the researchers, companies and selected suppliers...... learn how to improve operations in (hopefully) a win-win like manner through collaboration....

  15. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  16. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity. PMID:10531235

  17. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad Bashir; Thakur, Ram Sharnagat

    2018-03-01

    To design and evaluate novel, feasible, safe, mucoadhesive intravaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). It may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis for women against HIV. TDF intravaginal tablets were formulated employing poylvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the matrix forming polymer and various mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934, 940, chitosan, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC). Wet granulation was used. The evaluation involved testing drug-excipient compatibility, precompression parameters such as percentage yield, bulk density and tapped density of the granules, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, post compression parameters such as color, shape, physical dimensions, weight variation, hardness, friability, swelling index, assay, in vitro dissolution study and ex vivo mucoadhesion studies. Based on in vitro evaluation, C1 was selected as the best formulation and evaluated further for release kinetics, curve fitting analysis, absorption studies using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique and histopathological assessment in female Sprague-Dawley rats. C1 followed Higuchi model kinetics. Accelerated stability study was as per ICH guidelines by keeping C1 at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% RH for six months. C1 was selected as the best formulation due to better swelling index (65.93% at 24 h), prolonged release of 100.62% cumulative drug release (CDR) at 24 h, superior mucoadhesion force (35.93 × 10 2 dynes/cm 2 ) and retention time (16 h). The study revealed that C1 remained stable for six months. C1 showed nil systemic absorption which is desirable and according to histopathological study, C1, exhibited minimal damage on the rat vaginal epithelium indicating safety.

  18. Short communication: estrus synchronization using progestogens or cloprostenol in tropical hair sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavez Ramírez, Alejandro; Arroyo Ledezma, Jaime; Montes Pérez, Ruben; Zamora Bustillos, Roberto; Navarrete Sierra, Luis Fernando; Magaña Sevilla, Hector

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the experiment was to compare the use of a PGF2α analogue (Cloprostenol) IM, with an intravaginal progestagen sponge, flurogestone acetate (FGA), and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) IM application protocol. A total of 30 cyclical hair ewes (54.07 ± 0.5 kg live weight, body condition score 3.5 ± 0.5, and age 3 ± 1 years) were used. For the control group ewes (n = 15), intravaginal sponges (IS) impregnated with 20 mg of FGA were inserted for 12 days with 500 IU of eCG IM at sponges withdrawal. For the PG group ewes (Treatment group n = 15), two injections of Cloprostenol (75 mcg) were given 12 days apart. The presence of estrus was detected using two rams with 8 h interval beginning at the end of the treatment. Progesterone concentrations in blood were measured by solid phase radioimmunoassay. A student's t test was performed to analyze the duration of estrus and the interval between the ends of the treatment and the onset of estrus (ET-OE) presentation. Progesterone levels were compared with two-way ANOVA, with treatment, and day of menstrual cycle as fixed factors. Treatment costs ratio was calculated by dividing the total costs of FGA IS application between total costs of Cloprostenol application. Significant differences (P Progesterone levels in both treatments. Treatment costs of Cloprostenol protocol were 2.63 cheaper than FGA including disposable material, biological products, and labor. It was concluded that Cloprostenol could be an effective tool in estrus synchronization in hair sheep in tropical areas.

  19. Thirty years since foundation of the department of gynaecology at the Institute of Clinical Oncology in Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manka, I. (Komenskeho Univerzita, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Gynaecological Dept.)

    1980-09-01

    In 1949, the department of gynaecology was set up. After a brief historical draft describing the development of the oncological center, we draw attention to the advantages of its multidisciplinary structure demonstrated in our cooperation with that of radiotherapy. The kinds of treatment and their results are reported with regard to the carcinomas of the cervix, corpus and vulva. Radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the cervix using a modified Stockholm method covers two sessions, with an interval of two to three weeks during which 60 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intrauterine and twice 30 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intravaginal are applied for 26.5 hours combined with a percutaneous irradiation of the parametries with 3500 to 4000 rad (gammatron, /sup 60/Co; betatron, 42 MeV). We prefer surgical therapy for the carcinoma of the cervix in the Ia, Ib and IIa stages up to the age of 65. We operated on 604 patients between 1957 and 1978, all of them receiving additional radiotherapy, a third preoperative irradiation. Carcinoma of the corpus has rarely been treated surgically in account of the negative selection of our patients. The radiotherapeutic procedure mostly applied is the tamponade of the uterine cavum whereby twelfe 10-mg radium tubes are applied in two sessions for 25 hours, 6000 mgh in all, plus a vaginal implant of 1500 mgh in stage-I cases, and in stage-II cases 3000 mgh intravaginally and a percutaneous telecobalt-dose of 3000 to 4000 rad. Carcinoma of the vulva is, if possible, primarily to be treated surgically by radical vulvectomy and lymphadenectomy of the inguinal and subinguinal lymphodes. Postoperative radiotherapy is carried out, when the lymphodes are positive.

  20. High-dose nifuratel for simple and mixed aerobic vaginitis: A single-center prospective open-label cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Li, Nan; Song, Shurong; Zhang, Aihua; Li, Ni; Duan, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of two nifuratel dosages for the treatment of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were compared. This was a prospective open-label cohort study of patients diagnosed and treated at the Tianjin Third Central Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. The co-presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or/and trichomonal vaginitis (TV; mixed AV) was determined. Patients were randomized to nifuratel-500 (500 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days) or nifuratel-250 (250 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days), and followed-up for three to seven days after treatment completion. Primary and secondary outcomes were recovery rate and adverse events, respectively. The study included 142 patients with AV. Age was not significantly different between the groups (n = 71 each), and disease distribution was identical: 29 (40.85%) simple AV and 42 (59.15%) mixed AV (AV + BV, 42.86 %; AV + VVC, 30.95%; AV + TV, 26.19%). In patients with simple AV, the recovery rate did not differ significantly between the nifuratel-500 (26/29, 89.66%) and nifuratel-250 (22/29, 75.86%) groups. In patients with mixed AV, recovery rates were significantly higher in the nifuratel-500 than in the nifuratel-250 group (AV + BV, 88.89% vs 50.00 %; AV + VVC, 76.92 % vs 30.77 %; AV + TV, 90.91 % vs 36.36%; all P < 0.05). Only one patient (nifuratel-500) reported an adverse event (mild anaphylactic reaction). Nifuratel 500 mg showed good clinical efficacy for the treatment of AV, particularly mixed AV, and is superior to the 250 mg dosage in the treatment of mixed AV. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Improving Project Portfolio Management (PPM) for Improvement Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Jakobsen, Peter M.; Korsaa, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Project Portfolio Management (PPM) focus on the integration and alignment of projects with the business operation in order to achieve most value and cost-efficiency for the investment in projects. PPM is often a challenge and especially so for improvement projects where PPM is considerably...... of evaluating a portfolio of improvement projects and combine this evaluation with the effect they have on the CMMI maturity level. Further, the paper demonstrates how the combination of a strong senior management requirement for improved maturity and the focus on getting the most value out of PPM made...

  2. Acute Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis with a Vaginal Contraceptive Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Eilbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which if left untreated may result in bowel infarction, peritonitis and death. The majority of patients with this illness have a recognizable, predisposing prothrombotic condition. Oral contraceptives have been identified as a predisposing factor for mesenteric venous thrombosis in reproductive-aged women. In the last fifteen years new methods of hormonal birth control have been introduced, including a transdermal patch and an intravaginal ring. In this report, we describe a case of mesenteric venous thrombosis in a young woman caused by a vaginal contraceptive ring. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:395-397.

  3. Comparative host specificity of human- and pig-associated Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    microscopy assay. A previously described porcine colonization model was used to assess the potential of the six strains to colonize the pig host. Three pregnant, S. aureus-free sows were inoculated intravaginally shortly before farrowing with different strain mixes [mix 1) human and porcine ST398; mix 2......) human ST36 and porcine ST433; and mix 3) human ST8, ST22, ST36 and porcine ST398] and the ability of individual strains to colonize the nasal cavity of newborn piglets was evaluated for 28 days after birth by strain-specific antibiotic selective culture. In the corneocyte assay, the pig-associated ST433...

  4. High-resolution MR imaging of urethra for incontinence by means of intracavitary surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, A.; Mostwin, J.L.; Genadry, R.; Yang, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a major medical problem affecting millions of older women. This paper demonstrates the use of dynamic MR imaging in noninvasive quantification of prolapse in all three pelvic compartments. In this exhibit we use high-resolution MR imaging with intracavity (intravaginal, intrarectal) and surface/intracavitary coils to diagnose intrinsic urethral pathology that prevents opening (dysuria) or coaptation (incontinence). Normal anatomy, congenital anatomy (pelvic floor defects, hypoplasia), acquired anatomy (periurethral cyst/divertivulum, tumor, hypertrophy), and operative failure as causes of incontinence (postoperative scarring, misplacement/dehiscence of sutures and flaps) are shown. We demonstrate a novel method for MR cine voiding cystourethrography. Technical factors and applications are discussed

  5. Targeting α4β7 integrin reduces mucosal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and protects gut-associated lymphoid tissue from infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Kallam, Brianne; Arthos, James; Cicala, Claudia; Nawaz, Fatima; Hiatt, Joseph; Kersh, Ellen N; McNicholl, Janet M; Hanson, Debra; Reimann, Keith A; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Rogers, Kenneth; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Villinger, Tara; Little, Dawn; Parslow, Tristram G; Santangelo, Philip J; Villinger, Francois; Fauci, Anthony S; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-12-01

    α4β7 integrin-expressing CD4(+) T cells preferentially traffic to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and have a key role in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pathogenesis. We show here that the administration of an anti-α4β7 monoclonal antibody just prior to and during acute infection protects rhesus macaques from transmission following repeated low-dose intravaginal challenges with SIVmac251. In treated animals that became infected, the GALT was significantly protected from infection and CD4(+) T cell numbers were maintained in both the blood and the GALT. Thus, targeting α4β7 reduces mucosal transmission of SIV in macaques.

  6. High Infection Rates in Adult Macaques Following Intravaginal or Intrarectal Zika Virus Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    Haddow AJ, Williams MC, Woodall JP, Simpson DI, Goma LK. Twelve isolations of 295 Zika virus from Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus (Theobald) taken in and...infection of mosquitoes with viruses ; 298 transmission of Zika virus . Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 299 1956 May;50(3... Zika virus . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015 Feb;21(2):359-61. 342 26. Clements AN. Mosquito Biology Volume 3: Transmission of viruses and

  7. Intra-vaginal temperature is not related to the time of ovulation in sows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Broos, J.; Kemp, B.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (iv) administration of the opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone on the restraint-induced suppression of the pro-estrous LH surge were studied in cyclic female rats. To minimize stress during repeated blood sampling, the rats were provided with a jugular vein cannula.

  8. From continuous improvement to collaborative improvement: scope, scale, skill and social networking in collaborative improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.; Fisscher, O.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    More than ever, companies are challenged to improve their performance and respond quickly and accurately to changes within the market. As competitive battlefield is moving towards the level of networks of organisations, the individual firm is an inadequate entity for identifying improvements.

  9. Is circumferential urethral mobilisation an overdo? A prospective outcome analysis of dorsal onlay and dorso - lateral onlay BMGU for anterior urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Jhanwar, Ankur; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2018-01-01

    For dorsal onlay graft placement, unilateral urethral mobilization is less invasive than standard circumferential urethral mobilization. Apart from success in terms of patency of urethra, other issues like sexual function, overall quality of life and patient satisfaction remain important issues while comparing outcomes of urethroplasty. To prospectively compare the objective as well as subjective outcomes of two approaches. Between July 2011 and January 2015, 136 adult males having anterior urethral stricture with urethral lumen ≥ 6 Fr. were prospectively assigned between two groups by alternate randomization. Operative time, complications, success rate (no obstructive symptoms, no need of any postoperative intervention, Q max > 15mL/sec), sexual functions (using Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory) were compared. Baseline parameters were similar in both groups (68 in each group). Overall success rate was similar in both groups (89 % and 91 % respectively). Improvement in total LUTS scores was similar in groups. Changes in overall health status (VAS and EQ 5D) was equal in both groups. Erectile function score was significantly decreased in DO than DL group while ejaculatory function and sexual desire remained stable after urethroplasty in both groups. In anterior urethral stricture buccal mucosa graft provides satisfactory results as onlay technique. No technique whether dorsolateral and dorsal techniques is superior to other. Dorsolateral technique needs minimal urethral mobilization and should be preferred whenever feasible. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  10. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  11. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  12. Improve strategic supplier performance using DMAIC to develop a Quality Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Kevin P.

    Supplier performance that meets the requirements of the customer has long plagued quality professionals. Despite the vast efforts by organizations to improve supplier performance, little has been done to standardize the plan to improve performance. This project presents a guideline and problem-solving strategy using a Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) structured tool that will assist in the management and improvement of supplier performance. An analysis of benchmarked Quality Improvement Plans indicated that this topic needs more focus on how to accomplish improved supplier performance. This project is part of a growing body of supplier continuous improvement efforts. With the input of Zodiac Aerospace quality professionals this project's results provide a solution to Quality Improvement Plans and show objective evidence of its benefits. This project contributes to the future research on similar topics.

  13. Continuous improvement in teams : The (mis)fit between improvement and operational activities of improvement teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s and 1980s, increasing attention has been paid to the Japanese ways of organising production. One of the subjects often discussed is the importance of continuous incremental improvements. Nowadays, for many organisations, continuous improvement has become an important topic; many

  14. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    -organisational continuous improvement of their performance, relative to that of other EMEs. Developing a collaborative improvement relationship between companies is a protracted and complex process and, according to some surveys, the failure rate is as low as one to three. This failure rate is affected by a whole range...... of factors. The research presented in this thesis was aimed at identifying these factors and investigating their interplay and influence on the progress and success of the development of the collaborative improvement. This thesis presents our findings regarding the factors found, their interplay...

  15. Improvement Science Meets Improvement Scholarship: Reframing Research for Better Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Alan

    2018-06-01

    In this editorial essay I explore the possibilities of 'improvement scholarship' in order to set the scene for the theme of, and the other papers in, this issue. I contrast a narrow conception of quality improvement (QI) research with a much broader and more inclusive conception, arguing that we should greatly extend the existing dialogue between 'problem-solving' and 'critical' currents in improvement research. I have in mind the potential for building a much larger conversation between those people in 'improvement science' who are expressly concerned with tackling the problems facing healthcare and the wider group of colleagues who are engaged in health-related scholarship but who do not see themselves as particularly interested in quality improvement, indeed who may be critical of the language or concerns of QI. As one contribution to that conversation I suggest that that the increasing emphasis on theory and rigour in improvement research should include more focus on normative theory and rigour. The remaining papers in the issue are introduced including the various ways in which they handle the 'implicit normativity' of QI research and practice, and the linked theme of combining relatively 'tidy' and potentially 'unruly' forms of knowledge.

  16. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  17. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, F; Hernández-Cerón, J; Orozco, V; Hernández, J A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2007-11-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) enhances ovarian follicular and embryonic development in sheep and cattle. In the present study, the objective was to assess whether bST given 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization improves prolificacy and lambing rate in sheep. Pelibuey ewes (n=92) exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals received an intravaginal sponge containing 45mg of FGA for 12 days. Five days before sponge withdrawal, ewes were treated with either 125mg of bST sc (bST group; n=47) or saline solution (control; n=45). After the sponge was removed, ewes were observed for estrus and subsequently mated twice. Lambing rate and prolificacy was determined at birth. Blood samples were taken from the time of treatment until day 15 after estrus in eight ewes from the bST group and nine from the control group. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by immunoradiometric assay and progesterone by RIA. Treatment with bST increased (P0.05). IGF-I concentrations were greater (PProgesterone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) between groups. It is concluded that a single dose of bST 5 days before progestin withdrawal increases lambing rate and prolificacy in sheep. These effects are associated with an increase in circulating concentrations of IGF-I.

  18. Continual improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  19. Applications of process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric Peter

    2016-03-01

    Major changes in the management and funding of healthcare are underway that will markedly change the way radiology studies will be reimbursed. The result will be the need to deliver radiology services in a highly efficient manner while maintaining quality. The science of process improvement provides a practical approach to improve the processes utilized in radiology. This article will address in a step-by-step manner how to implement process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

  20. A trifid pelvis in a patient with a solitary kidney with LUTS: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntaka Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trifid pelvis is one of the rarest congenital malformations of the upper urinary tract. Trifid pelvis in a solitary kidney is a very rare presentation. A young male adult presented to us with dysuria and white discharge per urethra since 1 year on and off. Urine examination showed few pus cells and white blood cells. Initial imaging by ultrasonography revealed a solitary right kidney. A computed tomography urogram showed a normal right kidney with a trifid pelvis and left ectopic hypoplastic kidney with focal thickening at the right posterolateral aspect of the vesicoureteric junction. Cystoscopy revealed normal anterior and posterior urethra, verumontanum extending until bladder neck, no ejaculatory duct openings noted, and right ureteric orifice placed slightly laterally, with the left ureteric orifice not visualized. Right RGP confirmed a trifid pelvis. A high index of suspicion is needed for the identification of this rare condition.

  1. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  2. Sexual Dysfunction and Hyperprolactinemia in Male Psychotic Inpatients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Johnsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexual dysfunction (SD and hyperprolactinemia are frequently reported in patients with psychotic disorders and have the potential for severe complications but investigations in males are particularly scarce. The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of SD and hyperprolactinemia in male patients and to investigate whether associations exist between SD and prolactin levels. Methods. Cross-sectional data were obtained at discharge from the hospital or 6 weeks after admittance for patients acutely admitted for psychosis and treated with a second-generation antipsychotic drug. Results. Half the patients reported diminished sexual desire and more than a third reported erectile and ejaculatory dysfunctions with no differences among the drugs. More than half the sample was hyperprolactinemic. No association was found between prolactin levels and SD. Conclusion. High rates of SD and hyperprolactinemia were found in male patients and should be a treatment target. SD and hyperprolactinemia were not correlated.

  3. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Comparative evaluation of naftopidil and tamsulosin in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir Singh Griwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Naftopidil, approved initially in Japan, is an α1d-adrenergic receptor antagonist (α1-blocker used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. It is different from tamsulosin hydrochloride and silodosin, in that it has a higher affinity for the α1D-adrenergic receptor subtype than for the α1A subtype and has a superior efficacy to a placebo and comparable efficacy to other α1-blockers such as tamsulosin. The incidences of ejaculatory disorders and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome induced by naftopidil may also be lower than that for tamsulosin and silodosin, which have a high affinity for the α1A-adrenergic receptor subtype. However, it remains unknown if the efficacy and safety of naftopidil in Japanese men is applicable to Indian men having LUTS/BPH. Material and Methods: Two groups of 60 patients each, having LUTS due to BPH, were treated with tamsulosin 0.4 mg and Naftopidil 75 mg for three months. Ultrasonography (for prostate size, post-void residual volume, uroflowmetry, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and Quality of Life (QOL score were recorded at the beginning of the study, and then at one and three months. Results: The prostate size, post-void residual volume, all the uroflowmetry variables, and the IPSS QOL scores showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001 in both the groups. The improvement in the average flow rate and the QOL index was better in the naftopidil group on the intergroup comparison and was statistically significant (P < 0.001. C onclusion: Although the QOL life index was significantly better in the naftopidil group, overall both naftopidil and tamsulosin were found to be equally effective in the treatment of LUTS due to BPH.

  5. Teaching quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marry Ellen; Douglas, Stephen; Girdley, Diana; Jarzemsky, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Practicing nurses are required to engage in quality improvement work as a part of their clinical practice, but few undergraduate nursing education programs offer course work and applied experience in this area. This article presents a description of class content and teaching strategies, assignments, and evaluation strategies designed to achieve the Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies related to quality improvement and interdisciplinary teams. Students demonstrate their application of the quality improvement process by designing and implementing a small-scale quality improvement project that they report in storyboard format on a virtual conference Web site.

  6. Comparison of Efficacy of Sertralin on Patients with Premature Ejaculation By Penile Biothesiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Okulu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We examine the efficacy of the low dose, high dose and on demand use of sertraline on patients with primary premature ejaculation.The value of penile biothesiometry on interpretation of responses from these treatments is also evaluated. Material and Method: A total of 70 men, 23 to 55 years old(mean age 36.4,with premature ejaculation were randomized into two treatment groups,each consisting of 35 patients,receiving placebo,sertraline, in a fashion.Because 10 patients dropped out for some reason,the study was completed with 32 patients in placebo,28 patients in sertraline groups. The study was divided into five periods in order, i.e. before treatment(BT, low dose(LD, high dose(HD, on demand(OD and after treatment(AT.Patients did not use any of these drugs during BT and AT periods. Drug visits, intravaginal ejaculation latencies and sexual satisfaction score of the previous period were recorded,penile biothesiometric analysis was performed as well. Results: The percentage of patients with a SES score ‘moderate’ or ‘good’ for placebo group on LD period, was 25%;for sertraline group was 46.4%, but on HD and OD periods it was about %40 for placebo group and 71.4% for sertraline group.According to latancies and penile biothesiometric data,both sertraline group was superior to placebo in all LD, HD and OD periods(pOD>LD.Drug caused non-serious side effects in 10 of 60 patients(16.6%. Discussion: Sertraline is effective in primary premature ejaculation.On demand use of both drugs following a two week high dose use,is an effective treatment for primary premature ejaculation with less side effects. Penile biothesiometry can be used to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in primary premature ejaculation in place of intravaginal latency measurements and satisfaction scores.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of the Premature Ejaculation Sufferers in Aegean Region of the Turkey: A Multicentre, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cihan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of the intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in male subjects and its clinical expressions among couples in the Aegean region of the Turkey. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited to the study from six different urologic centers in the Aegean region. During the enrollment period subjects were recruited in to two group according to presence of premature ejaculation (PE. PE diagnosis was made according to DSM-4 definition. Subjects and their partners were evaluated with patient reported outcome measures (PRO related to the ejaculation-based questionnaire (Premature ejaculation patient profile questionnaire -PEPQ. Stopwatch measurements were also asked from each couple to record intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT. Couples who completed two clinical visits with 4 wk interval were recruited to the data analysis. Results Among 141 eligible subjects, mean age was 36.5±9.7 years and mean partner age was 32.9±9.8 years. Following the initial evaluation 80 subjects recruited to group 1(PE and 41 subjects recruited to the group 2 (non-PE. Geometric mean IELT of the subjects was significantly differed between PE and non- PE group (64.7±66.8 vs. 521.5±414.7 seconds, p<0.001. All of the PEPQ domain scores were also differed between groups. Subjects in the PE group gave poor ratings than non-PE subjects. Partner responses were similar pattern. Correlation analyses of the PEPQ scores demonstrated significant positive correlations between “perceived control over ejaculation” and “satisfaction with sexual intercourse” domains of the PEPQ and with IELT. Conclusion Geographic distribution of IELT and its impacts among couples by the several subjective aspects of PRO measures should be assessed during PE investigation

  8. COMPARISON OF MISOPROSTOL AND MISOPROSTOL WITH ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE IN SECOND TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Sivakumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare the efficacy and side effect profile of vaginal misoprostol versus misoprostol and isosorbide mononitrate in enhancing cervical ripening in second trimester pregnancy termination. METHODS It is a random clinical trial done in 100 patients for mid trimester termination of pregnancy (between 12 and 24 weeks of gestational age. They were divided into two groups: Group A Combination of 400 mcg of misoprostol and 40 mg of ISMN placed intravaginally. Repeat doses included combination of 400 mcg of misoprostol and 20 mg of ISMN every 4 hours for maximum 4 doses. Group B 400 mcg of misoprostol placed intravaginally every 4 hours for maximum 4 doses for termination. In both the above-mentioned groups, T. mifepristone 600 mg was given orally 36-48 hrs. prior to termination. RESULTS The mean induction abortion interval was significantly less (7 hrs. 36 mins in Group A compared with group B (9 hrs. 55 min. There was no statistical significant difference in the amount of mean dose used in both groups. The complete abortion rate within 48 hrs. in Group A was 94%, which shows no statistical significance when compared with Group B complete abortion rates (80%. However, it is interpreted that on adding ISMN, the number of complete abortion rates are higher. There was no failure of abortion in both the groups. The side effects such as pain abdomen and fever were less in Group A (38% when compared to Group B (78%. CONCLUSION Vaginally administered ISMN seems to be safe and effective method in second trimester pregnancy termination. There is a reduction in hospital stay, manpower, economy spent on patient, and a sense of wellbeing from the patient also.

  9. INFLUENCIA DE LOS ÓRGANOS REPRODUCTORES SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD EN VAQUILLONAS MESTIZAS INSEMINADAS A TIEMPO FIJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Hidalgo Bravo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar el peso corporal y las influencias de las diferentes caracterizaciones del tracto reproductivo de vaquillonas y su relación con la tasa de preñez en programas de inseminación artificial en tiempo fijo (IATF. Las vaquillonas (n=38 utilizadas fueron cruza mestizas, condición corporal de 3 a 4 (Escala 1 al 5 de 20 a 30 meses de edad, las que tenían un peso corporal de 320 a 400 kg. El día pre sincronización todas las vaquillonas fueron examinadas por ecógrafo transrectal Aquila Vet 7.5 MHz, donde se determinó el diámetro uterino (cm, área ovárica (cm², área de estructuras ováricas (cm². Día cero se colocó dispositivo intravaginal 0.5 mg progesterona, conjunto con una inyección intramuscular de 1 mg de Benzoato Estradiol; día 8 retiro del dispositivo más administración intramuscular de 500 µg de D (+ Cloprostenol; día 9 aplicación intramuscular de 0.75 mg de benzoato estradiol. Inseminando 54-57 h de retirado el dispositivo intravaginal. Se diagnosticó gestación 60 días post IATF. No se registraron diferencias significativas (P>0.05, entre peso corporal, útero, ovario izquierdo, y estructuras ováricas, solo encontrándose diferencias significativas en el ovario derecho. Se concluye que el área del ovario derecho influye positivamente sobre la tasa de preñez, en cuanto al mejor umbral en pronóstico de la preñez para seleccionar una vaquillona mestiza en función del ovario derecho el estándar 4.80 cm², es el apropiado.

  10. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy; Lo, Ming; Lanteri, Marion; Dutra, Joseph; Zarbock, Katie; Silveira, Paola; Rourke, Tracy; Ma, Zhong-Min; Fritts, Linda; O'Connor, Shelby; Busch, Michael; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology

  11. Mês de parição, condição corporal e resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte primíparas Calving date, body condition score, and response to a timed artificial insemination protocol in first-calving beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meneghetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No experimento I, foi avaliada a alteração da condição corporal (CC pré e pós-parto em 155 novilhas inseminadas para parir de setembro a dezembro. A CC foi avaliada mensalmente no pré e pós-parto, de junho a fevereiro. No experimento II, 538 vacas primíparas foram sincronizadas com o protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF que usou estradiol junto ao dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona (CIDR®. As taxas de ciclicidade, sincronização e concepção foram avaliadas por ultra-som. No experimento I, os animais que pariram primeiro tiveram maior (PIn experiment I, it was evaluated the body condition score (BCS change during pre and post-partum in 155 heifers, inseminated to calve from September to December. The BCS was monthly evaluated from June to February, during the pre and post-partum periods. In experiment II, 538 primiparous cows were synchronized with a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol which used estradiol associated with an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR®. The cyclicity, synchronization, and conception rates were evaluated by ultrasound. In experiment I, the animals that calved earlier had higher (P<0.001 reduction on BCS. In experiment II, it was observed higher BCS (P<0.0001 in cows with lower days in post-partum, higher (P<0.05 synchronization rate in cows with a better BCS, and also an increase (P<0.0001 in conception rate as BCS got better (increase in six percentual points in conception for each increase of 0.25 in BCS. Beef heifers should not calve earlier when is planned to submitt these animals to TAI at the beginning of the next breeding season.

  12. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. m0 ethods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 µl PBS, E.coli group was administered with 10 [6] cfu/20 µl E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (10 [8] cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (10 [8] cfu/20 µl. After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (10 [6] cfu/20 µl whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (10 [6] cfu/20 µl E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic

  13. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  14. A Simulation-Based Quality Improvement Initiative Improves Pediatric Readiness in Community Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfill, Travis; Gawel, Marcie; Auerbach, Marc

    2017-07-17

    The National Pediatric Readiness Project Pediatric Readiness Survey (PRS) measured pediatric readiness in 4149 US emergency departments (EDs) and noted an average score of 69 on a 100-point scale. This readiness score consists of 6 domains: coordination of pediatric patient care (19/100), physician/nurse staffing and training (10/100), quality improvement activities (7/100), patient safety initiatives (14/100), policies and procedures (17/100), and availability of pediatric equipment (33/100). We aimed to assess and improve pediatric emergency readiness scores across Connecticut's hospitals. The aim of this study was to compare the National Pediatric Readiness Project readiness score before and after an in situ simulation-based assessment and quality improvement program in Connecticut hospitals. We leveraged in situ simulations to measure the quality of resuscitative care provided by interprofessional teams to 3 simulated patients (infant septic shock, infant seizure, and child cardiac arrest) presenting to their ED resuscitation bay. Assessments of EDs were made based on a composite quality score that was measured as the sum of 4 distinct domains: (1) adherence to sepsis guidelines, (2) adherence to cardiac arrest guidelines, (3) performance on seizure resuscitation, and (4) teamwork. After the simulation, a detailed report with scores, comparisons to other EDs, and a gap analysis were provided to sites. Based on this report, a regional children's hospital team worked collaboratively with each ED to develop action items and a timeline for improvements. The National Pediatric Readiness Project PRS scores, the primary outcome of this study, were measured before and after participation. Twelve community EDs in Connecticut participated in this project. The PRS scores were assessed before and after the intervention (simulation-based assessment and gap analysis/report-out). The average time between PRS assessments was 21 months. The PRS scores significantly improved 12

  15. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement Workgroup; Notice of Public Meeting...) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation obligations through the pesticide... a pesticide during the registration review process. This meeting of the PRIA Process Improvement...

  16. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, John

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorithms perform well on examples that are known to be hard for oblivious strategy improvement. Hence, we argue that previous strategy improvement algorithms fail because they ignore the structural properties of the game that they are solving.

  17. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  18. Experimental Study on Durability Improvement of Fly Ash Concrete with Durability Improving Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Hong-zhu; Kasami, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of fly ash concrete, a series of experimental studies are carried out, where durability improving admixture is used to reduce drying shrinkage and improve freezing-thawing resistance. The effects of durability improving admixture, air content, water-binder ratio, and fly ash replacement ratio on the performance of fly ash concrete are discussed in this paper. The results show that by using durability improving admixture in nonair-entraining fly ash concrete,...

  19. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  20. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  1. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Improving fleet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2015-01-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  3. Improving fleet performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  4. A cluster-randomised quality improvement study to improve two inpatient stroke quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda; Daggett, Virginia; Slaven, James E; Yu, Zhangsheng; Sager, Danielle; Myers, Jennifer; Plue, Laurie; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M

    2016-04-01

    Quality indicator collection and feedback improves stroke care. We sought to determine whether quality improvement training plus indicator feedback was more effective than indicator feedback alone in improving inpatient stroke indicators. We conducted a cluster-randomised quality improvement trial, randomising hospitals to quality improvement training plus indicator feedback versus indicator feedback alone to improve deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis and dysphagia screening. Intervention sites received collaborative-based quality improvement training, external facilitation and indicator feedback. Control sites received only indicator feedback. We compared indicators pre-implementation (pre-I) to active implementation (active-I) and post-implementation (post-I) periods. We constructed mixed-effect logistic models of the two indicators with a random intercept for hospital effect, adjusting for patient, time, intervention and hospital variables. Patients at intervention sites (1147 admissions), had similar race, gender and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores to control sites (1017 admissions). DVT prophylaxis improved more in intervention sites during active-I period (ratio of ORs 4.90, pimproved similarly in both groups during active-I, but control sites improved more in post-I period (ratio of ORs 0.67, p=0.04). In logistic models, the intervention was independently positively associated with DVT performance during active-I period, and negatively associated with dysphagia performance post-I period. Quality improvement training was associated with early DVT improvement, but the effect was not sustained over time and was not seen with dysphagia screening. External quality improvement programmes may quickly boost performance but their effect may vary by indicator and may not sustain over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Experimental study on durability improvement of fly ash concrete with durability improving admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hong-zhu; Kasami, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of fly ash concrete, a series of experimental studies are carried out, where durability improving admixture is used to reduce drying shrinkage and improve freezing-thawing resistance. The effects of durability improving admixture, air content, water-binder ratio, and fly ash replacement ratio on the performance of fly ash concrete are discussed in this paper. The results show that by using durability improving admixture in nonair-entraining fly ash concrete, the compressive strength of fly ash concrete can be improved by 10%-20%, and the drying shrinkage is reduced by 60%. Carbonation resistance of concrete is roughly proportional to water-cement ratio regardless of water-binder ratio and fly ash replacement ratio. For the specimens cured in air for 2 weeks, the freezing-thawing resistance is improved. In addition, by making use of durability improving admixture, it is easier to control the air content and make fly ash concrete into nonair-entraining one. The quality of fly ash concrete is thereby optimized.

  6. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  7. Improving Family Meetings in Intensive Care Units: A Quality Improvement Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, David A; Gabriel, Michelle; Rizzo, Dorothy; Luhrs, Carol A

    2017-07-01

    Family meetings in the intensive care unit are associated with beneficial outcomes for patients, their families, and health care systems, yet these meetings often do not occur in a timely, effective, reliable way. The Department of Veterans Affairs Comprehensive End-of-Life Care Implementation Center sponsored a national initiative to improve family meetings in Veterans Affairs intensive care units across the United States. Process measures of success for the initiative were identified, including development of a curriculum to support facility-based quality improvement projects to implement high-quality family meetings. Identified curriculum requirements included suitability for distance learning and applicability to many clinical intensive care units. Curriculum modules were cross-mapped to the "Plan-Do-Study-Act" model to aid in planning quality improvement projects. A questionnaire was e-mailed to users to evaluate the curriculum's effectiveness. Users rated the curriculum's effectiveness in supporting and achieving aims of the initiative as 3.6 on a scale of 0 (not effective) to 4 (very effective). Users adapted the curriculum to meet local needs. The number of users increased from 6 to 17 quality improvement teams in 2 years. All but 3 teams progressed to implementation of an action plan. Users were satisfied with the effectiveness and adaptability of a family-meeting quality improvement curriculum to support implementation of a quality improvement project in Veterans Affairs intensive care units. This tool may be useful in facilitating projects to improve the quality of family meetings in other intensive care units. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Continuous Improvement in Education. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sandra; Hironaka, Stephanie; Carver, Penny; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, "continuous improvement" has become a popular catchphrase in the field of education. However, while continuous improvement has become commonplace and well-documented in other industries, such as healthcare and manufacturing, little is known about how this work has manifested itself in education. This white paper attempts…

  9. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  10. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  11. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Nicola; Chersich, Matthew F.; Schmidlin, Kurt; Egger, Matthias; Francis, Suzanna C.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Hayes, Richard J.; Baeten, Jared M.; Brown, Joelle; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kaul, Rupert; McGrath, Nuala; Morrison, Charles; Myer, Landon; Temmerman, Marleen; van der Straten, Ariane; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hilber, Adriane Martin

    2011-01-01

    Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the

  12. Intravaginal Practices, Bacterial Vaginosis, and HIV Infection in Women: Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, N.; Chersich, M.F.; Schmidlin, K.; Egger, M.; Francis, S.C.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.; Hayes, R.J.; Baeten, J.M.; Brown, J.; Delany-Moretlwe, S.; Kaul, R.; McGrath, N.; Morrison, C.; Myer, L.; Temmerman, M.; van Straten, A.; Watson-Jones, D.; Zwahlen, M.; Hilber, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate

  13. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorit...

  14. Chirally improving Wilson fermions I. O(a) improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frezzotti, R.; Rossi, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the chiral behaviour and the approach to the continuum limit of correlation functions in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions by taking arithmetic averages of correlators computed in theories regularized with Wilson terms of opposite sign. Improved hadronic masses and matrix elements can be obtained by similarly averaging the corresponding physical quantities separately computed within the two regularizations. To deal with the problems related to the spectrum of the Wilson-Dirac operator, which are particularly worrisome when Wilson and mass terms are such as to give contributions of opposite sign to the real part of the eigenvalues, we propose to use twisted-mass lattice QCD for the actual computation of the quantities taking part to the averages. The choice ±π/2 for the twisting angle is particularly interesting, as O(a) improved estimates of physical quantities can be obtained even without averaging data from lattice formulations with opposite Wilson terms. In all cases little or no extra computing power is necessary, compared to simulations with standard Wilson fermions or twisted-mass lattice QCD. (author)

  15. Effect of diet on male reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P Lemos

    Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.

  16. [Differential diagnosis in potency disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockott, G; Dittmar, F

    1976-12-02

    Disorders of sexual libido are seldom organic, in general they are of psychological origin. It is, however, difficult to obtain a differential diagnosis. One of the first diagnostic considerations must be the establishment of primary or secondary libidinal dificit, or indeed, whether there is no libido at all. In cases of libido disorders with primary libido dificit, depression, organic disease, or side effects of pharmaca may be the cause. Libido disorders in the presence of functional libido, however, must be regarded as primarily psychologically caused. An exception are libido problems in the presence of diabetes mellitus and peripheral vasculatory defeciencies. In these cases libido is either totally absent or appears only secondarily. The symptomatology of libido disorders in the presence of depression, diabetes melitus, and peripheral vasculatory disturbancies, as well as psychologically caused erectile and ejaculatory difficulties are discussed in detail. These groups are compared with respect to libido and behavior involving erection, ejaculation, anxiety and avoidance.

  17. Maintenance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbonne, D.R.; Plunkett, T.F.; Simpson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    During fuel cycle 1 at River Bend station, considerable effort was expended to reduce corrective maintenance work orders (MWOs) to <1,000. This was done by complementing the plant staff with costly contract personnel. Coming out of the first refueling outage, most contract personnel were released. The change in MWO backlog started a steady rise. It became readily apparent that to avoid costly contract staff time, a maintenance improvement program (MIP) was necessary. The MIP Was primarily directed at two areas: crew efficiency improvements and improved preplanned MWO packages. The overall effect of the MIP was to achieve significant productivity improvements with reduced operation and maintenance cost by providing frequent accountability to all levels of maintenance supervision. The MIP also produced a feeling of pride among the maintenance department employees that had not really existed before. This was the best benefit of all

  18. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...... processes. Furthermore, a method for benchmarking healthcare logistics processes was developed. Finally, a theoretically and empirically founded framework was developed to support managers in making an informed decision on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study contributes to the limited...... literature concerned with the improvement of logistics processes in hospitals. Furthermore, the developed framework provides guidance for logistics managers in hospitals on how to improve their processes given the circumstances in which they operate....

  19. Pelvic floor muscle assessment outcomes in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia and the impact of a physical therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; McLean, Linda; Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Physical therapy (PT) may reduce the pain associated with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) based on previous findings that pelvic floor muscle dysfunction (PFMD) is associated with PVD symptoms. The goals of this study were: (i) to determine whether women with and without PVD differ on measures of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) behavior; and (ii) to assess the impact of PT treatment for women with PVD on these measures. Eleven women with PVD and 11 control women completed an assessment evaluating PFM behavior using surface electromyography (SEMG) recordings and a digital intravaginal assessment. Women with PVD repeated the assessment after they had undergone eight PT treatment sessions of manual therapy, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, dilator insertions, and home exercises. Superficial and deep PFM SEMG tonic activity and phasic activity in response to a painful pressure stimulus, PFM digital assessment variables (tone, flexibility, relaxation capacity, and strength). At pretreatment, women with PVD had higher tonic SEMG activity in their superficial PFMs compared with the control group, whereas no differences were found in the deep PFMs. Both groups demonstrated contractile responses to the painful pressure stimulus that were significantly higher in the superficial as compared with the deep PFMs, with the responses in the PVD group being higher than those in control women. Women with PVD had higher PFM tone, decreased PFM flexibility and lower PFM relaxation capacity compared with control women. Posttreatment improvements included less PFM responsiveness to pain, less PFM tone, improved vaginal flexibility, and improved PFM relaxation capacity, such that women with PVD no longer differed from controls on these measures. Women with PVD demonstrated altered PFM behavior when compared with controls, providing empirical evidence of PFMD, especially at the superficial layer. A PT rehabilitation program specifically targeting PFMD normalized PFM behavior in women with PVD.

  20. Using Quality Improvement to Improve Internal and External Coordination and Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Katherine L; Collins, Ragan P

    As part of accreditation, Public Health Accreditation Board site visitors recommended that the New Orleans Health Department strengthen its quality improvement program. With support from the Public Health Accreditation Board, the New Orleans Health Department subsequently embarked on a data-driven planning process through which it prioritized quality improvement projects for 2016. One of these projects aimed to improve referrals to New Orleans Health Department's direct services programs from local clinics and hospitals to better provide our most vulnerable residents with a continuum of care. After completing a cause-and-effect analysis, we implemented a solution involving increased outreach to health care institutions and saw annual participation increase in 3 out of 4 of our programs. We leveraged this work to successfully apply for funding to create a centralized referral system, which will facilitate partnerships among local health and human service agencies and improve access to services. This is one example of how accreditation has benefited our health department and our community. We have found that the accreditation process promotes a culture of quality and helps health departments identify and address areas for improvement.

  1. Flexible Vesiculovasoscopy Using a Microoptical System in a Human Cadaver Model: An Experimental Approach for Atraumatic Endoscopy of the Seminal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Daniel; Maas, Moritz; Hein, Simon; Adams, Fabian; Schoenthaler, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    The most common pathologies of the seminal tract are persistent hematospermia, seminal vesicle stones, and seminal duct obstruction. Endoscopic diagnostic work-up of the seminal tract is impeded by complex anatomy and lack of technical equipment. To date, there is no standardized endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and feasibility of a flexible microoptical device for atraumatic endoscopy of the seminal tract in a male human cadaver. The transurethral endoscopic examination was performed on a male cadaver. No premortal interventions or diseases of the genitourinary tract had been reported. The seminal orifice was identified via cystoscopy and accessed by the Seldinger technique using a hydrophilic guidewire and ureteral catheter. Retrograde endoscopic inspection of the distal seminal tract was performed using a miniaturized flexible endoscope. An antegrade endoscopic inspection of the seminal tract was carried out via high scrotal access to the vas deferens. Structures of the seminal tract, such as the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and distal portion of the ductus deferentes, were visualized using the miniaturized endoscope. Image quality allowed identification of anatomical structures and characterization of tissue properties. The technical limitations we observed involved the system's maneuverability. Initial results of this novel endoscopic approach to the seminal tract using a flexible microoptical system are encouraging. However, considerable anatomical limitations of the targeted organs necessitate further refinements of the technical equipment. This approach might improve diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases. Future surgical techniques may include intraseminal laser therapy or endoocclusion to monitor fertility in men.

  2. Tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischel G Neill

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mischel G Neill, Rohan Shahani, Alexandre R ZlottaDivision of Urology, Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret and Mount Sinai Hospitals, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: The efficacy of tamsulosin at the cost of a relatively benign side effect profile has been attributed to receptor selectivity directed at the α1a and α1d adrenergic receptor subtypes. The oral-controlled absorption system (OCAS® represents a drug delivery refinement that incorporates a matrix of gel-forming and gel-enhancing agents to promote a constant drug release independent of environmental food or fluid. There are clinical data to support the concept that drug peaks are lessened and that drug release continues throughout the alimentary tract due to the OCAS formulation. Furthermore this equates with less adverse effects on physiologic parameters. To date however improvements in cardiovascular symptoms such as dizziness, headache and syncope have not been demonstrated in healthy men. Ejaculatory dysfunction appears less problematic with the OCAS preparation. Tamsulosin OCAS may be of greatest benefit to men with cardiovascular co-morbidities taking anti-hypertensive medications that might predispose them to symptomatic hypotensive episodes. It will be necessary to evaluate this group of men more closely in further trials to determine what they stand to gain from changing medications, and then relate this to drug costs to draw a final conclusion as to the place of tamsulosin OCAS in contemporary urological practice.Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, tamsulosin OCAS, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  3. Improving palliative care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Sue

    2009-05-01

    Any service improvement project requires planning, action and evaluation. Using a recognised quality improvement framework can offer a structured approach to implementing and assessing changes to patient care. This article describes how use of the Deming Cycle has helped to identify nurses\\' learning needs.

  4. Room for improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Louise F; Thorlund, Jonas B; Moore, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    -reported outcomes and qualitative findings supported the primary finding, while improvements in muscle strength and aerobic capacity did not differ between exercise groups. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the physical environment contributes to treatment response. Matching patients' preferences to treatment rooms...... significance (p=0.07). Waitlist group reported no improvement (-0.05 95% CI -0.5 to 0.4). In interviews, participants from the standard environment expressed greater social cohesion and feeling at home. Qualitative themes identified; reflection, sense of fellowship and transition. Secondary patient...... may improve patient-reported outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02043613....

  5. Framing quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare the case of improvement leaders' guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a study of how quality improvement tools and techniques are framed within healthcare settings. The paper employs an interpretive approach to understand how quality improvement tools and techniques are mobilised and legitimated. It does so using a case study of the NHS Modernisation Agency Improvement Leaders' Guides in England. Improvement Leaders' Guides were framed within a service improvement approach encouraging the use of quality improvement tools and techniques within healthcare settings. Their use formed part of enacting tools and techniques across different contexts. Whilst this enactment was believed to support the mobilisation of tools and techniques, the experience also illustrated the challenges in distributing such approaches. The paper provides an important contribution in furthering our understanding of framing the "social act" of quality improvement. Given the ongoing emphasis on quality improvement in health systems and the persistent challenges involved, it also provides important information for healthcare leaders globally in seeking to develop, implement or modify similar tools and distribute leadership within health and social care settings.

  6. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  7. Reference Manual on Making School Climate Improvements. School Climate Improvement Resource Package, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, N.; Darling-Churchill, K.; Colombi, G. D.; Ruddy, S.; Neiman, S.; Chagnon, E.; Mayo, R.

    2017-01-01

    This reference manual identifies five overarching sets of activities for improving school climate, with the goal of improving student outcomes (e.g., achievement, attendance, behaviors, and skills). These sets of activities help to initiate, implement, and sustain school climate improvements. For each activity set, the manual presents a clear…

  8. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  9. Contribution of renal X-ray examinations to the radiation exposure to the population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1978-04-02

    Measured values of the radiation exposure of patients by urography published in the literature are summarized and critically reviewed. The gonad dose to men, women and children has been determined in 6 series of measurements performed according to the recommendations of the Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Radiologie. Altogether, the determination of the gonad dose based on 927 individual measurements, 230 of them intravaginally, on 226 patients. The surface dose has been determined from 335 measurements. With exact collimation and shielding values of 250 mR for men and 650 mR for women have been obtained as the most probable ones. For 350,000 urographs equally distributed to both sexes and performed under correct working conditions an average per capita dose of 9.2 mR would result.

  10. Continuous quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohlin, Madeleine; Schaub, Rob M.H.; Holbrook, Peter; Leibur, Edvitar; Lévy, Gérard; Roubalikova, Lenka; Nilner, Maria; Roger-Leroi, Valerie; Danner, Gunter; Iseri, Haluk; Feldman, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    Versch. in: Eur J Dent Educ; 6 (Suppl. 3): 67–77 Continuous quality improvement (CQI) can be envisaged as a circular process of goal-setting, followed by external and internal evaluations resulting in improvements that can serve as goals for a next cycle. The need for CQI is apparent, because of

  11. [Multicentric prospective randomized study evaluating the interest of intravaginal electro-stimulation at home for urinary incontinence after prior perineal reeducation. Interim analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopès, P; Levy-Toledano, R; Chiarelli, P; Rimbault, F; Marès, P

    2014-03-01

    Perineal reeducation of stress urinary incontinence is beneficial in 80% of cases. However, patients have to perform self-retraining exercises of the perineal muscles at home, in order to maintain the benefit of the physiotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the benefit of GYNEFFIK(®), a perineal electro-stimulator, during this home-care phase. Women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) or with mixed UI (composed predominantly of stress UI) that responded to physiotherapy were included in this study in two parallel groups. The groups followed a self-reeducation program, with or without GYNEFFIK(®) electro-stimulation sessions. The comparison of the two groups was based on the rate of women for whom the benefit of the initial perineal reeducation was maintained (defined as non-worsening ICIQ and Ditrovie scales' score). According to the protocol, an interim analysis was performed on 95 patients (i.e. almost half of the expected sample size) who had had at least one evaluation under treatment, among which 44 patients had finished the study. The therapeutic benefit of the initial perineal reeducation was maintained in 87.8% of the GYNEFFIK(®) patient group, while it was maintained in 52.2% (P=0.0001) in the usual care group (i.e. who did not use electro-stimulation). Likewise, patient had a more favorable subjective impression when using GYNEFFIK(®) (83.7% versus 60.0% in the usual care group) as they felt that they improved during the study. In the GYNEFFIK(®) group, no increase in symptoms was reported, whereas almost one out of five patients in the usual care group felt that their condition had worsened. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Ideal proportion of roughage and concentrate for Malpura ewes to adapt and reproduce in a semi-arid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, Shekhawat; Sejian, Veerasamy; Kumar, Davendra; Pareek, Arvind; Naqvi, Syed Mohammad Krusheed

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to identify the most appropriate roughage to concentrate ratio for Malpura ewes under semi-arid tropical environments. The study was conducted for a period of 35 days and included 30 (2 years old) non-pregnant Malpura ewes weighing between 30 and 35 kg. Estrus synchronization was carried out in all the animals using indigenously developed intravaginal sponges impregnated with progesterone. The ewes were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10/group) namely R50 (n = 10; roughage to concentrate, 50:50), R60 (n = 10; roughage to concentrate, 60:40), and R70 (n = 10; roughage to concentrate, 70:30). Individual feed and water intake was recorded on a daily basis throughout the course of the study. Growth variables, physiological responses, blood metabolites, and endocrine responses were estimated at weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutritional treatment significantly influenced growth variables including body weight (p progesterone, PCV, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, estrus%, and estrus cycle length. Since the additional concentrate supplementation in R50 and R60 did not improve the production variables, it can be concluded that providing 70 % roughage and 30 % concentrate could be a more appropriate and economically feasible ration composition for Malpura ewes reared in semi-arid tropical environments.

  13. Efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Shen, Hui; Wang, Mei; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert I; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2015-02-01

    Current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases. The effects of N-methanocarbathymidine were evaluated and compared to acyclovir using guinea pig models of acute and recurrent infection. For acute disease following intravaginal inoculation of 10(6 )pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intraperitoneally beginning 24 h post-infection, and the effects on disease severity, vaginal virus replication, subsequent recurrences, and latent virus loads were evaluated. For evaluation of recurrent infection, animals were treated for 21 days beginning 14 days after infection and disease recurrence and recurrent shedding were evaluated. Treatment of the acute disease with N-methanocarbathymidine significantly reduced the severity of acute disease and decreased acute vaginal virus shedding more effectively than acyclovir. Significantly, none of the animals developed visible disease in the high-dose N-methanocarbathymidine group and this was the only group in which the number of days with recurrent virus shedding was reduced. Treatment of recurrent disease was equivalent to acyclovir when acyclovir was continuously supplied in the drinking water. N-methanocarbathymidine was effective as therapy for acute and recurrent genital HSV-2 disease in the guinea pig models. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Can Quality Improvement System Improve Childcare Site Performance in School Readiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Watson, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Quality Improvement System (QIS) developed and implemented by Children's Services Council of Palm Beach County (Florida) as a voluntary initiative to improve the quality of childcare and education. They adopted a growth model approach to investigate whether childcare sites that participated in QIS…

  15. Improving School Improvement: Development and Validation of the CSIS-360, a 360-Degree Feedback Assessment for School Improvement Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Christie M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed methods study was to develop and validate the CSIS-360, a 360-degree feedback assessment to measure competencies of school improvement specialists from multiple perspectives. The study consisted of eight practicing school improvement specialists from a variety of settings. The specialists nominated 23 constituents to…

  16. Effect of the anticipation of the of application of prostaglandin on the reproductive performance of beef cattle cows submitted to artificial insemination in fixed time Antecipação da aplicação de prostaglandina, em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Macedo Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anticipation of the application of prostaglandin F2alfa (PGF2a was evaluated for the use of fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. Three hundred and six Aberdeen Angus cows, aged between 3 and 6 years old, with calves at side had been used. The animals were randomly distributed in 4 groups. All animals were synchronized through intravaginal device with progesterone for 8 days (CIDR®, estradiol and PGF2a. The treatments was designed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (CIDR® 1º x 2º use and the day of the PGF2a application (6.5th x 8 th day. Seven days after the FTAI clean up bulls were joined until the ending of the breeding season. The conception rate to the FTAI and final pregnancy rate were evaluated. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a (6.5th day had significant effect (P<0.05 on the conception rate at the FTAI and final pregnancy rate, respectively of 60.9% and 89.1% when compared with the animals that had received PGF2a in the 8 th day, respectively of 49.3% and 76.7%. The 1th or 2th use of the intravaginal device had presented differences (P<0.05 in the conception rate (61.1% and 49.7%, however without effect in the final pregnancy (P>0.05, respectively of 82.6 and 83.4%. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a increased the pregnancy rate significantly at the FTAI and the final pregnancy. The previous use of the CIDR® affected the percentage of pregnancy at the FTAI, but it did not affect the final pregnancy. The cow’s age and the body condition score had not effect on the conception rate to the FTAI and the final pregnancy.Avaliou-se o efeito da antecipação da aplicação da prostaglandina F2alfa (PGF2a em programa de sincronização do estro com progesterona para o uso de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 306 vacas Aberdeen Angus, com cria ao pé e idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 4 grupos sincronizados através de

  17. Continuous quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the various statistical tools used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory to achieve continuous quality improvement in the development of Breeder Reactor Technology and in reactor operations. The role of the quality assurance professionals in this process, including quantifiable measurements using actual examples, is provided. The commitment to quality improvement through top management involvement is dramatically illustrated

  18. The Relationship of Engagement in Improvement Practices to Outcome Measures in Large-Scale Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gregory L; Kenward, Kevin; Hines, Stephen; Joshi, Maulik S

    Hospital engagement networks (HENs) are part of the largest health care improvement initiative ever undertaken. This article explores whether engagement in improvement activities within a HEN affected quality measures. Data were drawn from 1174 acute care hospitals. A composite quality score was created from 10 targeted topic area measures multiplied by the number of qualifying topics. Scores improved from 5.4 (SD = 6.8) at baseline to 4.6 (5.9) at remeasurement; P improvement ( P improvement, whereas hospitals in the West ( P = .0009) did not improve as much as hospitals in other regions. After adjusting for hospital characteristics, hospitals with improvement champions ( P = .008), a higher level of engagement with their state association ( P = .001), and more leadership involvement ( P = .005) in HEN demonstrated greater improvement.

  19. Quality improvement - the future begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The comprehensive quality improvement program of the Florida Power and Light Co. is described: management commitment, quality improvement process, quality improvement teams, policy development, and quality in daily work are discussed

  20. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  1. Measure to succeed: How to improve employee participation in continuous improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurburg, M.; Viles, E.; Tanco, M.; Mateo, R.; Lleó, A.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Achieving employee participation in continuous improvement (CI) systems is considered as one of the success factors for the sustainability of those systems. Yet, it is also very difficult to obtain because of the interaction of many critical factors that affect employee participation. Therefore, finding ways of measuring all these critical factors can help practitioners manage the employee participation process accordingly. Design/methodology/approach: Based upon the existing literature, this paper presents a 4-Phase (9 steps) diagnostic tool to measure the main determinants associated with the implementation of CI systems affecting employee participation in improvement activities. Findings: The tool showed its usefulness to detect the main weaknesses and improvement opportunities for improving employee participation in CI through the application in two different cases. Practical implications: This diagnostic tool could be particularly interesting for companies adopting CI and other excellence frameworks, which usually include a pillar related to people development inside the organization, but do not include tools to diagnose the state of this pillar. Originality/value: This diagnostic tool presents a user’s perspective approach, ensuring that the weaknesses and improvement opportunities detected during the diagnose come directly from the users of the CI system, which in this case are the employees themselves. Given that the final objective is to identify reasons and problems hindering employee participation, adopting this user’s perspective approach seem more relevant than adopting other more traditional approaches, based on gathering information from the CI system itself or from the CI managers.

  2. Measure to succeed: How to improve employee participation in continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurburg, M.; Viles, E.; Tanco, M.; Mateo, R.; Lleó, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving employee participation in continuous improvement (CI) systems is considered as one of the success factors for the sustainability of those systems. Yet, it is also very difficult to obtain because of the interaction of many critical factors that affect employee participation. Therefore, finding ways of measuring all these critical factors can help practitioners manage the employee participation process accordingly. Design/methodology/approach: Based upon the existing literature, this paper presents a 4-Phase (9 steps) diagnostic tool to measure the main determinants associated with the implementation of CI systems affecting employee participation in improvement activities. Findings: The tool showed its usefulness to detect the main weaknesses and improvement opportunities for improving employee participation in CI through the application in two different cases. Practical implications: This diagnostic tool could be particularly interesting for companies adopting CI and other excellence frameworks, which usually include a pillar related to people development inside the organization, but do not include tools to diagnose the state of this pillar. Originality/value: This diagnostic tool presents a user’s perspective approach, ensuring that the weaknesses and improvement opportunities detected during the diagnose come directly from the users of the CI system, which in this case are the employees themselves. Given that the final objective is to identify reasons and problems hindering employee participation, adopting this user’s perspective approach seem more relevant than adopting other more traditional approaches, based on gathering information from the CI system itself or from the CI managers.

  3. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations

  4. Infrastructure for large-scale quality-improvement projects: early lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid