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Sample records for improves dvh parameters

  1. Prediction of DVH parameter changes due to setup errors for breast cancer treatment based on 2D portal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijsten, S. M. J. J. G.; Elmpt, W. J. C. van; Mijnheer, B. J.; Minken, A. W. H.; Persoon, L. C. G. G.; Lambin, P.; Dekker, A. L. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are increasingly used for portal dosimetry applications. In our department, EPIDs are clinically used for two-dimensional (2D) transit dosimetry. Predicted and measured portal dose images are compared to detect dose delivery errors caused for instance by setup errors or organ motion. The aim of this work is to develop a model to predict dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes due to setup errors during breast cancer treatment using 2D transit dosimetry. First, correlations between DVH parameter changes and 2D gamma parameters are investigated for different simulated setup errors, which are described by a binomial logistic regression model. The model calculates the probability that a DVH parameter changes more than a specific tolerance level and uses several gamma evaluation parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) projection in the EPID plane as input. Second, the predictive model is applied to clinically measured portal images. Predicted DVH parameter changes are compared to calculated DVH parameter changes using the measured setup error resulting from a dosimetric registration procedure. Statistical accuracy is investigated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and values for the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Changes in the mean PTV dose larger than 5%, and changes in V 90 and V 95 larger than 10% are accurately predicted based on a set of 2D gamma parameters. Most pronounced changes in the three DVH parameters are found for setup errors in the lateral-medial direction. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values were between 85% and 100% while the positive predictive values were lower but still higher than 54%. Clinical predictive value is decreased due to the occurrence of patient rotations or breast deformations during treatment, but the overall reliability of the predictive model remains high. Based on our

  2. Simple DVH parameter addition as compared to deformable registration for bladder dose accumulation in cervix cancer brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Else Stougård; Noe, Karsten Østergaaard; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Variations in organ position, shape, and volume cause uncertainties in dose assessment for brachytherapy (BT) in cervix cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate uncertainties associated with bladder dose accumulation based on DVH parameter addition (previously...... called "the worst case assumption") in fractionated BT. Materials and methods: Forty-seven patients treated for locally advanced cervical cancer were included. All patients received EBRT combined with two individually planned 3D image-guided adaptive BT fractions. D2 and D0.1 were estimated by DVH...

  3. Impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and target volumes in Intracavitary Brachytherapy (ICBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourya, Ankur; Singh, Gaganpreet; Kumar, Vivek; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze the impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and Target volumes in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). To quantify the changes in dose-volume histogram parameters due to systematic errors in applicator reconstruction of brachytherapy planning, known errors in catheter reconstructions have to be introduced in applicator coordinate system

  4. Treatment plan evaluation using dose-volume histogram (DVH) and spatial dose-volume histogram (zDVH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-W.; Das, Indra J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The dose-volume histogram (DVH) has been accepted as a tool for treatment-plan evaluation. However, DVH lacks spatial information. A new concept, the z-dependent dose-volume histogram (zDVH), is presented as a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning to provide the spatial variation, as well as the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional dose calculations were carried out with various plans for three disease sites: lung, breast, and prostate. DVHs were calculated for the entire volume. A zDVH is defined as a differential dose-volume histogram with respect to a computed tomographic (CT) slice position. In this study, zDVHs were calculated for each CT slice in the treatment field. DVHs and zDVHs were compared. Results: In the irradiation of lung, DVH calculation indicated that the treatment plan satisfied the dose-volume constraint placed on the lung and zDVH of the lung revealed that a sizable fraction of the lung centered about the central axis (CAX) received a significant dose, a situation that warranted a modification of the treatment plan due to the removal of one lung. In the irradiation of breast with tangential fields, the DVH showed that about 7% of the breast volume received at least 110% of the prescribed dose (PD) and about 11% of the breast received less than 98% PD. However, the zDVHs of the breast volume in each of seven planes showed the existence of high-dose regions of 34% and 15%, respectively, of the volume in the two caudal-most planes and cold spots of about 40% in the two cephalic planes. In the treatment planning of prostate, DVHs showed that about 15% of the bladder and 40% of the rectum received 102% PD, whereas about 30% of the bladder and 50% of the rectum received the full dose. Taking into account the hollow structure of both the bladder and the rectum, the dose-surface histograms (DSH) showed larger hot-spot volume, about

  5. 3D DVH-based metric analysis versus per-beam planar analysis in IMRT pretreatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Pablo; Jornet, Núria; Latorre, Artur; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate methods of pretreatment IMRT analysis, using real measurements performed with a commercial 2D detector array, for clinical relevance and accuracy by comparing clinical DVH parameters. Methods: We divided the work into two parts. The first part consisted of six in-phantom tests aimed to study the sensitivity of the different analysis methods. Beam fluences, 3D dose distribution, and DVH of an unaltered original plan were compared to those of the delivered plan, in which an error had been intentionally introduced. The second part consisted of comparing gamma analysis with DVH metrics for 17 patient plans from various sites. Beam fluences were measured with the MapCHECK 2 detector, per-beam planar analysis was performed with the MapCHECK software, and 3D gamma analysis and the DVH evaluation were performed using 3DVH software. Results: In a per-beam gamma analysis some of the tests yielded false positives or false negatives. However, the 3DVH software correctly described the DVH of the plan which included the error. The measured DVH from the plan with controlled error agreed with the planned DVH within 2% dose or 2% volume. We also found that a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm was too lax to detect some of the forced errors. Global analysis masked some problems, while local analysis magnified irrelevant errors at low doses. Small hotspots were missed for all metrics due to the spatial resolution of the detector panel. DVH analysis for patient plans revealed small differences between treatment plan calculations and 3DVH results, with the exception of very small volume structures such as the eyes and the lenses. Target coverage (D 98 and D 95 ) of the measured plan was systematically lower than that predicted by the treatment planning system, while other DVH characteristics varied depending on the parameter and organ. Conclusions: We found no correlation between the gamma index and the clinical impact of a discrepancy for any of the gamma index evaluation

  6. SU-E-T-789: Validation of 3DVH Accuracy On Quantifying Delivery Errors Based On Clinical Relevant DVH Metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T; Kumaraswamy, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Detection of treatment delivery errors is important in radiation therapy. However, accurate quantification of delivery errors is also of great importance. This study aims to evaluate the 3DVH software’s ability to accurately quantify delivery errors. Methods: Three VMAT plans (prostate, H&N and brain) were randomly chosen for this study. First, we evaluated whether delivery errors could be detected by gamma evaluation. Conventional per-beam IMRT QA was performed with the ArcCHECK diode detector for the original plans and for the following modified plans: (1) induced dose difference error up to ±4.0% and (2) control point (CP) deletion (3 to 10 CPs were deleted) (3) gantry angle shift error (3 degree uniformly shift). 2D and 3D gamma evaluation were performed for all plans through SNC Patient and 3DVH, respectively. Subsequently, we investigated the accuracy of 3DVH analysis for all cases. This part evaluated, using the Eclipse TPS plans as standard, whether 3DVH accurately can model the changes in clinically relevant metrics caused by the delivery errors. Results: 2D evaluation seemed to be more sensitive to delivery errors. The average differences between ECLIPSE predicted and 3DVH results for each pair of specific DVH constraints were within 2% for all three types of error-induced treatment plans, illustrating the fact that 3DVH is fairly accurate in quantifying the delivery errors. Another interesting observation was that even though the gamma pass rates for the error plans are high, the DVHs showed significant differences between original plan and error-induced plans in both Eclipse and 3DVH analysis. Conclusion: The 3DVH software is shown to accurately quantify the error in delivered dose based on clinically relevant DVH metrics, where a conventional gamma based pre-treatment QA might not necessarily detect

  7. SU-E-J-164: Estimation of DVH Variation for PTV Due to Interfraction Organ Motion in Prostate VMAT Using Gaussian Error Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C; Jiang, R; Chow, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We developed a method to predict the change of DVH for PTV due to interfraction organ motion in prostate VMAT without repeating the CT scan and treatment planning. The method is based on a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curves of PTV modelled by the Gaussian error function (GEF). Methods: For a group of 30 patients with different prostate sizes, their VMAT plans were recalculated by shifting their PTVs 1 cm with 10 increments in the anterior-posterior, left-right and superior-inferior directions. The DVH curve of PTV in each replan was then fitted by the GEF to determine parameters describing the shape of curve. Information of parameters, varying with the DVH change due to prostate motion for different prostate sizes, was analyzed and stored in a database of a program written by MATLAB. Results: To predict a new DVH for PTV due to prostate interfraction motion, prostate size and shift distance with direction were input to the program. Parameters modelling the DVH for PTV were determined based on the pre-calculated patient dataset. From the new parameters, DVH curves of PTVs with and without considering the prostate motion were plotted for comparison. The program was verified with different prostate cases involving interfraction prostate shifts and replans. Conclusion: Variation of DVH for PTV in prostate VMAT can be predicted using a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curve fitting. The computing time is fast because CT rescan and replan are not required. This quick DVH estimation can help radiation staff to determine if the changed PTV coverage due to prostate shift is tolerable in the treatment. However, it should be noted that the program can only consider prostate interfraction motions along three axes, and is restricted to prostate VMAT plan using the same plan script in the treatment planning system

  8. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, Karin; Scherrer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  9. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratt, Karin [Faculty of Mathematics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Scherrer, Alexander [Department of Optimization, Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.scherrer@itwm.fraunhofer.de

    2009-06-21

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  10. Evaluation of DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to gamma passing rates for head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Ruurd; Wauben, David J.L.; Groot, Martijn de; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Bijl, Henk P.; Godart, Jeremy; Veld, Aart A. van’t; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Korevaar, Erik W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment plan verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is generally performed with the gamma index (GI) evaluation method, which is difficult to extrapolate to clinical implications. Incorporating Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) information can compensate for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to the GI evaluation method for head and neck IMRT. Materials and methods: Dose verifications of 700 subsequent head and neck cancer IMRT treatment plans were categorised according to gamma and DVH-based action levels. Fractionation dependent absolute dose limits were chosen. The results of the gamma- and DVH-based evaluations were compared to the decision of the medical physicist and/or radiation oncologist for plan acceptance. Results: Nearly all treatment plans (99.7%) were accepted for treatment according to the GI evaluation combined with DVH-based verification. Two treatment plans were re-planned according to DVH-based verification, which would have been accepted using the evaluation alone. DVH-based verification increased insight into dose delivery to patient specific structures increasing confidence that the treatment plans were clinically acceptable. Moreover, DVH-based action levels clearly distinguished the role of the medical physicist and radiation oncologist within the Quality Assurance (QA) procedure. Conclusions: DVH-based treatment plan verification complements the GI evaluation method improving head and neck IMRT-QA

  11. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Yao, John; Eisbruch, Avraham; Balter, James M; Litzenberg, Dale W; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Weyburn, Grant; Anderson, Carlos J; Owen, Dawn; Jackson, William C; Haken, Randall Ten

    2017-01-01

    To develop statistical dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based metrics and a visualization method to quantify the comparison of treatment plans with historical experience and among different institutions. The descriptive statistical summary (ie, median, first and third quartiles, and 95% confidence intervals) of volume-normalized DVH curve sets of past experiences was visualized through the creation of statistical DVH plots. Detailed distribution parameters were calculated and stored in JavaScript Object Notation files to facilitate management, including transfer and potential multi-institutional comparisons. In the treatment plan evaluation, structure DVH curves were scored against computed statistical DVHs and weighted experience scores (WESs). Individual, clinically used, DVH-based metrics were integrated into a generalized evaluation metric (GEM) as a priority-weighted sum of normalized incomplete gamma functions. Historical treatment plans for 351 patients with head and neck cancer, 104 with prostate cancer who were treated with conventional fractionation, and 94 with liver cancer who were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy were analyzed to demonstrate the usage of statistical DVH, WES, and GEM in a plan evaluation. A shareable dashboard plugin was created to display statistical DVHs and integrate GEM and WES scores into a clinical plan evaluation within the treatment planning system. Benchmarking with normal tissue complication probability scores was carried out to compare the behavior of GEM and WES scores. DVH curves from historical treatment plans were characterized and presented, with difficult-to-spare structures (ie, frequently compromised organs at risk) identified. Quantitative evaluations by GEM and/or WES compared favorably with the normal tissue complication probability Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, transforming a set of discrete threshold-priority limits into a continuous model reflecting physician objectives and historical experience

  12. Use of the 3DVH Software as a complementary method of IMRT pretreatment evaluation; Utilizacao do Software 3DVH como metodo complementar de avaliacao de pre-tratamento de IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Jesse G.P.; Bruning, Fabio F.; Funchal, Melissa; Toledo, Hugo V.; Bornatto, Pricila; Fernandes, Tatiane C.O., E-mail: jesse_lyra@hotmail.com [Hospital Erasto Gaertner / Liga Paranaense de Combate ao Cancer (LPCC), Departamento de Radioterapia, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to compare the method of treatment planning evaluation for IMRT using the gamma index to the method of the 3DVH Software. The 3DVH Software was used with the MapCheck2 detector 2D array under a 6MV x-ray beam of linear accelerator equipped with 120 leafs MLC. Nine treatment plans of prostate patients chose randomly and fully anonimatize were performed in the Eclipse planning system, using the AAA calculation algorithm in IMRT sliding window technique. These plans were approved and treated according to the gamma analysis criteria of the institution. The comparisons were made in absolute dose and normalized at maximum dose for each field and then with the 3DVH Software the Dmax, Dmean, D15%, D25%, D35% and D50% parameters for the bladder and rectum, Dmean for the bulb, Dmax for the femur and D95% for the PTV were evaluated. In the planar analysis by field, the plans studied had a minimum of 97.5% approval. The PTV-related differences have relative variation from 1.3 to 2.2%, that is, greater coverage than expected for this structure. For the organs at risk, the relative differences observed were between -5.3 to 25.8%, which could result in a non-approved plan if these variations are close to the clinical tolerances of the OAR. The results show that even a plan compatible with greater than or equal to 95% of the points, the gamma analysis does not give enough information if this plan can or cannot be approved for treatment and that there is a need for more detailed verification of the plan which considers not only the planar evaluation, but also the evaluation of the DVH measured, and the 3DVH Software proved be adequate for this analysis. (author)

  13. Comparison of DVH data from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M A; Kearvell, R; Hooton, B; Spry, N A; Bydder, S A; Joseph, D J; Haworth, A; Hug, B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the variation of dose-volume histogram (DVH) data sourced from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs). Treatment plan exports were obtained from 33 Australian and New Zealand centres during a dosimetry study. Plan information, including DVH data, was exported from the TPS at each centre and reviewed in a digital review system (SWAN). The review system was then used to produce an independent calculation of DVH information for each delineated structure. The relationships between DVHs extracted from each TPS and independently calculated were examined, particularly in terms of the influence of CT scan slice and pixel widths, the resolution of dose calculation grids and the TPS manufacturer. Calculation of total volume and DVH data was consistent between SWAN and each TPS, with the small discrepancies found tending to increase with decreasing structure size. This was significantly influenced by the TPS model used to derive the data. For target structures covered with relatively uniform dose distributions, there was a significant difference between the minimum dose in each TPS-exported DVH and that calculated independently. (note)

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 54: A software solution for ongoing DVH quality assurance in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, S-L; Zeng, G; Wu, X; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    A program has been developed in MATLAB for use in quality assurance of treatment planning of radiation therapy. It analyzes patient DVH files and compiles dose volume data for review, trending, comparison and analysis. Patient DVH files are exported from the Eclipse treatment planning system and saved according to treatment sites and date. Currently analysis is available for 4 treatment sites; Prostate, Prostate Bed, Lung, and Upper GI, with two functions for data report and analysis: patient-specific and organ-specific. The patient-specific function loads one patient DVH file and reports the user-specified dose volume data of organs and targets. These data can be compiled to an external file for a third party analysis. The organ-specific function extracts a requested dose volume of an organ from the DVH files of a patient group and reports the statistics over this population. A graphical user interface is utilized to select clinical sites, function and structures, and input user's requests. We have implemented this program in planning quality assurance at our center. The program has tracked the dosimetric improvement in GU sites after VMAT was implemented clinically. It has generated dose volume statistics for different groups of patients associated with technique or time range. This program allows reporting and statistical analysis of DVH files. It is an efficient tool for the planning quality control in radiation therapy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Moving from gamma passing rates to patient DVH-based QA metrics in pretreatment dose QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Heming; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of the gamma passing rate metric for per-patient, pretreatment dose QA and to validate a novel patient-dose/DVH-based method and its accuracy and correlation. Specifically, correlations between: (1) gamma passing rates for three 3D dosimeter detector geometries vs clinically relevant patient DVH-based metrics; (2) Gamma passing rates of whole patient dose grids vs DVH-based metrics, (3) gamma passing rates filtered by region of interest (ROI) vs DVH-based metrics, and (4) the capability of a novel software algorithm that estimates corrected patient Dose-DVH based on conventional phan-tom QA data are analyzed. Methods: Ninety six unique ''imperfect'' step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated by applying four different types of errors on 24 clinical Head/Neck patients. The 3D patient doses as well as the dose to a cylindrical QA phantom were then recalculated using an error-free beam model to serve as a simulated measurement for comparison. Resulting deviations to the planned vs simulated measured DVH-based metrics were generated, as were gamma passing rates for a variety of difference/distance criteria covering: dose-in-phantom comparisons and dose-in-patient comparisons, with the in-patient results calculated both over the whole grid and per-ROI volume. Finally, patient dose and DVH were predicted using the conventional per-beam planar data as input into a commercial ''planned dose perturbation'' (PDP) algorithm, and the results of these predicted DVH-based metrics were compared to the known values. Results: A range of weak to moderate correlations were found between clinically relevant patient DVH metrics (CTV-D95, parotid D{sub mean}, spinal cord D1cc, and larynx D{sub mean}) and both 3D detector and 3D patient gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm) for dose-in-phantom along with dose-in-patient for both whole patient volume and filtered per-ROI. There was

  16. Assessment of PlanIQ Feasibility DVH for head and neck treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David V; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Das, Shiva K

    2017-09-01

    Designing a radiation plan that optimally delivers both target coverage and normal tissue sparing is challenging. There are limited tools to determine what is dosimetrically achievable and frequently the experience of the planner/physician is relied upon to make these determinations. PlanIQ software provides a tool that uses target and organ at risk (OAR) geometry to indicate the difficulty of achieving different points for organ dose-volume histograms (DVH). We hypothesized that PlanIQ Feasibility DVH may aid planners in reducing dose to OARs. Clinically delivered head and neck treatments (clinical plan) were re-planned (re-plan) putting high emphasis on maximally sparing the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, and larynx while maintaining routine clinical dosimetric objectives. The planner was blinded to the results of the clinically delivered plan as well as the Feasibility DVHs from PlanIQ. The re-plan treatments were designed using 3-arc VMAT in Raystation (RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden). The planner was then given the results from the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH analysis and developed an additional plan incorporating this information using 4-arc VMAT (IQ plan). The DVHs across the three treatment plans were compared with what was deemed "impossible" by PlanIQ's Feasibility DVH (Impossible DVH). The impossible DVH (red) is defined as the DVH generated using the minimal dose that any voxel outside the targets must receive given 100% target coverage. The re-plans performed blinded to PlanIQ Feasibilty DVH achieved superior sparing of aforementioned OARs compared to the clinically delivered plans and resulted in discrepancies from the impossible DVHs by an average of 200-700 cGy. Using the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH led to additionalOAR sparing compared to both the re-plans and clinical plans and reduced the discrepancies from the impossible DVHs to an average of approximately 100 cGy. The dose reduction from clinical to re-plan and re-plan to

  17. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Benjamin; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. dicom RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms-pinnacle (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)-were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, Dmax, Dmin, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm(3)) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. In Test 1, pinnacle produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, pinnacle and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding Dmin and Dmax as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2%) scored deviations for pinnacle vs PlanIQ in Test 1, while Test 2

  18. SU-F-T-285: Evaluation of a Patient DVH-Based IMRT QA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, H; Redler, G; Chu, J; Turian, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of a patient DVH-based QA system for prostate VMAT QA. Methods: Mobius3D(M3D) is a QA software with an independent beam model and dose engine. The MobiusFX(MFX) add-on predicts patient dose using treatment machine log files. We commissioned the Mobius beam model in two steps. First, the stock beam model was customized using machine commissioning data, then verified against the TPS with 12 simple phantom plans and 7 clinical 3D plans. Secondly, the Dosimetric Leaf Gap(DLG) in the Mobius model was fine-tuned for VMAT treatment based on ion chamber measurements for 6 clinical VMAT plans. Upon successful commissioning, we retrospectively performed IMRT QA for 12 VMAT plans with the Mobius system as well as the ArcCHECK-3DVH system. Selected patient DVH values (PTV D95, D50; Bladder D2cc, Dmean; Rectum D2cc) were compared between TPS, M3D, MFX, and 3DVH. Results: During the first commissioning step, TPS and M3D calculated target Dmean for 3D plans agree within 0.7%±0.7%, with 3D gamma passing rates of 98%±2%. In the second commissioning step, the Mobius DLG was adjusted by 1.2mm from the stock value, reducing the average difference between MFX calculation and ion chamber measurement from 3.2% to 0.1%. In retrospective prostate VMAT QA, 5 of 60 MFX calculated DVH values have a deviation greater than 5% compared to TPS. One large deviation at high dose level was identified as a potential QA failure. This echoes the 3DVH QA result, which identified 2 instances of large DVH deviation on the same structure. For all DVH’s evaluated, M3D and MFX show high level of agreement (0.1%±0.2%), indicating that the observed deviation is likely from beam modelling differences rather than delivery errors. Conclusion: Mobius system provides a viable solution for DVH based VMAT QA, with the capability of separating TPS and delivery errors.

  19. SU-F-T-285: Evaluation of a Patient DVH-Based IMRT QA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, H; Redler, G; Chu, J; Turian, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of a patient DVH-based QA system for prostate VMAT QA. Methods: Mobius3D(M3D) is a QA software with an independent beam model and dose engine. The MobiusFX(MFX) add-on predicts patient dose using treatment machine log files. We commissioned the Mobius beam model in two steps. First, the stock beam model was customized using machine commissioning data, then verified against the TPS with 12 simple phantom plans and 7 clinical 3D plans. Secondly, the Dosimetric Leaf Gap(DLG) in the Mobius model was fine-tuned for VMAT treatment based on ion chamber measurements for 6 clinical VMAT plans. Upon successful commissioning, we retrospectively performed IMRT QA for 12 VMAT plans with the Mobius system as well as the ArcCHECK-3DVH system. Selected patient DVH values (PTV D95, D50; Bladder D2cc, Dmean; Rectum D2cc) were compared between TPS, M3D, MFX, and 3DVH. Results: During the first commissioning step, TPS and M3D calculated target Dmean for 3D plans agree within 0.7%±0.7%, with 3D gamma passing rates of 98%±2%. In the second commissioning step, the Mobius DLG was adjusted by 1.2mm from the stock value, reducing the average difference between MFX calculation and ion chamber measurement from 3.2% to 0.1%. In retrospective prostate VMAT QA, 5 of 60 MFX calculated DVH values have a deviation greater than 5% compared to TPS. One large deviation at high dose level was identified as a potential QA failure. This echoes the 3DVH QA result, which identified 2 instances of large DVH deviation on the same structure. For all DVH’s evaluated, M3D and MFX show high level of agreement (0.1%±0.2%), indicating that the observed deviation is likely from beam modelling differences rather than delivery errors. Conclusion: Mobius system provides a viable solution for DVH based VMAT QA, with the capability of separating TPS and delivery errors.

  20. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. Methods: DICOM RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms—PINNACLE (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)—were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm{sup 3}) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. Results: In Test 1, PINNACLE produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, PINNACLE and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding D{sub min} and D{sub max} as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2

  1. SU-F-T-419: Evaluation of PlanIQ Feasibility DVH as Planning Objectives for Skull Base SBRT Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W [School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong (China); Wang, H; Chi, P [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: PlanIQ(Sun Nuclear Corporation) can provide feasibility measures on organs-at-risk(OARs) around the target based on depth, local anatomy density and energy of radiation beam used. This study is to test and evaluate PlanIQ feasibility DVHs as optimization objectives in the treatment planning process, and to investigate the potential to use them in routine clinical cases to improve planning efficiency. Methods: Two to three arcs VMAT Treatment plans were generated in Pinnacle based on PlanIQ feasibility DVH for six skull base patients who previously treated with SBRT. The PlanIQ feasibility DVH for each OAR consists of four zones – impossible (at 100% target coverage), difficult, challenging and probable. Constrains to achieve DVH in difficult zone were used to start plan optimization. Further adjustment was made to improve coverage. The plan DVHs were compared to PlanIQ feasibility DVH to assess the dose received by 0%(D0), 5%(D5), 10%(D10) and 50%(D50) of the OAR volumes. Results: A total of 90 OARs were evaluated for 6 patients (mean 15 OARs, range 11–18 OARs). We used >98% PTV coverage as planning goal since it’s difficult to achieve 100% target coverage. For the generated plans, 96.7% of the OARs achieved D0 or D5 within difficult zone or impossible zone (ipsilateral OARs 93.5%, contralateral OARs 100%), while 90% and 65.6% of the OARs achieved D10 and D50 within difficult zone, respectively. Seventeen of the contralateral and out of field OARs achieved DVHs in impossible zone. For OARs adjacent or overlapped with target volume, the D0 and D5 are challenging to be optimized into difficult zone. All plans were completed within 2–4 adjustments to improve target coverage and uniformity. Conclusion: PlanIQ feasibility tool has the potential to provide difficult but achievable initial optimization objectives and therefore reduce the planning time to obtain a well optimized plan.

  2. A DVH-guided IMRT optimization algorithm for automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy replanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Nan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm that incorporates prior treatment knowledge into intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization to facilitate automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) replanning. Methods: The algorithm automatically creates a treatment plan guided by the DVH curves of a reference plan that contains information on the clinician-approved dose-volume trade-offs among different targets/organs and among different portions of a DVH curve for an organ. In ART, the reference plan is the initial plan for the same patient, while for automatic treatment planning the reference plan is selected from a library of clinically approved and delivered plans of previously treated patients with similar medical conditions and geometry. The proposed algorithm employs a voxel-based optimization model and navigates the large voxel-based Pareto surface. The voxel weights are iteratively adjusted to approach a plan that is similar to the reference plan in terms of the DVHs. If the reference plan is feasible but not Pareto optimal, the algorithm generates a Pareto optimal plan with the DVHs better than the reference ones. If the reference plan is too restricting for the new geometry, the algorithm generates a Pareto plan with DVHs close to the reference ones. In both cases, the new plans have similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plans. Results: The algorithm was tested using three patient cases and found to be able to automatically adjust the voxel-weighting factors in order to generate a Pareto plan with similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plan. The algorithm has also been implemented on a GPU for high efficiency. Conclusions: A novel prior-knowledge-based optimization algorithm has been developed that automatically adjust the voxel weights and generate a clinical optimal plan at high efficiency. It is found that the new algorithm can significantly improve the plan quality and planning efficiency in ART replanning and automatic treatment

  3. Generation of benchmark DVH's for normal tissues in IMRT for base of tongue and tonsil cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.; Arun Singh, O.; Goswami, P.; Bhardwaj, A.; Santam; Susmita, Goshal; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    IMRT is the treatment of choice for treatment of prostate and H and N cancer treatment but it take quality of time to generate an optimal treatment plan and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) varies significantly from one plan to other patient plan which is difficult to compare. Here the authors propose to generate bench mark DVH's for normal tissues for Base of tongue (BOT) and Tonsil cancer treatment to bring consistency in selection of plans and reduce the overall time of planning and comparison b/n different plan will be simpler and easier. Here the authors propose to generate benchmark DVH for spinal cord, larynx, pharynx, parotid and brain stem for BOT and tonsil patients treated with Intensity modulated radiotherapy in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. And to see whether Benchmark DVH can be effectively used in IMRT for BOT and Ca Tonsil

  4. SU-E-T-531: Large--Scale DVH Quality Study: Correlated Aims Lead Relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohadani, O; Roy, A [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Das, I [Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans are designed to optimally target a tumor while sparing surrounding tissue. Desired dose distributions are iteratively approached via inverse planning. This leads to tradeoffs between clinical objectives for the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and normal tissues. Dose volume histogram (DVHs) related aims are followed that are either institutional or internationally recommended. We analyze common goals and identify potential reasons that often lead to tradeoffs. Methods: 524 IMRT plans for various tumor sites were analyzed based on the main institutional DVH goal for PTV (D95) and the recommendations by ICRU-83 (D2, D50, and D98). Robust statistical tools are developed and applied to ensure that the results are immune to data uncertainties. The probability of violation was measured for each of the DVH goals based on the frequency of not meeting recommended doses. Conditional probabilities for satisfying and/or violating DVH aims were computed to test the hypothesized pair-wise relations between DVH aims. For example, for plans that satisfied D50, the probability of violating D98 was computed via P(D98 < 95% | 98% ≤ D50 ≤ 102%). The equality constraint D50 = 100% was relaxed to encompass the range [98,102]%. Results: A large majority of cases (88%) satisfied the institutional goal for PTV of D95 ≤ 95%. Similar consensus existed for D98. 51% of cases satisfied D2 ≥ 107%. However, only 18% of cases satisfied D50. The conditional probability showed correlations amongst the studied DVH goals. In fact, a negative correlation was revealed between D50 and D95 (and D98), suggesting that these competing goals cannot be satisfied concurrently. Conclusion: The majority of plans followed the institutional guidelines. The reason for their deviation from international recommendations seems to be that the latter goals are competing and cannot be satisfied concurrently in clinical practice.

  5. SU-E-T-622: Identification and Improvement of Patients Eligible for Dose Escalation with Matched Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c

  6. SU-E-T-596: P3DVHStats - a Novel, Automatic, Institution Customizable Program to Compute and Report DVH Quantities On Philips Pinnacle TPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a novel, automatic, institutional customizable DVH quantities evaluation and PDF report tool on Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An add-on program (P3DVHStats) is developed by us to enable automatic DVH quantities evaluation (including both volume and dose based quantities, such as V98, V100, D2), and automatic PDF format report generation, for EMR convenience. The implementation is based on a combination of Philips Pinnacle scripting tool and Java language pre-installed on each Pinnacle Sun Solaris workstation. A single Pinnacle script provide user a convenient access to the program when needed. The activated script will first export DVH data for user selected ROIs from current Pinnacle plan trial; a Java program then provides a simple GUI interface, utilizes the data to compute any user requested DVH quantities, compare with preset institutional DVH planning goals; if accepted by users, the program will also generate a PDF report of the results and export it from Pinnacle to EMR import folder via FTP. Results: The program was tested thoroughly and has been released for clinical use at our institution (Pinnacle Enterprise server with both thin clients and P3PC access), for all dosimetry and physics staff, with excellent feedback. It used to take a few minutes to use MS-Excel worksheet to calculate these DVH quantities for IMRT/VMAT plans, and manually save them as PDF report; with the new program, it literally takes a few mouse clicks in less than 30 seconds to complete the same tasks. Conclusion: A Pinnacle scripting and Java language based program is successfully implemented, customized to our institutional needs. It is shown to dramatically reduce time and effort needed for DVH quantities computing and EMR reporting

  7. SU-E-T-596: P3DVHStats - a Novel, Automatic, Institution Customizable Program to Compute and Report DVH Quantities On Philips Pinnacle TPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C [Sutter Medical Foundation, Roseville, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a novel, automatic, institutional customizable DVH quantities evaluation and PDF report tool on Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An add-on program (P3DVHStats) is developed by us to enable automatic DVH quantities evaluation (including both volume and dose based quantities, such as V98, V100, D2), and automatic PDF format report generation, for EMR convenience. The implementation is based on a combination of Philips Pinnacle scripting tool and Java language pre-installed on each Pinnacle Sun Solaris workstation. A single Pinnacle script provide user a convenient access to the program when needed. The activated script will first export DVH data for user selected ROIs from current Pinnacle plan trial; a Java program then provides a simple GUI interface, utilizes the data to compute any user requested DVH quantities, compare with preset institutional DVH planning goals; if accepted by users, the program will also generate a PDF report of the results and export it from Pinnacle to EMR import folder via FTP. Results: The program was tested thoroughly and has been released for clinical use at our institution (Pinnacle Enterprise server with both thin clients and P3PC access), for all dosimetry and physics staff, with excellent feedback. It used to take a few minutes to use MS-Excel worksheet to calculate these DVH quantities for IMRT/VMAT plans, and manually save them as PDF report; with the new program, it literally takes a few mouse clicks in less than 30 seconds to complete the same tasks. Conclusion: A Pinnacle scripting and Java language based program is successfully implemented, customized to our institutional needs. It is shown to dramatically reduce time and effort needed for DVH quantities computing and EMR reporting.

  8. MO-G-304-02: Knowledge Based DVH Prediction Using a Geometric Dose Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, D; Wang, J; Jiang, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a novel method for predicting patient dose-volume histograms (DVHs) using a prior database of optimized radiotherapy treatment plans. Such predicted DVHs could be useful for automating treatment planning. Methods: Our initial demonstration utilized a database of 100 prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) data-sets. Each data-set contained a CT image with contours of the planning target volume (PTV), rectum, and bladder, the parameters of a clinically approved IMRT plan, and a corresponding simulated dose distribution. We applied a novel geometric transformation to remove the influence of the PTV size, shape, and location on the dose distribution. We termed the transformed distribution the geometrically normalized dose distribution (GNDD). This normalization transform was applied to 80 data-sets randomly selected from the database, and a population GNDD was computed as the average. Next, the population GNDD was mapped onto each of the remaining 20 patient datasets using the reverse of the geometric normalization transform, and predicted DVHs were calculated from the reverse transformed dose distributions (GNDD-DVHs). In addition, a state of the art machine learning based method from the literature was tested for comparison. Results: DVH prediction accuracy was quantified by calculating the relative root mean squared error (rRMSE) on predicted DVHs for the 20 test patients using their known DVHs. For bladder, rectum, and PTV average rRMSEs for the GNDD method were 9.7 ± 4.2%, 13.9 ± 6.0%, and 2.3 ± 0.5% respectively. Prediction results using GNDD were roughly equivalent to that from the machine learning method. Conclusion: We developed a new method for predicting DVH curves from a database of prior patient plans. We demonstrated that our simple approach achieves accuracy comparable to a method using a complicated machine learning based approach

  9. Conventional patient specific IMRT QA and 3DVH verification of dose distribution for helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prabhat Krishna; Joshi, Kishore; Epili, D.; Gavake, Umesh; Paul, Siji; Reena, Ph.; Jamema, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, patient-specific IMRT QA has transitioned from point dose measurements by ion chambers to films to 2D array measurements. 3DVH software has taken this transition a step further by estimating the 3D dose delivered to the patient volume from 2D diode measurements using a planned dose perturbation (PDP) algorithm. This algorithm was developed to determine, if the conventional IMRT QA though sensitive at detecting errors, has any predictive power in detecting dose errors of clinical significance related to dose to the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). The aim of this study is to compare the conventional IMRT patient specific QA and 3DVH dose distribution for patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT)

  10. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  11. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  12. Relationship between dose-volume parameters and pulmonary complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Shigeo; Shibata, Toru [Kagawa University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kagawa (Japan); Go, Tetsuhiko; Kasai, Yoshitaka; Yokomise, Hiroyasu [Kagawa University, Department of General Thoracic, Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This study evaluated the relationship between dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and pulmonary complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by surgery for lung cancer. We also examined a new DVH parameter, because the unresected lung should be more spared than the later resected lung. Data from 43 non-small cell lung cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. The DVH parameters of the lung were calculated from the total bilateral lung volume minus (1) the gross tumor volume (DVHg) or (2) the later resected lung volume (DVHr). Radiation pneumonitis (RP) and fistula, including bronchopleural and pulmonary fistula, were graded as the pulmonary complications. Factors affecting the incidences of grade 2 or higher RP (≥G2 RP) and fistula were analyzed. Sixteen patients (37 %) experienced ≥G2 RP and a V20 value of the total lung minus the later resected lung (V20r) ≥ 12 % was a significant factor affecting the incidence of ≥G2 RP (p = 0.032). Six patients (14 %) developed a fistula and a V35 value of the total lung minus the gross tumor (V35g) ≥ 19 % and a V40g ≥ 16 % were significant factors affecting the incidence of fistula (p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). These DVH parameters may be related to the incidences of ≥G2 RP and fistula. (orig.) [German] In dieser Studie wurde die Beziehung zwischen Dosis-Volumen-Histogramm-(DVH-)Parametern und pulmonalen Komplikationen nach neoadjuvanter Radiochemotherapie (NARCT) und nachfolgender Operation beim Lungenkarzinom untersucht. Zudem wurde ein neuer DVH-Parameter untersucht, da das nichtresezierte Lungengewebe mehr geschont werden sollte als reseziertes Gewebe. Daten von 43 Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom wurden retrospektiv analysiert. Die DVH-Parameter der Lunge wurden aus dem gesamten beidseitigen Lungenvolumen minus (1) das makroskopische Tumorvolumen (DVHg) oder (2) das resezierte Lungenvolumen (DVHr) ermittelt. Strahlenpneumonitis (RP) und Fisteln

  13. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete (Spain); Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell [Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Reus (Spain); Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina [University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Gynecological Cancer Unit, Radiation Oncology Department, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D{sub 0.1} {sub cc}: 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D{sub 1} {sub cc}: 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D{sub 2} {sub cc}: 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D{sub x} {sub cc} is the dose to the most exposed x cm {sup 3}). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D{sub 5} {sub %}, D{sub 25} {sub %}, and D{sub 50} {sub %}. In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D{sub 25} {sub %} and D{sub 50} {sub %} (D{sub x} {sub %} dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D{sub 2} {sub cc}, D{sub 5} {sub cc} and V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von rektalen Dosen waehrend postoperativer High-Dose-Rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie an der Scheidenmanschette (''vaginal cuff brachytherapy'', VCB). An

  14. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria; Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell; Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D 0.1 cc : 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D 1 cc : 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D 2 cc : 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D x cc is the dose to the most exposed x cm 3 ). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D 5 % , D 25 % , and D 50 % . In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D 25 % and D 50 % (D x % dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D 2 cc , D 5 cc and V 5 Gy (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [de

  15. SU-E-T-471: Improvement of Gamma Knife Treatment Planning Through Tumor Control Probability for Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Feng, Y [East Carolina Univ, Rockville, MD (United States); Lo, S [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Grecula, J [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose–volume histogram (DVH) has been normally accepted as a tool for treatment plan evaluation. However, spatial information is lacking in DVH. As a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional treatment planning, the differential DVH (DDVH) provides the spatial variation, the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest, which can be incorporated into tumor control probability model. This study was to provide a method in evaluating and improving Gamma Knife treatment planning. Methods: 10 patients with brain metastases from different primary tumors including melanoma (#1,#4,#5, #10), breast cancer (#2), prostate cancer (#3) and lung cancer (#6–9) were analyzed. By using Leksell GammaPlan software, two plans were prepared for each patient. Special attention was given to the DDVHs that were different for different plans and were used for a comparison between two plans. Dose distribution inside target and tumor control probability (TCP) based on DDVH were calculated, where cell density and radiobiological parameters were adopted from literature. The plans were compared based on DVH, DDVH and TCP. Results: Using DVH, the coverage and selectivity were the same between plans for 10 patients. DDVH were different between two plans for each patient. The paired t-test showed no significant difference in TCP between the two plans. For brain metastases from melanoma (#1, #4–5), breast cancer (#2) and lung cancer (#6–8), the difference in TCP was less than 5%. But the difference in TCP was about 6.5% for patient #3 with the metastasis from prostate cancer, 10.1% and 178.7% for two patients (#9–10) with metastasis from lung cancer. Conclusion: Although DVH provides average dose–volume information, DDVH provides differential dose– volume information with respect to different regions inside the tumor. TCP provides radiobiological information and adds additional information on improving treatment planning as well as adaptive

  16. SU-E-T-471: Improvement of Gamma Knife Treatment Planning Through Tumor Control Probability for Metastatic Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Lo, S; Grecula, J; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The dose–volume histogram (DVH) has been normally accepted as a tool for treatment plan evaluation. However, spatial information is lacking in DVH. As a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional treatment planning, the differential DVH (DDVH) provides the spatial variation, the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest, which can be incorporated into tumor control probability model. This study was to provide a method in evaluating and improving Gamma Knife treatment planning. Methods: 10 patients with brain metastases from different primary tumors including melanoma (#1,#4,#5, #10), breast cancer (#2), prostate cancer (#3) and lung cancer (#6–9) were analyzed. By using Leksell GammaPlan software, two plans were prepared for each patient. Special attention was given to the DDVHs that were different for different plans and were used for a comparison between two plans. Dose distribution inside target and tumor control probability (TCP) based on DDVH were calculated, where cell density and radiobiological parameters were adopted from literature. The plans were compared based on DVH, DDVH and TCP. Results: Using DVH, the coverage and selectivity were the same between plans for 10 patients. DDVH were different between two plans for each patient. The paired t-test showed no significant difference in TCP between the two plans. For brain metastases from melanoma (#1, #4–5), breast cancer (#2) and lung cancer (#6–8), the difference in TCP was less than 5%. But the difference in TCP was about 6.5% for patient #3 with the metastasis from prostate cancer, 10.1% and 178.7% for two patients (#9–10) with metastasis from lung cancer. Conclusion: Although DVH provides average dose–volume information, DDVH provides differential dose– volume information with respect to different regions inside the tumor. TCP provides radiobiological information and adds additional information on improving treatment planning as well as adaptive

  17. Significant correlation between rectal DVH and late bleeding in patients treated after radical prostatectomy with conformal or conventional radiotherapy (66.6-70.2 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Fiorino, Claudio; Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Bolognesi, Angelo; Calandrino, Riccardo; Villa, Eugenio

    2003-01-01

    hypertension (p=0.11). After patients were grouped into those with V50 ≥63% and those with V50 <63% (DVH grouping), data were fitted with a Cox regression hazard model using DVH grouping, rectal volume, and the main clinical parameters as independent variables. Results of the analysis showed that DVH grouping (relative risk 3.3; p=0.04) and acute bleeding (relative risk 7.1; p=0.001) are independently predictive of late bleeding. Conclusions: DVHs of the rectum are significantly correlated with late bleeding for patients irradiated at 66.6-70.2 Gy after radical prostatectomy

  18. The dose distribution and DVH change analysis wing to effect of the patient setup error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Jae Hong; Park, Young Hwan

    2004-01-01

    The setup error due to the patient and the staff from radiation treatment as the reason which is important the treatment record could be decided is a possibility of effect. The SET-UP ERROR of the patient analyzes the effect of dose distribution and DVH from radiation treatment of the patient. This test uses human phantom and when C-T scan doing, It rotated the Left direction of the human phantom and it made SET-UP ERROR, Standard plan and 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm with to distinguish, it made the C-T scan error. With the result, The SET-UP ERROR got each C-T image Using RTP equipment It used the plan which is used generally from clinical - Box plan, 3 Dimension plan( identical angle 5beam plan) Also, ( CTV+1cm margin, CTV+0.5cm margin, CTV+0.3,cm margin = PTV) it distinguished the standard plan and each set-up error plan and the plan used a dose distribution and the DVH and it analyzed. The Box 4 the plan and 3 Dimension plan which it bites it got similar an dose distribution and DVH in 3 mm, 5 mm From rotation error and Rectilinear movement (0%-2%). Rotation error and rectilinear error 7 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm appeared effect it will go mad to a enough change in treatment (2%-11%) The diminishes the effect of the SET-UP ERROR must reduce move with tension of the patient Also, we are important accessory development and the supply that it reducing of reproducibility and the move.

  19. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Mayo, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Statistical DVH offers an easy-to-read, detailed, and comprehensive way to visualize the quantitative comparison with historical experiences and among institutions. WES and GEM metrics offer a flexible means of incorporating discrete threshold-prioritizations and historic context into a set of standardized scoring metrics. Together, they provide a practical approach for incorporating big data into clinical practice for treatment plan evaluations.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 69: Computational Study of DVH-guided Cancer Treatment Planning Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghomi, Pooyan Shirvani; Zinchenko, Yuriy [University of Calgary, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare methods to incorporate the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) curves into the treatment planning optimization. Method: The performance of three methods, namely, the conventional Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, a convex moment-based constrained optimization approach, and an unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach, is compared using anonymized data of a prostate cancer patient. Three plans we generated using the corresponding optimization models. Four Organs at Risk (OARs) and one Tumor were involved in the treatment planning. The OARs and Tumor were discretized into total of 50,221 voxels. The number of beamlets was 943. We used commercially available optimization software Gurobi and Matlab to solve the models. Plan comparison was done by recording the model runtime followed by visual inspection of the resulting dose volume histograms. Conclusion: We demonstrate the effectiveness of the moment-based approaches to replicate the set of prescribed DVH curves. The unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach is concluded to have the greatest potential to reduce the computational effort and holds a promise of substantial computational speed up.

  1. Extracting the normal lung dose–response curve from clinical DVH data: a possible role for low dose hyper-radiosensitivity, increased radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Barton, K; Sun, Z; Chetty, I J; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R K

    2015-01-01

    In conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis’ (RP) dependence on the normal lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) is not well understood. Complication models alternatively make RP a function of a summary statistic, such as mean lung dose (MLD). This work searches over damage profiles, which quantify sub-volume damage as a function of dose. Profiles that achieve best RP predictive accuracy on a clinical dataset are hypothesized to approximate DVH dependence.Step function damage rate profiles R(D) are generated, having discrete steps at several dose points. A range of profiles is sampled by varying the step heights and dose point locations. Normal lung damage is the integral of R(D) with the cumulative DVH. Each profile is used in conjunction with a damage cutoff to predict grade 2 plus (G2+) RP for DVHs from a University of Michigan clinical trial dataset consisting of 89 CFRT patients, of which 17 were diagnosed with G2+ RP.Optimal profiles achieve a modest increase in predictive accuracy—erroneous RP predictions are reduced from 11 (using MLD) to 8. A novel result is that optimal profiles have a similar distinctive shape: enhanced damage contribution from low doses (<20 Gy), a flat contribution from doses in the range ∼20–40 Gy, then a further enhanced contribution from doses above 40 Gy. These features resemble the hyper-radiosensitivity / increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR) observed in some cell survival curves, which can be modeled using Joiner’s induced repair model.A novel search strategy is employed, which has the potential to estimate RP dependence on the normal lung DVH. When applied to a clinical dataset, identified profiles share a characteristic shape, which resembles HRS/IRR. This suggests that normal lung may have enhanced sensitivity to low doses, and that this sensitivity can affect RP risk. (paper)

  2. SU-E-T-641: Development and Verification of Automatic Reading Dose of Interest From Eclipse's DVH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: According to clinical and research requirement, we develop a function of automatic reading dose of interest from dose volume histogram(DVH), to replace the traditional method with a mouse one by one point, and it's also verified. Methods: The DVH automatic reading function will be developed in an in-house developed radiotherapy information management system(RTIMS), which is based on Apache+PHP+MySQL. A DVH ASCII file is exported from Varian Eclipse V8.6, which includes the following contents: 1. basic information of patient; 2. dose information of plan; 3. dose information of structures, including basic information and dose volume data of target volume and organ at risk. And the default exported dose volume data also includes relative doses by 1% step and corresponding absolute doses and cumulative relative volumes, and the volumes are 4 decimal fraction. Clinically, we often need read the doses of some integer percent volumes, such as D50 and D30. So it couldn't be directly obtained from the above data, but we can use linear interpolation bye the near volumes and doses: Dx=D2−(V2−Vx)*(D2−D1)/(V2−V1), and program a function to search, read and calculate the corresponding data. And the doses of all preseted volume of interest of all structures can be automatically read one by one patient, and saved as a CSV file. To verify it, we select 24 IMRT plans for prostate cancer, and doses of interest are PTV D98/D95/D5/D2, bladder D30/D50, and rectum D25/D50. Two groups of data, using the automatic reading method(ARM) and pointed dose method(PDM), are analyzed with SPSS 16. The absolute difference=D-ARM-D-PDM, relative difference=absolute difference*100%/prescription dose(7600cGy). Results: The differences are as following: PTV D98/D95/D5/D2: −0.04%/− 0.04%/0.13%/0.19%, bladder D30/D50: −0.02%/0.01%, and rectum D25/D50: 0.03%/0.01%. Conclusion: Using this function, the error is very small, and can be neglected. It could greatly improve the

  3. SU-E-T-641: Development and Verification of Automatic Reading Dose of Interest From Eclipse's DVH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: According to clinical and research requirement, we develop a function of automatic reading dose of interest from dose volume histogram(DVH), to replace the traditional method with a mouse one by one point, and it's also verified. Methods: The DVH automatic reading function will be developed in an in-house developed radiotherapy information management system(RTIMS), which is based on Apache+PHP+MySQL. A DVH ASCII file is exported from Varian Eclipse V8.6, which includes the following contents: 1. basic information of patient; 2. dose information of plan; 3. dose information of structures, including basic information and dose volume data of target volume and organ at risk. And the default exported dose volume data also includes relative doses by 1% step and corresponding absolute doses and cumulative relative volumes, and the volumes are 4 decimal fraction. Clinically, we often need read the doses of some integer percent volumes, such as D50 and D30. So it couldn't be directly obtained from the above data, but we can use linear interpolation bye the near volumes and doses: Dx=D2−(V2−Vx)*(D2−D1)/(V2−V1), and program a function to search, read and calculate the corresponding data. And the doses of all preseted volume of interest of all structures can be automatically read one by one patient, and saved as a CSV file. To verify it, we select 24 IMRT plans for prostate cancer, and doses of interest are PTV D98/D95/D5/D2, bladder D30/D50, and rectum D25/D50. Two groups of data, using the automatic reading method(ARM) and pointed dose method(PDM), are analyzed with SPSS 16. The absolute difference=D-ARM-D-PDM, relative difference=absolute difference*100%/prescription dose(7600cGy). Results: The differences are as following: PTV D98/D95/D5/D2: −0.04%/− 0.04%/0.13%/0.19%, bladder D30/D50: −0.02%/0.01%, and rectum D25/D50: 0.03%/0.01%. Conclusion: Using this function, the error is very small, and can be neglected. It could greatly improve the

  4. Comparison of different contouring definitions of the rectum as organ at risk (OAR) and dose-volume parameters predicting rectal inflammation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer: which definition to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Mirko; Brannath, Werner; Brückner, Matthias; Wagner, Dirk; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Temme, Nils; Hermann, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    cm 3 (SD 26 cm 3 ) and 74 cm 3 (SD 31 cm 3 ), respectively (p definitions were 35 Gy (SD 8 Gy), 48 Gy (SD 4 Gy) and 44 Gy (SD 5 Gy) (p definition. By adding additional variables in multivariate analysis, the predictive ability was substantially improved. Still, there was essentially no difference in the probability of predicting rectal inflammation occurrence between the tested contouring definitions. The RTOG anatomy-based recommendations are questionable in comparison with functional definitions, as they result in higher variances in several relative DVH parameters. Moreover, the anatomy-based definition is no better and no worse in the predictive value concerning clinical end points. Advances in knowledge: Functional definitions for the rectum as OAR are easier to apply, faster to contour, have smaller variances and do not offer less information than the anatomy-based RTOG definition.

  5. Comments on 'Reconsidering the definition of a dose-volume histogram'-dose-mass histogram (DMH) versus dose-volume histogram (DVH) for predicting radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Plataniotis, Georgios A; Gorka, Magdalena Adamus; Lind, Bengt K

    2006-01-01

    In a recently published paper (Nioutsikou et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 L17) the authors showed that the use of the dose-mass histogram (DMH) concept is a more accurate descriptor of the dose delivered to lung than the traditionally used dose-volume histogram (DVH) concept. Furthermore, they state that if a functional imaging modality could also be registered to the anatomical imaging modality providing a functional weighting across the organ (functional mass) then the more general and realistic concept of the dose-functioning mass histogram (D[F]MH) could be an even more appropriate descriptor. The comments of the present letter to the editor are in line with the basic arguments of that work since their general conclusions appear to be supported by the comparison of the DMH and DVH concepts using radiobiological measures. In this study, it is examined whether the dose-mass histogram (DMH) concept deviated significantly from the widely used dose-volume histogram (DVH) concept regarding the expected lung complications and if there are clinical indications supporting these results. The problem was investigated theoretically by applying two hypothetical dose distributions (Gaussian and semi-Gaussian shaped) on two lungs of uniform and varying densities. The influence of the deviation between DVHs and DMHs on the treatment outcome was estimated by using the relative seriality and LKB models using the Gagliardi et al (2000 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 46 373) and Seppenwoolde et al (2003 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 55 724) parameter sets for radiation pneumonitis, respectively. Furthermore, the biological equivalent of their difference was estimated by the biologically effective uniform dose (D-bar) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concepts, respectively. It is shown that the relation between the DVHs and DMHs varies depending on the underlying cell density distribution and the applied dose distribution. However, the range of their deviation in terms of

  6. Postimplantation Analysis Enables Improvement of Dose-Volume Histograms and Reduction of Toxicity for Permanent Seed Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Postrach, Johanna; Kahmann, Frank; Henkel, Thomas; Graf, Reinhold; Cho, Chie Hee; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate how postimplantation analysis is useful for improving permanent seed implantation and reducing toxicity. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 197 questionnaires completed by patients after permanent seed implantation (monotherapy between 1999 and 2003). For 70% of these patients, a computed tomography was available to perform postimplantation analysis. The index doses and volumes of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were determined and categorized with respect to the date of implantation. Differences in symptom scores relative to pretherapeutic status were analyzed with regard to follow-up times and DVH descriptors. Acute and subacute toxicities in a control group of 117 patients from an earlier study (June 1999 to September 2001) by Wust et al. (2004) were compared with a matched subgroup from this study equaling 110 patients treated between October 2001 and August 2003. Results: Improved performance, identifying a characteristic time dependency of DVH parameters (after implantation) and toxicity scores, was demonstrated. Although coverage (volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose of the prostate) increased slightly, high-dose regions decreased with the growing experience of the users. Improvement in the DVH and a reduction of toxicities were found in the patient group implanted in the later period. A decline in symptoms with follow-up time counteracts this gain of experience and must be considered. Urinary and sexual discomfort was enhanced by dose heterogeneities (e.g., dose covering 10% of the prostate volume, volume covered by 200% of prescription dose). In contrast, rectal toxicities correlated with exposed rectal volumes, especially the rectal volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The typical side effects occurring after permanent seed implantation can be reduced by improving the dose distributions. An improvement in dose distributions and a reduction of toxicities were identified with elapsed time between

  7. The analysis of correlation between changes of myocardial enzymes level in serum before and after radiation and dose-volume histogram parameters of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiuping; Li Hongjun; Li Baosheng; Wang Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlation between the changes of myocardial enzyme level in serum before and after radiotherapy and dose - volume histogram (DVH) parameters of the heart. Methods: A total of 102 patients with 68 cases of lung cancer and 34 cases of esophageal cancer were recruited. All patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with the radiation beams passing through the heart. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) were determined in the serum before and after radiotherapy. All the enzyme levels before and after radiotherapy were compared through paired t-test. Independent sample t-test was conducted between sub-groups. And the dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of the heart were calculated (the volume percentage of heart receiving dose equal to or exceeding x Gy (V x ). The correlation between myocardial enzyme level and DVH parameters was analyzed through Pearson method. Results: Serum AST, CK-MB, LDH, α-HBDH levels increased significantly after radiotherapy (19.42: 27.89, 14.72:19.57, 178.80 : 217.57, 140.32 : 176.25, t =-3.39 - -6.92, all P=0.000). In Group IMRT, significant correlations between the increase of myocardial enzyme concentration and DVH parameters of the heart are found, AST with V 20 , V 25 , V 30 of heart ( r=0.302 - 0.431, P =0.039 - 0.003), CK with V 30 of heart (r=0.345, P=0.013), and CK-MB, LDH, α-HBDH with V 25 , V 30 (r=0.465 -0.376, P=0.001-0.005). In Group CRT, there are significant correlations between changes of CK-MB, LDH level and V 30 of heart (r =0.330, 0.274, P=0.014, 0.033), α-HBDH and V 25 , V 30 , and V 35 of heart (r=0.270-0.331, P=0.046-0.014). When the irradiation dose was more than 50 Gy, significant correlations were found between the concentration changes of AST, LDH, α-HBDH and V 25 , V 30 of heart (r=0

  8. High-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer patients does not increase postoperative pulmonary complications: Correlation with dose-volume histogram parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurmuzlu, Meysan; Ovrebo, Kjell; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Viste, Asgaut; Smaaland, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of high-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of lungs with incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and to identify predictive clinical factors of pulmonary complications. Methods: Data of 65 patients were collected retrospectively. Thirty-five patients underwent transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) alone and 30 received cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, concomitant with radiotherapy, median dose 66 Gy, and followed by TTE. From the DVH for each lung alone and for both lungs together as one organ we generated total lung volume, mean radiotherapy dose, relative and absolute volumes receiving more than a threshold dose, and relative and absolute volumes receiving less than a threshold dose. Postoperative pulmonary complications were defined as pneumonia or respiratory failure. Results: Sixty percent of the patients in the TTE alone group had postoperative pulmonary complications versus 63% in the CRT + TTE group. Postoperative mortality was 8.6% and 16.7% in the respective patient groups (p = NS). None of the DVH parameters was associated with postoperative pulmonary complications. Squamous cell carcinoma was an adverse factor related to increased postoperative pulmonary complications. Conclusion: High-dose preoperative CRT was not associated with increased postoperative pulmonary complications in this cohort of esophageal cancer patients.

  9. Computed tomography imaging parameters for inhomogeneity correction in radiation treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra J Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media (such as a patient' body with the help of tissue characterization based on computed tomography (CT number. However, CT number depends on the type of scanner, tube voltage, field of view (FOV, reconstruction algorithm including artifact reduction and processing filters. The impact of these parameters on CT to electron density (ED conversion had been subject of investigation for treatment planning in various clinical situations. This is usually performed with a tissue characterization phantom with various density plugs acquired with different tube voltages (kilovoltage peak, FOV reconstruction and different scanners to generate CT number to ED tables. This article provides an overview of inhomogeneity correction in the context of CT scanning and a new evaluation tool, difference volume dose-volume histogram (DVH, dV-DVH. It has been concluded that scanner and CT parameters are important for tissue characterizations, but changes in ED are minimal and only pronounced for higher density materials. For lungs, changes in CT number are minimal among scanners and CT parameters. Dosimetric differences for lung and prostate cases are usually insignificant (<2% in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and < 5% for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with CT parameters. It could be concluded that CT number variability is dependent on acquisition parameters, but its dosimetric impact is pronounced only in high-density media and possibly in IMRT. In view of such small dosimetric changes in low-density medium, the acquisition of additional CT data for financially difficult clinics and countries may not be warranted.

  10. Bladder dose accumulation based on a biomechanical deformable image registration algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, E S; Muren, L P; Thor, M; Petersen, J B; Tanderup, K; Sørensen, T S; Noe, K Ø; Høyer, M; Bentzen, L

    2012-01-01

    Variations in bladder position, shape and volume cause uncertainties in the doses delivered to this organ during a course of radiotherapy for pelvic tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of dose accumulation based on repeat imaging and deformable image registration (DIR) to improve the accuracy of bladder dose assessment. For each of nine prostate cancer patients, the initial treatment plan was re-calculated on eight to nine repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. The planned bladder dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters were compared to corresponding parameters derived from DIR-based accumulations as well as DVH summation based on dose re-calculations. It was found that the deviations between the DIR-based accumulations and the planned treatment were substantial and ranged (−0.5–2.3) Gy and (−9.4–13.5) Gy for D 2% and D mean , respectively, whereas the deviations between DIR-based accumulations and DVH summation were small and well within 1 Gy. For the investigated treatment scenario, DIR-based bladder dose accumulation did not result in substantial improvement of dose estimation as compared to the straightforward DVH summation. Large variations were found in individual patients between the doses from the initial treatment plan and the accumulated bladder doses. Hence, the use of repeat imaging has a potential for improved accuracy in treatment dose reporting. (paper)

  11. Improved Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques refined for estimating heat of vaporization and other parameters from molecular structure. Using parabolic equation with three adjustable parameters, heat of vaporization can be used to estimate boiling point, and vice versa. Boiling points and vapor pressures for some nonpolar liquids were estimated by improved method and compared with previously reported values. Technique for estimating thermodynamic parameters should make it easier for engineers to choose among candidate heat-exchange fluids for thermochemical cycles.

  12. Improvement of dose distribution of esophageal irradiation using the field-within-a-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Tsugunori; Okabe, Keigo; Yamato, Hidetada; Murakami, Jyunji; Nakazawa, Yasuo; Kato, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The wide radiation field for mediastinal dose distribution should be inhomogeneous with the usual simple opposed beam irradiation. The purpose of this study was to improve the dose distribution of the mediastinum using a conventional planning system with a dose-volume histogram (DVH) and the field-in-field technique. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution is obtained in bilateral opposed-field irradiation. An overdose area obtained from the 3D dose distribution is defined and reprojected into the irradiation field. A new reduced field is created by removing the reprojected overdose area. A 3D dose distribution is again obtained and compared with the results from first one. Procedures were repeated until each of the target volumes was within ±5% of the prescribed dose and the irradiation volume within 107% or less of the prescribed dose. From the DVH analysis, our field-within-a-field technique resulted in a more uniform dose distribution within the conventional planning. The field-within-a-field technique involves many parameters, and an inverse planning algorithm is suitable for computation. However, with our method, the forward planning system is adequate for planning, at least in a relatively straightforward planning system such as bilateral opposed fields therapy. (author)

  13. SU-F-T-359: Incorporating Dose Volume Histogram Prediction Into Auto-Planning for Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K; Chen, X; Wang, J; Lu, S; Chen, Y; Hu, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate dose volume histogram (DVH) prediction into Auto-Planning for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning and investigate the benefit of this new technique for rectal cancer. Methods: Ninety clinically accepted VMAT plans for patients with rectal cancer were selected and trained in the RapidPlan for DVH prediction. Both internal and external validations were performed before implementing the prediction model. A new VMAT planning method (hybrid-VMAT) was created with combining the DVH prediction and Auto-Planning. For each new patient, the DVH will be predicted and individual DVH constrains will be obtained and were exported as the original optimization parameters to the Auto-Planning (Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, v9.10) for planning. A total of 20 rectal cancer patients previously treated with manual VMAT (manual-VMAT) plans were replanned using this new method. Dosimetric comparisons were performed between manual VMAT and new method plans. Results: Hybrid-VMAT shows similar PTV coverage to manual-VMAT in D2%, D98% and HI (p>0.05) and superior coverage in CI (p=0.000). For the bladder, the means of V40 and mean dose are 36.0% and 35.6Gy for hybrid-VMAT and 42% and 38.0Gy for the manual-VMAT. For the left (right) femur, the means of V30 and mean dose are 10.6% (11.6%) and 17.9Gy (19.2Gy) for the hybrid-VMAT and 25.6% (24.1%) and 27.3Gy (26.2Gy) for the manual-VMAT. The hybrid-VMAT has significantly improved the organs at risk sparing. Conclusion: The integration of DVH prediction and Auto-Planning significantly improve the VMAT plan quality in the rectal cancer radiotherapy. Our results show the benefit of the new method and will be further investigated in other tumor sites.

  14. SU-F-T-359: Incorporating Dose Volume Histogram Prediction Into Auto-Planning for Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K; Chen, X; Wang, J; Lu, S; Chen, Y; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To incorporate dose volume histogram (DVH) prediction into Auto-Planning for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning and investigate the benefit of this new technique for rectal cancer. Methods: Ninety clinically accepted VMAT plans for patients with rectal cancer were selected and trained in the RapidPlan for DVH prediction. Both internal and external validations were performed before implementing the prediction model. A new VMAT planning method (hybrid-VMAT) was created with combining the DVH prediction and Auto-Planning. For each new patient, the DVH will be predicted and individual DVH constrains will be obtained and were exported as the original optimization parameters to the Auto-Planning (Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, v9.10) for planning. A total of 20 rectal cancer patients previously treated with manual VMAT (manual-VMAT) plans were replanned using this new method. Dosimetric comparisons were performed between manual VMAT and new method plans. Results: Hybrid-VMAT shows similar PTV coverage to manual-VMAT in D2%, D98% and HI (p>0.05) and superior coverage in CI (p=0.000). For the bladder, the means of V40 and mean dose are 36.0% and 35.6Gy for hybrid-VMAT and 42% and 38.0Gy for the manual-VMAT. For the left (right) femur, the means of V30 and mean dose are 10.6% (11.6%) and 17.9Gy (19.2Gy) for the hybrid-VMAT and 25.6% (24.1%) and 27.3Gy (26.2Gy) for the manual-VMAT. The hybrid-VMAT has significantly improved the organs at risk sparing. Conclusion: The integration of DVH prediction and Auto-Planning significantly improve the VMAT plan quality in the rectal cancer radiotherapy. Our results show the benefit of the new method and will be further investigated in other tumor sites.

  15. Thoracic Vertebral Body Irradiation Contributes to Acute Hematologic Toxicity During Chemoradiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deek, Matthew P.; Benenati, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Biometrics Division, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Chen, Ting; Ahmed, Inaya; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationships between radiation doses to the thoracic bone marrow and declines in blood cell counts in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: We included 52 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive concurrent carboplatin–paclitaxel and RT. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for the thoracic vertebrae (TV), sternum, scapulae, clavicles, and ribs were assessed for associations with changes in blood counts during the course of CRT. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between hematologic nadirs and DVH parameters. A DVH parameter of Vx was the percentage of the total organ volume exceeding x radiation dose. Results: Grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity including neutropenia developed in 21% (n=11), leukopenia in 42% (n=22), anemia in 6% (n=3), and throbocytopenia in 2% (n=1) of patients. Greater RT dose to the TV was associated with higher risk of grade ≥3 leukopenia across multiple DVH parameters, including TV V{sub 20} (TVV) (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; P=.025), TVV{sub 30} (OR 1.07; P=.013), and mean vertebral dose (MVD) (OR 1.13; P=.026). On multiple regression analysis, TVV{sub 30} (β = −0.004; P=.018) and TVV{sub 20} (β = −0.003; P=.048) were associated with white blood cell nadir. Additional bone marrow sites (scapulae, clavicles, and ribs) did not affect hematologic toxicity. A 20% chance of grade ≥3 leukopenia was associated with a MVD of 13.5 Gy and a TTV{sub 30} of 28%. Cutoff values to avoid grade ≥3 leukopenia were MVD ≤23.9 Gy, TVV{sub 20} ≤56.0%, and TVV{sub 30} ≤52.1%. Conclusions: Hematologic toxicity is associated with greater RT doses to the TV during CRT for NSCLC. Sparing of the TV using advanced radiation techniques may improve tolerance of CRT and result in improved tolerance of concurrent chemotherapy.

  16. Comparison of dose calculations between pencil-beam and Monte Carlo algorithms of the iPlan RT in arc therapy using a homogenous phantom with 3DVH software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Chae, Soo-Min; Son, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To create an arc therapy plan, certain current general calculation algorithms such as pencil-beam calculation (PBC) are based on discretizing the continuous arc into multiple fields to simulate an arc. The iPlan RT™ treatment planning system incorporates not only a PBC algorithm, but also a more recent Monte Carlo calculation (MCC) algorithm that does not need beam discretization. The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose differences in a homogenous phantom between PBC and MCC by using a three-dimensional (3D) diode array detector (ArcCHECK™) and 3DVH software. A cylindrically shaped ‘target’ region of interest (ROI) and a ‘periphery ROI’ surrounding the target were designed. An arc therapy plan was created to deliver 600 cGy to the target within a 350° rotation angle, calculated using the PBC and MCC algorithms. The radiation doses were measured by the ArcCHECK, and reproduced by the 3DVH software. Through this process, we could compare the accuracy of both algorithms with regard to the 3D gamma passing rate (for the entire area and for each ROI). Comparing the PBC and MCC planned dose distributions directly, the 3D gamma passing rates for the entire area were 97.7% with the gamma 3%/3 mm criterion. Comparing the planned dose to the measured dose, the 3D gamma passing rates were 98.8% under the PBC algorithm and 100% under the MCC algorithm. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.034). Furthermore the gamma passing rate decreases 7.5% in the PBC when using the 2%/2 mm criterion compared to only a 0.4% decrease under the MCC. Each ROI as well as the entire area showed statistically significant higher gamma passing rates under the MCC algorithm. The failure points that did not satisfy the gamma criteria showed a regular pattern repeated every 10°. MCC showed better accuracy than the PBC of the iPlan RT in calculating the dose distribution in arc therapy, which was validated with the ArcCHECK and the 3DVH software. This may

  17. Analysis of dose volume histogram parameters to estimate late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, L.J.; Brink, M. van den; Bruce, A.; Gras, L.; Velde, A. te; Lebesque, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters can be used to identify risk groups for developing late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and to examine the effect of using different morbidity scoring systems on the results of these analyses. Materials and Methods: DVH parameters were analyzed for 130 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy in a dose-escalating protocol (70-78 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction). The incidence of late (> 6 months) GI and GU complications was scored based on questionnaires and classified using the RTOG/EORTC and the SOMA/LENT scoring system. Moreover, patients were classified as being a rectal bleeder or no rectal bleeder and a distinction was made between non-severe and severe (requiring one or more laser treatments) rectal bleeding. The median follow-up time was 22 months. It was investigated whether the relative and absolute rectal wall volumes, irradiated to various dose levels (≥ 60 Gy, ≥ 65 Gy, ≥ 70 Gy and ≥ 75 Gy) were correlated with the observed actuarial incidences of GI complications. First, the analysis was performed using volume as a continuous variable. Subsequently, for each dose level in the DVH the rectal wall volumes were dichotomized using different volumes as cut-off levels. Twenty cut-off levels were tested on their ability to discriminate between high and low risk for developing GI complications (Fig.). The relationship between bladder wall volumes irradiated to various dose levels and observed actuarial GU complications was investigated using the absolute bladder wall volumes, measured as a continuous variable. For both GI and GU complications, the role of the prescribed radiation dose and the maximum radiation dose in the rectal and bladder wall was analyzed as well. Results: None of the DVH parameters of the rectal wall was significantly correlated with the actuarial incidences of

  18. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Parameter Estimation to Improve the Production of Biochemical Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuii Khim Chong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an improved Differential Evolution algorithm (IDE which aims at improving its performance in estimating the relevant parameters for metabolic pathway data to simulate glycolysis pathway for yeast. Metabolic pathway data are expected to be of significant help in the development of efficient tools in kinetic modeling and parameter estimation platforms. Many computation algorithms face obstacles due to the noisy data and difficulty of the system in estimating myriad of parameters, and require longer computational time to estimate the relevant parameters. The proposed algorithm (IDE in this paper is a hybrid of a Differential Evolution algorithm (DE and a Kalman Filter (KF. The outcome of IDE is proven to be superior than Genetic Algorithm (GA and DE. The results of IDE from experiments show estimated optimal kinetic parameters values, shorter computation time and increased accuracy for simulated results compared with other estimation algorithms

  19. Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell structures. ... Finite element models are designed taking into account minimization of production and ... The force factors and deformation parameters of the basic circuits of a ...

  20. An improved distance-to-dose correlation for predicting bladder and rectum dose-volumes in knowledge-based VMAT planning for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Phillip D. H.; Carver, Robert L.; Fontenot, Jonas D.

    2018-01-01

    The overlap volume histogram (OVH) is an anatomical metric commonly used to quantify the geometric relationship between an organ at risk (OAR) and target volume when predicting expected dose-volumes in knowledge-based planning (KBP). This work investigated the influence of additional variables contributing to variations in the assumed linear DVH-OVH correlation for the bladder and rectum in VMAT plans of prostate patients, with the goal of increasing prediction accuracy and achievability of knowledge-based planning methods. VMAT plans were retrospectively generated for 124 prostate patients using multi-criteria optimization. DVHs quantified patient dosimetric data while OVHs quantified patient anatomical information. The DVH-OVH correlations were calculated for fractional bladder and rectum volumes of 30, 50, 65, and 80%. Correlations between potential influencing factors and dose were quantified using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (R). Factors analyzed included the derivative of the OVH, prescribed dose, PTV volume, bladder volume, rectum volume, and in-field OAR volume. Out of the selected factors, only the in-field bladder volume (mean R  =  0.86) showed a strong correlation with bladder doses. Similarly, only the in-field rectal volume (mean R  =  0.76) showed a strong correlation with rectal doses. Therefore, an OVH formalism accounting for in-field OAR volumes was developed to determine the extent to which it improved the DVH-OVH correlation. Including the in-field factor improved the DVH-OVH correlation, with the mean R values over the fractional volumes studied improving from  -0.79 to  -0.85 and  -0.82 to  -0.86 for the bladder and rectum, respectively. A re-planning study was performed on 31 randomly selected database patients to verify the increased accuracy of KBP dose predictions by accounting for bladder and rectum volume within treatment fields. The in-field OVH led to significantly more precise

  1. SU-E-T-525: Dose Volume Histograms (DVH) Analysis and Comparison with ICRU Point Doses in MRI Guided HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; McClinton, C; Kumar, P; Mitchell, M [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy plays a crucial role in management of cervix cancer. MRI compatible applicators have made it possible to accurately delineate gross-target-volume(GTV) and organs-at-risk(OAR) volumes, as well as directly plan, optimize and adapt dose-distribution for each insertion. We sought to compare DVH of tumor-coverage and OARs to traditional Point-A, ICRU-38 bladder and rectum point-doses for four different planning-techniques. Methods: MRI based 3D-planning was performed on Nucletron-Oncentra-TPS for 3 selected patients with varying tumor-sizes and anatomy. GTV,high-risk-clinical-target-volume(HR-CTV), intermediate-risk-clinical-target-volume(IR-CTV) and OARs: rectum, bladder, sigmoid-colon, vaginal-mucosa were delineated. Three conventionally used techniques: mg-Radium-equivalent(RaEq),equal-dwell-weights(EDW), Medical-College-of-Wisconsin proposed points-optimization (MCWO) and a manual-graphical-optimization(MGO) volume-coverage based technique were applied for each patient. Prescription was 6Gy delivered to point-A in Conventional techniques (RaEq, EDW, MCWO). For MGO, goal was to achieve 90%-coverage (D90) to HR-CTV with prescription-dose. ICRU point doses for rectum and bladder, point-A doses, DVH-doses for HR-CTV-D90,0.1cc-volume(D0.1),1ccvolume( D1),2cc-volume(D2) were collected for all plans and analyzed . Results: Mean D90 for HR-CTV normalized to MGO were 0.89,0.84,0.9,1.0 for EDW, RaEq, MCWO, MGO respectively. Mean point-A doses were 21.7% higher for MGO. Conventional techniques with Point-A prescriptions under covered HR-CTV-D90 by average of 12% as compared to MGO. Rectum, bladder and sigmoid doses were highest in MGO-plans for ICRU points as well as D0.1,D1 and D2 doses. Among conventional-techniques, rectum and bladder ICRU and DVH doses(0.1,1,2cc) were not significantly different (within 7%).Rectum D0.1 provided good estimation of ICRU-rectum-point doses (within 3.9%),rectum D0.1 were higher from 0.8 to 3.9% while bladder D0

  2. Some improved classification-based ridge parameter of Hoerl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some improved classification-based ridge parameter of Hoerl and Kennard estimation techniques. ... This assumption is often violated and Ridge Regression estimator introduced by [2]has been identified to be more efficient than ordinary least square (OLS) in handling it. However, it requires a ridge parameter, K, of which ...

  3. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  4. Normal tissue complication probabilities: dependence on choice of biological model and dose-volume histogram reduction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction schemes and models of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) on ranking of radiation treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Data for liver complications in humans and for spinal cord in rats were used to derive input parameters of four different NTCP models. DVH reduction was performed using two schemes: 'effective volume' and 'preferred Lyman'. DVHs for competing treatment plans were derived from a sample DVH by varying dose uniformity in a high dose region so that the obtained cumulative DVHs intersected. Treatment plans were ranked according to the calculated NTCP values. Results: Whenever the preferred Lyman scheme was used to reduce the DVH, competing plans were indistinguishable as long as the mean dose was constant. The effective volume DVH reduction scheme did allow us to distinguish between these competing treatment plans. However, plan ranking depended on the radiobiological model used and its input parameters. Conclusions: Dose escalation will be a significant part of radiation treatment planning using new technologies, such as 3-D conformal radiotherapy and tomotherapy. Such dose escalation will depend on how the dose distributions in organs at risk are interpreted in terms of expected complication probabilities. The present study indicates considerable variability in predicted NTCP values because of the methods used for DVH reduction and radiobiological models and their input parameters. Animal studies and collection of standardized clinical data are needed to ascertain the effects of non-uniform dose distributions and to test the validity of the models currently in use

  5. IMRT: Improvement in treatment planning efficiency using NTCP calculation independent of the dose-volume-histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, Grigor N.; Chow, James C.L.; Grigorov, Lenko; Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B.

    2006-01-01

    The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is a predictor of radiobiological effect for organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the NTCP is based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) which is generated by the treatment planning system after calculation of the 3D dose distribution. Including the NTCP in the objective function for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization would make the planning more effective in reducing the postradiation effects. However, doing so would lengthen the total planning time. The purpose of this work is to establish a method for NTCP determination, independent of a DVH calculation, as a quality assurance check and also as a mean of improving the treatment planning efficiency. In the study, the CTs of ten randomly selected prostate patients were used. IMRT optimization was performed with a PINNACLE3 V 6.2b planning system, using planning target volume (PTV) with margins in the range of 2 to 10 mm. The DVH control points of the PTV and OAR were adapted from the prescriptions of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol P-0126 for an escalated prescribed dose of 82 Gy. This paper presents a new model for the determination of the rectal NTCP ( R NTCP). The method uses a special function, named GVN (from Gy, Volume, NTCP), which describes the R NTCP if 1 cm 3 of the volume of intersection of the PTV and rectum (R int ) is irradiated uniformly by a dose of 1 Gy. The function was 'geometrically' normalized using a prostate-prostate ratio (PPR) of the patients' prostates. A correction of the R NTCP for different prescribed doses, ranging from 70 to 82 Gy, was employed in our model. The argument of the normalized function is the R int , and parameters are the prescribed dose, prostate volume, PTV margin, and PPR. The R NTCPs of another group of patients were calculated by the new method and the resulting difference was <±5% in comparison to the NTCP calculated by the PINNACLE3 software where Kutcher's dose

  6. Parameter Optimization and Electrode Improvement of Rotary Stepper Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Junji; Mizuma, Toshinari; Mochizuki, Shunsuke; Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    We developed a three-phase electrostatic stepper micromotor and performed a numerical simulation to improve its performance for practical use and to optimize its design. We conducted its circuit simulation by simplifying its structure, and the effect of springback force generated by supported mechanism using flexures was considered. And we considered new improvement method for electrodes. This improvement and other parameter optimizations achieved the low voltage drive of micromotor.

  7. TH-E-BRF-05: Comparison of Survival-Time Prediction Models After Radiotherapy for High-Grade Glioma Patients Based On Clinical and DVH Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, T; Haga, A; Igaki, H; Sekiya, N; Masutani, Y; Sakumi, A; Mukasa, A; Nakagawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although many outcome prediction models based on dose-volume information have been proposed, it is well known that the prognosis may be affected also by multiple clinical factors. The purpose of this study is to predict the survival time after radiotherapy for high-grade glioma patients based on features including clinical and dose-volume histogram (DVH) information. Methods: A total of 35 patients with high-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma: 2, anaplastic astrocytoma: 3, glioblastoma: 30) were selected in this study. All patients were treated with prescribed dose of 30–80 Gy after surgical resection or biopsy from 2006 to 2013 at The University of Tokyo Hospital. All cases were randomly separated into training dataset (30 cases) and test dataset (5 cases). The survival time after radiotherapy was predicted based on a multiple linear regression analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) by using 204 candidate features. The candidate features included the 12 clinical features (tumor location, extent of surgical resection, treatment duration of radiotherapy, etc.), and the 192 DVH features (maximum dose, minimum dose, D95, V60, etc.). The effective features for the prediction were selected according to a step-wise method by using 30 training cases. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) between the predicted and actual survival time for the training and test dataset. Results: In the multiple regression analysis, the value of R 2 between the predicted and actual survival time was 0.460 for the training dataset and 0.375 for the test dataset. On the other hand, in the ANN analysis, the value of R 2 was 0.806 for the training dataset and 0.811 for the test dataset. Conclusion: Although a large number of patients would be needed for more accurate and robust prediction, our preliminary Result showed the potential to predict the outcome in the patients with high-grade glioma. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core

  8. Improved Artificial Fish Algorithm for Parameters Optimization of PID Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Yourui Huang

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve problems such as initial weights are difficult to be determined, training results are easy to trap in local minima in optimization process of PID neural network parameters by traditional BP algorithm, this paper proposed a new method based on improved artificial fish algorithm for parameters optimization of PID neural network. This improved artificial fish algorithm uses a composite adaptive artificial fish algorithm based on optimal artificial fish and nearest artificial fi...

  9. The influence of bread improvers and different technological parameters on bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the research: to analyse quality parameters of different types of bread, produced with or without improvers, also to evaluate intensity of microbiological spoilage of bread during storage. Results and findings: Different bread technologies have influence on bread quality parameters and in all cases bread improvers have positive influence on bread quality: „Lietuviškas ragaišis“ (Lithuanian whole wheat bread) using improvers the higher specific volume (21.27%) and porosity (9.02%...

  10. Late dysphagia after IMRT for head and neck cancer and correlation with dose–volume parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Hanna R.; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, Karin; Behrens, Marie; Grau, Cai

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience diminished quality of life due to radiation-induced dysphagia. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency, intensity and dose–volume dependency for late dysphagia in HNC patients treated with curative IMRT. Materials and methods: Candidates for the study were 294 patients treated with primary IMRT from 2006 to 2010; a total of 259 patients accepted to participate by answering the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H and N35 questionnaires. A total of 65 patients were further examined with modified barium swallow (MBS) and saliva collection. Data on patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were prospectively recorded in the DAHANCA database. Dose–volume histograms (DVH) of swallowing-related structures were retrospectively analyzed. Results: QoL data showed low degree of dysphagia (QoL subscales scores of 17 and below) compared to objective measures. The most frequent swallowing dysfunction was retention; penetration and aspiration was less common. In general, objective measurements and observer-assessed late dysphagia correlated with dose to pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCM), whereas QoL endpoints correlated with DVH parameters in the glottis/supraglottic larynx. Both xerostomia and dysphagia has been reduced after introduction of IMRT. Conclusions: Radiation-induced dysphagia is still important, with a high degree of retention and penetration. Introduction of parotid-sparing IMRT has reduced the severity of dysphagia, primarily through a major reduction in xerostomia. Dose–response relationships were found for specific dysphagia endpoints

  11. Improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Ni, Wenwen; Sun, Qiang; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2013-01-01

    The Cole function is widely used in bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) applications. Fitting the measured BIS data onto the model and then extracting the Cole parameters (R 0 , R ∞ , α and τ) is a common practice. Accurate extraction of the Cole parameters from the measured BIS data has great significance for evaluating the physiological or pathological status of biological tissue. The traditional least-squares (LS)-based curve fitting method for Cole parameter extraction is often sensitive to noise or outliers and becomes non-robust. This paper proposes an improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation (LAD) method. Comprehensive simulation experiments are carried out and the performances of the LAD method are compared with those of the LS method under the conditions of outliers, random noises and both disturbances. The proposed LAD method exhibits much better robustness under all circumstances, which demonstrates that the LAD method is deserving as an improved alternative to the LS method for Cole parameter extraction for its robustness to outliers and noises. (paper)

  12. Parameter Estimation for Improving Association Indicators in Binary Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bashiri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is estimation of Binary logistic regression parameters for maximizing the log-likelihood function with improved association indicators. In this paper the parameter estimation steps have been explained and then measures of association have been introduced and their calculations have been analyzed. Moreover a new related indicators based on membership degree level have been expressed. Indeed association measures demonstrate the number of success responses occurred in front of failure in certain number of Bernoulli independent experiments. In parameter estimation, existing indicators values is not sensitive to the parameter values, whereas the proposed indicators are sensitive to the estimated parameters during the iterative procedure. Therefore, proposing a new association indicator of binary logistic regression with more sensitivity to the estimated parameters in maximizing the log- likelihood in iterative procedure is innovation of this study.

  13. Parameters identification of hydraulic turbine governing system using improved gravitational search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaoshun Li; Jianzhong Zhou [College of Hydroelectric Digitization Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Parameter identification of hydraulic turbine governing system (HTGS) is crucial in precise modeling of hydropower plant and provides support for the analysis of stability of power system. In this paper, a newly developed optimization algorithm, called gravitational search algorithm (GSA), is introduced and applied in parameter identification of HTGS, and the GSA is improved by combination of the search strategy of particle swarm optimization. Furthermore, a new weighted objective function is proposed in the identification frame. The improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA), together with genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and GSA, is employed in parameter identification experiments and the procedure is validated by comparing experimental and simulated results. Consequently, IGSA is shown to locate more precise parameter values than the compared methods with higher efficiency. (author)

  14. Parameters identification of hydraulic turbine governing system using improved gravitational search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoshun; Zhou Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    Parameter identification of hydraulic turbine governing system (HTGS) is crucial in precise modeling of hydropower plant and provides support for the analysis of stability of power system. In this paper, a newly developed optimization algorithm, called gravitational search algorithm (GSA), is introduced and applied in parameter identification of HTGS, and the GSA is improved by combination of the search strategy of particle swarm optimization. Furthermore, a new weighted objective function is proposed in the identification frame. The improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA), together with genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and GSA, is employed in parameter identification experiments and the procedure is validated by comparing experimental and simulated results. Consequently, IGSA is shown to locate more precise parameter values than the compared methods with higher efficiency.

  15. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Chiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Isono, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed

  16. An improved state-parameter analysis of ecosystem models using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Liu, S.; Tieszen, L.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    simultaneous parameter estimation procedure significantly improves model predictions. Results also show that the SEnKF can dramatically reduce the variance in state variables stemming from the uncertainty of parameters and driving variables. The SEnKF is a robust and effective algorithm in evaluating and developing ecosystem models and in improving the understanding and quantification of carbon cycle parameters and processes. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Building ceramics with improved thermal insulation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepa Karol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important performance characteristics of masonry units is their high thermal insulation. There are many different ways to improve this parameter, however the most popular methods in case of ceramic masonry units are: addition of pore-creating raw materials and application of proper hole pattern. This study was an attempt to improve thermal insulation of ceramics by applying thermal insulation additives. Perlite dust created as a subgrain from expansion of perlite rock was used. Perlite subgrain is not very popular among consumers, that’s why it’s subjected to granulation to obtain coarse grain. The authors presented concept of direct application of perlite dust for the production of building ceramics with improved thermal insulation. Fineness of this additive is asset for molding of ceramic materials from plastic masses. Based on the results it was found that about 70% perlite by volume can be added to obtain material with a coefficient of heat conductivity of 0,37 W/mK. Higher content of this additive in ceramic mass causes deterioration of its rheological properties. Mass loses its plasticity, it tears up and formed green bodies are susceptible to deformation. During sintering perlite takes an active part in compaction process. Higher sintering dynamics is caused by: high content of alkali oxides in perlite and glass nature of perlite. Alkali oxides generate creation of liquid phase which intensifies mass compaction processes. Active role of perlite in sintering process causes good connection of its grains with clay groundwork which is important factor for mechanical parameters of ceramic materials. It was also noted that addition of perlite above 40% by volume of mass effectively neutralized negative effect of efflorescence in ceramic materials.

  18. Brute force meets Bruno force in parameter optimisation: introduction of novel constraints for parameter accuracy improvement by symbolic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsui, M; Horimoto, K; Lemaire, F; Ürgüplü, A; Sedoglavic, A; Boulier, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent remarkable advances in computer performance have enabled us to estimate parameter values by the huge power of numerical computation, the so-called 'Brute force', resulting in the high-speed simultaneous estimation of a large number of parameter values. However, these advancements have not been fully utilised to improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Here the authors review a novel method for parameter estimation using symbolic computation power, 'Bruno force', named after Bruno Buchberger, who found the Gröbner base. In the method, the objective functions combining the symbolic computation techniques are formulated. First, the authors utilise a symbolic computation technique, differential elimination, which symbolically reduces an equivalent system of differential equations to a system in a given model. Second, since its equivalent system is frequently composed of large equations, the system is further simplified by another symbolic computation. The performance of the authors' method for parameter accuracy improvement is illustrated by two representative models in biology, a simple cascade model and a negative feedback model in comparison with the previous numerical methods. Finally, the limits and extensions of the authors' method are discussed, in terms of the possible power of 'Bruno force' for the development of a new horizon in parameter estimation.

  19. Parameter Identification of the 2-Chlorophenol Oxidation Model Using Improved Differential Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhou Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter identification plays a crucial role for simulating and using model. This paper firstly carried out the sensitivity analysis of the 2-chlorophenol oxidation model in supercritical water using the Monte Carlo method. Then, to address the nonlinearity of the model, two improved differential search (DS algorithms were proposed to carry out the parameter identification of the model. One strategy is to adopt the Latin hypercube sampling method to replace the uniform distribution of initial population; the other is to combine DS with simplex method. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal the sensitivity and the degree of difficulty identified for every model parameter. Furthermore, the posteriori probability distribution of parameters and the collaborative relationship between any two parameters can be obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithms, the optimization performance of improved DS in kinetic parameter estimation is studied and compared with that of the basic DS algorithm, differential evolution, artificial bee colony optimization, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. And the experimental results demonstrate that the DS with the Latin hypercube sampling method does not present better performance, while the hybrid methods have the advantages of strong global search ability and local search ability and are more effective than the other algorithms.

  20. Automatic treatment plan re-optimization for adaptive radiotherapy guided with the initial plan DVHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Zarepisheh, Masoud; Uribe-Sanchez, Andres; Moore, Kevin; Tian, Zhen; Zhen, Xin; Graves, Yan Jiang; Gautier, Quentin; Mell, Loren; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve; Zhou, Linghong

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) can reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. Developing an efficient and effective re-planning algorithm is an important step toward the clinical realization of ART. For the re-planning process, manual trial-and-error approach to fine-tune planning parameters is time-consuming and is usually considered unpractical, especially for online ART. It is desirable to automate this step to yield a plan of acceptable quality with minimal interventions. In ART, prior information in the original plan is available, such as dose–volume histogram (DVH), which can be employed to facilitate the automatic re-planning process. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic re-planning algorithm to generate a plan with similar, or possibly better, DVH curves compared with the clinically delivered original plan. Specifically, our algorithm iterates the following two loops. An inner loop is the traditional fluence map optimization, in which we optimize a quadratic objective function penalizing the deviation of the dose received by each voxel from its prescribed or threshold dose with a set of fixed voxel weighting factors. In outer loop, the voxel weighting factors in the objective function are adjusted according to the deviation of the current DVH curves from those in the original plan. The process is repeated until the DVH curves are acceptable or maximum iteration step is reached. The whole algorithm is implemented on GPU for high efficiency. The feasibility of our algorithm has been demonstrated with three head-and-neck cancer IMRT cases, each having an initial planning CT scan and another treatment CT scan acquired in the middle of treatment course. Compared with the DVH curves in the original plan, the DVH curves in the resulting plan using our algorithm with 30 iterations are better for almost all structures. The re-optimization process takes about 30

  1. Improved Battery Parameter Estimation Method Considering Operating Scenarios for HEV/EV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jufeng Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved battery parameter estimation method based on typical operating scenarios in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Compared with the conventional estimation methods, the proposed method takes both the constant-current charging and the dynamic driving scenarios into account, and two separate sets of model parameters are estimated through different parts of the pulse-rest test. The model parameters for the constant-charging scenario are estimated from the data in the pulse-charging periods, while the model parameters for the dynamic driving scenario are estimated from the data in the rest periods, and the length of the fitted dataset is determined by the spectrum analysis of the load current. In addition, the unsaturated phenomenon caused by the long-term resistor-capacitor (RC network is analyzed, and the initial voltage expressions of the RC networks in the fitting functions are improved to ensure a higher model fidelity. Simulation and experiment results validated the feasibility of the developed estimation method.

  2. Improved constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, M.C.; Trotta, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present a new method based on a Bayesian hierarchical model to extract constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data obtained with the SALT-II lightcurve fitter. We demonstrate with simulated data sets that our method delivers considerably tighter statistical constraints on the cosmological parameters and that it outperforms the usual χ 2 approach 2/3 of the times. As a further benefit, a full posterior probability distribution for the dispersion of the intrinsic magnitude of SNe is obtained. We apply this method to recent SNIa data and find that it improves statistical constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data alone by about 40% w.r.t. the standard approach. From the combination of SNIa, CMB and BAO data we obtain Ω m =0.29±0.01, Ω Λ =0.72±0.01 (assuming w=-1) and Ω m =0.28±0.01, w=-0.90±0.04 (assuming flatness; statistical uncertainties only). We constrain the intrinsic dispersion of the B-band magnitude of the SNIa population, obtaining σ μ int =0.13±0.01 [mag]. Applications to systematic uncertainties will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  3. Improved constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, M.C.; Trotta, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Group; Berkes, P. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham (United States). Volen Centre for Complex Systems; Starkman, G.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland (United States). CERCA and Dept. of Physics; Vaudrevange, P.M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland (United States). CERCA and Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    We present a new method based on a Bayesian hierarchical model to extract constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data obtained with the SALT-II lightcurve fitter. We demonstrate with simulated data sets that our method delivers considerably tighter statistical constraints on the cosmological parameters and that it outperforms the usual {chi}{sup 2} approach 2/3 of the times. As a further benefit, a full posterior probability distribution for the dispersion of the intrinsic magnitude of SNe is obtained. We apply this method to recent SNIa data and find that it improves statistical constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data alone by about 40% w.r.t. the standard approach. From the combination of SNIa, CMB and BAO data we obtain {omega}{sub m}=0.29{+-}0.01, {omega}{sub {lambda}}=0.72{+-}0.01 (assuming w=-1) and {omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.01, w=-0.90{+-}0.04 (assuming flatness; statistical uncertainties only). We constrain the intrinsic dispersion of the B-band magnitude of the SNIa population, obtaining {sigma}{sub {mu}}{sup int}=0.13{+-}0.01 [mag]. Applications to systematic uncertainties will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  4. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose–volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Perna, Lucia; Fiorino, Claudio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose–wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose–surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose–volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose–volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80–0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66–0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001). (note)

  5. Algorithms and parameters for improved accuracy in physics data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batič, M; Hoff, G; Pia, M G; Saracco, P; Han, M; Kim, C H; Hauf, S; Kuster, M; Seo, H

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts for the improvement of the accuracy of physics data libraries used in particle transport are summarized. Results are reported about a large scale validation analysis of atomic parameters used by major Monte Carlo systems (Geant4, EGS, MCNP, Penelope etc.); their contribution to the accuracy of simulation observables is documented. The results of this study motivated the development of a new atomic data management software package, which optimizes the provision of state-of-the-art atomic parameters to physics models. The effect of atomic parameters on the simulation of radioactive decay is illustrated. Ideas and methods to deal with physics models applicable to different energy ranges in the production of data libraries, rather than at runtime, are discussed.

  6. A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Wayne M.; Stewart, Renee R.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine dosimetric and radiobiological predictors of biochemical control after recalculation of prostate implant dosimetry using updated AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) parameters and the radiobiological parameters recommended by TG-137. All biochemical failures among patients implanted with 125 I or 103 Pd sources between 1994 and March 2006 were matched 2:1 with nonfailure controls. The individual matching was by risk group, radionuclide, prescribed dose, and time of implant (one match before and one after the failed patient) resulting in a median follow-up of 10.9 years. Complete dose volume histogram (DVH) data were recalculated for all 55 cases and 110 controls after updating the original source strength by the retrospectively determined ratios of TG-43. Differential DVH data were acquired in 179 increments of prostate volume versus percentage prescribed dose. At each incremental dose level i, the biologically equivalent dose BED i , equivalent uniform dose EUD i , and tumor control probability TCP i were calculated from the implant dose plus any external beam delivered to the patient. Total BED, EUD, and TCP were then derived from the incremental values for comparison with single point dosimetric quality parameters and DVH-based averages. There was no significant difference between failures and controls in terms of total BED (143 vs 142 Gy), EUD (95 vs 94 Gy), or TCP (0.87 vs 0.89). Conditional logistic regression analysis factored out the matching variables and stratified the cohort into each case and its controls, but no radiobiological parameter was predictive of biochemical failure. However, there was a significant difference between radiobiological parameters of 125 I and 103 Pd due to less complete coverage of the target volume by the former isotope. The implant BED and TCP were highly correlated with the D 90 and natural prescription doses and a series of mean DVH-based doses such as the harmonic mean and expressions of the

  7. Improved lumped parameter for annular fuel element thermohydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Juliana Pacheco; Su, Jian; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2011-01-01

    Annular fuel elements have been intensively studied for the purpose of increasing power density in light water reactors (LWR). This paper presents an improved lumped parameter model for the dynamics of a LWR core with annular fuel elements, composed of three sub-models: the fuel dynamics model, the neutronics model, and the coolant energy balance model. The transient heat conduction in radial direction is analyzed through an improved lumped parameter formulation. The Hermite approximation for integration is used to obtain the average temperature of the fuel and cladding and also to obtain the average heat flux. The volumetric heat generation in fuel rods was obtained with the point kinetics equations with six delayed neutron groups. The equations for average temperature of fuel and cladding are solved along with the point kinetic equations, assuming linear reactivity and coolant temperature in cases of reactivity insertion. The analytical development of the model and the numeric solution of the ordinary differential equation system were obtained by using Mathematica 7.0. The dynamic behaviors for average temperatures of fuel, cladding and coolant in transient events as well as the reactor power were analyzed. (author)

  8. Use of fractional dose–volume histograms to model risk of acute rectal toxicity among patients treated on RTOG 94-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei; Winter, Kathryn; Purdy, James A.; Cox, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: For toxicities occurring during the course of radiotherapy, it is conceptually inaccurate to perform normal-tissue complication probability analyses using the complete dose–volume histogram. The goal of this study was to analyze acute rectal toxicity using a novel approach in which the fit of the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model is based on the fractional rectal dose–volume histogram (DVH). Materials and methods: Grade ⩾2 acute rectal toxicity was analyzed in 509 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06. These patients had no field reductions or treatment-plan revisions during therapy, allowing the fractional rectal DVH to be estimated from the complete rectal DVH based on the total number of dose fractions delivered. Results: The majority of patients experiencing Grade ⩾2 acute rectal toxicity did so before completion of radiotherapy (70/80 = 88%). Acute rectal toxicity depends on fractional mean rectal dose, with no significant improvement in the LKB model fit when the volume parameter differs from n = 1. The incidence of toxicity was significantly lower for patients who received hormone therapy (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Variations in fractional mean dose explain the differences in incidence of acute rectal toxicity, with no detectable effect seen here for differences in numbers of dose fractions delivered.

  9. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  10. Uncertainties in Assesment of the Vaginal Dose for Intracavitary Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer using a Tandem-ring Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Daniel; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Georg, Petra; Georg, Dietmar; Poetter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The vagina has not been widely recognized as organ at risk in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. No widely accepted dose parameters are available. This study analyzes the uncertainties in dose reporting for the vaginal wall using tandem-ring applicators. Methods and Materials: Organ wall contours were delineated on axial magnetic resonance (MR) slices to perform dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Different DVH parameters were used in a feasibility study based on 40 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment plans of different cervical cancer patients. Dose to the most irradiated, 0.1 cm 3 , 1 cm 3 , 2 cm 3 , and at defined points on the ring surface and at 5-mm tissue depth were reported. Treatment-planning systems allow different methods of dose point definition. Film dosimetry was used to verify the maximum dose at the surface of the ring applicator in an experimental setup. Results: Dose reporting for the vagina is extremely sensitive to geometrical uncertainties with variations of 25% for 1 mm shifts. Accurate delineation of the vaginal wall is limited by the finite pixel size of MRI and available treatment-planning systems. No significant correlation was found between dose-point and dose-volume parameters. The DVH parameters were often related to noncontiguous volumes and were not able to detect very different situations of spatial dose distributions inside the vaginal wall. Deviations between measured and calculated doses were up to 21%. Conclusions: Reporting either point dose values or DVH parameters for the vaginal wall is based on high inaccuracies because of contouring and geometric positioning. Therefore, the use of prospective dose constraints for individual treatment plans is not to be recommended at present. However, for large patient groups treated within one protocol correlation with vaginal morbidity can be evaluated

  11. Effect of Dosimetric Factors on Occurrence and Volume of Temporal Lobe Necrosis Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin; Ou, Xiaomin; Xu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaosheng; Shen, Chunying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Ding, Jianhui [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Hu, Chaosu, E-mail: hucsu62@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric risk factors for the occurrence of temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to investigate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the volume of TLN lesions (V-N). Methods and Materials: Forty-three NPC patients who had developed TLN following IMRT and 43 control subjects free of TLN were retrospectively assessed. DVH parameters included maximum dose (Dmax), minimum dose (Dmin), mean dose (Dmean), absolute volumes receiving specific dose (Vds) from 20 to 76 Gy (V20-V76), and doses covering certain volumes (Dvs) from 0.25 to 6.0 cm{sup 3} (D0.25-D6.0). V-Ns were quantified with axial magnetic resonance images. Results: DVH parameters were ubiquitously higher in temporal lobes with necrosis than in healthy temporal lobes. Increased Vds and Dvs were significantly associated with higher risk of TLN occurrence (P<.05). In particular, Vds at a dose of ≥70 Gy were found with the highest odds ratios. A common increasing trend was detected between V-N and DVH parameters through trend tests (P for trend of <.05). Linear regression analysis showed that V45 had the strongest predictive power for V-N (adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.305, P<.0001). V45 of <15.1 cm{sup 3} was relatively safe as the dose constraint for preventing large TLN lesions with V-N of >5 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dosimetric parameters are significantly associated with TLN occurrence and the extent of temporal lobe injury. To better manage TLN, it would be important to avoid both focal high dose and moderate dose delivered to a large area in TLs.

  12. The Impact of the Grid Size on TomoTherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motohiro; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Onishi, Masahiro; Takakusagi, Yosuke; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Atsushi; Sekihara, Tetsuo; Ando, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Discretization errors due to the digitization of computed tomography images and the calculation grid are a significant issue in radiation therapy. Such errors have been quantitatively reported for a fixed multifield intensity-modulated radiation therapy using traditional linear accelerators. The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the calculation grid size on the dose distribution in TomoTherapy. This study used ten treatment plans for prostate cancer. The final dose calculation was performed with “fine” (2.73 mm) and “normal” (5.46 mm) grid sizes. The dose distributions were compared from different points of view: the dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), the various indices, and dose differences. The DVH parameters were used Dmax, D2%, D2cc, Dmean, D95%, D98%, and Dmin for PTV and Dmax, D2%, and D2cc for OARs. The various indices used were homogeneity index and equivalent uniform dose for plan evaluation. Almost all of DVH parameters for the “fine” calculations tended to be higher than those for the “normal” calculations. The largest difference of DVH parameters for PTV was Dmax and that for OARs was rectal D2cc. The mean difference of Dmax was 3.5%, and the rectal D2cc was increased up to 6% at the maximum and 2.9% on average. The mean difference of D95% for PTV was the smallest among the differences of the other DVH parameters. For each index, whether there was a significant difference between the two grid sizes was determined through a paired t-test. There were significant differences for most of the indices. The dose difference between the “fine” and “normal” calculations was evaluated. Some points around high-dose regions had differences exceeding 5% of the prescription dose. The influence of the calculation grid size in TomoTherapy is smaller than traditional linear accelerators. However, there was a significant difference. We recommend calculating the final

  13. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji; Konishi, Koji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Maruoka, Shintaroh; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors and the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  14. Dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy treatments in two commercially available image registration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Yuen, Johnson; Howie, Andrew; Bece, Andrej; Bucci, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether deformable image registration (DIR) is required for dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy (HDRPBT) plans treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. DIR was applied to 20 HDRPBT patients' planning CT images who received two treatment fractions on sequential days, on two different CT datasets, with the same implant. Quality of DIR in Velocity and MIM image registration systems was assessed by calculating the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA) for the prostate, urethra and rectum contours. Accumulated doses from each system were then calculated using the same DIR technique and dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual addition with no DIR. The average DSC was found to be 0.83 (Velocity) and 0.84 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.80 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.81 (MIM), for the prostate, rectum and urethra contours, respectively. The average difference in calculated DVH parameters between the two systems using dose accumulation was less than 1%, and there was no statistically significant difference found between deformably accumulated doses in the two systems versus manual DVH addition with no DIR. Contour propagation using DIR in velocity and MIM was shown to be at least equivalent to inter-observer contouring variability on CT. The results also indicate that dose accumulation through manual addition of DVH parameters may be sufficient for HDRPBT treatments treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved gravitational search algorithm for parameter identification of water turbine regulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhihuan; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tian, Hao; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA). • IGSA is applied to parameter identification of water turbine regulation system (WTRS). • WTRS is modeled by considering the impact of turbine speed on torque and water flow. • Weighted objective function strategy is applied to parameter identification of WTRS. - Abstract: Parameter identification of water turbine regulation system (WTRS) is crucial in precise modeling hydropower generating unit (HGU) and provides support for the adaptive control and stability analysis of power system. In this paper, an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA) is proposed and applied to solve the identification problem for WTRS system under load and no-load running conditions. This newly algorithm which is based on standard gravitational search algorithm (GSA) accelerates convergence speed with combination of the search strategy of particle swarm optimization and elastic-ball method. Chaotic mutation which is devised to stepping out the local optimal with a certain probability is also added into the algorithm to avoid premature. Furthermore, a new kind of model associated to the engineering practices is built and analyzed in the simulation tests. An illustrative example for parameter identification of WTRS is used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed IGSA, as compared with standard GSA and particle swarm optimization in terms of parameter identification accuracy and convergence speed. The simulation results show that IGSA performs best for all identification indicators

  16. An improved parameter estimation and comparison for soft tissue constitutive models containing an exponential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankush

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the well-known result that stiffness of soft tissue is proportional to the stress, many of the constitutive laws for soft tissues contain an exponential function. In this work, we analyze properties of the exponential function and how it affects the estimation and comparison of elastic parameters for soft tissues. In particular, we find that as a consequence of the exponential function there are lines of high covariance in the elastic parameter space. As a result, one can have widely varying mechanical parameters defining the tissue stiffness but similar effective stress-strain responses. Drawing from elementary algebra, we propose simple changes in the norm and the parameter space, which significantly improve the convergence of parameter estimation and robustness in the presence of noise. More importantly, we demonstrate that these changes improve the conditioning of the problem and provide a more robust solution in the case of heterogeneous material by reducing the chances of getting trapped in a local minima. Based upon the new insight, we also propose a transformed parameter space which will allow for rational parameter comparison and avoid misleading conclusions regarding soft tissue mechanics.

  17. Late Toxicity After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Exploration of Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters to Limit Genitourinary and Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, Aaron W.; Fricano, Janine; Correa, David; Pelizzari, Charles A. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and propose dose-volume histogram (DVH) guidelines to limit late treatment-related toxicity. Methods and Materials: In this study 296 consecutive men were treated with IMRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Most patients received treatment to the prostate with or without proximal seminal vesicles (90%), to a median dose of 76 Gy. Concurrent androgen deprivation therapy was given to 150 men (51%) for a median of 4 months. Late toxicity was defined by Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0 as greater than 3 months after radiation therapy completion. Four groupings of DVH parameters were defined, based on the percentage of rectal or bladder tissue receiving 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), 65 Gy (V{sub 65}), and 40 Gy (V{sub 40}). These DVH groupings, as well as clinical and treatment characteristics, were correlated to maximal Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity. Results: With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 4-year freedom from maximal Grade 2+ late toxicity was 81% and 91% for GU and GI systems, respectively, and by last follow-up, the rates of Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity were 9% and 5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, whole-pelvic IMRT was associated with Grade 2+ GU toxicity and age was associated with Grade 2+ GI toxicity. Freedom from Grade 2+ GI toxicity at 4 years was 100% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}10%, V{sub 65} {<=}20%, and V{sub 40} {<=}40%; 92% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}20%, V{sub 65} {<=}40%, and V{sub 40} {<=}80%; and 85% for men exceeding these criteria (p = 0.13). These criteria were more highly associated with GI toxicity in men aged {>=}70 years (p = 0.07). No bladder dose-volume relationships were associated with the risk of GU toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with low rates of severe GU or GI toxicity after treatment for prostate cancer. Rectal dose constraints

  18. Late Toxicity After Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Exploration of Dose–Volume Histogram Parameters to Limit Genitourinary and Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, Aaron W.; Fricano, Janine; Correa, David; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Liauw, Stanley L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and propose dose–volume histogram (DVH) guidelines to limit late treatment-related toxicity. Methods and Materials: In this study 296 consecutive men were treated with IMRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Most patients received treatment to the prostate with or without proximal seminal vesicles (90%), to a median dose of 76 Gy. Concurrent androgen deprivation therapy was given to 150 men (51%) for a median of 4 months. Late toxicity was defined by Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0 as greater than 3 months after radiation therapy completion. Four groupings of DVH parameters were defined, based on the percentage of rectal or bladder tissue receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ), 65 Gy (V 65 ), and 40 Gy (V 40 ). These DVH groupings, as well as clinical and treatment characteristics, were correlated to maximal Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity. Results: With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 4-year freedom from maximal Grade 2+ late toxicity was 81% and 91% for GU and GI systems, respectively, and by last follow-up, the rates of Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity were 9% and 5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, whole-pelvic IMRT was associated with Grade 2+ GU toxicity and age was associated with Grade 2+ GI toxicity. Freedom from Grade 2+ GI toxicity at 4 years was 100% for men with rectal V 70 ≤10%, V 65 ≤20%, and V 40 ≤40%; 92% for men with rectal V 70 ≤20%, V 65 ≤40%, and V 40 ≤80%; and 85% for men exceeding these criteria (p = 0.13). These criteria were more highly associated with GI toxicity in men aged ≥70 years (p = 0.07). No bladder dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of GU toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with low rates of severe GU or GI toxicity after treatment for prostate cancer. Rectal dose constraints may help limit late GI morbidity.

  19. A Parameter Estimation Method for Nonlinear Systems Based on Improved Boundary Chicken Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter estimation is an important problem in nonlinear system modeling and control. Through constructing an appropriate fitness function, parameter estimation of system could be converted to a multidimensional parameter optimization problem. As a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, chicken swarm optimization (CSO has attracted much attention owing to its good global convergence and robustness. In this paper, a method based on improved boundary chicken swarm optimization (IBCSO is proposed for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems, demonstrated and tested by Lorenz system and a coupling motor system. Furthermore, we have analyzed the influence of time series on the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation results show it is feasible and with desirable performance for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems.

  20. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Medical Univ. AKH, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D{sub mean} reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D mean reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  2. Power extraction calculation improvement when local parameters are included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateos, L. M.; Hartnett, M.

    2016-02-01

    The improvement of the tidal resource assessment will be studied by comparing two approaches in a two-dimensional, finite difference, hydrodynamic model DIVAST-ADI; in a channel of non-varying cross-sectional area that connects two large basins. The first strategy, considers a constant trust coefficient; the second one, use the local field parameters around the turbine. These parameters are obtained after applying the open channel theory in the tidal stream and after considering the turbine as a linear momentum actuator disk. The parameters correspond to the upstream and downstream, with respect to the turbine, speeds and depths; also the blockage ratio, the wake velocity and the bypass coefficients and they have already been incorporated in the model. The figure (a) shows the numerical configuration at high tide developed with DIVAST-ADI. The experiment undertakes two open boundary conditions. The first one is a sinusoidal forcing introduced as a water level located at (I, J=1) and the second one, indicate that a zero velocity and a constant water depth were kept (I, J=362); when the turbine is introduced it is placed in the middle of the channel (I=161, J=181). The influence of the turbine in the velocity and elevation around the turbine region is evident; figure (b) and (c) shows that the turbine produces a discontinuity in the depth and velocity profile, when we plot a transect along the channel. Finally, the configuration implemented reproduced with satisfactory accuracy the quasi-steady flow condition, even without presenting shock-capturing capability. Also, the range of the parameters 0.01<α 4<0.55, $0

  3. Warpage improvement on wheel caster by optimizing the process parameters using genetic algorithm (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, N. S.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In injection moulding process, the defects will always encountered and affected the final product shape and functionality. This study is concerning on minimizing warpage and optimizing the process parameter of injection moulding part. Apart from eliminating product wastes, this project also giving out best recommended parameters setting. This research studied on five parameters. The optimization showed that warpage have been improved 42.64% from 0.6524 mm to 0.30879 mm in Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) simulation result and Genetic Algorithm (GA) respectively.

  4. Prediction of earth rotation parameters based on improved weighted least squares and autoregressive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhangzhen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved weighted least squares (WLS, together with autoregressive (AR model, is proposed to improve prediction accuracy of earth rotation parameters(ERP. Four weighting schemes are developed and the optimal power e for determination of the weight elements is studied. The results show that the improved WLS-AR model can improve the ERP prediction accuracy effectively, and for different prediction intervals of ERP, different weight scheme should be chosen.

  5. SU-F-T-266: Dynalogs Based Evaluation of Different Dose Rate IMRT Using DVH and Gamma Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S [Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Sindh (Pakistan); Ahmed, S [Pakistan Inst of Eng Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, F; Hussain, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the impact of low and high dose rate on IMRT through Dynalogs by evaluating Gamma Index and Dose Volume Histogram. Methods: The Eclipse™ treatment planning software was used to generate plans on prostate and head and neck sites. A range of dose rates 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min were applied to each plan in order to investigate their effect on the beam ON time, efficiency and accuracy. Each plan had distinct monitor units per fraction, delivery time, mean dose rate and leaf speed. The DVH data was used in the assessment of the conformity and plan quality.The treatments were delivered on Varian™ Clinac 2100C accelerator equipped with 120 leaf millennium MLC. Dynalogs of each plan were analyzed by MATLAB™ program. Fluence measurements were performed using the Sun Nuclear™ 2D diode array and results were assessed, based on Gamma analysis of dose fluence maps, beam delivery statistics and Dynalogs data. Results: Minor differences found by adjusted R-squared analysis of DVH’s for all the plans with different dose rates. It has been also found that more and larger fields have greater time reduction at high dose rate and there was a sharp decrease in number of control points observed in dynalog files by switching dose rate from 300 MU/min to 600 MU/min. Gamma Analysis of all plans passes the confidence limit of ≥95% with greater number of passing points in 300 MU/min dose rate plans. Conclusion: The dynalog files are compatible tool for software based IMRT QA. It can work perfectly parallel to measurement based QA setup and stand-by procedure for pre and post delivery of treatment plan.

  6. SU-F-T-266: Dynalogs Based Evaluation of Different Dose Rate IMRT Using DVH and Gamma Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Ahmed, S; Ahmed, F; Hussain, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigates the impact of low and high dose rate on IMRT through Dynalogs by evaluating Gamma Index and Dose Volume Histogram. Methods: The Eclipse™ treatment planning software was used to generate plans on prostate and head and neck sites. A range of dose rates 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min were applied to each plan in order to investigate their effect on the beam ON time, efficiency and accuracy. Each plan had distinct monitor units per fraction, delivery time, mean dose rate and leaf speed. The DVH data was used in the assessment of the conformity and plan quality.The treatments were delivered on Varian™ Clinac 2100C accelerator equipped with 120 leaf millennium MLC. Dynalogs of each plan were analyzed by MATLAB™ program. Fluence measurements were performed using the Sun Nuclear™ 2D diode array and results were assessed, based on Gamma analysis of dose fluence maps, beam delivery statistics and Dynalogs data. Results: Minor differences found by adjusted R-squared analysis of DVH’s for all the plans with different dose rates. It has been also found that more and larger fields have greater time reduction at high dose rate and there was a sharp decrease in number of control points observed in dynalog files by switching dose rate from 300 MU/min to 600 MU/min. Gamma Analysis of all plans passes the confidence limit of ≥95% with greater number of passing points in 300 MU/min dose rate plans. Conclusion: The dynalog files are compatible tool for software based IMRT QA. It can work perfectly parallel to measurement based QA setup and stand-by procedure for pre and post delivery of treatment plan.

  7. Parameter estimation of photovoltaic cells using an improved chaotic whale optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Diego; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed; Ella Hassanien, Aboul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •We modify the whale algorithm using chaotic maps. •We apply a chaotic algorithm to estimate parameter of photovoltaic cells. •We perform a study of chaos in whale algorithm. •Several comparisons and metrics support the experimental results. •We test the method with data from real solar cells. -- Abstract: The using of solar energy has been increased since it is a clean source of energy. In this way, the design of photovoltaic cells has attracted the attention of researchers over the world. There are two main problems in this field: having a useful model to characterize the solar cells and the absence of data about photovoltaic cells. This situation even affects the performance of the photovoltaic modules (panels). The characteristics of the current vs. voltage are used to describe the behavior of solar cells. Considering such values, the design problem involves the solution of the complex non-linear and multi-modal objective functions. Different algorithms have been proposed to identify the parameters of the photovoltaic cells and panels. Most of them commonly fail in finding the optimal solutions. This paper proposes the Chaotic Whale Optimization Algorithm (CWOA) for the parameters estimation of solar cells. The main advantage of the proposed approach is using the chaotic maps to compute and automatically adapt the internal parameters of the optimization algorithm. This situation is beneficial in complex problems, because along the iterative process, the proposed algorithm improves their capabilities to search for the best solution. The modified method is able to optimize complex and multimodal objective functions. For example, the function for the estimation of parameters of solar cells. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed algorithm in the solar cell design, it is compared with other optimization methods over different datasets. Moreover, the experimental results support the improved performance of the proposed approach

  8. Improving the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system by parameter modulation and system coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Miao, Suoxia; Cheng, Mengfan; Gao, Xiaojing

    2016-02-01

    A coupled system with varying parameters is proposed to improve the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system. This system is coupled by two parameter-varied optoelectronic delayed feedback systems with chaotic modulation. Dynamics performance results show that this system has a higher complexity compared to the original one. Furthermore, this system can conceal the time delay effectively against the autocorrelation function and delayed mutual information method and can increase the dimension space of secure parameters to resist brute-force attack by introducing the digital chaotic systems.

  9. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on an improved parameter identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Wang, Mingwang; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The SOC (state of charge) is the most important index of the battery management systems. However, it cannot be measured directly with sensors and must be estimated with mathematical techniques. An accurate battery model is crucial to exactly estimate the SOC. In order to improve the model accuracy, this paper presents an improved parameter identification method. Firstly, the concept of polarization depth is proposed based on the analysis of polarization characteristics of the lithium-ion batteries. Then, the nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters according to data collected from pulsed discharge experiments. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the model error as compared with the conventional approach. Furthermore, a nonlinear observer presented in the previous work is utilized to verify the validity of the proposed parameter identification method in SOC estimation. Finally, experiments with different levels of discharge current are carried out to investigate the influence of polarization depth on SOC estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the SOC estimation accuracy as compared with the conventional approach, especially under the conditions of large discharge current. - Highlights: • The polarization characteristics of lithium-ion batteries are analyzed. • The concept of polarization depth is proposed to improve model accuracy. • A nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters. • A nonlinear observer is used as the SOC estimation algorithm. • The validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  10. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Gloria M; Keeton, Courtney; Correll, Christoph U; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Hamer, Robert M; Sikich, Linmarie; Hazzard, Lindsey; Alderman, Cheryl; Scheer, Abigail; Mabe, Micah; Kapoor, Sandeep; Sheridan, Eva; Borner, Irmgard; Bussell, Kristin; Pirmohamed, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) stu...

  11. Design Parameter Optimization of a Silicon-Based Grating Waveguide for Performance Improvement in Biochemical Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoo-Seung; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2018-03-05

    We performed numerical analysis and design parameter optimization of a silicon-based grating waveguide refractive index (RI) sensor. The performance of the grating waveguide RI sensor was determined by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the shift in the resonance wavelength in the transmission spectrum. The transmission extinction, a major figure-of-merit of an RI sensor that reflects both FWHM and resonance shift performance, could be significantly improved by the proper determination of three major grating waveguide parameters: duty ratio, grating period, and etching depth. We analyzed the transmission characteristics of the grating waveguide under various design parameter conditions using a finite-difference time domain method. We achieved a transmission extinction improvement of >26 dB under a given bioenvironmental target change by the proper choice of the design procedure and parameters. This design procedure and choice of appropriate parameters would enable the widespread application of silicon-based grating waveguide in high-performance RI biochemical sensor.

  12. Improved Shape Parameter Estimation in Pareto Distributed Clutter with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem faced by naval radars is the elimination of the clutter input which is a distortion signal appearing mixed with target reflections. Recently, the Pareto distribution has been related to sea clutter measurements suggesting that it may provide a better fit than other traditional distributions. The authors propose a new method for estimating the Pareto shape parameter based on artificial neural networks. The solution achieves a precise estimation of the parameter, having a low computational cost, and outperforming the classic method which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE. The presented scheme contributes to the development of the NATE detector for Pareto clutter, which uses the knowledge of clutter statistics for improving the stability of the detection, among other applications.

  13. Reduction of rectal doses by removal of gas in the rectum during vaginal cuff brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, S.; Sevillano, M.M.; Andres, I.; Berenguer, R. [Complejo Hospitalario Univ. de Albacete (CHUA) (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Machin-Hamalainen, S. [C.S. General Ricardos, Madrid (Spain); Mueller, K.; Arenas, M. [Hospital Univ. Sant Joan, Reus (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-11-15

    Objective: The goal of this work was to evaluate whether the volume reduction related to removal of gas in the rectum could be translated in lower doses to organs at risk (OAR) during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VBT). Material and methods: Fourteen pairs of brachytherapy planning CT scans derived from 11 patients were re-segmented and re-planned using the same parameters. The only difference between pairs of CTs was the presence or lack of gas in the rectum. The first CT showed the basal status and the second was carried out after gas removal with a tube. A set of values derived from bladder and rectum dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose-surface histograms (DSH) were extracted. Moreover the cylinder position related to the patient craniocaudal axis was recorded. Results: Rectum volume decreased significantly from 77.8 {+-} 45 to 55.43 {+-} 17.6 ml (p = 0.0052) after gas removal. Such volume diminution represented a significant reduction on all rectal DVH parameters analyzed except D{sub 25%} and D{sub 50%}. DSH parameter results were similar to previous ones. A nonsignificant increase of the bladder volume was observed and was associated with an increase of the DVH metrics analyzed. Conclusion: Removal of gas pockets is a simple and inexpensive maneuver that decreases rectal dose parameters on VBT, which can be translated as a better therapeutic ratio. It also suggests that other actions directed to empty the rectum could have a similar effect. (orig.)

  14. Systematic review of dose-volume parameters in the prediction of esophagitis in thoracic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Jim; Rodrigues, George; Yaremko, Brian; Lock, Michael; D'Souza, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With dose escalation and increasing use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, radiation esophagitis (RE) remains a common treatment-limiting acute side effect in the treatment of thoracic malignancies. The advent of 3DCT planning has enabled investigators to study esophageal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters as predictors of RE. The purpose of this study was to assess published dosimetric parameters and toxicity data systematically in order to define reproducible predictors of RE, both for potential clinical use, and to provide recommendations for future research in the field. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review of published studies addressing RE in the treatment of lung cancer and thymoma. Our search strategy included a variety of electronic medical databases, textbooks and bibliographies. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies were included. Information relating to the relationship among measured dosimetric parameters, patient demographics, tumor characteristics, chemotherapy and RE was extracted and analyzed. Results: Eighteen published studies were suitable for analysis. Eleven of these assessed acute RE, while the remainder assessed both acute and chronic RE together. Heterogeneity of esophageal contouring practices, individual differences in information reporting and variability of RE outcome definitions were assessed. Well-described clinical and logistic modeling directly related V 35Gy , V 60Gy and SA 55Gy to clinically significant RE. Conclusions: Several reproducible dosimetric parameters exist in the literature, and these may be potentially relevant in the prediction of RE in the radiotherapy of thoracic malignancies. Further clarification of the predictive relationship between such standardized dosimetric parameters and observed RE outcomes is essential to develop efficient radiation treatment planning in locally advanced NSCLC in the modern concurrent chemotherapy and image-guided IMRT era.

  15. Association of anorectal dose-volume histograms and impaired fecal continence after 3D conformal radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordermark, Dirk; Schwab, Michael; Ness-Dourdoumas, Rhea; Sailer, Marco; Flentje, Michael; Koelbl, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The late toxicity of fecal incontinence after pelvic radiotherapy is now frequently recognized but the etiology poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations between dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of the rectum and the anal canal with fecal continence as measured by an established 10-item questionnaire. Methods and materials: Forty-four patients treated for carcinoma of the prostate with 58-72 Gy of 3D conformal radiotherapy between 1995 and 1999 who completed the questionnaire formed the study population. Total continence scores of treated patients obtained 1.5 years (median) after radiotherapy were compared to a control group of 30 patients before radiotherapy. Median, mean, minimum and maximum doses as well as the volume (% and ml) treated to 40, 50, 60 and 70 Gy were determined separately for anal canal and rectum. DVH parameters were correlated with total continence score (Spearman rank test) and patients grouped according to observed continence were compared regarding DVH values (Mann-Whitney U-test). Results: Median fecal continence scores were significantly worse in the irradiated than in the control group (31 vs. 35 of a maximum 36 points). In treated patients, 59%/27%/14% were classified as fully continent, slightly incontinent and severely incontinent. Continence was similar in the 58-to-62-Gy, 66-Gy and 68-to-72-Gy dose groups. No DVH parameter was significantly correlated with total continence score, but severely incontinent patients had a significantly higher minimum dose to the anal canal than fully continent/slightly incontinent, accompanied by portals extending significantly further inferiorly with respect to the ischial tuberosities. Conclusions: Excluding the inferior part of the anal canal from the treated volume in 3D conformal therapy for carcinoma of the prostate appears to be a promising strategy to prevent radiation-induced fecal incontinence

  16. Multicentre treatment planning study of MRI-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Comparison between tandem-ovoid applicator users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomden, Christel N.; Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Van Limbergen, Erik; Brabandere, Marisol de; Nulens, An; Nout, Remi A.; Laman, Mirjam; Ketelaars, Martijn; Lutgens, Ludovicus; Reniers, Brigitte; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare MRI-guided treatment planning approaches between four centres that use tandem-ovoid applicators. Material and methods: Four centres generated three treatment plans for four patients: standard, optimised intracavitary, and optimised intracavitary/interstitial. Prescribed D90 High-Risk CTV (HR-CTV) was 85 Gy EQD2 (external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy), while the D 2cc OAR limit was 90 Gy EQD2 for bladder and 75 Gy EQD2 for rectum, sigmoid, and bowel, respectively. DVH-parameters, source loading patterns and spatial dose distributions of the three treatment plans were compared. Results: The standard plans of the different centres were comparable with respect to the D90 HR-CTV, but differed in OAR doses. MRI-guided intracavitary optimisation resulted in organ sparing and smaller variation in DVH parameters between the centres. Adding interstitial needles led to target dose escalation while respecting the OAR constraints. However, substantial differences in relative weights of the applicator parts resulted in an increased variation in DVH parameters and locations of high dose regions. Conclusions: MRI-guided brachytherapy treatment planning optimisation provides the possibility to increase the dose to the HR-CTV and spare the OARs. Depending on the degree of conformity the centres make different choices in relative weighting of applicator parts, leading to different dose distributions

  17. An Efficient Data Partitioning to Improve Classification Performance While Keeping Parameters Interpretable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Korjus

    Full Text Available Supervised machine learning methods typically require splitting data into multiple chunks for training, validating, and finally testing classifiers. For finding the best parameters of a classifier, training and validation are usually carried out with cross-validation. This is followed by application of the classifier with optimized parameters to a separate test set for estimating the classifier's generalization performance. With limited data, this separation of test data creates a difficult trade-off between having more statistical power in estimating generalization performance versus choosing better parameters and fitting a better model. We propose a novel approach that we term "Cross-validation and cross-testing" improving this trade-off by re-using test data without biasing classifier performance. The novel approach is validated using simulated data and electrophysiological recordings in humans and rodents. The results demonstrate that the approach has a higher probability of discovering significant results than the standard approach of cross-validation and testing, while maintaining the nominal alpha level. In contrast to nested cross-validation, which is maximally efficient in re-using data, the proposed approach additionally maintains the interpretability of individual parameters. Taken together, we suggest an addition to currently used machine learning approaches which may be particularly useful in cases where model weights do not require interpretation, but parameters do.

  18. The effect of various parameters of large scale radio propagation models on improving performance mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinem, M.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-02-01

    One technique for ensuring continuity of wireless communication services and keeping a smooth transition on mobile communication networks is the soft handover technique. In the Soft Handover (SHO) technique the inclusion and reduction of Base Station from the set of active sets is determined by initiation triggers. One of the initiation triggers is based on the strong reception signal. In this paper we observed the influence of parameters of large-scale radio propagation models to improve the performance of mobile communications. The observation parameters for characterizing the performance of the specified mobile system are Drop Call, Radio Link Degradation Rate and Average Size of Active Set (AS). The simulated results show that the increase in altitude of Base Station (BS) Antenna and Mobile Station (MS) Antenna contributes to the improvement of signal power reception level so as to improve Radio Link quality and increase the average size of Active Set and reduce the average Drop Call rate. It was also found that Hata’s propagation model contributed significantly to improvements in system performance parameters compared to Okumura’s propagation model and Lee’s propagation model.

  19. Plyometric Long Jump Training With Progressive Loading Improves Kinetic and Kinematic Swimming Start Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebutini, Vanessa Z; Pereira, Gleber; Bohrer, Roberta C D; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Rebutini, VZ, Pereira, G, Bohrer, RCD, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Rodacki, ALF. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2392-2398, 2016-This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plyometric long jump training program on torque around the lower limb joints and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start. Ten swimmers performed 3 identical assessment sessions, measuring hip and knee muscle extensors during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start, at 3 instants: INI (2 weeks before the training program, control period), PRE (2 weeks after INI measurements), and POST (24-48 hours after 9 weeks of training). There were no significant changes from INI to PRE measurements. However, the peak torque and rate of torque development increased significantly from PRE to POST measurements for both hip (47 and 108%) and knee (24 and 41%) joints. There were significant improvements to the horizontal force (7%), impulse (9%), and angle of resultant force (19%). In addition, there were significant improvements to the center of mass displacement (5%), horizontal takeoff velocity (16%), horizontal velocity at water entrance (22%), and peak angle velocity for the knee (15%) and hip joints (16%). Therefore, the plyometric long jump training protocol was effective to enhance torque around the lower limb joints and to control the resultant vector direction, to increase the swimming jump start performance. These findings suggest that coaches should use long jump training instead of vertical jump training to improve swimming start performance.

  20. Parameters identification of photovoltaic models using an improved JAYA optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kunjie; Liang, J.J.; Qu, B.Y.; Chen, Xu; Wang, Heshan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IJAYA algorithm is proposed to identify the PV model parameters efficiently. • A self-adaptive weight is introduced to purposefully adjust the search process. • Experience-based learning strategy is developed to enhance the population diversity. • Chaotic learning method is proposed to refine the quality of the best solution. • IJAYA features the superior performance in identifying parameters of PV models. - Abstract: Parameters identification of photovoltaic (PV) models based on measured current-voltage characteristic curves is significant for the simulation, evaluation, and control of PV systems. To accurately and reliably identify the parameters of different PV models, an improved JAYA (IJAYA) optimization algorithm is proposed in the paper. In IJAYA, a self-adaptive weight is introduced to adjust the tendency of approaching the best solution and avoiding the worst solution at different search stages, which enables the algorithm to approach the promising area at the early stage and implement the local search at the later stage. Furthermore, an experience-based learning strategy is developed and employed randomly to maintain the population diversity and enhance the exploration ability. A chaotic elite learning method is proposed to refine the quality of the best solution in each generation. The proposed IJAYA is used to solve the parameters identification problems of different PV models, i.e., single diode, double diode, and PV module. Comprehensive experiment results and analyses indicate that IJAYA can obtain a highly competitive performance compared with other state-of-the-state algorithms, especially in terms of accuracy and reliability.

  1. Seeking deep convective parameter updates that improve tropical Pacific climatology in CESM using Pareto fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing complexity and process representation in global climate models (GCMs), accurate climate simulation is limited by uncertainties in sub-grid scale model physics, where cloud processes and precipitation occur, and the interaction with large-scale dynamics. Identifying highly sensitive parameters and constraining them against observations is therefore a valuable step in narrowing uncertainty. However, changes in parameterizations often improve some variables or aspects of the simulation while degrading others. This analysis addresses means of improving GCM simulation of present-day tropical Pacific climate in the face of these tradeoffs. Focusing on the deep convection scheme in the fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1, four parameters were systematically sampled, and a metamodel or model emulator was used to reconstruct the parameter space of this perturbed physics ensemble. Using this metamodel, a Pareto front is constructed to visualize multiobjective tradeoffs in model performance, and results highlight the most important aspects of model physics as well as the most sensitive parameter ranges. For example, parameter tradeoffs arise in the tropical Pacific where precipitation cannot improve without sea surface temperature getting worse. Tropical precipitation sensitivity is found to be highly nonlinear for low values of entrainment in convecting plumes, though it is fairly insensitive at the high end of the plausible range. Increasing the adjustment timescale for convective closure causes the centroid of tropical precipitation to vary as much as two degrees latitude, highlighting the effect these physics can have on large-scale features of the hydrological cycle. The optimization procedure suggests that simultaneously increasing the maximum downdraft mass flux fraction and the adjustment timescale can yield improvements to surface temperature and column water vapor without degrading the simulation of precipitation. These

  2. Variable Speed Limits: Strategies to Improve Safety and Traffic Parameters for a Bottleneck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Hasanpour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the speed limit system is to enforce reasonable and safe speed. To reduce secondary problems such as accidents and queuing, Variable Speed Limits (VSL has been suggested. In this paper VSL is used to better safety and traffic parameters. Traffic parameters including speed, queue length and stopping time have been pondering. For VLS, an optimization decision tree algorithm with the function of microscopic simulation was used. The results in case of sub saturated, saturated and supersaturated at a bottleneck are examined and compared with the Allaby logic tree. The results show that the proposed decision tree shows an improved performance in terms of safety and comfort along the highway. The VSL pilot project is part of the Road Safety Improvement Program included in Iran’s road safety action plan that is in the research process in the BHRC Research Institute, Road and Housing & Urban Development Research that is planned for next 10-year Transportation safety view Plan.

  3. Improvement of and Parameter Identification for the Bimodal Time-Varying Modified Kanai-Tajimi Power Spectral Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kanai-Tajimi power spectrum filtering method proposed by Du Xiuli et al., a genetic algorithm and a quadratic optimization identification technique are employed to improve the bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model and the parameter identification method proposed by Vlachos et al. Additionally, a method for modeling time-varying power spectrum parameters for ground motion is proposed. The 8244 Orion and Chi-Chi earthquake accelerograms are selected as examples for time-varying power spectral model parameter identification and ground motion simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model. The results of this study provide important references for designing ground motion inputs for seismic analyses of major engineering structures.

  4. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Su Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters.

  5. An improved method to estimate reflectance parameters for high dynamic range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Deguchi, Koichiro; Li, Renfa; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are described to accurately estimate diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness, over the dynamic range of the camera used to capture input images. Neither method needs to segment color areas on an image, or to reconstruct a high dynamic range (HDR) image. The second method improves on the first, bypassing the requirement for specific separation of diffuse and specular reflection components. For the latter method, diffuse and specular reflectance parameters are estimated separately, using the least squares method. Reflection values are initially assumed to be diffuse-only reflection components, and are subjected to the least squares method to estimate diffuse reflectance parameters. Specular reflection components, obtained by subtracting the computed diffuse reflection components from reflection values, are then subjected to a logarithmically transformed equation of the Torrance-Sparrow reflection model, and specular reflectance parameters for gloss intensity and surface roughness are finally estimated using the least squares method. Experiments were carried out using both methods, with simulation data at different saturation levels, generated according to the Lambert and Torrance-Sparrow reflection models, and the second method, with spectral images captured by an imaging spectrograph and a moving light source. Our results show that the second method can estimate the diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness more accurately and faster than the first one, so that colors and gloss can be reproduced more efficiently for HDR imaging.

  6. The Parameters Optimization of MCR-WPT System Based on the Improved Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of parameter selection during the design of magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transmission system (MCR-WPT, this paper proposed an improved genetic simulated annealing algorithm. Firstly, the equivalent circuit of the system is analysis in this study and a nonlinear programming mathematical model is built. Secondly, in place of the penalty function method in the genetic algorithm, the selection strategy based on the distance between individuals is adopted to select individual. In this way, it reduces the excess empirical parameters. Meanwhile, it can improve the convergence rate and the searching ability by calculating crossover probability and mutation probability according to the variance of population’s fitness. At last, the simulated annealing operator is added to increase local search ability of the method. The simulation shows that the improved method can break the limit of the local optimum solution and get the global optimum solution faster. The optimized system can achieve the practical requirements.

  7. Multicriteria optimization informed VMAT planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huixiao; Craft, David L.; Gierga, David P., E-mail: dgierga@partners.org

    2014-04-01

    We developed a patient-specific volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) optimization procedure using dose-volume histogram (DVH) information from multicriteria optimization (MCO) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The study included 10 patients with prostate cancer undergoing standard fractionation treatment, 10 patients with prostate cancer undergoing hypofractionation treatment, and 5 patients with head/neck cancer. MCO-IMRT plans using 20 and 7 treatment fields were generated for each patient on the RayStation treatment planning system (clinical version 2.5, RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden). The resulting DVH of the 20-field MCO-IMRT plan for each patient was used as the reference DVH, and the extracted point values of the resulting DVH of the MCO-IMRT plan were used as objectives and constraints for VMAT optimization. Weights of objectives or constraints of VMAT optimization or both were further tuned to generate the best match with the reference DVH of the MCO-IMRT plan. The final optimal VMAT plan quality was evaluated by comparison with MCO-IMRT plans based on homogeneity index, conformity number of planning target volume, and organ at risk sparing. The influence of gantry spacing, arc number, and delivery time on VMAT plan quality for different tumor sites was also evaluated. The resulting VMAT plan quality essentially matched the 20-field MCO-IMRT plan but with a shorter delivery time and less monitor units. VMAT plan quality of head/neck cancer cases improved using dual arcs whereas prostate cases did not. VMAT plan quality was improved by fine gantry spacing of 2 for the head/neck cancer cases and the hypofractionation-treated prostate cancer cases but not for the standard fractionation–treated prostate cancer cases. MCO-informed VMAT optimization is a useful and valuable way to generate patient-specific optimal VMAT plans, though modification of the weights of objectives or constraints extracted from resulting DVH of MCO

  8. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS AND SED PARAMETERS: IMPROVED TECHNIQUES AND A REALISTIC ERROR BUDGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts

  9. Analysis of transient heat conduction in a PWR fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Eneida Regina G. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cotta, Renato M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Jian, Su, E-mail: eneidadourado@gmail.com, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: cotta@mecanica.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze transient heat conduction in a nuclear fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach. One-dimensional transient heat conduction is considered, with the circumferential symmetry assumed and the axial conduction neglected. The thermal conductivity and specific heat in the fuel pellet are considered temperature dependent, while the thermophysical properties of the cladding are considered constant. Hermite approximation for integration is used to obtain the average temperature and heat flux in the radial direction. Significant improvement over the classical lumped parameter formulation has been achieved. The proposed model can be also used in dynamic analysis of PWR and nuclear power plant simulators. (author)

  10. Analysis of transient heat conduction in a PWR fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, Eneida Regina G.; Cotta, Renato M.; Jian, Su

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze transient heat conduction in a nuclear fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach. One-dimensional transient heat conduction is considered, with the circumferential symmetry assumed and the axial conduction neglected. The thermal conductivity and specific heat in the fuel pellet are considered temperature dependent, while the thermophysical properties of the cladding are considered constant. Hermite approximation for integration is used to obtain the average temperature and heat flux in the radial direction. Significant improvement over the classical lumped parameter formulation has been achieved. The proposed model can be also used in dynamic analysis of PWR and nuclear power plant simulators. (author)

  11. Correlation between surrogates of bladder dosimetry and dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Chietera, Andreina; Perna, Lucia; Gianolini, Stefano; Maggio, Angelo; Botti, Andrea; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Fiorino, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between bladder dose–wall-histogram (DWH) and dose–volume-histogram (DVH), dose–surface-histogram (DSH), and DVH-5/10 was investigated in a group of 28 patients; bladder walls were drawn on T2-MRI. DVH showed the poorest correlation with DWH; DSH or DVH-5/10 should be preferred in planning; absolute DVH may be used for radical patients, although less robust.

  12. Biological-effective versus conventional dose volume histograms correlated with late genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a matched pair analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeske John C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the dose-volume histograms (DVH's for the rectum and bladder constructed using biological-effective dose (BED-DVH's better correlate with late gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity after treatment with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer than conventional DVH's (C-DVH's. Methods The charts of 190 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were reviewed. Six patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GI toxicity, and similarly 6 patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GU toxicity. Average late C-DVH's and BED-DVH's of the bladder and rectum were computed for these patients as well as for matched-pair control patients. For each matched pair the following measures of normalized difference in the DVH's were computed: (a δAUC = (Area Under Curve [AUC] in grade 3 patient – AUC in grade 0 patient/(AUC in grade 0 patient and (b δV60 = (Percent volume receiving = 60 Gy [V60] in grade 3 patient – V60 in grade 0 patient/(V60 in grade 0 patient. Results As expected, the grade 3 curve is to the right of and above the grade 0 curve for all four sets of average DVH's – suggesting that both the C-DVH and the BED-DVH can be used for predicting late toxicity. δAUC was higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 0.27 vs 0.23 (p = 0.036 for the rectum and 0.24 vs 0.20 (p = 0.065 for the bladder. δV60 was also higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 2.73 vs 1.49 for the rectum (p = 0.021 and 1.64 vs 0.71 (p = 0.021 for the bladder. Conclusions When considering well-established dosimetric endpoints used in evaluating treatment plans, BED-DVH's for the rectum and bladder correlate better with late toxicity than C-DVH's and should be considered when attempting to minimize late GI and GU toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  13. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  14. IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC PARAMETERS FOR TRANSITING PLANET HOSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Guillermo; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Sozzetti, Alessandro [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

  15. Improving estimation of kinetic parameters in dynamic force spectroscopy using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Fu; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic Force Spectroscopy (DFS) is a widely used technique to characterize the dissociation kinetics and interaction energy landscape of receptor-ligand complexes with single-molecule resolution. In an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)-based DFS experiment, receptor-ligand complexes, sandwiched between an AFM tip and substrate, are ruptured at different stress rates by varying the speed at which the AFM-tip and substrate are pulled away from each other. The rupture events are grouped according to their pulling speeds, and the mean force and loading rate of each group are calculated. These data are subsequently fit to established models, and energy landscape parameters such as the intrinsic off-rate (koff) and the width of the potential energy barrier (xβ) are extracted. However, due to large uncertainties in determining mean forces and loading rates of the groups, errors in the estimated koff and xβ can be substantial. Here, we demonstrate that the accuracy of fitted parameters in a DFS experiment can be dramatically improved by sorting rupture events into groups using cluster analysis instead of sorting them according to their pulling speeds. We test different clustering algorithms including Gaussian mixture, logistic regression, and K-means clustering, under conditions that closely mimic DFS experiments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we benchmark the performance of these clustering algorithms over a wide range of koff and xβ, under different levels of thermal noise, and as a function of both the number of unbinding events and the number of pulling speeds. Our results demonstrate that cluster analysis, particularly K-means clustering, is very effective in improving the accuracy of parameter estimation, particularly when the number of unbinding events are limited and not well separated into distinct groups. Cluster analysis is easy to implement, and our performance benchmarks serve as a guide in choosing an appropriate method for DFS data analysis.

  16. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): Concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Limbergen, Erik van; Barillot, Isabelle; Brabandere, Marisol De; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm 3 ; optional 5 and 10 cm 3 . Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm 3 . Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD 2 )-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Poetter R, Van Limbergen E et al

  17. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for meningioma: Light ion beam therapy as boost versus sole treatment option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, Ulrike; Georg, Dietmar; Sölkner, Lukas; Suppan, Christian; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M.; Flechl, Birgit; Mayer, Ramona; Dieckmann, Karin; Knäusl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare photons, protons and carbon ions and their combinations for treatment of atypical and anaplastical skull base meningioma. Material and methods: Two planning target volumes (PTV initial /PTV boost ) were delineated for 10 patients (prescribed doses 50 Gy(RBE) and 10 Gy(RBE)). Plans for intensity modulated photon (IMXT), proton (IMPT) and carbon ion therapy ( 12 C) were generated assuming a non-gantry scenario for particles. The following combinations were compared: IMXT + IMXT/IMPT/ 12 C; IMPT + IMPT/ 12 C; and 12 C + 12 C. Plan quality was evaluated by target conformity and homogeneity (CI, HI), V 95% , D 2% and D 50% and dose-volume-histogram (DVH) parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR). If dose escalation was possible, it was performed until OAR tolerance levels were reached. Results: CI was worst for IMXT. HI < 0.05 ± 0.01 for 12 C was significantly better than for IMXT. For all treatment options dose escalation above 60 Gy(RBE) was possible for four patients, but impossible for six patients. Compared to IMXT + IMXT, ion beam therapy showed an improved sparing for most OARs, e.g. using protons and carbon ions D 50% was reduced by more than 50% for the ipsilateral eye and the brainstem. Conclusion: Highly conformal IMPT and 12 C plans could be generated with a non-gantry scenario. Improved OAR sparing favors both sole 12 C and/or IMPT plans

  18. Dose Volume Histogram analysis for rectum and urethral reaction of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Takeshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinically relevant parameters for rectum and urethral reaction using DVH (dose volume histogram) in carbon ion radiotherapy of prostate cancer. In this year, we studied the urinary reaction mainly. 35 patients with prostate cancer were treated with carbon ion beams between June 1995 and December 1997. The applied dose was escalated from 54.0 GyE to 72.0 GyE in fixed 20 fractions. Clinical urinary reaction and rectum reaction were reviewed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring system for acute reactions, RTOG/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scoring system for late reactions. Taking the ROI (region of interest) for DVH of urethra, we used surrogate one that was derived from the observation of MR images. 35 patients were analyzed for acute urinary reaction and 34 for late urinary reaction in the study of this year. DVH analysis suggested difference among the grades for acute and late reactions. These analysis appears to be a useful tool for predicting the urinary reactions. (author)

  19. Synergistic improvement of gas sensing performance by micro-gravimetrically extracted kinetic/thermodynamic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuanbao; Xu, Pengcheng; Yu, Haitao; Cheng, Zhenxing; Li, Xinxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensing material can be comprehensively optimized by using gravimetric cantilever. • Kinetic-thermodynamic model parameters are quantitatively extracted by experiment • Sensing-material performance is synergistically optimized by extracted parameters. - Abstract: A novel method is explored for comprehensive design/optimization of organophosphorus sensing material, which is loaded on mass-type microcantilever sensor. Conventionally, by directly observing the gas sensing response, it is difficult to build quantitative relationship with the intrinsic structure of the material. To break through this difficulty, resonant cantilever is employed as gravimetric tool to implement molecule adsorption experiment. Based on the sensing data, key kinetic/thermodynamic parameters of the material to the molecule, including adsorption heat −ΔH°, adsorption/desorption rate constants K a and K d , active-site number per unit mass N′ and surface coverage θ, can be quantitatively extracted according to physical–chemistry theories. With gaseous DMMP (simulant of organophosphorus agents) as sensing target, the optimization route for three sensing materials is successfully demonstrated. Firstly, a hyper-branched polymer is evaluated. Though suffering low sensitivity due to insufficient N′, the bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane (BHPF) sensing-group exhibits satisfactory reproducibility due to appropriate −ΔH°. To achieve more sensing-sites, KIT-5 mesoporous-silica with higher surface-area is assessed, resulting in good sensitivity but too high −ΔH° that brings poor repeatability. After comprehensive consideration, the confirmed BHPF sensing-group is grafted on the KIT-5 carrier to form an optimized DMMP sensing nanomaterial. Experimental results indicate that, featuring appropriate kinetic/thermodynamic parameters of −ΔH°, K a , K d , N′ and θ, the BHPF-functionalized KIT-5 mesoporous silica exhibits synergistic improvement among

  20. When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa.

  1. Mixed integer programming improves comprehensibility and plan quality in inverse optimization of prostate HDR Brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.; Hoffmann, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Current inverse treatment planning methods that optimize both catheter positions and dwell times in prostate HDR brachytherapy use surrogate linear or quadratic objective functions that have no direct interpretation in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) criteria, do not result in an optimum or

  2. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  3. Improved delay-dependent globally asymptotic stability of delayed uncertain recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ji; Bao-Tong, Cui

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have improved delay-dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with a delay varying over a range and Markovian jumping parameters. The criteria improve over some previous ones in that they have fewer matrix variables yet less conservatism. In addition, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the result using the linear matrix inequality toolbox in MATLAB. (general)

  4. Dosimetric assessment of an Atlas based automated segmentation for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer in the Skagen Trial 1: A multi-institutional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ramadan Mohammed E; Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Atlas-based automated segmentation (ABAS) on dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual segmentation (MS) in loco-regional radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer was investigated in patients included in the Skagen Trial 1. This analysis supports implementation of ABAS...

  5. Levamisole improves histomorphometric parameters of small intestinal wall of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shomali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one-day old chickens were divided into 6 equal groups and treated with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 mg/kg levamisole from day 1 to 45. Then, all birds sacrificed and samples were taken from duode-num, jejunum and ileum. Cross-sections were made and H&E stained. Histomorphometric parameters including villus height, crypt depth, villus width, sub mucosal width, muscular layer width and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were determined. Duodenal villi became wider in all levamisole treated groups but only the highest dose resulted in taller villi. Jejunal villi became taller without significant change in their width. This was accompanied by a decrease in crypt depth and increased villus height/crypt depth ratio in all treated groups. In ileum, only birds treated with the highest dose had higher villus height, although levamisole at all doses resulted in wider villi. Sub mucosal width in-creased in birds treated with 15 and 25 mg/kg levamisole. In conclusion, levamisole can improve histomorphometric parameters of small intestinal wall of broiler chickens. This can partly explain the mechanism for previously described positive effects of levamisole on performance of broilers.

  6. Collaborative Project: Building improved optimized parameter estimation algorithms to improve methane and nitrogen fluxes in a climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Soils in natural and managed ecosystems and wetlands are well known sources of methane, nitrous oxides, and reactive nitrogen gases, but the magnitudes of gas flux to the atmosphere are still poorly constrained. Thus, the reasons for the large increases in atmospheric concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide since the preindustrial time period are not well understood. The low atmospheric concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide, despite being more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide, complicate empirical studies to provide explanations. In addition to climate concerns, the emissions of reactive nitrogen gases from soils are important to the changing nitrogen balance in the earth system, subject to human management, and may change substantially in the future. Thus improved modeling of the emission fluxes of these species from the land surface is important. Currently, there are emission modules for methane and some nitrogen species in the Community Earth System Model’s Community Land Model (CLM-ME/N); however, there are large uncertainties and problems in the simulations, resulting in coarse estimates. In this proposal, we seek to improve these emission modules by combining state-of-the-art process modules for emissions, available data, and new optimization methods. In earth science problems, we often have substantial data and knowledge of processes in disparate systems, and thus we need to combine data and a general process level understanding into a model for projections of future climate that are as accurate as possible. The best methodologies for optimization of parameters in earth system models are still being developed. In this proposal we will develop and apply surrogate algorithms that a) were especially developed for computationally expensive simulations like CLM-ME/N models; b) were (in the earlier surrogate optimization Stochastic RBF) demonstrated to perform very well on computationally expensive complex partial differential equations in

  7. Longitudinal Improvement in Periodontal Parameters between RPD Abutment Teeth with Direct and Indirect Retainers, after Periodontal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana Linhares; Tôrres, Ana Clara Soares de Paiva; de Oliveira, Kleiton Clécio; Calderon, Patrícia Dos Santos; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto; Gurgel, Bruno César de Vasconcelos

    2018-03-06

    To evaluate the effect of basic periodontal treatment on clinical periodontal parameters associated with abutment teeth of patients with mandibular Kennedy class I removable partial dentures (RPD) 18 months after treatment. Thirty patients with periodontal disease were treated and evaluated according to the following periodontal parameters: visible plaque index (VPI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and keratinized mucosa (KM). These parameters were compared between abutment teeth with direct and indirect retainers at baseline, and after 6 and 18 months. Data were analyzed by Friedman Test and Wilcoxon Test for all variables. Most patients (n = 26; 86.7%) included in the study were female and had a mean age of 61 years (±7.54). Results showed that VPI and BOP decreased over time, and that VPI values were higher in abutment teeth with direct retainers (p = 0.001). There was a reduction in PD after 6 months, which was maintained up to 18 months. In general, abutment teeth with direct retainers had significantly higher values for PD, GR, and CAL (p = 0.029). Data also indicated that the parameters for VPI, BOP, and PD improved; however, abutment teeth with direct retainers presented smaller improvements, compared with abutment teeth with indirect retainers, which presented significant improvements for almost all variables. Periodontal treatment and oral hygiene care of patients were adequate for maintenance of adequate periodontal conditions, regardless of the use of prostheses. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Influence of the choice of parameters of the TAC in the calculation of volumes for different planners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Mazon, J.; Raba Diez, J. L.; Vazquez Rodriguez, J. A.; Pacheco Baldor, M. T.; Mendiguren Santiago, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Protocol for the control treatment planning systems with ionizing radiation of the proposed SEFM tests to verify proper operation of the calculation in the evaluation of DVH (Dose Volume Histogram). The calculation of the volume that makes a planner may have important implications because it can trigger an overestimation of the dose or otherwise. We present a comparison of the calculation of volumes estimated with 4 different planners.

  9. Improvement of LCM model and determination of model parameters at watershed scale for flood events in Hongde Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that the original two-parameter LCM model can only be used to investigate rainfall losses during the runoff period because the initial abstraction is not included, the LCM model was redefined as a three-parameter model, including the initial abstraction coefficient λ, the initial abstraction Ia, and the rainfall loss coefficient R. The improved LCM model is superior to the original two-parameter model, which only includes r and R, where r is the initial rainfall loss index and can be calculated with λ using the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN method, with r=1/(1+λ. The trial method was used to determine the parameter values of the improved LCM model at the watershed scale for 15 flood events in the Hongde Basin in China. The results show that larger r values are associated with smaller R values, and the parameter R ranges widely from 0.5 to 2.0. In order to improve the practicability of the LCM model, r=0.833 with λ=0.2 is reasonable for simplifying calculation. When the LCM model is applied to arid and semi-arid regions, rainfall without yielding runoff should be deducted from the total rainfall for more accurate estimation of rainfall-runoff.

  10. Improved control of distributed parameter systems using wireless sensor and actuator networks: An observer-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zheng-Xian; Cui Bao-Tong; Lou Xu-Yang; Zhuang Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control problem of distributed parameter systems is investigated by using wireless sensor and actuator networks with the observer-based method. Firstly, a centralized observer which makes use of the measurement information provided by the fixed sensors is designed to estimate the distributed parameter systems. The mobile agents, each of which is affixed with a controller and an actuator, can provide the observer-based control for the target systems. By using Lyapunov stability arguments, the stability for the estimation error system and distributed parameter control system is proved, meanwhile a guidance scheme for each mobile actuator is provided to improve the control performance. A numerical example is finally used to demonstrate the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed approaches. (paper)

  11. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  12. Bronchial mucosal tolerance following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy: clinical and laboratory correlates in late complication assessment of fatal hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; McDonald, S.; Nakamura, C.; Philips, A.; Ojomo, Karanita; Hernady, E.; Williams, J. P.; Smudzin, T.; Johnstone, D.; Feins, R.; Speiser, B.L.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study reviews treatment related late complications following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB) for primary lung cancers. Radiation dose contribution from HDR-EB treatment alone, or combined HDR-EB and external beam (EBRT) were analyzed in relation to the linear representation of the tracheobronchial anatomy. Results were presented in a dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for the risk estimate of late complications from HDR-EB. Bronchial mucosal tolerance is estimated from the clinical experience study and histopathologic changes in laboratory animals treated with HDR-EB. Methods: 1.) There were forty one patients with primary lung cancer received HDR-EB as part of the radiation treatment between December 1990 and June 1994. Six of these developed late complications manifested as either fatal hemoptysis or endobronchial deposition of fibrinous material/bronchial stenosis. Treatment planning films were reviewed to map the volume treated with HDR-EB and EBRT along the tracheobronchial segments. DVH was constructed and compared for patients with and without late complications. Other clinical parameters of interest which were analyzed included: dose per fraction, EBRT total dose, HDR total dose, combined EBRT and HDR total dose, number of catheters per treatment, and points of prescriptions for HDR-EB. 2.) Forty four New Zealand White rabbits underwent HDR-EB of the major airway to a treatment length of 2 cm (1 cm above and below the carina) to a single fraction dose of 10 Gy, 30 Gy, or 50 Gy. Histopathologic changes were examined at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days post-treatment and compared with the control rabbits which received no irradiation. Results: 1.) The late complication rate is 14.5% with three patients developing fibrinous deposits/bronchial stenosis and four patients who experienced fatal hemoptysis in a total of six patients. There is a significant difference in DVH of HDR-EB treatment in the tracheobronchial high dose region

  13. MRI-based preplanning in low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Kubota, Yasuaki; Maeda, Sunaho; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric results between MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning in permanent prostate brachytherapy, and to estimate the accuracy of MRI-based preplanning by comparing with CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients were entered in this prospective study with written informed consent. MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning were performed. The seed and needle locations were identical according to MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning. MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning were compared using DVH-related parameters. Following brachytherapy, the accuracy of the MRI-based preplanning was evaluated by comparing it with CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Results: Mean MRI-based prostate volume was slightly underestimated (0.73 cc in mean volume) in comparison to TRUS-based volume. There were no significant differences in the mean DVH-related parameters except with rectal V 100 (cc) between TRUS-based and MRI-based preplanning. Mean rectal V 100 (cc) was 0.74 cc in TRUS-based and 0.29 cc in MRI-based preplanning, respectively, and the values demonstrated a statistical difference. There was no statistical difference in mean rectal V 150 (cc), and rectal V 100 (cc) between MRI-based preplanning and CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Conclusion: Prostate volume estimation and DVH-related parameters in MRI-based preplanning were almost identical to TRUS-based preplanning. From the results of CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry, MRI-based preplanning was therefore found to be a reliable and useful modality, as well as being helpful for TRUS-based preplanning. MRI-based preplanning can more accurately predict postimplant rectal dose than TRUS-based preplanning

  14. Treatment plan ranking using physical and biological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M. A.; University of Western Asutralia, WA

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The ranking of dose distributions is of importance in several areas such as i) comparing rival treatment plans, ii) comparing iterations in an optimisation routine, and iii) dose-assessment of clinical trial data. This study aimed to investigate the influence of choice of objective function in ranking tumour dose distributions. A series of physical (mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation of dose) dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction indices and biologically-based (tumour-control probability - TCP; equivalent uniform dose -EUD) indices were used to rank a series of hypothetical DVHs, as well as DVHs obtained from a series of 18 prostate patients. The distribution in ranking and change in distribution with change in indice parameters were investigated. It is found that not only is the ranking of DVHs dependent on the actual model used to perform the DVH reduction, it is also found to depend on the inherent characteristics of each model (i.e., selected parameters). The adjacent figure shows an example where the 18 prostate patients are ranked (grey-scale from black to white) by EUD when an α value of 0.8 Gy -1 is used in the model. The change of ranking as α varies is evident. Conclusion: This study has shown that the characteristics of the model selected in plan optimisation or DVH ranking will have an impact on the ranking obtained. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Optimization of CW-OSL parameters for improved dose detection threshold in Al2O3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, N.S.; Dhabekar, B.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Muthe, K.P.; Mishra, D.R.; Soni, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous wave optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) is relatively a simple technique that offers good signal to noise ratio (SNR) and involves simple instrumentation. This study reports the influence and optimization of CW-OSL parameters on minimum detectable dose (MDD) using α-Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor. It is found that at a given stimulation intensity MDD in CW-OSL mode depends on signal integration time. At lower integration times MDD is inferior. It exhibits an improvement for intermediate values, shows a plateau region and deteriorates as integration time increases further. MDD is found to be ∼127 μGy at 4 mW/cm 2 stimulation intensity for integration time of 0.1 s, which improves to ∼10.5 μGy for 60 s. At stimulation intensity of 72 mW/cm 2 , MDD is 37 μGy for integration time of 60 s and improves significantly to 7 μGy for 1 s. - Highlights: • CW-OSL parameters are optimized to obtain best SNR and MDD in Al 2 O 3 :C. • MDD is found to depend on signal integration time and stimulation intensity. • With time, MDD initially improves, stabilizes then deteriorates. • At a given intensity, MDD is optimum for a certain range of integration time

  16. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  17. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  18. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (Pskin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (Pskin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  19. Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Brink, Mandy van den; Bruce, Allison M.; Shouman, Tarek; Gras, Luuk; Velde, Annet te; Lebesque, Joos V.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters can be used to identify risk groups for developing late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: DVH parameters were analyzed for 130 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy in a dose-escalating protocol (70-78 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction). The incidence of late (>6 months) GI and GU complications was classified using the RTOG/EORTC and the SOMA/LENT scoring system. In addition, GI complications were divided in nonsevere and severe (requiring one or more laser treatments or blood transfusions) rectal bleeding. The median follow-up time was 24 months. We investigated whether rectal and bladder wall volumes, irradiated to various dose levels, correlated with the observed actuarial incidences of GI and GU complications, using volume as a continuous variable. Subsequently, for each dose level in the DVH, the rectal wall volumes were dichotomized using different volumes as cutoff levels. The impact of the total radiation dose, and the maximum radiation dose in the rectal and bladder wall was analyzed as well. Results: The actuarial incidence at 2 years for GI complications ≥Grade II was 14% (RTOG/EORTC) or 20% (SOMA/LENT); for GU complications ≥Grade III 8% (RTOG/EORTC) or 21% (SOMA/LENT). Neither for GI complications ≥Grade II (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), nor for GU complications ≥Grade III (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), was a significant correlation found between any of the DVH parameters and the actuarial incidence of complications. For severe rectal bleeding (actuarial incidence at 2 years 3%), four consecutive volume cutoff levels were found, which significantly discriminated between high and low risk. A trend was observed that a total radiation dose ≥ 74 Gy (or a maximum radiation dose in the rectal wall >75 Gy) resulted in a higher incidence of severe rectal bleeding (p

  20. Real-time beam monitoring for error detection in IMRT plans and impact on dose-volume histograms. A multi-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrazzo, Livia; Arilli, Chiara; Casati, Marta [Careggi University Hospital, Medical Physic Unit, Florence (Italy); Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen-Friedrichshafen (Germany); Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fedeli, Luca; Calusi, Silvia [University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Talamonti, Cinzia; Pallotta, Stefania [Careggi University Hospital, Medical Physic Unit, Florence (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele [Careggi University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Careggi University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Florence (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to test the sensitivity of a transmission detector for online dose monitoring of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for detecting small delivery errors. Furthermore, the correlation of changes in detector output induced by small delivery errors with other metrics commonly employed to quantify the deviations between calculated and delivered dose distributions was investigated. Transmission detector measurements were performed at three institutions. Seven types of errors were induced in nine clinical step-and-shoot (S and S) IMRT plans by modifying the number of monitor units (MU) and introducing small deviations in leaf positions. Signal reproducibility was investigated for short- and long-term stability. Calculated dose distributions were compared in terms of γ passing rates and dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics (e.g., D{sub mean}, D{sub x%}, V{sub x%}). The correlation between detector signal variations, γ passing rates, and DVH parameters was investigated. Both short- and long-term reproducibility was within 1%. Dose variations down to 1 MU (∇signal 1.1 ± 0.4%) as well as changes in field size and positions down to 1 mm (∇signal 2.6 ± 1.0%) were detected, thus indicating high error-detection sensitivity. A moderate correlation of detector signal was observed with γ passing rates (R{sup 2} = 0.57-0.70), while a good correlation was observed with DVH metrics (R{sup 2} = 0.75-0.98). The detector is capable of detecting small delivery errors in MU and leaf positions, and is thus a highly sensitive dose monitoring device for S and S IMRT for clinical practice. The results of this study indicate a good correlation of detector signal with DVH metrics; therefore, clinical action levels can be defined based on the presented data. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde die Sensitivitaet bezueglich der Fehlererkennung eines Transmissionsdetektors fuer die Online-Dosisueberwachung von intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF THE REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION OF STATE BY MODIFICATION OF CO-VOLUME PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cubic equations of state are widely used in phase-equilibrium calculations because of their simplicity and accuracy. Most equations of states are not accurate enough for predicting density of liquid and dense gas. A modification on the Redlich-Kwong (RK equation of state is developed. Parameter b is modified by introducing a new parameter,b, which is a function of molecular weight and temperature. The modification gives a significant improvement over the original RK equation for predicting density. For 6538 data points of 27 compounds, the proposed equation gives only 2.8% of average absolute deviation (AAD, while the original RK and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations give 11.4% and 11.7%, respectively. The proposed modification improves the performance of the RK equation for predicting vapor pressure as well. For 2829 data points of 94 compounds, the proposed modification lowers the AAD of the RK equation from 1460% down to 30.8%. It is comparable to the famous SRK equation, which give 5.8% of AAD. The advantage of the proposed equation is that it uses only critical pressure and temperature as other equations of states do, and molecular weight, which is easily calculated. Another advantage is that the proposed equation simpler than the SRK equation of state.

  2. A study of optimization techniques in HDR brachytherapy for the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Ghana Shyam

    . Based on our study, DVH based objective function performed better than traditional variance based objective function in creating a clinically acceptable plan when executed under identical conditions. Thirdly, we studied the multiobjective optimization strategy using both DVH and variance based objective functions. The optimization strategy was to create several Pareto optimal solutions by scanning the clinically relevant part of the Pareto front. This strategy was adopted to decouple optimization from decision such that user could select final solution from the pool of alternative solutions based on his/her clinical goals. The overall quality of treatment plan improved using this approach compared to traditional class solution approach. In fact, the final optimized plan selected using decision engine with DVH based objective was comparable to typical clinical plan created by an experienced physicist. Next, we studied the hybrid technique comprising both stochastic and deterministic algorithm to optimize both dwell positions and dwell times. The simulated annealing algorithm was used to find optimal catheter distribution and the DVH based algorithm was used to optimize 3D dose distribution for given catheter distribution. This unique treatment planning and optimization tool was capable of producing clinically acceptable highly reproducible treatment plans in clinically reasonable time. As this algorithm was able to create clinically acceptable plans within clinically reasonable time automatically, it is really appealing for real time procedures. Next, we studied the feasibility of multiobjective optimization using evolutionary algorithm for real time HDR brachytherapy for the prostate. The algorithm with properly tuned algorithm specific parameters was able to create clinically acceptable plans within clinically reasonable time. However, the algorithm was let to run just for limited number of generations not considered optimal, in general, for such algorithms. This was

  3. Ways for improvement of the LIU-5/5000 linear induction accelerator parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobylev, V.I.; Kapchinskij, I.M.; Lapitskij, Yu.Ya.; Plotnikov, V.K.; Chuvilo, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The reasons of limitaions to increase the beam current and improve the quality of beam in the electron linear induction accelerator LIU-5/5000 are studied. The necessity to increase the voltage in the gaps of the electron gun, increase the diameter of the cathode and aperture of the drift tube, accuracy of axial symmetry electron gun current-carrying elements and accuracy of gun fabrication are shown. Stabilization of beam parameters require a new high voltage modulators. Different versions of the linac modernization with the use of transformers with cores of 430 and 600 mm are studied. Technical possibilities at several versions of high voltage modulators are discussed

  4. SU-E-T-87: Comparison Study of Dose Reconstruction From Cylindrical Diode Array Measurements, with TLD Measurements and Treatment Planning System Calculations in Anthropomorphic Head and Neck and Lung Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabib, S; Cardan, R; Huang, M; Brezovich, I; Popple, R [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Faught, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess dose calculated by the 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Systems, Melbourne, FL) against TLD measurements and treatment planning system calculations in anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: The IROC Houston (RPC) head and neck (HN) and lung phantoms were scanned and plans were generated using Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA) following IROC Houston procedures. For the H and N phantom, 6 MV VMAT and 9-field dynamic MLC (DMLC) plans were created. For the lung phantom 6 MV VMAT and 15 MV 9-field dynamic MLC (DMLC) plans were created. The plans were delivered to the phantoms and to an ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear Systems, Melbourne, FL). The head and neck phantom contained 8 TLDs located at PTV1 (4), PTV2 (2), and OAR Cord (2). The lung phantom contained 4 TLDs, 2 in the PTV, 1 in the cord, and 1 in the heart. Daily outputs were recorded before each measurement for correction. 3DVH dose reconstruction software was used to project the calculated dose to patient anatomy. Results: For the HN phantom, the maximum difference between 3DVH and TLDs was -3.4% and between 3DVH and Eclipse was 1.2%. For the lung plan the maximum difference between 3DVH and TLDs was 4.3%, except for the spinal cord for which 3DVH overestimated the TLD dose by 12%. The maximum difference between 3DVH and Eclipse was 0.3%. 3DVH agreed well with Eclipse because the dose reconstruction algorithm uses the diode measurements to perturb the dose calculated by the treatment planning system; therefore, if there is a problem in the modeling or heterogeneity correction, it will be carried through to 3DVH. Conclusion: 3DVH agreed well with Eclipse and TLD measurements. Comparison of 3DVH with film measurements is ongoing. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA81647 (NCI, DHHS)

  5. Dose-volume histogram analysis for risk factors of radiation-induced rib fracture after hypofractionated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Ayae

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced rib fracture has been reported as a late complication after external radiotherapy to the chest. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and risk factors of rib fracture after hypofractionated proton beam therapy (PBT). Material and methods: The retrospective study comprised 67 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated using PBT of 66 Cobalt-Gray-equivalents [Gy (RBE)] in 10 fractions. We analyzed the patients' characteristics and determined dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the irradiated ribs, and then estimated relationships between risk of fracture and several dose-volume parameters. An irradiated rib was defined to be any rib included in the area irradiated by PBT as determined by treatment-planning computed tomography. Results. Among the 67 patients, a total of 310 ribs were identified as irradiated ribs. Twenty-seven (8.7%) of the irradiated ribs developed fractures in 11 patients (16.4%). No significant relationships were seen between incidence of fracture and characteristics of patients, including sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, and follow-up period (p ≥ 0.05). The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using DVH parameters demonstrated that the largest area under the curve (AUC) was observed for the volume of rib receiving a biologically effective dose of more than 60 Gy 3 (RBE) (V60) [The equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2); 36 Gy 3 ] and the AUCs of V30 to V120 (EQD2; 18-72 Gy 3 ) and D max to D 1 0 cm 3 were similar to that of V60. No significant relationships were seen for DVH parameters and intervals from PBT to incidence of fracture. Conclusion. DVH parameters are useful in predicting late adverse events of rib irradiation. This study identified that V60 was a most statistically significant parameter, and V30 to V120 and D max to D 1 0 cm 3 were also significant and clinically useful for estimating the risk of rib fracture after hypofractionated PBT

  6. Dose-volume histogram analysis for risk factors of radiation-induced rib fracture after hypofractionated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Ayae [Proton Medical Research Center and Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)], e-mail: ayaek@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.jp [and others

    2013-04-15

    Background: Radiation-induced rib fracture has been reported as a late complication after external radiotherapy to the chest. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and risk factors of rib fracture after hypofractionated proton beam therapy (PBT). Material and methods: The retrospective study comprised 67 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated using PBT of 66 Cobalt-Gray-equivalents [Gy (RBE)] in 10 fractions. We analyzed the patients' characteristics and determined dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the irradiated ribs, and then estimated relationships between risk of fracture and several dose-volume parameters. An irradiated rib was defined to be any rib included in the area irradiated by PBT as determined by treatment-planning computed tomography. Results. Among the 67 patients, a total of 310 ribs were identified as irradiated ribs. Twenty-seven (8.7%) of the irradiated ribs developed fractures in 11 patients (16.4%). No significant relationships were seen between incidence of fracture and characteristics of patients, including sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, and follow-up period (p {>=} 0.05). The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using DVH parameters demonstrated that the largest area under the curve (AUC) was observed for the volume of rib receiving a biologically effective dose of more than 60 Gy{sub 3} (RBE) (V60) [The equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2); 36 Gy{sub 3}] and the AUCs of V30 to V120 (EQD2; 18-72 Gy{sub 3}) and D{sub max} to D{sub 1}0{sub cm}{sup 3} were similar to that of V60. No significant relationships were seen for DVH parameters and intervals from PBT to incidence of fracture. Conclusion. DVH parameters are useful in predicting late adverse events of rib irradiation. This study identified that V60 was a most statistically significant parameter, and V30 to V120 and D{sub max} to D{sub 1}0{sub cm}{sup 3} were also significant and clinically useful for estimating

  7. Calibration by Hydrological Response Unit of a National Hydrologic Model to Improve Spatial Representation and Distribution of Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II

    2015-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support consistent hydrologic modeling across the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) simulates daily hydrologic and energy processes in watersheds, and is used for the NHM application. For PRMS each watershed is divided into hydrologic response units (HRUs); by default each HRU is assumed to have a uniform hydrologic response. The Geospatial Fabric (GF) is a database containing initial parameter values for input to PRMS and was created for the NHM. The parameter values in the GF were derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire CONUS. The NHM application is composed of more than 100,000 HRUs from the GF. Selected parameter values commonly are adjusted by basin in PRMS using an automated calibration process based on calibration targets, such as streamflow. Providing each HRU with distinct values that captures variability within the CONUS may improve simulation performance of the NHM. During calibration of the NHM by HRU, selected parameter values are adjusted for PRMS based on calibration targets, such as streamflow, snow water equivalent (SWE) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). Simulated SWE, AET, and runoff were compared to value ranges derived from multiple sources (e.g. the Snow Data Assimilation System, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (i.e. MODIS) Global Evapotranspiration Project, the Simplified Surface Energy Balance model, and the Monthly Water Balance Model). This provides each HRU with a distinct set of parameter values that captures the variability within the CONUS, leading to improved model performance. We present simulation results from the NHM after preliminary calibration, including the results of basin-level calibration for the NHM using: 1) default initial GF parameter values, and 2) parameter values calibrated by HRU.

  8. Comparison of DVH parameters and loading patterns of standard loading, manual and inverse optimization for intracavitary brachytherapy on a subset of tandem/ovoid cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamema, Swamidas V.; Kirisits, Christian; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Trnkova, Petra; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Poetter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of inverse planning with the standard clinical plan and with the manually optimized plan based on dose-volume parameters and loading patterns. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients who underwent MRI based HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer were selected for this study. Three plans were calculated for each patient: (1) standard loading, (2) manual optimized, and (3) inverse optimized. Dosimetric outcomes from these plans were compared based on dose-volume parameters. The ratio of Total Reference Air Kerma of ovoid to tandem (TRAK O/T ) was used to compare the loading patterns. Results: The volume of HR CTV ranged from 9-68 cc with a mean of 41(±16.2)cc. Mean V100 for standard, manual optimized and inverse plans was found to be not significant (p = 0.35, 0.38, 0.4). Dose to bladder (7.8 ± 1.6 Gy) and sigmoid (5.6 ± 1.4 Gy) was high for standard plans; Manual optimization reduced the dose to bladder (7.1 ± 1.7 Gy p = 0.006) and sigmoid (4.5 ± 1.0 Gy p = 0.005) without compromising the HR CTV coverage. The inverse plan resulted in a significant reduction to bladder dose (6.5 ± 1.4 Gy, p = 0.002). TRAK was found to be 0.49(±0.02), 0.44(±0.04) and 0.40(±0.04)cGy m -2 for the standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively. It was observed that TRAK O/T was 0.82(±0.05), 1.7(±1.04) and 1.41(±0.93) for standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively, while this ratio was 1 for the traditional loading pattern. Conclusions: Inverse planning offers good sparing of critical structures without compromising the target coverage. The average loading pattern of the whole patient cohort deviates from the standard Fletcher loading pattern.

  9. Comparison of DVH parameters and loading patterns of standard loading, manual and inverse optimization for intracavitary brachytherapy on a subset of tandem/ovoid cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamema, Swamidas V; Kirisits, Christian; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Trnkova, Petra; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Pötter, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Comparison of inverse planning with the standard clinical plan and with the manually optimized plan based on dose-volume parameters and loading patterns. Twenty-eight patients who underwent MRI based HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer were selected for this study. Three plans were calculated for each patient: (1) standard loading, (2) manual optimized, and (3) inverse optimized. Dosimetric outcomes from these plans were compared based on dose-volume parameters. The ratio of Total Reference Air Kerma of ovoid to tandem (TRAK(O/T)) was used to compare the loading patterns. The volume of HR CTV ranged from 9-68 cc with a mean of 41(±16.2) cc. Mean V100 for standard, manual optimized and inverse plans was found to be not significant (p=0.35, 0.38, 0.4). Dose to bladder (7.8±1.6 Gy) and sigmoid (5.6±1.4 Gy) was high for standard plans; Manual optimization reduced the dose to bladder (7.1±1.7 Gy p=0.006) and sigmoid (4.5±1.0 Gy p=0.005) without compromising the HR CTV coverage. The inverse plan resulted in a significant reduction to bladder dose (6.5±1.4 Gy, p=0.002). TRAK was found to be 0.49(±0.02), 0.44(±0.04) and 0.40(±0.04) cGy m(-2) for the standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively. It was observed that TRAK(O/T) was 0.82(±0.05), 1.7(±1.04) and 1.41(±0.93) for standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively, while this ratio was 1 for the traditional loading pattern. Inverse planning offers good sparing of critical structures without compromising the target coverage. The average loading pattern of the whole patient cohort deviates from the standard Fletcher loading pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  11. An Improved Interferometric Calibration Method Based on Independent Parameter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Zuo, X.; Li, T.; Chen, Q.; Geng, X.

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM). The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs). However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD). Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  12. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH 0126,top10% ). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH 0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP

  13. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin L; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J; Dicker, Adam P; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH0126,top10%). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed "high-quality," "low-quality," and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP reductions while maintaining the volume of the PTV

  14. Vibration Suppression for Improving the Estimation of Kinematic Parameters on Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro Elvira-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration is a phenomenon that is present on every industrial system such as CNC machines and industrial robots. Moreover, sensors used to estimate angular position of a joint in an industrial robot are severely affected by vibrations and lead to wrong estimations. This paper proposes a methodology for improving the estimation of kinematic parameters on industrial robots through a proper suppression of the vibration components present on signals acquired from two primary sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. A Kalman filter is responsible for the filtering of spurious vibration. Additionally, a sensor fusion technique is used to merge information from both sensors and improve the results obtained using each sensor separately. The methodology is implemented in a proprietary hardware signal processor and tested in an ABB IRB 140 industrial robot, first by analyzing the motion profile of only one joint and then by estimating the path tracking of two welding tasks: one rectangular and another one circular. Results from this work prove that the sensor fusion technique accompanied by proper suppression of vibrations delivers better estimation than other proposed techniques.

  15. SU-E-T-454: Impact of Calculation Grid Size On Dosimetry and Radiobiological Parameters for Head and Neck IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S; Das, I [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cheng, C [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: IMRT has become standard of care for complex treatments to optimize dose to target and spare normal tissues. However, the impact of calculation grid size is not widely known especially dose distribution, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) which is investigated in this study. Methods: Ten head and neck IMRT patients treated with 6 MV photons were chosen for this study. Using Eclipse TPS, treatment plans were generated for different grid sizes in the range 1–5 mm for the same optimization criterion with specific dose-volume constraints. The dose volume histogram (DVH) was calculated for all IMRT plans and dosimetric data were compared. ICRU-83 dose points such as D2%, D50%, D98%, as well as the homogeneity and conformity indices (HI, CI) were calculated. In addition, TCP and NTCP were calculated from DVH data. Results: The PTV mean dose and TCP decreases with increasing grid size with an average decrease in mean dose by 2% and TCP by 3% respectively. Increasing grid size from 1–5 mm grid size, the average mean dose and NTCP for left parotid was increased by 6.0% and 8.0% respectively. Similar patterns were observed for other OARs such as cochlea, parotids and spinal cord. The HI increases up to 60% and CI decreases on average by 3.5% between 1 and 5 mm grid that resulted in decreased TCP and increased NTCP values. The number of points meeting the gamma criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm DTA was higher with a 1 mm on average (97.2%) than with a 5 mm grid (91.3%). Conclusion: A smaller calculation grid provides superior dosimetry with improved TCP and reduced NTCP values. The effect is more pronounced for smaller OARs. Thus, the smallest possible grid size should be used for accurate dose calculation especially in H and N planning.

  16. On the choice of minimization parameters using 4 momentum conservation law for particle momenta improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anykeyev, V.B.; Zhigunov, V.P.; Spiridonov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Special choice of parameters for minimization is offered in the problem of improving estimates for particle momenta in the vertex of the event with the use of 4-momentum conservation law. This choice permits to use any unconditional minimization method instead of that of Lagrange multipliers. The above method is used when analysing the data on the K - +p→n + anti k 0 +π 0 reaction [ru

  17. AN IMPROVED INTERFEROMETRIC CALIBRATION METHOD BASED ON INDEPENDENT PARAMETER DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM. The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs. However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD. Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  18. A novel four-dimensional radiotherapy planning strategy from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Cohen, Patrice; Xie, Huchen; Low, Daniel; Li, Diana; Rimner, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) planning from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view (ttBEV) with reliable gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation, realistic normal tissue representation, high planning accuracy and low clinical workload, we propose and validate a novel 4D conformal planning strategy based on a synthesized 3.5D computed tomographic (3.5DCT) image with a motion-compensated tumor. To recreate patient anatomy from a ttBEV in the moving tumor coordinate system for 4DRT planning (or 4D planning), the centers of delineated GTVs in all phase CT images of 4DCT were aligned, and then the aligned CTs were averaged to produce a new 3.5DCT image. This GTV-motion-compensated CT contains a motionless target (with motion artifacts minimized) and motion-blurred normal tissues (with a realistic temporal density average). Semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation of the tumor, lung and body was applied, while manual delineation was used for other organs at risk (OARs). To validate this 3.5DCT-based 4D planning strategy, five patients with peripheral lung lesions of small size (tumor and a minor beam aperture and weighting adjustment to maintain plan conformality. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the 4DCT plan was created with two methods: one is an integrated DVH (iDVH4D), which is defined as the temporal average of all 3D-phase-plan DVHs, and the other (DVH4D) is based on the dose distribution in a reference phase CT image by dose warping from all phase plans using the displacement vector field (DVF) from a free-form deformable image registration (DIR). The DVH3.5D (for the 3.5DCT plan) was compared with both iDVH4D and DVH4D. To quantify the DVH difference between the 3.5DCT plan and the 4DCT plan, two methods were used: relative difference (%) of the areas underneath the DVH curves and the volumes receiving more than 20% (V20) and 50% (V50) of prescribed dose of these 4D plans. The volume of the delineated GTV from different phase

  19. Some Improved Classification-Based Ridge Parameter Of Hoerl And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Hoerl And Kennard Estimation Techniques. 1Adewale F. Lukmanand 1Kayode Ayinde. 1 Department of Statistics, ... ordinary least square (OLS) in handling it. However, it requires a ridge parameter, K, of which many have ... handle the problem of multicollinearity. They suggested the addition of ridge parameter K to the ...

  20. Cast Off expansion plan by rapid improvement through Optimization tool design, Tool Parameters and using Six Sigma’s ECRS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Saravanan, R.

    2017-03-01

    Powerful management concepts step-up the quality of the product, time saving in producing the product thereby increase the production rate, improves tools and techniques, work culture, work place and employee motivation and morale. In this paper discussed about the case study of optimizing the tool design, tool parameters to cast off expansion plan according ECRS technique. The proposed designs and optimal tool parameters yielded best results and meet the customer demand without expansion plan. Hence the work yielded huge savings of money (direct and indirect cost), time and improved the motivation and more of employees significantly.

  1. Short-term endurance training after coronary artery bypass grafting improves insulin resistance parameters in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz-Bieńkowska, Sławomira; Przywarska, Izabela; Dylewicz, Piotr; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Rychlewski, Tadeusz; Wilk, Małgorzata; Rózańska, Anna

    2004-05-01

    It has been shown that short-term exercise training improves insulin resistance parameters in patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effects of such a rehabilitation programme in patients with hypertension have not been well established. To assess whether short-term endurance training after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may improve metabolic parameters and reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The study group consisted of 30 male patients (15 with hypertension and 15 normotensive) aged 55+/-2.1 years who underwent CABG 1 to 6 months before the initiation of a 3-week endurance training. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide blood levels as well as binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors were assessed before and after the training programme. The effects of training on blood pressure values were also evaluated. A significant improvement (phypertension. This was accompanied by a significant (phypertension, both the exercise systolic and diastolic pressures decreased significantly (pendurance training was especially effective in patients with hypertension in whom beneficial changes in some metabolic risk factors of ischaemic heart disease as well as the reduction in the blood pressure values were observed.

  2. A Multi-Classification Method of Improved SVM-based Information Fusion for Traffic Parameters Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the enrichment of perception methods, modern transportation system has many physical objects whose states are influenced by many information factors so that it is a typical Cyber-Physical System (CPS. Thus, the traffic information is generally multi-sourced, heterogeneous and hierarchical. Existing research results show that the multisourced traffic information through accurate classification in the process of information fusion can achieve better parameters forecasting performance. For solving the problem of traffic information accurate classification, via analysing the characteristics of the multi-sourced traffic information and using redefined binary tree to overcome the shortcomings of the original Support Vector Machine (SVM classification in information fusion, a multi-classification method using improved SVM in information fusion for traffic parameters forecasting is proposed. The experiment was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results reveal that the method can get more accurate and practical outcomes.

  3. SiC-VJFETs power switching devices: an improved model and parameter optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, T.; Lahbib, Y.; Morel, H.

    2009-12-01

    Silicon carbide junction field effect transistor (SiC-JFETs) is a mature power switch newly applied in several industrial applications. SiC-JFETs are often simulated by Spice model in order to predict their electrical behaviour. Although such a model provides sufficient accuracy for some applications, this paper shows that it presents serious shortcomings in terms of the neglect of the body diode model, among many others in circuit model topology. Simulation correction is then mandatory and a new model should be proposed. Moreover, this paper gives an enhanced model based on experimental dc and ac data. New devices are added to the conventional circuit model giving accurate static and dynamic behaviour, an effect not accounted in the Spice model. The improved model is implemented into VHDL-AMS language and steady-state dynamic and transient responses are simulated for many SiC-VJFETs samples. Very simple and reliable optimization algorithm based on the optimization of a cost function is proposed to extract the JFET model parameters. The obtained parameters are verified by comparing errors between simulations results and experimental data.

  4. Improved accuracy in estimation of left ventricular function parameters from QGS software with Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated-SPECT. A multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Shuke, Noriyuki; Sato, Junichi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Yamamoto, Wakako; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Aburano, Tamio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether the accuracy of left ventricular parameters related to left ventricular function from gated-SPECT improved or not, using multivariate analysis. Ninety-six patients with cardiovascular diseases were studied. Gated-SPECT with the quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software and left ventriculography (LVG) were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV). Then, multivariate analyses were performed to determine empirical formulas for predicting these parameters. The calculated values of left ventricular parameters were compared with those obtained directly from the QGS software and LVG. Multivariate analyses were able to improve accuracy in estimation of LVEF, EDV and ESV. Statistically significant improvement was seen in LVEF (from r=0.6965 to r=0.8093, p<0.05). Although not statistically significant, improvements in correlation coefficients were seen in EDV (from r=0.7199 to r=0.7595, p=0.2750) and ESV (from r=0.5694 to r=0.5871, p=0.4281). The empirical equations with multivariate analysis improved the accuracy in estimating LVEF from gated-SPECT with the QGS software. (author)

  5. Failure to Improve Parameters of Lactose Maldigestion using the Multiprobiotic Product VSL3 in Lactose Maldigesters: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Yesovitch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactose maldigestion is a common genetic trait in up to 70% of the world's population. In these subjects, the ingestion of lactose may lead to prebiotic effects which can be confirmed by measurement of breath hydrogen. After a period of continuous lactose ingestion, colonic bacterial adaptation is measurable as improved parameters of lactose digestion. There may be inherent benefits in this process of adaptation which may protect against some diseases. We attempt to link therapeutically beneficial probiotics (VSL3, Seaford Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ontario with improvement in parameters of lactose maldigestion. Two groups of five subjects with maldigestion were fed one or four packets of VSL3 (one packet containing 450x109 live bacteria before testing and then 17 days later. A 50 g lactose challenge was carried out before and after feeding. While there was a trend toward increasing rather than reducing of summed breath hydrogen, no statistically significant changes were observed between results from before testing and those from testing 17 days later. The authors conclude that direct consumption of the probiotic VSL3 may not improve parameters of lactose maldigestion without metabolic activation. In its present format, therefore, the test for colonic adaptation cannot be used to demonstrate direct bacterial embedding with VSL3.

  6. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    field monitoring. Vibration prediction diminishes the importance of trial-and-error procedures such as drill-off tests, which are valid only for short sections. It also solves an existing lapse in Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) real-time drilling control programs applying the theory of Teale, which states that a drilling system is perfectly efficient when it spends the exact energy to overcome the in situ rock strength. Using the proprietary software tool this paper will examine the resonant vibration modes that may be initiated while drilling with different BHA's and drill string designs, showing that the combination of a proper BHA design along with the correct selection of input parameters results in an overall improvement to drilling efficiency. Also, being the BHA predictively analyzed, it will be reduced the potential for vibration or stress fatigue in the drill string components, leading to a safer operation. In the recent years there has been an increased focus on vibration detection, analysis, and mitigation techniques, where new technologies, like the Drilling Dynamics Data Recorders (DDDR), may provide the capability to capture high frequency dynamics data at multiple points along the drilling system. These tools allow the achievement of drilling performance improvements not possible before, opening a whole new array of opportunities for optimization and for verification of predictions calculated by the drill string dynamics modeling software tool. The results of this study will identify how the dynamics from the drilling system, interacting with formation, directly relate to inefficiencies and to the possible solutions to mitigate drilling vibrations in order to improve drilling performance. Software vibration prediction and downhole measurements can be used for non-drilling operations like drilling out casing or reaming, where extremely high vibration levels - devastating to the cutting structure of the bit before it has even touched bottom - have

  7. An improved broadband method to evaluate effective parameters of slab metamaterials in the microwave frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybin, O.; Nawaz, T.; Abbasi, T.

    2007-01-01

    An improved broadband method for determining complex effective refractive index, permittivity and permeability of an arbitrary passive metamaterial in microwave frequency range has been proposed. Evaluation of the effective parameters is realized using the reflection-transmission S-parameters obtained by simulation or experimental measurements and analytically evaluated interface reflection coefficient of the slab. Formulas for evaluation of effective permittivity and permeability which contain the square root of complex functions of S-parameters have been proposed in (1-2). But this method does not propose a way to avoid an ambiguity arising in choosing the square root branch of product of effective permittivity and permeability. Moreover the above calculation procedure requires evaluating the square root branch of function of S-parameters. Proposed way to choose the square root branch gives sometimes mistaken results. Our method is much simple as compared with the above mentioned formulas and it does not require making a choice of square root branch of complex functions of S-parameters in order to evaluate any of the parameters (refractive index, permittivity or permeability). Instead we obtain a formula for complex refractive index which is simple. On the basis of proposed model effective permittivity and permeability for rod meta-materials can be evaluated with enhanced precision and accuracy. Proposed method is easy to be implemented in engineering problems and does not require using complicated mathematical calculations. Comparison of precision of the presented method with the Nicolson-Ross techniques (1-2) has been made using the simulations for different configurations of rod meta-materials. Some discussion concerning the sensitivity of the effective parameters of meta-materials for the accuracy of the frequency dependent S -parameters is also presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Present status and future of high-precision image guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian; Fidarova, Elena F.; Dimopoulos, Johan nes C. A.; Berger, Daniel; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for cervical cancer, using mainly MRI, is an evolving method, increasingly replacing the 2D approach based on conventional radiography. During the complex 4D chain of this procedure image-assistance is provided for disease assessment, provisional treatment planning ('pre-planning'), applicator placement and reconstruction, as well as for contouring, definitive treatment planning and quality control of dose delivery. With IGABT changes of topography adjacent to the applicator, caused by tumour regression, oedema, organ changes and dilation are identified. Thus, the CTV for IGABT is primarily based on the tumour volume at the time of BT and takes into account both time and spatial domains. IGABT requires systematic concepts for target, OAR, biological modelling, DVH analysis, and dose-volume-adaptation. Methods and Results. This report focuses on the advantages and uncertainties, dose-effect relations and clinical results of the IGABT procedure addressing the current status and future perspectives. Uncertainties during the 4D chain of IGABT are mainly related to target contouring, applicator reconstruction, as well as to inter-fraction, intra-fraction and inter-application variability, as caused by tumour response and organ changes. Different from EBRT where set-up uncertainties are compensated by adding a margin to the CTV, no margins to the lateral and anterior-posterior directions can be used for IGABT. Discussion. By 3D treatment planning for IGABT significant improvement of the DVH parameters is achieved compared to 2D library plans. In small tumours the benefit is primarily obtained by a decrease of dose to nearby OAR while in large tumours the use of supplementary interstitial techniques and optimization may double the target volume that can be treated at a therapeutic dose level. The clinical impact of IGABT could recently be demonstrated by the establishment of some correlations between target- and

  9. Use of EORTC Target Definition Guidelines for Dose-Intensified Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of the Quality Assurance Program of the Randomized Trial SAKK 09/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassowsky, Manfred; Gut, Philipp; Hölscher, Tobias; Hildebrandt, Guido; Müller, Arndt-Christian; Najafi, Yousef; Kohler, Götz; Kranzbühler, Helmut; Guckenberger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Azinwi, Ngwa C.; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Takacs, Istvan; Reuter, Christiane; Sumila, Marcin; Manser, Peter; Ost, Piet; Böhmer, Dirk; Pilop, Christiane; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Different international target volume delineation guidelines exist and different treatment techniques are available for salvage radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent prostate cancer, but less is known regarding their respective applicability in clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A randomized phase III trial testing 64 Gy vs 70 Gy salvage RT was accompanied by an intense quality assurance program including a site-specific and study-specific questionnaire and a dummy run (DR). Target volume delineation was performed according to the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines, and a DR-based treatment plan was established for 70 Gy. Major and minor protocol deviations were noted, interobserver agreement of delineated target contours was assessed, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of different treatment techniques were compared. Results: Thirty European centers participated, 43% of which were using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), with the remaining centers using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The first submitted version of the DR contained major deviations in 21 of 30 (70%) centers, mostly caused by inappropriately defined or lack of prostate bed (PB). All but 5 centers completed the DR successfully with their second submitted version. The interobserver agreement of the PB was moderate and was improved by the DR review, as indicated by an increased κ value (0.59 vs 0.55), mean sensitivity (0.64 vs 0.58), volume of total agreement (3.9 vs 3.3 cm 3 ), and decrease in the union volume (79.3 vs 84.2 cm 3 ). Rectal and bladder wall DVH parameters of IMRT and VMAT vs 3D-CRT plans were not significantly different. Conclusions: The interobserver agreement of PB delineation was moderate but was improved by the DR. Major deviations could be identified for the majority of centers. The DR has improved the acquaintance of the participating centers with the trial protocol

  10. Use of EORTC Target Definition Guidelines for Dose-Intensified Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of the Quality Assurance Program of the Randomized Trial SAKK 09/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassowsky, Manfred [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp [Department of Radiation Oncology Kantonsspital Luzern (Switzerland); Hölscher, Tobias [University Hospital Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [University Hospital Rostock (Germany); Müller, Arndt-Christian [University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Najafi, Yousef [University Hospital Zürich (Switzerland); Kohler, Götz [University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kranzbühler, Helmut [Stadtspital Triemli, Zürich (Switzerland); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Würzburg (Germany); Zwahlen, Daniel R. [Kantonsspital Graubünden, Chur (Switzerland); Azinwi, Ngwa C. [Istituto Oncologico della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Plasswilm, Ludwig [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Takacs, Istvan [Kantonsspital Aarau (Switzerland); Reuter, Christiane [Kantonsspital Münsterlingen (Switzerland); Sumila, Marcin [Hirslanden Hospital Group, Zürich (Switzerland); Manser, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); Ost, Piet [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Böhmer, Dirk [Charité University Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Pilop, Christiane [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); and others

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Different international target volume delineation guidelines exist and different treatment techniques are available for salvage radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent prostate cancer, but less is known regarding their respective applicability in clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A randomized phase III trial testing 64 Gy vs 70 Gy salvage RT was accompanied by an intense quality assurance program including a site-specific and study-specific questionnaire and a dummy run (DR). Target volume delineation was performed according to the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines, and a DR-based treatment plan was established for 70 Gy. Major and minor protocol deviations were noted, interobserver agreement of delineated target contours was assessed, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of different treatment techniques were compared. Results: Thirty European centers participated, 43% of which were using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), with the remaining centers using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The first submitted version of the DR contained major deviations in 21 of 30 (70%) centers, mostly caused by inappropriately defined or lack of prostate bed (PB). All but 5 centers completed the DR successfully with their second submitted version. The interobserver agreement of the PB was moderate and was improved by the DR review, as indicated by an increased κ value (0.59 vs 0.55), mean sensitivity (0.64 vs 0.58), volume of total agreement (3.9 vs 3.3 cm{sup 3}), and decrease in the union volume (79.3 vs 84.2 cm{sup 3}). Rectal and bladder wall DVH parameters of IMRT and VMAT vs 3D-CRT plans were not significantly different. Conclusions: The interobserver agreement of PB delineation was moderate but was improved by the DR. Major deviations could be identified for the majority of centers. The DR has improved the acquaintance of the participating centers with the trial

  11. Respiratory gating and multi field technique radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Atsushi; Kaidu, Motoki; Tanabe, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a respiratory gating and multi field technique on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Twenty patients who underwent four-dimensional computed tomography for esophageal cancer were included. We retrospectively created the four treatment plans for each patient, with or without the respiratory gating and multi field technique: No gating-2-field, No gating-4-field, Gating-2-field, and Gating-4-field plans. We compared the DVH parameters of the lung and heart in the No gating-2-field plan with the other three plans.Result In the comparison of the parameters in the No gating-2-field plan, there are significant differences in the Lung V 5Gy , V 20Gy , mean dose with all three plans and the Heart V 25Gy -V 40Gy with Gating-2-field plan, V 35Gy , V 40Gy , mean dose with No Gating-4-field plan and V 30Gy -V 40Gy , and mean dose with Gating-4-field plan. The lung parameters were smaller in the Gating-2-field plan and larger in the No gating-4-field and Gating-4-field plans. The heart parameters were all larger in the No gating-2-field plan. The lung parameters were reduced by the respiratory gating technique and increased by the multi field technique. The heart parameters were reduced by both techniques. It is important to select the optimal technique according to the risk of complications. (author)

  12. Clinical Significance of Accounting for Tissue Heterogeneity in Permanent Breast Seed Implant Brachytherapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashouf, Shahram [Medical Biophysics Department, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fleury, Emmanuelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lai, Priscilla [Medical Biophysics Department, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Merino, Tomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiotherapy Unit, School of Medicine, Departamento de Hemato-oncologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Lechtman, Eli [Medical Biophysics Department, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); McCann, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl [Medical Biophysics Department, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Oncology Department, Erasmus Medical Center, Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: The inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF) method provides heterogeneity correction for the fast calculation TG43 formalism in seed brachytherapy. This study compared ICF-corrected plans to their standard TG43 counterparts, looking at their capacity to assess inadequate coverage and/or risk of any skin toxicities for patients who received permanent breast seed implant (PBSI). Methods and Materials: Two-month postimplant computed tomography scans and plans of 140 PBSI patients were used to calculate dose distributions by using the TG43 and the ICF methods. Multiple dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of clinical target volume (CTV) and skin were extracted and compared for both ICF and TG43 dose distributions. Short-term (desquamation and erythema) and long-term (telangiectasia) skin toxicity data were available on 125 and 110 of the patients, respectively, at the time of the study. The predictive value of each DVH parameter of skin was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each toxicity endpoint. Results: Dose-volume histogram parameters of CTV, calculated using the ICF method, showed an overall decrease compared to TG43, whereas those of skin showed an increase, confirming previously reported findings of the impact of heterogeneity with low-energy sources. The ICF methodology enabled us to distinguish patients for whom the CTV V{sub 100} and V{sub 90} are up to 19% lower compared to TG43, which could present a risk of recurrence not detected when heterogeneity are not accounted for. The ICF method also led to an increase in the prediction of desquamation, erythema, and telangiectasia for 91% of skin DVH parameters studied. Conclusions: The ICF methodology has the advantage of distinguishing any inadequate dose coverage of CTV due to breast heterogeneity, which can be missed by TG43. Use of ICF correction also led to an increase in prediction accuracy of skin toxicities in most cases.

  13. SU-F-T-227: A Comprehensive Patient Specific, Structure Specific, Pre-Treatment 3D QA Protocol for IMRT, SBRT and VMAT - Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorguiev, G; Cotter, C; Young, M; Toomeh, D [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States); Khan, F; Crawford, B; Turcotte, J; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); Mah’D, M [University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a 3D QA method and clinical results for 550 patients. Methods: Five hundred and fifty patient treatment deliveries (400 IMRT, 75 SBRT and 75 VMAT) from various treatment sites, planned on Raystation treatment planning system (TPS), were measured on three beam-matched Elekta linear accelerators using IBA’s COMPASS system. The difference between TPS computed and delivered dose was evaluated in 3D by applying three statistical parameters to each structure of interest: absolute average dose difference (AADD, 6% allowed difference), absolute dose difference greater than 6% (ADD6, 4% structure volume allowed to fail) and 3D gamma test (3%/3mm DTA, 4% structure volume allowed to fail). If the allowed value was not met for a given structure, manual review was performed. The review consisted of overlaying dose difference or gamma results with the patient CT, scrolling through the slices. For QA to pass, areas of high dose difference or gamma must be small and not on consecutive slices. For AADD to manually pass QA, the average dose difference in cGy must be less than 50cGy. The QA protocol also includes DVH analysis based on QUANTEC and TG-101 recommended dose constraints. Results: Figures 1–3 show the results for the three parameters per treatment modality. Manual review was performed on 67 deliveries (27 IMRT, 22 SBRT and 18 VMAT), for which all passed QA. Results show that statistical parameter AADD may be overly sensitive for structures receiving low dose, especially for the SBRT deliveries (Fig.1). The TPS computed and measured DVH values were in excellent agreement and with minimum difference. Conclusion: Applying DVH analysis and different statistical parameters to any structure of interest, as part of the 3D QA protocol, provides a comprehensive treatment plan evaluation. Author G. Gueorguiev discloses receiving travel and research funding from IBA for unrelated to this project work. Author B. Crawford discloses receiving travel funding from

  14. An improved hybrid of particle swarm optimization and the gravitational search algorithm to produce a kinetic parameter estimation of aspartate biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad Muhaimin; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Abdul Majid, Hairudin; Abas, Khairul Hamimah; Deris, Safaai; Zaki, Nazar; Mohd Hashim, Siti Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Remli, Muhammad Akmal

    2017-12-01

    Mathematical modelling is fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior and regulation of the biochemical metabolisms and pathways that are found in biological systems. Pathways are used to describe complex processes that involve many parameters. It is important to have an accurate and complete set of parameters that describe the characteristics of a given model. However, measuring these parameters is typically difficult and even impossible in some cases. Furthermore, the experimental data are often incomplete and also suffer from experimental noise. These shortcomings make it challenging to identify the best-fit parameters that can represent the actual biological processes involved in biological systems. Computational approaches are required to estimate these parameters. The estimation is converted into multimodal optimization problems that require a global optimization algorithm that can avoid local solutions. These local solutions can lead to a bad fit when calibrating with a model. Although the model itself can potentially match a set of experimental data, a high-performance estimation algorithm is required to improve the quality of the solutions. This paper describes an improved hybrid of particle swarm optimization and the gravitational search algorithm (IPSOGSA) to improve the efficiency of a global optimum (the best set of kinetic parameter values) search. The findings suggest that the proposed algorithm is capable of narrowing down the search space by exploiting the feasible solution areas. Hence, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve a near-optimal set of parameters at a fast convergence speed. The proposed algorithm was tested and evaluated based on two aspartate pathways that were obtained from the BioModels Database. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperformed other standard optimization algorithms in terms of accuracy and near-optimal kinetic parameter estimation. Nevertheless, the proposed algorithm is only expected to work well in

  15. Seaweed Fucoxanthin Supplementation Improves Obesity Parameters in Mild Obese Japanese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoketsu Hitoe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fucoxanthin is a seaweed xanthophyll that has demonstrated an anti-obesity effect in rodents. However,clinical investigations of its influence on mildly obese subjects has not been performed. We conducted a clinical trial of fucoxanthin supplementation in Japanese obese subjects.Methods: We examined the effect of fucoxanthin (1 or 3 mg daily in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Capsules containing fucoxanthin or placebo capsules were administered for 4 weeks to male and female Japanese adults with a body mass index (BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. Before and after treatment, the body weight, body composition, abdominal fat area, and the circumferences of the neck, arm,and thigh were evaluated.Results: There was significant reduction of the relative (ratio versus before treatment body weight,BMI, and visceral fat area in the 3 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. Relative values of total fat mass, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and right thigh circumference were also significantly lower in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group than the placebo group. A significant decrease of the absoluteright thigh circumference was noted in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. In the subjects ingesting fucoxanthin, there were no abnormalities of the blood pressure, pulse rate, blood parameters, and urinalysis parameters, which thereby suggests adverse effects.Conclusions: Fucoxanthin reduced body weight, BMI, and abdominal fat by acting on both visceraland subcutaneous fat. Consequently, Fucoxanthin may be able to improve a moderate overweight state in both men and women.

  16. Improvement in pulmonary functions and clinical parameters due to addition of breathing exercises in asthma patients receiving optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Breathing exercises provided significant improvements in spirometric parameters and significant reduction in breathlessness, wheezing, and nocturnal symptoms as well as requirements of rescue medicines in asthma patients who were receiving optimal asthma treatment.

  17. Bootstrap analysis of designed experiments for reliability improvement with a non-constant scale parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guodong; He, Zhen; Xue, Li; Cui, Qingan; Lv, Shanshan; Zhou, Panpan

    2017-01-01

    Factors which significantly affect product reliability are of great interest to reliability practitioners. This paper proposes a bootstrap-based methodology for identifying significant factors when both location and scale parameters of the smallest extreme value distribution vary over experimental factors. An industrial thermostat experiment is presented, analyzed, and discussed as an illustrative example. The analysis results show that 1) the misspecification of a constant scale parameter may lead to misidentify spurious effects; 2) the important factors identified by different bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping) are different; 3) the number of factors affecting 10th percentile lifetime significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile. - Highlights: • Product reliability is improved by design of experiments under both scale and location parameters of smallest extreme value distribution vary with experimental factors. • A bootstrap-based methodology is proposed to identify important factors which affect 100pth lifetime percentile significantly. • Bootstrapping confidence intervals associating experimental factors are obtained by using three bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping). • The important factors identified by different bootstrap methods are different. • The number of factors affecting 10th percentile significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile.

  18. Multi-objective optimization in quantum parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, BeiLi; Cui, Wei

    2018-04-01

    We investigate quantum parameter estimation based on linear and Kerr-type nonlinear controls in an open quantum system, and consider the dissipation rate as an unknown parameter. We show that while the precision of parameter estimation is improved, it usually introduces a significant deformation to the system state. Moreover, we propose a multi-objective model to optimize the two conflicting objectives: (1) maximizing the Fisher information, improving the parameter estimation precision, and (2) minimizing the deformation of the system state, which maintains its fidelity. Finally, simulations of a simplified ɛ-constrained model demonstrate the feasibility of the Hamiltonian control in improving the precision of the quantum parameter estimation.

  19. A theoretical approach to the problem of dose-volume constraint estimation and their impact on the dose-volume histogram selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinkel, Colleen; Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadia; Fallone, B. Gino

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical approach to the problem of estimating and choosing dose-volume constraints. Following this approach, a method of choosing dose-volume constraints based on biological criteria is proposed. This method is called ''reverse normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) mapping into dose-volume space'' and may be used as a general guidance to the problem of dose-volume constraint estimation. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) are randomly simulated, and those resulting in clinically acceptable levels of complication, such as NTCP of 5±0.5%, are selected and averaged producing a mean DVH that is proven to result in the same level of NTCP. The points from the averaged DVH are proposed to serve as physical dose-volume constraints. The population-based critical volume and Lyman NTCP models with parameter sets taken from literature sources were used for the NTCP estimation. The impact of the prescribed value of the maximum dose to the organ, D max , on the averaged DVH and the dose-volume constraint points is investigated. Constraint points for 16 organs are calculated. The impact of the number of constraints to be fulfilled based on the likelihood that a DVH satisfying them will result in an acceptable NTCP is also investigated. It is theoretically proven that the radiation treatment optimization based on physical objective functions can sufficiently well restrict the dose to the organs at risk, resulting in sufficiently low NTCP values through the employment of several appropriate dose-volume constraints. At the same time, the pure physical approach to optimization is self-restrictive due to the preassignment of acceptable NTCP levels thus excluding possible better solutions to the problem

  20. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Radiation for Brachytherapy in Patients With Cervical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clivio, Alessandro [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Kluge, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Cozzi, Luca, E-mail: lucozzi@iosi.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Köhler, Christhardt [Department of Gynecology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Oliver [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Vanetti, Eugenio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Marnitz, Simone [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with cervical cancer in terms of coverage, conformity, and dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters correlated with recommendations from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with histologically proven cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation for the pelvic lymph nodes, the uterus, the cervix, and the parametric region, with a symmetric margin of 1 cm. The prescription was for 50.4 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The prescribed dose to the parametria was 2.12 Gy up to 59.36 Gy in 28 fractions as a simultaneous boost. For several reasons, the patients were unable to undergo brachytherapy. As an alternative, IMPT was planned with 5 fractions of 6 Gy to the cervix, including the macroscopic tumor with an MRI-guided target definition, with an isotropic margin of 5 mm for planning target volume (PTV) definition. Groupe-Europeen de Curietherapie and European society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) criteria were used for DVH evaluation. Reference comparison plans were optimized for volumetric modulated rapid arc (VMAT) therapy with the RapidArc (RA). Results: The dose to the high-risk volume was calculated with α/β = 10 with 89.6 Gy. For IMPT, the clinical target volume showed a mean dose of 38.2 ± 5.0 Gy (35.0 ±1.8 Gy for RA). The D{sub 98%} was 31.9 ± 2.6 Gy (RA: 30.8 ± 1.0 Gy). With regard to the organs at risk, the 2Gy Equivalent Dose (EQD2) (α/β = 3) to 2 cm{sup 3} of the rectal wall, sigmoid wall, and bladder wall was 62.2 ± 6.4 Gy, 57.8 ± 6.1 Gy, and 80.6 ± 8.7 Gy (for RA: 75.3 ± 6.1 Gy, 66.9 ± 6.9 Gy, and 89.0 ± 7.2 Gy, respectively). For the IMPT boost plans in combination with external beam radiation therapy, all DVH parameters correlated with <5% risk for grades 2 to 4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: In patients who are not eligible for brachytherapy, IMPT as a boost

  1. Improving the Terrain-Based Parameter for the Assessment of Snow Redistribution in the Col du Lac Blanc Area and Comparisons with TLS Snow Depth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Peter; Prokop, Alexander; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Nishimura, Kouichi; Vionnet, Vincent; Guyomarc'h, Gilbert

    2014-05-01

    Wind and the associated snow drift are dominating factors determining the snow distribution and accumulation in alpine areas, resulting in a high spatial variability of snow depth that is difficult to evaluate and quantify. The terrain-based parameter Sx characterizes the degree of shelter or exposure of a grid point provided by the upwind terrain, without the computational complexity of numerical wind field models. The parameter has shown to qualitatively predict snow redistribution with good reproduction of spatial patterns, but has failed to quantitatively describe the snow redistribution, and correlations with measured snow heights were poor. The objective of our research was to a) identify the sources of poor correlations between predicted and measured snow re-distribution and b) improve the parameters ability to qualitatively and quantitatively describe snow redistribution in our research area, the Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. The area is at an elevation of 2700 m and particularly suited for our study due to its constant wind direction and the availability of data from a meteorological station. Our work focused on areas with terrain edges of approximately 10 m height, and we worked with 1-2 m resolution digital terrain and snow surface data. We first compared the results of the terrain-based parameter calculations to measured snow-depths, obtained by high-accuracy terrestrial laser scan measurements. The results were similar to previous studies: The parameter was able to reproduce observed patterns in snow distribution, but regression analyses showed poor correlations between terrain-based parameter and measured snow-depths. We demonstrate how the correlations between measured and calculated snow heights improve if the parameter is calculated based on a snow surface model instead of a digital terrain model. We show how changing the parameter's search distance and how raster re-sampling and raster smoothing improve the results. To improve the parameter

  2. Explicit optimization of plan quality measures in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Lovisa; Forsgren, Anders; Eriksson, Kjell; Hårdemark, Björn

    2017-06-01

    To formulate convex planning objectives of treatment plan multicriteria optimization with explicit relationships to the dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics used in plan quality evaluation. Conventional planning objectives are designed to minimize the violation of DVH statistics thresholds using penalty functions. Although successful in guiding the DVH curve towards these thresholds, conventional planning objectives offer limited control of the individual points on the DVH curve (doses-at-volume) used to evaluate plan quality. In this study, we abandon the usual penalty-function framework and propose planning objectives that more closely relate to DVH statistics. The proposed planning objectives are based on mean-tail-dose, resulting in convex optimization. We also demonstrate how to adapt a standard optimization method to the proposed formulation in order to obtain a substantial reduction in computational cost. We investigated the potential of the proposed planning objectives as tools for optimizing DVH statistics through juxtaposition with the conventional planning objectives on two patient cases. Sets of treatment plans with differently balanced planning objectives were generated using either the proposed or the conventional approach. Dominance in the sense of better distributed doses-at-volume was observed in plans optimized within the proposed framework. The initial computational study indicates that the DVH statistics are better optimized and more efficiently balanced using the proposed planning objectives than using the conventional approach. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. HAL® exoskeleton training improves walking parameters and normalizes cortical excitability in primary somatosensory cortex in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Höffken, Oliver; Aach, Mirko; Cruciger, Oliver; Grasmücke, Dennis; Meindl, Renate; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-08-20

    Reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex accompanied by increased excitability and enlarged body representations is a consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic-assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) was hypothesized to induce reorganization and improve walking function. To assess whether BWSTT with hybrid assistive limb® (HAL®) exoskeleton affects cortical excitability in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in SCI patients, as measured by paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials (ppSEP) stimulated above the level of injury. Eleven SCI patients took part in HAL® assisted BWSTT for 3 months. PpSEP were conducted before and after this training period, where the amplitude ratios (SEP amplitude following double pulses - SEP amplitude following single pulses) were assessed and compared to eleven healthy control subjects. To assess improvement in walking function, we used the 10-m walk test, timed-up-and-go test, the 6-min walk test, and the lower extremity motor score. PpSEPs were significantly increased in SCI patients as compared to controls at baseline. Following training, ppSEPs were increased from baseline and no longer significantly differed from controls. Walking parameters also showed significant improvements, yet there was no significant correlation between ppSEP measures and walking parameters. The findings suggest that robotic-assisted BWSTT with HAL® in SCI patients is capable of inducing cortical plasticity following highly repetitive, active locomotive use of paretic legs. While there was no significant correlation of excitability with walking parameters, brain areas other than S1 might reflect improvement of walking functions. EEG and neuroimaging studies may provide further information about supraspinal plastic processes and foci in SCI rehabilitation.

  4. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Su Kim; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI con...

  5. Improved time series prediction with a new method for selection of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jade, A M; Jayaraman, V K; Kulkarni, B D

    2006-01-01

    A new method for model selection in prediction of time series is proposed. Apart from the conventional criterion of minimizing RMS error, the method also minimizes the error on the distribution of singularities, evaluated through the local Hoelder estimates and its probability density spectrum. Predictions of two simulated and one real time series have been done using kernel principal component regression (KPCR) and model parameters of KPCR have been selected employing the proposed as well as the conventional method. Results obtained demonstrate that the proposed method takes into account the sharp changes in a time series and improves the generalization capability of the KPCR model for better prediction of the unseen test data. (letter to the editor)

  6. Multicomponent Exercise Improves Physical Functioning but Not Cognition and Hemodynamic Parameters in Elderly Osteoarthritis Patients Regardless of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Coelho-Júnior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program (MCEP on physical function, cognition, and hemodynamic parameters of elderly normotensive (NTS and hypertensive (HTS osteoarthritis patients. A total of 99 elderly osteoarthritis patients (44 NTS and 55 HTS were recruited and submitted to functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic evaluations before and after six months of a MCEP. The program of exercise was performed twice a week at moderate intensity. The physical exercises aggregated functional and walking exercises. Results indicate that 6 months of MCEP were able to improve one-leg stand and mobility (walking speeds of osteoarthritis patients regardless of hypertension. On the other hand, cognitive and hemodynamic parameters were not altered after the MCEP. The findings of the present study demonstrate that 6 months of MCEP were able to improve the physical functioning (i.e., usual and maximal walking speed and balance of osteoarthritis patients regardless of hypertensive condition.

  7. Clinical trials radiotherapy treatment plan review software : is this the first quantified assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, J.A.; Cornes, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Clinical trials require robust quality assurance (QA) procedures to ensure commonality of all treatments, with independent reviews to assess compliance with trial protocols. All clinical trials tools, including QA software, require testing for validity and reliability. enabling inter- and intra-trial comparison. Unlike clinical radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) systems, review software has no published guidelines. This study describes the design and development of a test suite to quantify the performance of review software in TROG clinical trials. Test areas are image handling and reconstruction; geometric accuracy; dosimetric accuracy; dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation; display of plan parameters. TROG have developed tests for commissioning plan review software, assessed with SWAN 2.3, and CMS Elekta FocalPro. While image handling tests were based on published guidelines for RTP systems, dosimetric tests used the TROG QA case review requirements. Treatment plans represented systems of all manufacturers (Pinnacle, Eclipse, Xio and Oncentra) used in Australasian centres. The test suite identified areas for SW A software development, including the DVH algorithm, changed to reduce calculation time. Results, in Fig. I, for known volumes of varying shapes and sizes, demonstrate differences between SWAN 2.1 and 2.3 when compared with Eclipse. Liaison with SWAN programmers enabled re-instatement of 2.1 algorithm. The test suite has quantified the RTP review software, prioritised areas for development with the programmers, and improved the user experience.

  8. SU-E-T-399: Determination of the Radiobiological Parameters That Describe the Dose-Response Relations of Xerostomia and Disgeusia From Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, P; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas Health Science Center, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Peixoto Xavier, C [University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Costa Ferreira, B [University of Aveiro, Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Khouri, L; Carmo Lopes, M do [IPOCFG, EPE, Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters that describe the doseresponse relations of xerostomia and disgeusia from head and neck cancer radiotherapy. To identify the organs that are best correlated with the manifestation of those clinical endpoints. Finally, to evaluate the goodnessof- fit by comparing the model predictions against the actual clinical results. Methods: In this study, 349 head and neck cancer patients were included. For each patient the dose volume histograms (DVH) of parotids (separate and combined), mandible, submandibular glands (separate and combined) and salivary glands were calculated. The follow-up of those patients was recorded at different times after the completion of the treatment (7 weeks, 3, 7, 12, 18 and 24 months). Acute and late xerostomia and acute disgeusia were the clinical endpoints examined. A maximum likelihood fitting was performed to calculate the best estimates of the parameters used by the relative seriality model. The statistical methods of the error distribution, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the Pearson's test and the Akaike's information criterion were utilized to assess the goodness-of-fit and the agreement between the pattern of the radiobiological predictions with that of the clinical records. Results: The estimated values of the radiobiological parameters of salivary glands are D50 = 25.2 Gy, γ = 0.52, s = 0.001. The statistical analysis confirmed the clinical validity of those parameters (area under the ROC curve = 0.65 and AIC = 38.3). Conclusion: The analysis proved that the treatment outcome pattern of the patient material can be reproduced by the relative seriality model and the estimated radiobiological parameters. Salivary glands were found to have strong volume dependence (low relative seriality). Diminishing the biologically effective uniform dose to salivary glands below 30 Gy may significantly reduce the risk of complications to the patients irradiated for

  9. SU-E-T-399: Determination of the Radiobiological Parameters That Describe the Dose-Response Relations of Xerostomia and Disgeusia From Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, P; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Peixoto Xavier, C; Costa Ferreira, B; Khouri, L; Carmo Lopes, M do

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters that describe the doseresponse relations of xerostomia and disgeusia from head and neck cancer radiotherapy. To identify the organs that are best correlated with the manifestation of those clinical endpoints. Finally, to evaluate the goodnessof- fit by comparing the model predictions against the actual clinical results. Methods: In this study, 349 head and neck cancer patients were included. For each patient the dose volume histograms (DVH) of parotids (separate and combined), mandible, submandibular glands (separate and combined) and salivary glands were calculated. The follow-up of those patients was recorded at different times after the completion of the treatment (7 weeks, 3, 7, 12, 18 and 24 months). Acute and late xerostomia and acute disgeusia were the clinical endpoints examined. A maximum likelihood fitting was performed to calculate the best estimates of the parameters used by the relative seriality model. The statistical methods of the error distribution, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the Pearson's test and the Akaike's information criterion were utilized to assess the goodness-of-fit and the agreement between the pattern of the radiobiological predictions with that of the clinical records. Results: The estimated values of the radiobiological parameters of salivary glands are D50 = 25.2 Gy, γ = 0.52, s = 0.001. The statistical analysis confirmed the clinical validity of those parameters (area under the ROC curve = 0.65 and AIC = 38.3). Conclusion: The analysis proved that the treatment outcome pattern of the patient material can be reproduced by the relative seriality model and the estimated radiobiological parameters. Salivary glands were found to have strong volume dependence (low relative seriality). Diminishing the biologically effective uniform dose to salivary glands below 30 Gy may significantly reduce the risk of complications to the patients irradiated for

  10. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  11. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations in 192Ir breast brachytherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E P; Karaiskos, P; Major, T; Polgár, C; Papagiannis, P

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of introducing model based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) as an alternative to TG-43 in 192 Ir interstitial breast brachytherapy. A 57 patient cohort was used in a retrospective comparison between TG-43 based dosimetry data exported from a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry performed using MCNP v. 6.1 with plan and anatomy information in DICOM-RT format. Comparison was performed for the target, ipsilateral lung, heart, skin, breast and ribs, using dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and plan quality indices clinically used for plan evaluation, as well as radiobiological parameters. TG-43 overestimation of target DVH parameters is statistically significant but small (less than 2% for the target coverage indices and 4% for homogeneity indices, on average). Significant dose differences (>5%) were observed close to the skin and at relatively large distances from the implant leading to a TG-43 dose overestimation for the organs at risk. These differences correspond to low dose regions (<50% of the prescribed dose), being less than 2% of the prescribed dose. Detected dosimetric differences did not induce clinically significant differences in calculated tumor control probabilities (mean absolute difference <0.2%) and normal tissue complication probabilities. While TG-43 shows a statistically significant overestimation of most indices used for plan evaluation, differences are small and therefore not clinically significant. Improved MBDCA dosimetry could be important for re-irradiation, technique inter-comparison and/or the assessment of secondary cancer induction risk, where accurate dosimetry in the whole patient anatomy is of the essence. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving control and estimation for distributed parameter systems utilizing mobile actuator-sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wenying; Cui, Baotong; Li, Wen; Jiang, Zhengxian

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for non-collocated moving actuating and sensing devices which is unitized for improving performance in distributed parameter systems. By Lyapunov stability theorem, each moving actuator/sensor agent velocity is obtained. To enhance state estimation of a spatially distributes process, two kinds of filters with consensus terms which penalize the disagreement of the estimates are considered. Both filters can result in the well-posedness of the collective dynamics of state errors and can converge to the plant state. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the effectiveness of such a moving actuator-sensor network in enhancing system performance and the consensus filters converge faster to the plant state when consensus terms are included. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An improved wavelet-Galerkin method for dynamic response reconstruction and parameter identification of shear-type frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Haifeng; Wang, Dansheng; Zhou, Pin; Zhu, Hongping

    2018-04-01

    An improved wavelet-Galerkin (IWG) method based on the Daubechies wavelet is proposed for reconstructing the dynamic responses of shear structures. The proposed method flexibly manages wavelet resolution level according to excitation, thereby avoiding the weakness of the wavelet-Galerkin multiresolution analysis (WGMA) method in terms of resolution and the requirement of external excitation. IWG is implemented by this work in certain case studies, involving single- and n-degree-of-freedom frame structures subjected to a determined discrete excitation. Results demonstrate that IWG performs better than WGMA in terms of accuracy and computation efficiency. Furthermore, a new method for parameter identification based on IWG and an optimization algorithm are also developed for shear frame structures, and a simultaneous identification of structural parameters and excitation is implemented. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed identification method is effective for shear frame structures.

  14. Contaminant transport in aquifers: improving the determination of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Moreira, R.M.; Lula, Z.L.; Chausson, Y.; Magalhaes, W.F.; Vianna, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    Parameters conditioning the migration behavior of cesium and mercury are measured with their tracers 137 Cs and 203 Hg in the laboratory, using both batch and column experiments. Batch tests were used to define the sorption isotherm characteristics. Also investigated were the influences of some test parameters, in particular those due to the volume of water to mass of soil ratio (V/m). A provisional relationship between V/m and the distribution coefficient, K d , has been advanced, and a procedure to estimate K d 's valid for environmental values of the ratio V/m has been suggested. Column tests provided the parameters for a transport model. A major problem to be dealt with in such tests is the collimation of the radioactivity probe. Besides mechanically optimizing the collimator, a deconvolution procedure has been suggested and tested, with statistical criteria, to filter off both noise and spurious tracer signals. Correction procedures for the integrating effect introduced by sampling at the exit of columns have also been developed. These techniques may be helpful in increasing the accuracy required in the measurement of parameters conditioning contaminant migration in soils, thus allowing more reliable predictions based on mathematical model applications. (author)

  15. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Tran, Joshua P Townley, Tanya M Barnes, Kerryn A Greive Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, Victoria, Australia Background: The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods: Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry and skin roughness (Ra were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity, R5 (net elasticity, R6 (viscoelastic portion, and R7 (recovery after deformation were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001 and 42.9% (P<0.0001, respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001 and 12.5% (P=0.0449, respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001 after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion: An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. Keywords: alpha hydroxy acids, antiaging, nicotinamide, vitamin C, vitamin E, profilometry, cutometer

  16. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  17. Cardiac and vascular structure and function parameters do not improve with alternate nightly home hemodialysis: An interventional cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson David W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nightly extended hours hemodialysis may improve left ventricular hypertrophy and function and endothelial function but presents problems of sustainability and increased cost. The effect of alternate nightly home hemodialysis (NHD on cardiovascular structure and function is not known. Methods Sixty-three patients on standard hemodialysis (SHD: 3.5-6 hours/session, 3-5 sessions weekly converted to NHD (6-10 hours/session overnight for 3-5 sessions weekly. 2Dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and ultrasound measures of brachial artery reactivity (BAR, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, total arterial compliance (TAC and augmentation index (AIX were performed post dialysis at baseline and 18-24 months following conversion to NHD. In 37 patients, indices of oxidative stress: plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidant status (TAS were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI remained stable. Despite significant derangement at baseline, there were no changes in diastolic function measures, CIMT, BAR and TAC. AIX increased. Conversion to NHD improved bone mineral metabolism parameters and blood pressure control. Interdialytic weight gains increased. No definite improvements in measures of oxidative stress were demonstrated. Conclusions Despite improvement in uremic toxin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, conversion to an alternate nightly NHD regimen did not improve cardiovascular structure and function. Continuing suboptimal control of uremic toxins and interdialytic weight gains may be a possible explanation. This study adds to the increasing uncertainty about the nature of improvement in cardiovascular parameters with conversion to intensive hemodialysis regimens. Future randomized controlled trials will be important to determine whether increases in

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  19. Discussion of skill improvement in marine ecosystem dynamic models based on parameter optimization and skill assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Liu, Yongzhi; Li, Fen; Ding, Dewen

    2016-07-01

    Marine ecosystem dynamic models (MEDMs) are important tools for the simulation and prediction of marine ecosystems. This article summarizes the methods and strategies used for the improvement and assessment of MEDM skill, and it attempts to establish a technical framework to inspire further ideas concerning MEDM skill improvement. The skill of MEDMs can be improved by parameter optimization (PO), which is an important step in model calibration. An efficient approach to solve the problem of PO constrained by MEDMs is the global treatment of both sensitivity analysis and PO. Model validation is an essential step following PO, which validates the efficiency of model calibration by analyzing and estimating the goodness-of-fit of the optimized model. Additionally, by focusing on the degree of impact of various factors on model skill, model uncertainty analysis can supply model users with a quantitative assessment of model confidence. Research on MEDMs is ongoing; however, improvement in model skill still lacks global treatments and its assessment is not integrated. Thus, the predictive performance of MEDMs is not strong and model uncertainties lack quantitative descriptions, limiting their application. Therefore, a large number of case studies concerning model skill should be performed to promote the development of a scientific and normative technical framework for the improvement of MEDM skill.

  20. Principal Component Analysis-Based Pattern Analysis of Dose-Volume Histograms and Influence on Rectal Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehn, Matthias; Alber, Markus; Yan Di

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The variability of dose-volume histogram (DVH) shapes in a patient population can be quantified using principal component analysis (PCA). We applied this to rectal DVHs of prostate cancer patients and investigated the correlation of the PCA parameters with late bleeding. Methods and Materials: PCA was applied to the rectal wall DVHs of 262 patients, who had been treated with a four-field box, conformal adaptive radiotherapy technique. The correlated changes in the DVH pattern were revealed as 'eigenmodes,' which were ordered by their importance to represent data set variability. Each DVH is uniquely characterized by its principal components (PCs). The correlation of the first three PCs and chronic rectal bleeding of Grade 2 or greater was investigated with uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Rectal wall DVHs in four-field conformal RT can primarily be represented by the first two or three PCs, which describe ∼94% or 96% of the DVH shape variability, respectively. The first eigenmode models the total irradiated rectal volume; thus, PC1 correlates to the mean dose. Mode 2 describes the interpatient differences of the relative rectal volume in the two- or four-field overlap region. Mode 3 reveals correlations of volumes with intermediate doses (∼40-45 Gy) and volumes with doses >70 Gy; thus, PC3 is associated with the maximal dose. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, only PC2 correlated significantly with toxicity. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis with the first two or three PCs revealed an increased probability of bleeding for DVHs with more than one large PC. Conclusions: PCA can reveal the correlation structure of DVHs for a patient population as imposed by the treatment technique and provide information about its relationship to toxicity. It proves useful for augmenting normal tissue complication probability modeling approaches

  1. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji, E-mail: nkgc2003@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Ono, Takeshi [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Onitsuka, Ryota [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital.

  2. Identifyability measures to select the parameters to be estimated in a solid-state fermentation distributed parameter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Christian L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Salau, Nina P G

    2016-07-08

    Process modeling can lead to of advantages such as helping in process control, reducing process costs and product quality improvement. This work proposes a solid-state fermentation distributed parameter model composed by seven differential equations with seventeen parameters to represent the process. Also, parameters estimation with a parameters identifyability analysis (PIA) is performed to build an accurate model with optimum parameters. Statistical tests were made to verify the model accuracy with the estimated parameters considering different assumptions. The results have shown that the model assuming substrate inhibition better represents the process. It was also shown that eight from the seventeen original model parameters were nonidentifiable and better results were obtained with the removal of these parameters from the estimation procedure. Therefore, PIA can be useful to estimation procedure, since it may reduce the number of parameters that can be evaluated. Further, PIA improved the model results, showing to be an important procedure to be taken. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:905-917, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Test models for improving filtering with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershgorin, B.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The filtering skill for turbulent signals from nature is often limited by model errors created by utilizing an imperfect model for filtering. Updating the parameters in the imperfect model through stochastic parameter estimation is one way to increase filtering skill and model performance. Here a suite of stringent test models for filtering with stochastic parameter estimation is developed based on the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF). These new SPEKF-algorithms systematically correct both multiplicative and additive biases and involve exact formulas for propagating the mean and covariance including the parameters in the test model. A comprehensive study is presented of robust parameter regimes for increasing filtering skill through stochastic parameter estimation for turbulent signals as the observation time and observation noise are varied and even when the forcing is incorrectly specified. The results here provide useful guidelines for filtering turbulent signals in more complex systems with significant model errors.

  4. SU-F-T-501: Dosimetric Comparison of Single Arc-Per-Beam and Two Arc-Per-Beam VMAT Optimization in the Monaco Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalet, A; Cao, N; Meyer, J; Dempsey, C [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); Richardson, H [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric and practical effects of the Monaco treatment planning system “max arcs-per-beam” optimization parameter in pelvic radiotherapy treatments. Methods: A total of 17 previously treated patients were selected for this study with a range of pelvic disease site including prostate(9), bladder(1), uterus(3), rectum(3), and cervix(1). For each patient, two plans were generated, one using a arc-per-beam setting of ‘1’ and another with setting of ‘2’. The setting allows the optimizer to add a gantry direction change, creating multiple arc passes per beam sequence. Volumes and constraints established from the initial clinical treatments were used for planning. All constraints and dose coverage objects were kept the same between plans, and all plans were normalized to 99.7% to ensure 100% of the PTV received 95% of the prescription dose. We evaluated the PTV conformity index, homogeneity index, total monitor units, number of control points, and various dose volume histogram (DVH) points for statistical comparison (alpha=0.05). Results: We found for the 10 complex shaped target volumes (small central volumes with extending bilateral ‘arms’ to cover nodal regions) that the use of 2 arcs-per-beam achieved significantly lower average DVH values for the bladder V20 (p=0.036) and rectum V30 (p=0.001) while still meeting the high dose target constraints. DVH values for the simpler, more spherical PTVs were not found significantly different. Additionally, we found a beam delivery time reduction of approximately 25%. Conclusion: In summary, the dosimetric benefit, while moderate, was improved over a 1 arc-per-beam setting for complex PTVs, and equivalent in other cases. The overall reduced delivery time suggests that the use of multiple arcs-per-beam could lead to reduced patient on table time, increased clinical throughput, and reduced medical physics quality assurance effort.

  5. A Monte-Carlo study to assess the effect of 1.5 T magnetic fields on the overall robustness of pencil-beam scanning proton radiotherapy plans for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christopher; Landry, Guillaume; Resch, Andreas F.; Dedes, George; Kamp, Florian; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Raaymakers, Bas W.; Parodi, Katia

    2017-11-01

    Combining magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy (PT) using pencil-beam scanning (PBS) may improve image-guided radiotherapy. We aimed at assessing the impact of a magnetic field on PBS-PT plan quality and robustness. Specifically, the robustness against anatomical changes and positioning errors in an MRI-guided scenario with a 30 cm radius 1.5 T magnetic field was studied for prostate PT. Five prostate cancer patients with three consecutive CT images (CT1-3) were considered. Single-field uniform dose PBS-PT plans were generated on the segmented CT1 with Monte-Carlo-based treatment planning software for inverse optimization. Plans were optimized at 90° gantry angle without B-field (no B), with  ±1.5 T B-field (B and minus B), as well as at 81° gantry angle and  +1.5 T (B G81). Plans were re-calculated on aligned CT2 and CT3 to study the impact of anatomical changes. Dose distributions were compared in terms of changes in DVH parameters, proton range and gamma-index pass-rates. To assess the impact of positioning errors, DVH parameters were compared for  ±5 mm CT1 patient shifts in anterior-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) direction. Proton beam deflection considerably reduced robustness against inter-fractional changes for the B scenario. Range agreement, gamma-index pass-rates and PTV V95% were significantly lower compared to no B. Improved robustness was obtained for minus B and B G81, the latter showing only minor differences to no B. The magnetic field introduced slight dosimetric changes under LR shifts. The impact of AP shifts was considerably larger, and equivalent for scenarios with and without B-field. Results suggest that robustness equivalent to PT without magnetic field can be achieved by adaptation of the treatment parameters, such as B-field orientation (minus B) with respect to the patient and/or gantry angle (B G81). MRI-guided PT for prostate cancer might thus be implemented without compromising robustness

  6. Characterization of Thermal Parameters for Improving Pyranometer and Pyrgeometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Ji, Qiang; Rapshun, David; Shu, Peter K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of thermopile, pyranometers (solar, e.g., 0.3-3.0 micrometers) and pyrgeometers (terrestrial, e.g., 4-50 micrometers) have become instruments commonly used for measuring the broadband hemispherical irradiances at the surface in a long-term, monitoring mode for decades. These commercially available radiometers have been manufactured in several countries such as from the United States, Asia, and Europe, and are generally reliable and economical. These worldwide distributions of surface measurements become even more important in the era of Earth remote sensing in studying climate change. However, recent studies from field campaigns have pointed out that erroneous factors (e.g., temperature gradients between the filter dome and detector, emissivity of the thermopile) are responsible for the unacceptable level of uncertainty (e.g., 20 W m(exp -2)). Using a newly developed instrument of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWTP), we have characterized the brightness temperature fields of pyranometers and pyrgeometers under various sky conditions. The QWIP is based on the superlattice (GaAs/AlGaAs) technology and has a noise equivalent temperature (NEAT) less than 0.1 K. The quality of pyranometer and pyrgeometer measure- ments can be improved largely by applying proper knowledge of the thermal parameters affecting the operation of the thermopile systems. Data correction procedure and algorithm will be presented and discussed.

  7. Preliminary results in the application of radiobiological models in the evaluation of radiotherapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Napoles, Mysleidis; Asencion, Yudy; Yanes, Yahima; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Gonzalez, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding the limitations of radiobiological models in the clinical application, its use is becoming more widespread in order to quantitatively assess the bioequivalence of different regimens of irradiation, the effective comparison between different treatment plans by estimating the probability tumor control (TCP) or the probability of normal tissue complication (NTCP), or solve problems, such as the rescheduling of treatments in case of failure. The response to irradiation in the tissues at risk (OARS) depends on factors such as volume irradiated or its organizational structure and behavior can vary for a given dose distribution. Another important aspect is the sensitivity of these models to the variation of parameters (α, α / β, proliferation, clonogenic density, etc.) Measuring the difference between-subjects. Commercial planning systems do not always possible to estimate the biological response of the OARS and CTV. This study presents an assessment of the results of two applications (free ware) and Albireo Target BIOPLAN Cygnus X1 that calculate statistical parameters of the DVH: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), equivalent biological dose (BED), medium dose and other to estimate TCP (Poisson model) and NTCP (Lyman-Kutcker models-Burman and relative seriality) for the calculation of the objective functions: the probability of uncomplicated control (UTCP) based on generalized EUD (f). We studied the response of both systems to the variation of relevant radiobiological parameters and the shape of the DVH. (Author)

  8. Preliminary results in the application of radiobiological models in the evaluation of radiotherapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Napoles, Mysleidis; Asencion, Yudy; Yanes, Yahima; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Gonzalez Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding the limitations of radiobiological models in the clinical application, its use is becoming more widespread in order to quantitatively assess the bioequivalence of different regimens of irradiation, the effective comparison between different treatment plans by estimating the probability tumor control (TCP) or the probability of normal tissue complication (NTCP), or solve problems, such as the rescheduling of treatments in case of failure. The response to irradiation in the tissues at risk (OARS) depends on factors such as volume irradiated or its organizational structure and behavior can vary for a given dose distribution. Another important aspect is the sensitivity of these models to the variation of parameters (a, a / β, proliferation, clonogenic density, etc.) Measuring the difference between-subjects. Commercial planning systems do not always possible to estimate the biological response of the OARS and CTV. This study presents an assessment of the results of two applications (free ware) and Albireo Target BIOPLAN Cygnus X1 that calculate statistical parameters of the DVH: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), equivalent biological dose (BED), medium dose and other to estimate TCP (Poisson model) and NTCP (Lyman-models-Kutcker Burman and relative seriality) for the calculation of the objective functions: the probability of uncomplicated control (UTCP) based on generalized EUD (f). We studied the response of both systems to the variation of relevant radiobiological parameters and the shape of the DVH. (author)

  9. Cross-validation of two commercial methods for volumetric high-resolution dose reconstruction on a phantom for non-coplanar VMAT beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feygelman, Vladimir; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo G.; Nelms, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Delta 4 (ScandiDos AB, Uppsala, Sweden) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL, USA) are commercial quasi-three-dimensional diode dosimetry arrays capable of volumetric measurement-guided dose reconstruction. A method to reconstruct dose for non-coplanar VMAT beams with 3DVH is described. The Delta 4 3D dose reconstruction on its own phantom for VMAT delivery has not been thoroughly evaluated previously, and we do so by comparison with 3DVH. Materials and methods: Reconstructed volumetric doses for VMAT plans delivered with different table angles were compared between the Delta 4 and 3DVH using gamma analysis. Results: The average γ (2% local dose-error normalization/2mm) passing rate comparing the directly measured Delta 4 diode dose with 3DVH was 98.2 ± 1.6% (1SD). The average passing rate for the full volumetric comparison of the reconstructed doses on a homogeneous cylindrical phantom was 95.6 ± 1.5%. No dependence on the table angle was observed. Conclusions: Modified 3DVH algorithm is capable of 3D VMAT dose reconstruction on an arbitrary volume for the full range of table angles. Our comparison results between different dosimeters make a compelling case for the use of electronic arrays with high-resolution 3D dose reconstruction as primary means of evaluating spatial dose distributions during IMRT/VMAT verification

  10. Inter-observer variability in contouring the penile bulb on CT images for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Lucia; Cozzarini, Cesare; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Fellin, Gianni; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio; Villa, Sergio; Fiorino, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Several investigations have recently suggested the existence of a correlation between the dose received by the penile bulb (PB) and the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate carcinoma. A prospective multi-Institute study (DUE-01) was implemented with the aim to assess the predictive parameters of ED. Previously, an evaluation of inter-observer variations of PB contouring was mandatory in order to quantify its impact on PB dose-volume parameters by means of a dummy run exercise. Fifteen observers, from different Institutes, drew the PB on the planning CT images of ten patients; inter-observer variations were analysed in terms of PB volume variation and cranial/caudal limits. 3DCRT treatment plans were simulated to evaluate the impact of PB contouring inter-variability on dose-volume statistics parameters. For DVH analysis the values of PB mean dose and the volume of PB receiving more than 50 Gy and 70 Gy (V50 and V70, respectively) were considered. Systematic differences from the average values were assessed by the Wilcoxon test. Seven observers systematically overestimated or underestimated the PB volume with deviations from the average volumes ranging between -48% and +34% (p < 0.05). The analysis of the cranial and caudal borders showed a prevalence of random over systematic deviations. Inter-observer contouring variability strongly impacts on DVH parameters, although standard deviations of inter-patient differences were larger than inter-observer variations: 14.5 Gy versus 6.8 Gy for mean PB dose, 23.0% versus 11.0% and 16.8% versus 9.3% for V50 and V70 respectively. In conclusion, despite the large inter-observer variation in contouring PB, a large multi-centric study may have the possibility to detect a possible correlation between PB % dose-volume parameters and ED. The impact of contouring uncertainty could be reduced by 'a posteriori' contouring from a single observer or by introducing

  11. Improvements to the swath-level near-surface atmospheric state parameter retrievals within the NRL Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Meyer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX) is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real-time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. The first component of NFLUX produces near-real-time swath-level estimates of surface state parameters and downwelling radiative fluxes. The focus here will be on the satellite swath-level state parameter retrievals, namely surface air temperature, surface specific humidity, and surface scalar wind speed over the ocean. Swath-level state parameter retrievals are produced from satellite sensor data records (SDRs) from four passive microwave sensors onboard 10 platforms: the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor onboard the DMSP F16, F17, and F18 platforms; the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensor onboard the NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, and Metop-B platforms; the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard the S-NPP platform; and the Advanced Microwave Scannin Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor onboard the GCOM-W1 platform. The satellite SDRs are translated into state parameter estimates using multiple polynomial regression algorithms. The coefficients to the algorithms are obtained using a bootstrapping technique with all available brightness temperature channels for a given sensor, in addition to a SST field. For each retrieved parameter for each sensor-platform combination, unique algorithms are developed for ascending and descending orbits, as well as clear vs cloudy conditions. Each of the sensors produces surface air temperature and surface specific humidity retrievals. The SSMIS and AMSR2 sensors also produce surface scalar wind speed retrievals. Improvement is seen in the SSMIS retrievals when separate algorithms are used for the even and odd scans, with the odd scans performing better than the even scans. Currently, NFLUX treats all SSMIS scans as even scans. Additional improvement in all of

  12. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IMPROVES FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WITH A SUITABLE APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Caputo, Danubia C; Dionello, Carla da F; Frederico, Éric Heleno F F; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle S; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Unger, Marianne; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been reported in strength, motion, gait, balance, posture and bone density in several osteopenic individuals, as in post-menopausal women or children with disabling conditions, as patients with OI. The aim of this investigation was to systematically analyse the current available literature to determine the effect of WBV exercises on functional parameters of OI patients. Three reviewers independently accessed bibliographical databases. Searches were performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and PEDro databases using keywords related to possible interventions (including WBV) used in the management of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta . Three eligible studies were identified by searches in the analysed databases. It was concluded that WBV exercises could be an important option in the management of OI patients improving the mobility and functional parameters. However, further studies are necessary for establishing suitable protocols for these patients.

  13. Radiotherapy for stomach cancer: the dosimetric consequences of physiological movement of organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, C.; Joon, D.L.; Joon, M.L.; Quong, G.; Feigen, M.; Wada, M.; Choy, T.; Chui, T.; Mantle, C.; Viotto, A.; Rolfo, A.; Rykers, K.; Grace, M.; Fernando, W.; Liu, G.; Khoo, V.; Chao, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the impact of movement of the liver and kidneys (organs at risk) on the dose volume histogram (DVH) when treating stomach cancer with radiation therapy. Immediate serial CT non-contrast and contrast scans are obtained as part of the planning process for treating stomach cancer with radiation in the neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting at our institution. In a series of five patients the liver and right and left kidneys were contoured on both sets of scans. The maximal translational movement in three planes and volume changes of each structure was measured. The maximum, minimum and mean dose was calculated and compared for each organ at risk in both scans. To assess the change in the DVH, the following dose volume parameters were analysed: V50Gy, V35Gy, V30Gy, and V10GY for liver; V50Gy, V30Gy, V23Gy and V15Gy for both kidneys. A complete analysis of results will be presented

  14. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  15. Multi-subject atlas-based auto-segmentation reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A multi-institution clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Yi, Jun-Lin; Chen, Nian-Yong; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jason; Tung, Stewart; Kong, Lin; Lin, Shao-Jun; Pan, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Guang-Shun; Hu, Jiang; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Jun; Lu, Jia-De; Yan, Di; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess whether consensus guideline-based atlas-based auto-segmentation (ABAS) reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk (OARs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: Eight radiation oncologists from 8 institutes contoured 20 OARs on planning CT images of 16 patients via manual contouring and manually-edited ABAS contouring. Interobserver variation [volume coefficient of variation (CV), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), three-dimensional isocenter difference (3D-ICD)] and dosimetric parameters were compared between the two methods of contouring for each OAR. Results: Interobserver variation was significant for all OARs in manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation (P < 0.05). Edited ABAS significantly improved multiple metrics and reduced dosimetric parameter variation for most OARs; brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), larynx and pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) obtained most benefit (range of mean DSC, volume CV and main ICD values was 0.36–0.83, 12.1–84.3%, 2.2–5.0 mm for manual contouring and 0.42–0.86, 7.2–70.6%, 1.2–3.5 mm for edited ABAS contouring, respectively; range of dose CV reduction: 1.0–3.0%). Conclusion: Substantial objective interobserver differences occur during manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation. Edited ABAS reduced interobserver variation and improved dosimetric parameter consistency, particularly for brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, TMJ, larynx and PCM

  16. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  17. New possibilities for improving the accuracy of parameter calculations for cascade gamma-ray decay of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.; Grigor'ev, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    The level density and radiative strength functions which accurately reproduce the experimental intensity of two- step cascades after thermal neutron capture and the total radiative widths of the compound states were applied to calculate the total γ-ray spectra from the (n,γ) reaction. In some cases, analysis showed far better agreement with experiment and gave insight into possible ways in which these parameters need to be corrected for further improvement of calculation accuracy for the cascade γ-decay of heavy nuclei. (author)

  18. Threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Troy; Chen, Mingli; Jiang, Steve; Lu, Weiguo

    2018-02-01

    We study threshold-driven optimization methodology for automatically generating a treatment plan that is motivated by a reference DVH for IMRT treatment planning. We present a framework for threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning (TORA). Commonly used voxel-based quadratic penalties have two components for penalizing under- and over-dosing of voxels: a reference dose threshold and associated penalty weight. Conventional manual- and auto-planning using such a function involves iteratively updating the preference weights while keeping the thresholds constant, an unintuitive and often inconsistent method for planning toward some reference DVH. However, driving a dose distribution by threshold values instead of preference weights can achieve similar plans with less computational effort. The proposed methodology spatially assigns reference DVH information to threshold values, and iteratively improves the quality of that assignment. The methodology effectively handles both sub-optimal and infeasible DVHs. TORA was applied to a prostate case and a liver case as a proof-of-concept. Reference DVHs were generated using a conventional voxel-based objective, then altered to be either infeasible or easy-to-achieve. TORA was able to closely recreate reference DVHs in 5-15 iterations of solving a simple convex sub-problem. TORA has the potential to be effective for auto-planning based on reference DVHs. As dose prediction and knowledge-based planning becomes more prevalent in the clinical setting, incorporating such data into the treatment planning model in a clear, efficient way will be crucial for automated planning. A threshold-focused objective tuning should be explored over conventional methods of updating preference weights for DVH-guided treatment planning.

  19. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yoshio, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion is considered to be the best method for postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy; however, it is inconvenient and costly. In T2 * -weighted image (T2 * -WI), seeds can be easily detected without the use of an intravenous contrast material. We present a novel method for postimplant dosimetry using T2 * -WI/T2-weighted image (T2-WI) fusion. We compared the outcomes of T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy. All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (prostate D90, prostate V100, prostate V150, urethral D10, and rectal D2cc) were prospectively compared between T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry. All the DVH parameters estimated by T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry strongly correlated to those estimated by CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry (0.77≤ R ≤0.91). No significant difference was observed in these parameters between the two methods, except for prostate V150 (p=0.04). These results show that T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry is comparable or superior to MRI-based dosimetry as previously reported, because no intravenous contrast material is required. For some patients, rather large differences were observed in the value between the 2 methods. We thought these large differences were a result of seed miscounts in T2 * -WI and shifts in fusion. Improving the image quality of T2 * -WI and the image acquisition speed of T2 * -WI and T2-WI may decrease seed miscounts and fusion shifts. Therefore, in the future, T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion may be more useful for postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  20. Technology-Based Feedback and Its Efficacy in Improving Gait Parameters in Patients with Abnormal Gait: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review synthesized and analyzed clinical findings related to the effectiveness of innovative technological feedback for tackling functional gait recovery. An electronic search of PUBMED, PEDro, WOS, CINAHL, and DIALNET was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016. The main inclusion criteria were: patients with modified or abnormal gait; application of technology-based feedback to deal with functional recovery of gait; any comparison between different kinds of feedback applied by means of technology, or any comparison between technological and non-technological feedback; and randomized controlled trials. Twenty papers were included. The populations were neurological patients (75%, orthopedic and healthy subjects. All participants were adults, bar one. Four studies used exoskeletons, 6 load platforms and 5 pressure sensors. The breakdown of the type of feedback used was as follows: 60% visual, 40% acoustic and 15% haptic. 55% used terminal feedback versus 65% simultaneous feedback. Prescriptive feedback was used in 60% of cases, while 50% used descriptive feedback. 62.5% and 58.33% of the trials showed a significant effect in improving step length and speed, respectively. Efficacy in improving other gait parameters such as balance or range of movement is observed in more than 75% of the studies with significant outcomes. Conclusion: Treatments based on feedback using innovative technology in patients with abnormal gait are mostly effective in improving gait parameters and therefore useful for the functional recovery of patients. The most frequently highlighted types of feedback were immediate visual feedback followed by terminal and immediate acoustic feedback.

  1. Improved double integral sliding mode MPPT controller based parameter estimation for a stand-alone photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrenour, Nasrin; Razmi, Hadi; Doagou-Mojarrad, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IDISMC based MPPT algorithm is introduced. • Hurwitz stability theorem is used for switching surface coefficients computation. • GA approach is presented for parameter estimation of the stand-alone PV system. - Abstract: In this paper, an Improved Double Integral Sliding Mode MPPT Controller (IDISMC) for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system is proposed. Performance of a sliding mode controller (SMC) is greatly influenced by the choice of the sliding surface. Switching surface coefficients were selected by the use of Hurwitz stability theorem. The IDISMC not only is robust against parametric and non-parametric uncertainties, but also has a very small steady-state error, thanks to the use of double integral of tracking voltage error in the definition of its sliding surface. For realistic simulation, Genetic Algorithm (GA) method was used to estimate parameters of solar panels model. The validity of the proposed double integral SMC in maximum power point tracking was approved by comparing the simulation results obtained for a sample PV system with the results of other methods.

  2. Comparison of prostate contours between conventional stepping transverse imaging and Twister-based sagittal imaging in permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shogo; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Sekiguchi, Akane; Takenaka, Kouji; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    To compare prostate contours on conventional stepping transverse image acquisitions with those on twister-based sagittal image acquisitions. Twenty prostate cancer patients who were planned to have permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy were prospectively accrued. A transrectal ultrasonography probe was inserted, with the patient in lithotomy position. Transverse images were obtained with stepping movement of the transverse transducer. In the same patient, sagittal images were also obtained through rotation of the sagittal transducer using the "Twister" mode. The differences of prostate size among the two types of image acquisitions were compared. The relationships among the difference of the two types of image acquisitions, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the post-implant computed tomography (CT) analysis, as well as other factors were analyzed. The sagittal image acquisitions showed a larger prostate size compared to the transverse image acquisitions especially in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction ( p transverse image acquisitions was correlated to DVH parameters such as D 90 ( R = 0.518, p = 0.019), and V 100 ( R = 0.598, p = 0.005). There were small but significant differences in the prostate contours between the transverse and the sagittal planning image acquisitions. Furthermore, our study suggested that the differences between the two types of image acquisitions might correlated to dosimetric results on CT analysis.

  3. Parameter identification of piezoelectric hysteresis model based on improved artificial bee colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Zhou, Kexin; Zhang, Yeming

    2018-04-01

    The widely used Bouc-Wen hysteresis model can be utilized to accurately simulate the voltage-displacement curves of piezoelectric actuators. In order to identify the unknown parameters of the Bouc-Wen model, an improved artificial bee colony (IABC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. A guiding strategy for searching the current optimal position of the food source is proposed in the method, which can help balance the local search ability and global exploitation capability. And the formula for the scout bees to search for the food source is modified to increase the convergence speed. Some experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the IABC algorithm. The results show that the identified hysteresis model agreed well with the actual actuator response. Moreover, the identification results were compared with the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) method, and it can be seen that the search performance in convergence rate of the IABC algorithm is better than that of the standard PSO method.

  4. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. An Improved Method to Control the Critical Parameters of a Multivariable Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha Hency Jims, P.; Dharmalingam, S.; Wessley, G. Jims John

    2017-10-01

    The role of control systems is to cope with the process deficiencies and the undesirable effect of the external disturbances. Most of the multivariable processes are highly iterative and complex in nature. Aircraft systems, Modern Power Plants, Refineries, Robotic systems are few such complex systems that involve numerous critical parameters that need to be monitored and controlled. Control of these important parameters is not only tedious and cumbersome but also is crucial from environmental, safety and quality perspective. In this paper, one such multivariable system, namely, a utility boiler has been considered. A modern power plant is a complex arrangement of pipework and machineries with numerous interacting control loops and support systems. In this paper, the calculation of controller parameters based on classical tuning concepts has been presented. The controller parameters thus obtained and employed has controlled the critical parameters of a boiler during fuel switching disturbances. The proposed method can be applied to control the critical parameters like elevator, aileron, rudder, elevator trim rudder and aileron trim, flap control systems of aircraft systems.

  6. Improved Algorithm of SCS-CN Model Parameters in Typical Inland River Basin in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin J.; Ding, Jian L.; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Wen Q.

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important factor for hydrological structures, social and economic development on the background of global warmer, especially in arid regions. The aim of this paper is find the suitable method to simulate the runoff in arid area. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) is the most popular and widely applied model for direct runoff estimation. In this paper, we will focus on Wen-quan Basin in source regions of Boertala River. It is a typical valley of inland in Central Asia. First time to use the 16m resolution remote sensing image about high-definition earth observation satellite “Gaofen-1” to provide a high degree accuracy data for land use classification determine the curve number. Use surface temperature/vegetation index (TS/VI) construct 2D scatter plot combine with the soil moisture absorption balance principle calculate the moisture-holding capacity of soil. Using original and parameter algorithm improved SCS-CN model respectively to simulation the runoff. The simulation results show that the improved model is better than original model. Both of them in calibration and validation periods Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.79, 0.71 and 0.66,038. And relative error were3%, 12% and 17%, 27%. It shows that the simulation accuracy should be further improved and using remote sensing information technology to improve the basic geographic data for the hydrological model has the following advantages: 1) Remote sensing data having a planar characteristic, comprehensive and representative. 2) To get around the bottleneck about lack of data, provide reference to simulation the runoff in similar basin conditions and data-lacking regions.

  7. Improved accuracy in the estimation of the tearing mode stability parameters (Δ′ and wc) using 2D ECEI data in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Minjun J; Yun, Gunsu S; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K; Park, Young-Seok; Sabbagh, Steve A; Gibson, Kieran J; Bowman, Christopher; Domier, Calvin W; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Bak, Jun-Gyo; Lee, Sang G

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in estimation of two important tearing mode stability parameters (Δ′ and w c ) is improved by employing two-dimensional (2D) ECE imaging data which help one to overcome the resolution limit of conventional one-dimensional data. The experimentally measured 2D images are directly compared with synthetic ones from a tearing mode T e model to estimate the parameters and an excellent agreement is achieved. The results imply that the observed tearing mode is classically stable but has non-negligible bootstrap current drive. (paper)

  8. Automatic interactive optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, Jim P; Dahele, Max; Peltola, Jarkko; Nord, Janne; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko FAR

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment planning for sites with many different organs-at-risk (OAR) is complex and labor-intensive, making it hard to obtain consistent plan quality. With the aim of addressing this, we developed a program (automatic interactive optimizer, AIO) designed to automate the manual interactive process for the Eclipse treatment planning system. We describe AIO and present initial evaluation data. Our current institutional volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) planning approach for head and neck tumors places 3-4 adjustable OAR optimization objectives along the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve that is displayed in the optimization window. AIO scans this window and uses color-coding to differentiate between the DVH-lines, allowing it to automatically adjust the location of the optimization objectives frequently and in a more consistent fashion. We compared RapidArc AIO plans (using 9 optimization objectives per OAR) with the clinical plans of 10 patients, and evaluated optimal AIO settings. AIO consistency was tested by replanning a single patient 5 times. Average V95&V107 of the boost planning target volume (PTV) and V95 of the elective PTV differed by ≤0.5%, while average elective PTV V107 improved by 1.5%. Averaged over all patients, AIO reduced mean doses to individual salivary structures by 0.9-1.6Gy and provided mean dose reductions of 5.6Gy and 3.9Gy to the composite swallowing structures and oral cavity, respectively. Re-running AIO five times, resulted in the aforementioned parameters differing by less than 3%. Using the same planning strategy as manually optimized head and neck plans, AIO can automate the interactive Eclipse treatment planning process and deliver dosimetric improvements over existing clinical plans

  9. Large-scale systematic analysis of 2D fingerprint methods and parameters to improve virtual screening enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Madhavi; Lowrie, Jeffrey F; Dixon, Steven L; Sherman, Woody

    2010-05-24

    A systematic virtual screening study on 11 pharmaceutically relevant targets has been conducted to investigate the interrelation between 8 two-dimensional (2D) fingerprinting methods, 13 atom-typing schemes, 13 bit scaling rules, and 12 similarity metrics using the new cheminformatics package Canvas. In total, 157 872 virtual screens were performed to assess the ability of each combination of parameters to identify actives in a database screen. In general, fingerprint methods, such as MOLPRINT2D, Radial, and Dendritic that encode information about local environment beyond simple linear paths outperformed other fingerprint methods. Atom-typing schemes with more specific information, such as Daylight, Mol2, and Carhart were generally superior to more generic atom-typing schemes. Enrichment factors across all targets were improved considerably with the best settings, although no single set of parameters performed optimally on all targets. The size of the addressable bit space for the fingerprints was also explored, and it was found to have a substantial impact on enrichments. Small bit spaces, such as 1024, resulted in many collisions and in a significant degradation in enrichments compared to larger bit spaces that avoid collisions.

  10. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Whitaker, May

    2016-06-01

    Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected.

  11. SU-E-T-54: Benefits of Biological Cost Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirag, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the benefits of the biological cost functions. Methods: TG166 patients were used for the test case scenarios. Patients were planned using Monaco V5.0 (CMS/Elekta, St.Louis, MO) Monaco has 3 biological and 8 physical CFs. In this study the plans were optimized using 3 different scenarios. 1- Biological CFs only 2-Physical CFs only 3- Combination of Physical and Biological CFsMonaco has 3 biological CFs. Target EUD used for the targets, derived from the poisson cell kill model, has an α value that controls the cold spots inside the target. α values used in the optimization were 0.5 and 0.8. if cold spots needs to be penalized α value increased. Serial CF: it's called serial to mimic the behaviour of the serial organs, if a high k value like 12 or 14 is used it controls the maximum dose. Serial CF has a k parameter that is used to shape the whole dvh curve. K value ranges between 1–20. k:1 is used to control the mean dose, lower k value controls the mean dose, higher k value controls the higher dose, using 2 serial CFs with different k values controls the whole DVH. Paralel CF controls the percentage of the volume that tolerates higher doses than the reference dose to mimic the behaviour of the paralel organs. Results: It was possible to achive clinically accepted plans in all 3 scenarios. The benefit of the biological cost functions were to control the mean dose for target and OAR, to shape the DVH curve using one EUD value and one k value simplifies the optimization process. Using the biological CFs alone, it was hard to control the dose at a point. Conclusion: Biological CFs in Monaco doesn't require the ntcp/tcp values from the labs and useful to shape the whole dvh curve. I work as an applications support specialist for Elekta and I am a Ph.D. Student in Istanbul University for radiation therapy physics

  12. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, I S; Yusoff, Z M; Rasam, A R A; Rahman, A N N A; Omar, D

    2014-01-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation

  13. WE-AB-207B-01: Dose Tolerance for SBRT/SABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) / stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is gaining popularity, but quantitative dose tolerance has still been lacking. To improve this, the April 2016 issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology will have normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for 10 critical structures: optic pathway, cochlea, oral mucosa, esophagus, chestwall, aorta, bronchi, duodenum, small bowel, and spinal cord. Methods: The project included more than 1500 treatments in 1–5 fractions using CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, or LINAC, with 60 authors from 15 institutions. NTCP models were constructed from the 97 grade 2–3 complications, predominantly scored using the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAEv4). Dose volume histogram (DVH) data from each institutional dataset was loaded into the DVH Evaluator software (DiversiLabs, LLC, Huntingdon Valley, Pa) for modeling. The current state of the literature for the critical structures was depicted using DVH Risk Maps: comparative graphs of dose tolerance limits that can include estimated risk levels, reported complications, DVH data for study patients, as well as high- and low-risk dose tolerance limits. Results: For relatively acceptable toxicity like grade 1–3 rib fractures and chestwall pain, the high-risk limits have 50% risk and the low-risk limits have 5% risk. Emami et al (IJROBP 1991 May 15;21(1):109–22) used 50% and 5% risk levels for all structures, whereas this effort used clinically acceptable ranges for each: in structures like aorta or spinal cord where complications must be avoided, the high- and low-risk limits have about 3% and 1% risk, respectively, in this issue of Seminars. These statistically based guidelines can help ensure plan quality for each patient. Conclusion: NTCP for SBRT is now becoming available. Hypofractionated dose tolerance can be dramatically different than extrapolations of conventional fractionation so NTCP analysis of the

  14. WE-AB-207B-01: Dose Tolerance for SBRT/SABR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) / stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is gaining popularity, but quantitative dose tolerance has still been lacking. To improve this, the April 2016 issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology will have normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for 10 critical structures: optic pathway, cochlea, oral mucosa, esophagus, chestwall, aorta, bronchi, duodenum, small bowel, and spinal cord. Methods: The project included more than 1500 treatments in 1–5 fractions using CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, or LINAC, with 60 authors from 15 institutions. NTCP models were constructed from the 97 grade 2–3 complications, predominantly scored using the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAEv4). Dose volume histogram (DVH) data from each institutional dataset was loaded into the DVH Evaluator software (DiversiLabs, LLC, Huntingdon Valley, Pa) for modeling. The current state of the literature for the critical structures was depicted using DVH Risk Maps: comparative graphs of dose tolerance limits that can include estimated risk levels, reported complications, DVH data for study patients, as well as high- and low-risk dose tolerance limits. Results: For relatively acceptable toxicity like grade 1–3 rib fractures and chestwall pain, the high-risk limits have 50% risk and the low-risk limits have 5% risk. Emami et al (IJROBP 1991 May 15;21(1):109–22) used 50% and 5% risk levels for all structures, whereas this effort used clinically acceptable ranges for each: in structures like aorta or spinal cord where complications must be avoided, the high- and low-risk limits have about 3% and 1% risk, respectively, in this issue of Seminars. These statistically based guidelines can help ensure plan quality for each patient. Conclusion: NTCP for SBRT is now becoming available. Hypofractionated dose tolerance can be dramatically different than extrapolations of conventional fractionation so NTCP analysis of the

  15. Application of the Elitist-Mutated PSO and an Improved GSA to Estimate Parameters of Linear and Nonlinear Muskingum Flood Routing Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Kang

    Full Text Available Heuristic search algorithms, which are characterized by faster convergence rates and can obtain better solutions than the traditional mathematical methods, are extensively used in engineering optimizations. In this paper, a newly developed elitist-mutated particle swarm optimization (EMPSO technique and an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA are successively applied to parameter estimation problems of Muskingum flood routing models. First, the global optimization performance of the EMPSO and IGSA are validated by nine standard benchmark functions. Then, to further analyse the applicability of the EMPSO and IGSA for various forms of Muskingum models, three typical structures are considered: the basic two-parameter linear Muskingum model (LMM, a three-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model (NLMM and a four-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model which incorporates the lateral flow (NLMM-L. The problems are formulated as optimization procedures to minimize the sum of the squared deviations (SSQ or the sum of the absolute deviations (SAD between the observed and the estimated outflows. Comparative results of the selected numerical cases (Case 1-3 show that the EMPSO and IGSA not only rapidly converge but also obtain the same best optimal parameter vector in every run. The EMPSO and IGSA exhibit superior robustness and provide two efficient alternative approaches that can be confidently employed to estimate the parameters of both linear and nonlinear Muskingum models in engineering applications.

  16. SU-F-J-199: Predictive Models for Cone Beam CT-Based Online Verification of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L; Lin, A; Ahn, P; Solberg, T; McDonough, J; Teo, B [The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Janssens, G [IBA, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To utilize online CBCT scans to develop models for predicting DVH metrics in proton therapy of head and neck tumors. Methods: Nine patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were retrospectively selected in this study. Deformable image registration was applied to the simulation CT, target volumes, and organs at risk (OARs) contours onto each weekly CBCT scan. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans were created on the simulation CT and forward calculated onto each corrected CBCT scan. Thirty six potentially predictive metrics were extracted from each corrected CBCT. These features include minimum/maximum/mean over and under-ranges at the proximal and distal surface of PTV volumes, and geometrical and water equivalent distance between PTV and each OARs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimension of the extracted features. Three principal components were found to account for over 90% of variances in those features. Datasets from eight patients were used to train a machine learning model to fit these principal components with DVH metrics (dose to 95% and 5% of PTV, mean dose or max dose to OARs) from the forward calculated dose on each corrected CBCT. The accuracy of this model was verified on the datasets from the 9th patient. Results: The predicted changes of DVH metrics from the model were in good agreement with actual values calculated on corrected CBCT images. Median differences were within 1 Gy for most DVH metrics except for larynx and constrictor mean dose. However, a large spread of the differences was observed, indicating additional training datasets and predictive features are needed to improve the model. Conclusion: Intensity corrected CBCT scans hold the potential to be used for online verification of proton therapy and prediction of delivered dose distributions.

  17. Royal Sun Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), Supplement in Training Capacity Improvement Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávio F; de Oliveira, Guilherme A C; Costa, Hugo C Martins; Regis, Wiliam C B

    2017-01-01

    People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities. However, little is known about its potential benefits regarding muscular strength. Therefore, this study evaluated the possible effects of supplementation with this mushroom with respect to strength performance before and after a resistance training session. A blinded randomized trial was performed with male volunteers (n = 5) randomly divided into 2 groups (placebo and treatment with A. brasiliensis). Perceptions of muscle soreness and performance were assessed before and after high-intensity resistance training sessions. The study was executed over a 24-day period. Promising results were found related to intrasession rapid strength, most likely a result of antioxidant action and redox balance. The bioactive compounds in A. brasiliensis revealed the potential to improve conditions of muscle fatigue without altering other parameters. Thus, this mushroom has become a target of great expectations in the fields of fitness and athletics.

  18. Intensive lifestyle intervention improves cardiometabolic and exercise parameters in metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzill, Claudie; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Mauriège, Pascale; Gayda, Mathieu

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were studied in metabolically unhealthy obese (NMHO) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. Fifty-five MHO (51 ± 8 years; waist circumference, 109 ± 13 cm) and 79 NMHO subjects (54 ± 9 years; waist circumference, 112 ± 13 cm) participated in an intensive lifestyle modification program based on Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT 2-3 times per week. Body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were measured at baseline and after 9 months. Initially, MHO patients had a lower blood pressure (BP), fasting glycemia, triglycerides, and a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) (P lifestyle program including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT is an appropriate intervention in MHO and NMHO subjects with similar potential clinical health benefits including an improved body composition, BP, fasting glycemia, insulin sensitivity, VO2 peak, and muscle endurance. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  19. UAV-based multi-angular measurements for improved crop parameter retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Peter P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Optical remote sensing enables the estimation of crop parameters based on reflected light through empirical-statistical methods or inversion of radiative transfer models. Natural surfaces, however, reflect light anisotropically, which means that the intensity of reflected light depends on the

  20. Predictors of Liver Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velec, Michael [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Haddad, Carol R. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lindsay, Patricia; Brierley, James; Brade, Anthony; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Rebecca; Kim, John [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dawson, Laura A., E-mail: Laura.Dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with a decline in liver function after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated on clinical trials of 6-fraction SBRT. Liver toxicity was defined as an increase in Child-Pugh (CP) score ≥2 three months after SBRT. Clinical factors, SBRT details, and liver dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were tested for association with toxicity using logistic regression. CP class B patients were analyzed separately. Results: Among CP class A patients, 101 were evaluable, with a baseline score of A5 (72%) or A6 (28%). Fifty-three percent had portal vein thrombus. The median liver volume was 1286 cc (range, 766-3967 cc), and the median prescribed dose was 36 Gy (range, 27-54 Gy). Toxicity was seen in 26 patients (26%). Thrombus, baseline CP of A6, and lower platelet count were associated with toxicity on univariate analysis, as were several liver DVH-based parameters. Absolute and spared liver volumes were not significant. On multivariate analysis for CP class A patients, significant associations were found for baseline CP score of A6 (odds ratio [OR], 4.85), lower platelet count (OR, 0.90; median, 108 × 10{sup 9}/L vs 150 × 10{sup 9}/L), higher mean liver dose (OR, 1.33; median, 16.9 Gy vs 14.7 Gy), and higher dose to 800 cc of liver (OR, 1.11; median, 14.3 Gy vs 6.0 Gy). With 13 CP-B7 patients included or when dose to 800 cc of liver was replaced with other DVH parameters (eg, dose to 700 or 900 cc of liver) in the multivariate analysis, effective volume and portal vein thrombus were associated with an increased risk. Conclusions: Baseline CP scores and higher liver doses (eg, mean dose, effective volume, doses to 700-900 cc) were strongly associated with liver function decline 3 months after SBRT. A lower baseline platelet count and portal vein thrombus were also associated with an

  1. SU-E-T-634: Pre-Verification of FFF Prostate VMAT Plans with Gamma Method and DVHs Reconstructed Based On Measurements with 2D-ARRAY (PTW 1500) and OCTAVIUS 4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszyna, M; Adamczyk, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize the clinical correctness of FFF prostate treatment VMAT plans based on analysis of DVHs reconstructed from pre-verification 2D-arrays measurements. Methods: The new 2D ion chamber array 1500 with rotational phantom cylindrical Octavius 4D and Verisoft 6.1 software with DVH option (PTW, Freiburg) were used to determine the clinical usefulness of the treatment plans. Ten patients treated with VMAT high-fractionated (2 fraction x 7,5 Gy) FFF prostate plans (TrueBeam, Varian) were analyzed using the 3D gamma analysis by local dose method with a 5% threshold for various tolerance parameters DTA [mm] and DD [%] were 1%/1, 2%/2, 3%/3. Additional, based on the measurements of irradiation dose distributions and patients’ CT scans with contoured structures of organs, the DVHs were reconstructed using a software. The obtained DVHs were compared to planned dose distributions and the deviations were analysed with parameters: for CTV D50, D98, D2, and D25, D50, Dmax for OARs — rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads. Results: The analyzed treatment plans passed gamma criteria (3/3%; 95%), the results obtained were as follow: mean value and standard deviation of gamma score for criteria (DTA[mm]/DD[%]): 1/1% (L53.3±3.2); 2/2% (L87.0±2.2); 3/3% (L97.5±0.9). In the DVH analysis, the highest differences were observed for OARs (especially for bladder): the mean percentage differences values for rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads were: D25 (1.67; 6.83)%, D50 (0.18; 7.18; 1.53; 0.30)%, Dmax (−0.84; −1.64; 0.37; −4.63)%, respectively. For the CTV mean relative deviations for proper parameters were in good agreement with TPS: D98 (0.95±2.21)%, D50 (1.93±0.67)%, D2 (1.76±0.76)%. Conclusion: The gamma method is recommended tool for pre-verification analysis of correctness of treatment plans. Moreover, the scrutiny checking with reconstructed DVH gives additional, clinical information about quality of plan

  2. Improvement and comparison of likelihood functions for model calibration and parameter uncertainty analysis within a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin-Bo; Chen, Xi; Xu, Chong-Yu; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the likelihood functions for uncertainty analysis of hydrological models are compared and improved through the following steps: (1) the equivalent relationship between the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) and the likelihood function with Gaussian independent and identically distributed residuals is proved; (2) a new estimation method of the Box-Cox transformation (BC) parameter is developed to improve the effective elimination of the heteroscedasticity of model residuals; and (3) three likelihood functions-NSE, Generalized Error Distribution with BC (BC-GED) and Skew Generalized Error Distribution with BC (BC-SGED)-are applied for SWAT-WB-VSA (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - Water Balance - Variable Source Area) model calibration in the Baocun watershed, Eastern China. Performances of calibrated models are compared using the observed river discharges and groundwater levels. The result shows that the minimum variance constraint can effectively estimate the BC parameter. The form of the likelihood function significantly impacts on the calibrated parameters and the simulated results of high and low flow components. SWAT-WB-VSA with the NSE approach simulates flood well, but baseflow badly owing to the assumption of Gaussian error distribution, where the probability of the large error is low, but the small error around zero approximates equiprobability. By contrast, SWAT-WB-VSA with the BC-GED or BC-SGED approach mimics baseflow well, which is proved in the groundwater level simulation. The assumption of skewness of the error distribution may be unnecessary, because all the results of the BC-SGED approach are nearly the same as those of the BC-GED approach.

  3. Dose-volume histogram analysis of hepatic toxicity related to carbon ion radiation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shigeo; Kato, Hirotoshi; Tsujii, Hitohiko; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation of hepatic toxicity with dose-volume factors of carbon ion radiotherapy in the liver. Forty-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy delivered in 4 fractions over 4 to 7 days. Six patients received a total dose of 48 GyE and 43 received 52.8 GyE. The correlation of various blood biochemistry data with dose-volume histogram (DVH) data in non-cancerous liver were evaluated. The strongest significant correlation was seen between percent volume of non-cancerous liver with radiation dose more than 11 GyE (V 11 GyE ) and elevation of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) level as early adverse response after carbon ion beam radiation therapy (p=0.0003). In addition, significant correlation between DVH data and change of several other blood biochemistry data were also revealed in early phase. In late phase after carbon ion radiotherapy, the strongest significant correlation was seen between decrease of platelet count and V 26GyE (p=0.015). There was no significant correlation between other blood biochemistry data and DVH data in the late phase. It was suggested that dose-volume factors of carbon ion radiotherapy influenced only transient aggravation of liver function, which improved in the long term after irradiation. (author)

  4. Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralbell, Raymond; Oezsoy, Orhan; Pugliesi, Angela; Carballo, Natalia; Arnalte, Raquel; Escude, Lluis; Jargy, Clara; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six

  5. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  6. SU-E-T-580: On the Significance of Model Based Dosimetry for Breast and Head and Neck 192Ir HDR Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E; Pantelis, E; Papagiannis, P [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Major, T; Polgar, C [National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric and radiobiological differences between TG43-based and model-based dosimetry in the treatment planning of {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy for breast and head and neck cancer. Methods: Two cohorts of 57 Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) and 22 head and neck (H&N) patients with oral cavity carcinoma were studied. Dosimetry for the treatment plans was performed using the TG43 algorithm of the Oncentra Brachy v4.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using MCNP6 with input files automatically prepared by the BrachyGuide software tool from DICOM RT plan data. TG43 and MC data were compared in terms of % dose differences, Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) and related indices of clinical interest for the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and the Organs-At-Risk (OARs). A radiobiological analysis was also performed using the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD), mean survival fraction (S) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) for the PTV, and the Normal Tissue Control Probability (N TCP) and the generalized EUD (gEUD) for the OARs. Significance testing of the observed differences performed using the Wilcoxon paired sample test. Results: Differences between TG43 and MC DVH indices, associated with the increased corresponding local % dose differences observed, were statistically significant. This is mainly attributed to their consistency however, since TG43 agrees closely with MC for the majority of DVH and radiobiological parameters in both patient cohorts. Differences varied considerably among patients only for the ipsilateral lung and ribs in the APBI cohort, with a strong correlation to target location. Conclusion: While the consistency and magnitude of differences in the majority of clinically relevant DVH indices imply that no change is needed in the treatment planning practice, individualized dosimetry improves accuracy and addresses instances of inter-patient variability observed. Research

  7. SU-E-T-580: On the Significance of Model Based Dosimetry for Breast and Head and Neck 192Ir HDR Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E; Pantelis, E; Papagiannis, P; Major, T; Polgar, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric and radiobiological differences between TG43-based and model-based dosimetry in the treatment planning of 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy for breast and head and neck cancer. Methods: Two cohorts of 57 Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) and 22 head and neck (H&N) patients with oral cavity carcinoma were studied. Dosimetry for the treatment plans was performed using the TG43 algorithm of the Oncentra Brachy v4.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using MCNP6 with input files automatically prepared by the BrachyGuide software tool from DICOM RT plan data. TG43 and MC data were compared in terms of % dose differences, Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) and related indices of clinical interest for the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and the Organs-At-Risk (OARs). A radiobiological analysis was also performed using the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD), mean survival fraction (S) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) for the PTV, and the Normal Tissue Control Probability (N TCP) and the generalized EUD (gEUD) for the OARs. Significance testing of the observed differences performed using the Wilcoxon paired sample test. Results: Differences between TG43 and MC DVH indices, associated with the increased corresponding local % dose differences observed, were statistically significant. This is mainly attributed to their consistency however, since TG43 agrees closely with MC for the majority of DVH and radiobiological parameters in both patient cohorts. Differences varied considerably among patients only for the ipsilateral lung and ribs in the APBI cohort, with a strong correlation to target location. Conclusion: While the consistency and magnitude of differences in the majority of clinically relevant DVH indices imply that no change is needed in the treatment planning practice, individualized dosimetry improves accuracy and addresses instances of inter-patient variability observed. Research co

  8. Options and pitfalls of normal tissues complication probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Technological improvements in the physical administration of radiotherapy have led to increasing conformation of the treatment volume (TV) with the planning target volume (PTV) and of the irradiated volume (IV) with the TV. In this process of improvement of the physical quality of radiotherapy, the total volumes of organs at risk exposed to significant doses have significantly decreased, resulting in increased inhomogeneities in the dose distributions within these organs. This has resulted in a need to identify and quantify volume effects in different normal tissues. Today, irradiated volume today must be considered a 6t h 'R' of radiotherapy, in addition to the 5 'Rs' defined by Withers and Steel in the mid/end 1980 s. The current status of knowledge of these volume effects has recently been summarized for many organs and tissues by the QUANTEC (Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic) initiative [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. BioI. Phys. 76 (3) Suppl., 2010]. However, the concept of using dose-volume histogram parameters as a basis for dose constraints, even without applying any models for normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP), is based on (some) assumptions that are not met in clinical routine treatment planning. First, and most important, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters are usually derived from a single, 'snap-shot' CT-scan, without considering physiological (urinary bladder, intestine) or radiation induced (edema, patient weight loss) changes during radiotherapy. Also, individual variations, or different institutional strategies of delineating organs at risk are rarely considered. Moreover, the reduction of the 3-dimentional dose distribution into a '2dimensl' DVH parameter implies that the localization of the dose within an organ is irrelevant-there are ample examples that this assumption is not justified. Routinely used dose constraints also do not take into account that the residual function of an organ may be

  9. TH-EF-BRB-02: Feasibility of Optimization for Dynamic Trajectory Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, MK; Frei, D; Volken, W; Terribilini, D; Aebersold, DM; Manser, P [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Berne (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Over the last years, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been widely introduced into clinical routine using a coplanar delivery technique. However, VMAT might be improved by including dynamic couch and collimator rotations, leading to dynamic trajectory radiotherapy (DTRT). In this work the feasibility and the potential benefit of DTRT was investigated. Methods: A general framework for the optimization was developed using the Eclipse Scripting Research Application Programming Interface (ESRAPI). Based on contoured target and organs at risk (OARs), the structures are extracted using the ESRAPI. Sampling potential beam directions, regularly distributed on a sphere using a Fibanocci-lattice, the fractional volume-overlap of each OAR and the target is determined and used to establish dynamic gantry-couch movements. Then, for each gantry-couch track the most suitable collimator angle is determined for each control point by optimizing the area between the MLC leaves and the target contour. The resulting dynamic trajectories are used as input to perform the optimization using a research version of the VMAT optimization algorithm and the ESRAPI. The feasibility of this procedure was tested for a clinically motivated head and neck case. Resulting dose distributions for the VMAT plan and for the dynamic trajectory treatment plan were compared based on DVH-parameters. Results: While the DVH for the target is virtually preserved, improvements in maximum dose for the DTRT plan were achieved for all OARs except for the inner-ear, where maximum dose remains the same. The major improvements in maximum dose were 6.5% of the prescribed dose (66 Gy) for the parotid and 5.5% for the myelon and the eye. Conclusion: The result of this work suggests that DTRT has a great potential to reduce dose to OARs with similar target coverage when compared to conventional VMAT treatment plans. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems. This work was supported by Varian

  10. ASTROPHYSICAL PRIOR INFORMATION AND GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankow, Chris; Sampson, Laura; Perri, Leah; Chase, Eve; Coughlin, Scott; Zevin, Michael; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    The detection of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) has great promise for the investigation of many scientific questions. While it is well known that certain orientation parameters can reduce uncertainty in other related parameters, it was also hoped that the detection of an electromagnetic signal in conjunction with a GW could augment the measurement precision of the mass and spin from the gravitational signal itself. That is, knowledge of the sky location, inclination, and redshift of a binary could break degeneracies between these extrinsic, coordinate-dependent parameters and the physical parameters that are intrinsic to the binary. In this paper, we investigate this issue by assuming perfect knowledge of extrinsic parameters, and assessing the maximal impact of this knowledge on our ability to extract intrinsic parameters. We recover similar gains in extrinsic recovery to earlier work; however, we find only modest improvements in a few intrinsic parameters—namely the primary component’s spin. We thus conclude that, even in the best case, the use of additional information from electromagnetic observations does not improve the measurement of the intrinsic parameters significantly.

  11. ASTROPHYSICAL PRIOR INFORMATION AND GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, Chris; Sampson, Laura; Perri, Leah; Chase, Eve; Coughlin, Scott; Zevin, Michael; Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    The detection of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) has great promise for the investigation of many scientific questions. While it is well known that certain orientation parameters can reduce uncertainty in other related parameters, it was also hoped that the detection of an electromagnetic signal in conjunction with a GW could augment the measurement precision of the mass and spin from the gravitational signal itself. That is, knowledge of the sky location, inclination, and redshift of a binary could break degeneracies between these extrinsic, coordinate-dependent parameters and the physical parameters that are intrinsic to the binary. In this paper, we investigate this issue by assuming perfect knowledge of extrinsic parameters, and assessing the maximal impact of this knowledge on our ability to extract intrinsic parameters. We recover similar gains in extrinsic recovery to earlier work; however, we find only modest improvements in a few intrinsic parameters—namely the primary component’s spin. We thus conclude that, even in the best case, the use of additional information from electromagnetic observations does not improve the measurement of the intrinsic parameters significantly.

  12. SELECTING PARAMETERS OF PREPARATION SOURDOUGH SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF WHEAT BIOACTIVATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to improving the quality of semi-finished and finished bakery products is the use of starter cultures. This article describes a process for preparing sourdough bioactivated spontaneous fermentation of wheat. The influence of parameters of spontaneous sourdough cooking at its organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters was studying, rational parameters of receipt that improve the quality of foods were chosen.

  13. Parameters control in GAs for dynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Jebari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Control of Genetic Algorithms parameters allows to optimize the search process and improves the performance of the algorithm. Moreover it releases the user to dive into a game process of trial and failure to find the optimal parameters.

  14. The intercomparison of the dose distributions between conformation techniques with pions and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Akanuma, A.

    1990-01-01

    To compare conformation radiation treatment with pions vs photons, dose volume histograms (DVH) to the critical organs, including the spinal cord, kidney, and intestine, were examined in a patient with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. For photon conformation treatment, the following techniques were used: 360 degree rotation conformation technique (photon conformation), 4 fixed field technique (photon 4-field), and 2-axis conformation technique (photon 2-axial conformation). According to the DVH reduction method, complication probability was estimated. The concave portion of the target was conformed by pion conformation treatment, but not by photon conformation treatment. Pion conformation for the intestine showed the best DVH, whereas photon 4-field technique showed the worst DVH. For the kidney, pion conformation showed better DVH as compared with any other photon conformation treatment technique. In the spinal cord, photon 2-axial conformation was far superior, followed by pion conformation and then photon conformation and 4-field technique. A 2-axial technique showed a bigger inhomogeneity inside the target volume which is critical in curative treatment. TD 50 was 72 Gy for pion conformation, 53 Gy for photon conformation, 51 Gy for photon 4-field, and 68 Gy for photon 2-axial conformation. Complication probabilities for these conformation techniques at 60 Gy were 3%, 85%, 97%, and 9%. In view of tumor control probabilities, pion seems to have the biggest therapeutic ratio among these techniques. (N.K.)

  15. Parotid gland tumors: a comparison of postoperative radiotherapy techniques using three dimensional (3-D) dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaparpalvi, R.; Tyerech, S.K.; Boselli, L.R.; Fontenla, D.P.; Beitler, J.J.; Vikram, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To compare different treatment techniques for unilateral treatment of parotid gland tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients previously treated postoperatively for parotid gland tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Average field size was 9 x 11 cm, average separation was 15.5 cm, and the average prescription depth was 4.5 cm. Using 3-D dose distributions, tissue inhomogeneity corrections, scatter integration (for photons) and pencil beam (for electrons) algorithms and DVH, nine treatment techniques were compared using a representative patient. The treatment techniques investigated were: [1] unilateral 6 MV photons. [2] unilateral 12 MeV electrons. [3] unilateral 16 MeV electrons. [4] a ipsilateral wedge pair technique using 6 MV photons and a 45-degree wedge. [5] a 3-field AP (wedged), PA (wedged) and lateral portal technique using 6 MV photons. [6] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 12 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting). [7] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 16 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting). [8] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (2:3 weighting). [9] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (1:1 weighting). Results: Using dose-volume histograms to evaluate the dose to the contralateral parotid gland, the percentage of contralateral parotid volume receiving ≥30% of the prescribed dose was 100% for techniques [1], [8] and [9], and <5% for techniques [2] through [7]. Evaluating the 'hottest' 5 cc of the ipsilateral mandible and temporal lobes, the hot spots were: 152% and 150% for technique [2], 132% and 130% for technique [6]. Comparing the exit doses, techniques [1] and [8] contributed to ≥50% of the prescribed dose to the contralateral mandible and the temporal lobes. Only techniques [2] and [6] kept the highest point doses to both the brain stem and the spinal cord below 50% of the prescribed dose. Conclusion: The single photon lateral field [1] and the mixed

  16. Polydatin administration improves serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers during chronic alcoholism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of physicochemical parameters of acyclovir using cocrystallization approach

    OpenAIRE

    Savjani,Jignasa Ketan; Pathak,Chirag

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acyclovir is an antiviral drug having potent activity against the virus of herpes family and varicella zoster. Unfortunately, drug suffers very poor oral bioavailability (15-30%). The main objective of present study was to develop acyclovir cocrystals with improved solubility which may result in improvement of bioavailability. Hansen solubility approach was used as a tool to predict the cocrystal formation of a drug with selected coformer. Cocrystals of acyclovir with various coforme...

  18. Summary of the DREAM8 Parameter Estimation Challenge: Toward Parameter Identification for Whole-Cell Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Karr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell models that explicitly represent all cellular components at the molecular level have the potential to predict phenotype from genotype. However, even for simple bacteria, whole-cell models will contain thousands of parameters, many of which are poorly characterized or unknown. New algorithms are needed to estimate these parameters and enable researchers to build increasingly comprehensive models. We organized the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM 8 Whole-Cell Parameter Estimation Challenge to develop new parameter estimation algorithms for whole-cell models. We asked participants to identify a subset of parameters of a whole-cell model given the model's structure and in silico "experimental" data. Here we describe the challenge, the best performing methods, and new insights into the identifiability of whole-cell models. We also describe several valuable lessons we learned toward improving future challenges. Going forward, we believe that collaborative efforts supported by inexpensive cloud computing have the potential to solve whole-cell model parameter estimation.

  19. Improvement of conventional parameters of actual industrial effluent by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Silveira, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ordinary process to treat wastewater from the dye, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical and paper mill industries do not degrade easily the coloured substances and organic compounds. A study on the improvement of this treatment using high energy electron irradiation was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from the public Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 80% of wastewater from industrial sources and 20% from domestic sources. A large amount of industrial wastewater comes from chemical and textile industries, which change everyday the quality, quantity and colour these characteristics depend on for the production line of each particular industry. Samples from WTP influent and effluent were collected every 15 days and irradiated in a batch system; the delivered doses were 3.0 kGy, 4.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 8.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. For the non-irradiated and irradiated samples the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fixed and volatile total solids and fixed and volatile suspended solids, absorption spectrum (300-700nm) and gas chromatography. For samples from effluent irradiated with 3.0 kGy dose, the COD value presented a reduction average of 45%, and this result was fixed for higher doses, however the COD of influent sample did not show significant change for all the delivered doses

  20. Determination of Performance Measuring Parameters of an Improved Dual Paraboloid Solar Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Zaki Farooqui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation into the performance evaluation of an improved dual reflector foldable paraboloid solar cooker has been reported, along with its energy and exergy analysis. The best attribute of this lightweight and low-cost solar cooker is its high performance coupled with the ease of handling. The cooker utilizes two paraboloid reflectors made out of Mylar-coated fiberglass dishes, each having a diameter of 90 cm and focal length of 105 cm. The total intercepted radiation energy is 1.08 kW under standard test conditions. Stagnation temperatures of up to 330°C and cooking temperatures of up to 290°C have been attained with load. Altogether, 9 experiments have been performed with and without load. Loaded tests have been conducted with water and vegetable oil. Results indicate an average cooking power of 485 W, peak exergy gain of 60.53 W, quality factor of 0.077, and a high product of temperature difference gap at half peak power to peak power of 4364.33 W·K. The maximum exergy output power attained was 70 W, while maximum exergy efficiency was 8–10%. All performance measuring parameters indicate that it is a high performance solar cooker for rural and urban communities and is suitable for all types of oil- and water-based cooking.

  1. Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been ...

  2. Reconstruction of the parameters of V0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierusalimov, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The procedure of reconstruction of the parameters of V 0 particles is considered for CBM setup that is planned to build up at the FAIR complex (GSI, Germany). It was shown that the use of various kinematic cuts permits one to improve essentially the selection of V 0 particles and to increase the signal/background ratio. The use of the kinematic fit procedure gives still more considerable improvement of the accuracy of V 0 parameters. The procedure of the selection of Ξ - hyperons is also examined. The considered algorithm can be used practically without changes to reconstruct the parameters of V 0 particles and Ω - /Ξ - hyperons in MPD/NICA

  3. Whole-body vibration improves neuromuscular parameters and functional capacity in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Milena C; de Oliveira, Mônica L; Marin, Rosangela V; Kleine, Hellen C R; Silva, Orivaldo L; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal, paired-control study, we developed special vibration platforms to evaluate the effects of low-intensity vibration on neuromuscular function and functional capacity in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Women in the platform group (PG; n = 62) stood still and barefoot on the platform for 20 minutes, 5 times a week for 12 months. Each platform vibrated with a frequency of 60 Hz, intensity of 0.6g, and amplitude of less than 1 mm. Women in the control group (CG; n = 60) were followed up and instructed not to modify their physical activity during the study. Every 3 months all volunteers were invited to a visit to check for any change in their lifestyle. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 months, and included isometric muscle strength in the hip flexors and back extensors, right handgrip strength, dynamic upper limb strength (arm curl test), upper trunk flexibility (reach test [RT]), mobility (timed up and go test), and static balance (unipedal stance test). Statistical analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat strategy. Both groups were similar for all variables at baseline. At the end of intervention, the PG was significantly better than CG in all parameters but in the RT. When compared with baseline, after 12 months of vibration the PG presented statistically significant improvements in isometric and dynamic muscle strength in the hip flexors (+36.7%), back extensors (+36.5%), handgrip strength (+4.4%), arm curl test (+22.8%), RT (+9.9%), unipedal stance test (+6.8%), and timed up and go test (-9.2%), whereas the CG showed no significant differences during the same period of time. As such, there were no side effects related to the study procedures during the 12 months of intervention. Low-intensity vibration improved balance, motility, and muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs in postmenopausal women.

  4. Effectiveness of "shifting boundaries" teen dating violence prevention program for subgroups of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D

    2015-02-01

    We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parameter estimation of variable-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model using excel solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ling; Zhou, Liwei

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . The Muskingum model is an effective flood routing technology in hydrology and water resources Engineering. With the development of optimization technology, more and more variable-parameter Muskingum models were presented to improve effectiveness of the Muskingum model in recent decades. A variable-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model (NVPNLMM) was proposed in this paper. According to the results of two real and frequently-used case studies by various models, the NVPNLMM could obtain better values of evaluation criteria, which are used to describe the superiority of the estimated outflows and compare the accuracies of flood routing using various models, and the optimal estimated outflows by the NVPNLMM were closer to the observed outflows than the ones by other models.

  6. The Value of Quality Improvement Process in the Detection and Correction of Common Errors in Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Parameters in a Busy Echocardiography Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanari, Zaher; Choudhry, Usman I; Reddy, Vivek K; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Hammami, Sumaya; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Marshall, Erik S

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of cardiac structures, ventricular function, and hemodynamics is essential for any echocardiographic laboratory. Quality improvement (QI) processes described by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the Intersocietal Commission (IAC) should be instrumental in reaching this goal. All patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) followed by cardiac catheterization within 24 hours at Christiana Care Health System in 2011 and 2012 were identified, with 126 and 133 cases, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters of diastolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) on TTE correlated poorly with catheterization in 2011. An educational process was developed and implemented at quarterly QI meetings based on ASE and IAC recommendations to target frequently encountered errors and provide methods for improved performance. The hemodynamic parameters were then reexamined in 2012 postintervention. Following the QI process, there was significant improvement in the correlation between invasive and echocardiographic hemodynamic measurements in both systolic and diastolic function, and PASP. This reflected in significant better correlations between echo and cath LVEF [R = 0.88, ICC = 0.87 vs. R = 0.85, ICC = 0.85; P process, as recommended by ASE and IAC, can allow for identification as well as rectification of quality issues in a large regional academic medical center hospital. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SU-F-T-378: Evaluation of Dose-Volume Variability and Parameters Between Prostate IMRT and VMAT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, R [Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON (Canada); Kiciak, A [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compared the rectal dose-volume consistency, equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) in prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: For forty prostate IMRT and fifty VMAT patients treated using the same dose prescription (78 Gy/39 fraction) and dose-volume criteria in inverse planning optimization, the rectal EUD and NTCP were calculated for each patient. The rectal dose-volume consistency, showing the variability of dose-volume histogram (DVH) among patients, was defined and calculated based on the deviation between the mean and corresponding rectal DVH. Results: From both the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans, the rectal EUD and NTCP were found decreasing with the rectal volume. The decrease rates for the IMRT plans (EUD = 0.47 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 3.94 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}) were higher than those for the VMAT (EUD = 0.28 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 2.61 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}). In addition, the dependences of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency were found very similar between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. This shows that both delivery techniques have similar variations of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency. Conclusion: Dependences of the dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were compared between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. It is concluded that both rectal EUD and NTCP decreased with an increase of the rectal volume. The variation rates of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the rectal volume were higher for the IMRT plans than VMAT. However, variations of the rectal dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were found not significant for both delivery techniques.

  8. Reduction of robot base parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandanjon, P.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Reduction of robot base parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandanjon, P O [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Gautier, M [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Improved Accuracy of Nonlinear Parameter Estimation with LAV and Interval Arithmetic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Muñoz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliable solution of nonlinear parameter es- timation problems is an important computational problem in many areas of science and engineering, including such applications as real time optimization. Its goal is to estimate accurate model parameters that provide the best fit to measured data, despite small- scale noise in the data or occasional large-scale mea- surement errors (outliers. In general, the estimation techniques are based on some kind of least squares or maximum likelihood criterion, and these require the solution of a nonlinear and non-convex optimiza- tion problem. Classical solution methods for these problems are local methods, and may not be reliable for finding the global optimum, with no guarantee the best model parameters have been found. Interval arithmetic can be used to compute completely and reliably the global optimum for the nonlinear para- meter estimation problem. Finally, experimental re- sults will compare the least squares, l2, and the least absolute value, l1, estimates using interval arithmetic in a chemical engineering application.

  11. Impact of educational group strategy to improve clinical and glycemic parameters in individuals with diabetes and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Teixeira Lima Favaro

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the impact of an educational group strategy to improve clinical and glycemic parameters in individuals with diabetes and hypertension. Methods. This descriptive prospective study included 172 individuals living in São José do Rio Preto-SP, Brazil, who were enrolled in a well-integrated educational group called HIPERDIA (Record System for Follow-up of Hypertensive and Diabetic Individuals coordinated by a qualified multidisciplinary team. We analyzed sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were collected in the first, fifth, and eighth meeting of the educational group. Results. A total of 68.6% of patients were women, 85.4% were white, 64.0% had an incomplete basic education, 47.7% were retired, 79.7% had been diagnosed with diabetes for 6 or more years, 9.9% were smokers, and 9.9% used alcohol. Individuals' diastolic blood pressure decreased between the fifth and eighth meeting (p<0.05. Between the first and fifth meeting, both fasting glucose levels (p<0.05 and glycated hemoglobin decreased; the latter continue to drop at the fifth and eighth meetings (p<0.001. Anthropometric parameters remained unchanged. Conclusion. The results suggest that an educational group strategy is favorable for controlling diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  12. Toward Structure Prediction for Short Peptides Using the Improved SAAP Force Field Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Dedachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observation that Ramachandran-type potential energy surfaces of single amino acid units in water are in good agreement with statistical structures of the corresponding amino acid residues in proteins, we recently developed a new all-atom force field called SAAP, in which the total energy function for a polypeptide is expressed basically as a sum of single amino acid potentials and electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potentials between the amino acid units. In this study, the SAAP force field (SAAPFF parameters were improved, and classical canonical Monte Carlo (MC simulation was carried out for short peptide models, that is, Met-enkephalin and chignolin, at 300 K in an implicit water model. Diverse structures were reasonably obtained for Met-enkephalin, while three folded structures, one of which corresponds to a native-like structure with three native hydrogen bonds, were obtained for chignolin. The results suggested that the SAAP-MC method is useful for conformational sampling for the short peptides. A protocol of SAAP-MC simulation followed by structural clustering and examination of the obtained structures by ab initio calculation or simply by the number of the hydrogen bonds (or the hardness was demonstrated to be an effective strategy toward structure prediction for short peptide molecules.

  13. In vivo portal dosimetry for head-and-neck VMAT and lung IMRT: Linking γ-analysis with differences in dose–volume histograms of the PTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozendaal, Roel Arthur; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Herk, Marcel van; Mans, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To relate the results of γ-analysis and dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the PTV for detecting dose deviations with in vivo dosimetry for two treatment sites. Methods and materials: In vivo 3D dose distributions were reconstructed for 722 fractions of 200 head-and-neck (H and N) VMAT treatments and 183 fractions of 61 lung IMRT plans. The reconstructed and planned dose distributions in the PTV were compared using (a) the γ-distribution and (b) the differences in D2, D50 and D98 between the two dose distributions. Using pre-defined tolerance levels, all fractions were classified as deviating or not deviating by both methods. The mutual agreement, the sensitivity and the specificity of the two methods were compared. Results: For lung IMRT, the classification of the fractions was nearly identical for γ- and DVH-analyses of the PTV (94% agreement) and the sensitivity and specificity were comparable for both methods. Less agreement (80%) was found for H and N VMAT, while γ-analysis was both less sensitive and less specific. Conclusions: DVH- and γ-analyses perform nearly equal in finding dose deviations in the PTV for lung IMRT treatments; for H and N VMAT treatments, DVH-analysis is preferable. As a result of this study, a smooth transition to using DVH-analysis clinically for detecting in vivo dose deviations in the PTV is within reach

  14. A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1654 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Munich, Germany, 22-27 July 2012 A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images yzB.P. Salmon, yz...

  15. Parameter estimation using the genetic algorithm and its impact on quantitative precipitation forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimal parameter estimations are performed for both physical and computational parameters in a mesoscale meteorological model, and their impacts on the quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF are assessed for a heavy rainfall case occurred at the Korean Peninsula in June 2005. Experiments are carried out using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the genetic algorithm (GA for two parameters: the reduction rate of the convective available potential energy in the Kain-Fritsch (KF scheme for cumulus parameterization, and the Asselin filter parameter for numerical stability. The fitness function is defined based on a QPF skill score. It turns out that each optimized parameter significantly improves the QPF skill. Such improvement is maximized when the two optimized parameters are used simultaneously. Our results indicate that optimizations of computational parameters as well as physical parameters and their adequate applications are essential in improving model performance.

  16. A framework for implementation of organ effect models in TOPAS with benchmarks extended to proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Méndez, J; Faddegon, B; Perl, J; Schümann, J; Paganetti, H; Shin, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a framework for modeling organ effects within TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), a wrapper of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit that facilitates particle therapy simulation. The DICOM interface for TOPAS was extended to permit contour input, used to assign voxels to organs. The following dose response models were implemented: The Lyman–Kutcher–Burman model, the critical element model, the population based critical volume model, the parallel-serial model, a sigmoid-based model of Niemierko for normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability (TCP), and a Poisson-based model for TCP. The framework allows easy manipulation of the parameters of these models and the implementation of other models.As part of the verification, results for the parallel-serial and Poisson model for x-ray irradiation of a water phantom were compared to data from the AAPM Task Group 166. When using the task group dose-volume histograms (DVHs), results were found to be sensitive to the number of points in the DVH, with differences up to 2.4%, some of which are attributable to differences between the implemented models. New results are given with the point spacing specified. When using Monte Carlo calculations with TOPAS, despite the relatively good match to the published DVH’s, differences up to 9% were found for the parallel-serial model (for a maximum DVH difference of 2%) and up to 0.5% for the Poisson model (for a maximum DVH difference of 0.5%). However, differences of 74.5% (in Rectangle1), 34.8% (in PTV) and 52.1% (in Triangle) for the critical element, critical volume and the sigmoid-based models were found respectively.We propose a new benchmark for verification of organ effect models in proton therapy. The benchmark consists of customized structures in the spread out Bragg peak plateau, normal tissue, tumor, penumbra and in the distal region. The DVH’s, DVH point spacing, and results of the organ effect models are

  17. Improvement of the fringe analysis algorithm for wavelength scanning interferometry based on filter parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Muhamedsalih, Hussam; Lou, Shan; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-03-20

    The phase slope method which estimates height through fringe pattern frequency and the algorithm which estimates height through the fringe phase are the fringe analysis algorithms widely used in interferometry. Generally they both extract the phase information by filtering the signal in frequency domain after Fourier transform. Among the numerous papers in the literature about these algorithms, it is found that the design of the filter, which plays an important role, has never been discussed in detail. This paper focuses on the filter design in these algorithms for wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI), trying to optimize the parameters to acquire the optimal results. The spectral characteristics of the interference signal are analyzed first. The effective signal is found to be narrow-band (near single frequency), and the central frequency is calculated theoretically. Therefore, the position of the filter pass-band is determined. The width of the filter window is optimized with the simulation to balance the elimination of the noise and the ringing of the filter. Experimental validation of the approach is provided, and the results agree very well with the simulation. The experiment shows that accuracy can be improved by optimizing the filter design, especially when the signal quality, i.e., the signal noise ratio (SNR), is low. The proposed method also shows the potential of improving the immunity to the environmental noise by adapting the signal to acquire the optimal results through designing an adaptive filter once the signal SNR can be estimated accurately.

  18. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  19. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures

  20. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, L.L.; O' Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  1. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  2. Slot Parameter Optimization for Multiband Antenna Performance Improvement Using Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Demircioglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses bandwidth enhancement for multiband microstrip patch antennas (MMPAs using symmetrical rectangular/square slots etched on the patch and the substrate properties. The slot parameters on MMPA are modeled using soft computing technique of artificial neural networks (ANN. To achieve the best ANN performance, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Differential Evolution (DE are applied with ANN’s conventional training algorithm in optimization of the modeling performance. In this study, the slot parameters are assumed as slot distance to the radiating patch edge, slot width, and length. Bandwidth enhancement is applied to a formerly designed MMPA fed by a microstrip transmission line attached to the center pin of 50 ohm SMA connecter. The simulated antennas are fabricated and measured. Measurement results are utilized for training the artificial intelligence models. The ANN provides 98% model accuracy for rectangular slots and 97% for square slots; however, ANFIS offer 90% accuracy with lack of resonance frequency tracking.

  3. Comparison of Parameter Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-based control of mechatronic systems requires excellent knowledge about the physical behavior of each component. For several types of components of a system, e.g. mechanical or electrical ones, the dynamic behavior can be described by means of a mathematic model consisting of a set of differential equations, difference equations and/or algebraic constraint equations. The knowledge of a realistic mathematic model and its parameter values is essential to represent the behaviour of a mechatronic system. Frequently it is hard or impossible to obtain all required values of the model parameters from the producer, so an appropriate parameter estimation technique is required to compute missing parameters. A manifold of parameter identification techniques can be found in the literature, but their suitability depends on the mathematic model. Previous work dealt with the automatic assembly of mathematical models of serial and parallel robots with drives and controllers within the dynamic multibody simulation code HOTINT as fully-fledged mechatronic simulation. Several parameters of such robot models were identified successfully by our embedded algorithm. The present work proposes an improved version of the identification algorithm with higher performance. The quality of the identified parameter values and the computation effort are compared with another standard technique.

  4. A comparison of radiation treatment techniques for carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx using 3-D dose distributions and intensity modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, David; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Rosenman, Julian; Sailer, Scott; Tepper, Joel

    1997-01-01

    -out laterals, intensity modulation did improve the overall dose homogeneity by increasing the CTV minimum (85% vs. 70%), mostly by improving the DVH for the most inferior portion of the CTV. For both 3-field techniques, intensity modulation had no effect on any of the measured parameters. A 5-field technique of equally separated non-opposing planar beams provided excellent homogeneity with the cord dose limited to 65% of the total dose. Reducing the number of fields to 4, but keeping the same general arrangement did not result in an optimal treatment plan. Conclusion: Intensity modulation significantly improves dose homogeneity for all field arrangements except the three-field techniques. An intensity modulated five-field beam arrangement appears to overcome all the problems of junction over the tumor bed and also eliminates the need for posterior neck electrons. In principle it is no more complex than the five fields commonly in use (right and left laterals, low anterior neck field, and two posterior neck electron fields) and offers superior posterior neck nodal coverage

  5. The Source and Impact of Specific Parameters that Enhance Well-Being in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Reynolds, Kelly E; Jones, Lydia J; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review four parameters (forgiveness, gratitude, hope and empathy) frequently noted when evaluating well-being. We reviewed clinical studies from 1966 to present. We included 63 articles. All four of the parameters were shown to generally improve an individual's well-being. These parameters demonstrated a positive influence within more specific societal issues including improvement in social relationships, delinquent behavior and physical health. These parameters were generally derived from training and religion. This study suggests that these parameters may improve either one of general well-being, pro-social and positive relational behavior and demonstrate positive health effects.

  6. Comparison of hypo-fractional irradiation protocols used in the treatment of prostate cancer by external radiotherapy; Porovnanie hypofrakcionacnych ozarovacich protokolov pouzivanych v liecbe karcinomu prostaty pomocou externej radioterapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruskova, B. [Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Safarika, Ustav fyzikalnych vied, Katedra jadrovej a subjadrovej fyziky, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Matula, P.; Koncik, J.; Jasencak, M. [Vychodoslovensky onkologicky ustav, a.s., 04001 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The main aim of this study is to compare two hypo-fractionated protocols used in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer in terms of late complications in normal tissue. 50 patients in first protocol were irradiated with the dose of 52,8 Gy in 16 fractions. 52 patients included in the second protocol were irradiated with the dose of 62 Gy in 20 fractions. Protocols were compared through dose-volume histograms (DVH) of rectum and bladder and radiobiological calculations with the use of Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model for Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). Results of NTCP were compared with real incidence of late toxicity for normal tissue. DVH of rectum and bladder for patients from second protocol have a better behavior then DVHs for patients from first protocol. NTCPs for first protocol are (12,5{+-}3,3)% and (1,6{+-}1,3)% for rectum and bladder, respectively. NTCPs for second protocol are (6,8{+-}3,0)% and (0,53{+-}0,9)% for rectum and bladder, respectively. From comparison of results of radiobiological calculations and real incidence had arisen a need of refinement of parameters of LKB model. (authors)

  7. Improving the GIS-DRP Approach by Means of DelineatingRunoff Characteristics with New Discharge Relevant Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hümann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present it is common to use geographic information system (GIS applications to assess runoff generation. One of these GIS-based tools to generate maps of dominant runoff processes is the so called GIS-DRP approach. The tool, which has been developed mainly based on agricultural areas, uses commonly available input data like a digital elevation model (DEM, geological information as well as land use information. The aim of this study is to test, validate and improve this GIS-DRP method for forested and silviculture areas. Hence, soil-hydrologic investigations and several mapping techniques of dominant runoff processes were conducted on 25 test-plots in four forested catchments in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. By comparing the results of the mapping techniques and those of the test plots, weak points in the original GIS-DRP method were detected. Subsequently, it was possible to enhance the GIS-DRP approach by incorporating new discharge relevant parameters like topsoil sealing, extreme weather events and semipermeability of the substratum. Moreover, the improved GIS-DRP approach can be widely used in different landscapes and for different fields of application. The adapted method can now support foresters and decision makers in forestry planning, answer questions concerning the landscape water balance and peripheral water retention or provide extra information for sustainable forest planning in times of a changing climate.

  8. Improvements on a non-invasive, parameter-free approach to inverse form finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landkammer, P.; Caspari, M.; Steinmann, P.

    2018-04-01

    Our objective is to determine the optimal undeformed workpiece geometry (material configuration) within forming processes when the prescribed deformed geometry (spatial configuration) is given. For solving the resulting shape optimization problem—also denoted as inverse form finding—we use a novel parameter-free approach, which relocates in each iteration the material nodal positions as design variables. The spatial nodal positions computed by an elasto-plastic finite element (FE) forming simulation are compared with their prescribed values. The objective function expresses a least-squares summation of the differences between the computed and the prescribed nodal positions. Here, a recently developed shape optimization approach (Landkammer and Steinmann in Comput Mech 57(2):169-191, 2016) is investigated with a view to enhance its stability and efficiency. Motivated by nonlinear optimization theory a detailed justification of the algorithm is given. Furthermore, a classification according to shape changing design, fixed and controlled nodal coordinates is introduced. Two examples with large elasto-plastic strains demonstrate that using a superconvergent patch recovery technique instead of a least-squares (L2)-smoothing improves the efficiency. Updating the interior discretization nodes by solving a fictitious elastic problem also reduces the number of required FE iterations and avoids severe mesh distortions. Furthermore, the impact of the inclusion of the second deformation gradient in the Hessian of the Quasi-Newton approach is analyzed. Inverse form finding is a crucial issue in metal forming applications. As a special feature, the approach is designed to be coupled in a non-invasive fashion to arbitrary FE software.

  9. A feasibility dosimetric study on prostate cancer. Are we ready for a multicenter clinical trial on SBRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Carmelo; Bonanno, Elisa [Humanitas C.C.O., Catania (Italy); Villaggi, Elena [AUSL, Piacenza (Italy); Maggi, Giulia; Mancosu, Pietro [IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Research Center, Milan (Italy); Esposito, Marco [Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy). Lab. of Medical Physics and Expert Systems; Borzi, Giusi R. [REM Radioterapia, Catania (Italy); Carbonini, Claudia [A.O. Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Consorti, Rita [ACO S. Filippo Neri, Rome (Italy); Fedele, David [Casa di Cura Privata San Rossore s.r.l., Pisa (Italy); Fiandra, Christian [Torino Univ. (Italy). Radiation Oncology Unit; Ielo, Isidora [A.O.U. Policlinico G. Martino, Messina (Italy); Malatesta, Tiziana [' ' S. Giovanni Calibita' ' Fatebenefratelli, Rome (Italy); Malisan, Maria Rosa [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Udine (Italy); Martinotti, Anna [Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan (Italy); Moretti, Renzo [Az. Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia (Italy); Nardiello, Barbara [UPMC San Pietro FBF, Rome (Italy); Oliviero, Caterina; Clemente, Stefania [IRCCS CROB Rieonero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The Italian Association of Medical Physics (AIFM) started a working group dedicated to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment. In this work, we performed a multicenter planning study on patients who were candidates for SBRT in the treatment of prostate cancer with the aim of evaluating the dosimetric consistency among the different hospitals. Fourteen centers were provided the contours of 5 patients. Plans were performed following the dose prescription and constraints for organs at risk (OARs) of a reference paper. The dose prescription was 35 Gy in five fractions for the planning target volume (PTV). Different techniques were used (3D-CRT, fixed-Field IMRT, VMAT, CyberKnife). Plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Furthermore, the median DVH was calculated and one patient was re-planned. A total of 70 plans were compared. The maximum dose to the body was 107.9 ± 4.5 % (range 101.5-116.3 %). Dose at 98 % (D{sub 98} {sub %}) and mean dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) were 102.0 ± 0.9 % (global range 101.1-102.9 %) and 105.1 ± 0.6 % (range 98.6-124.6 %). Similar trends were found for D{sub 95} {sub %} and mean dose to the PTV. Important differences were found in terms of the homogeneity index. Doses to OARs were heterogeneous. The subgroups with the same treatment planning system showed differences comparable to the differences of the whole group. In the re-optimized plans, DVH differences among institutes were reduced and OAR sparing improved. Important dosimetric differences with possible clinical implications, in particular related to OARs, were found. Replanning allowed a reduction in the OAR dose and decreased standard deviations. Multicenter clinical trials on SBRT should require a preplanning study to standardize the optimization procedure. (orig.) [German] Der italienische Verband der Medizinphysiker (AIFM) hat eine Arbeitsgruppe gegruendet, die sich mit der Koerperstammstereotaxie (SBRT) befasst. Im Rahmen

  10. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  11. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D max Man -D max DVH |) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D max Man -D max DVH |)/D max DVH ) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D max Man ) and the objective method (D max DVH ) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average±standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%±1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value max >90%) compared with lower dose range (D max <90%): 2.16%±1.93% vs 1.19%±1.25% with p value of 0.0049. However, the Rediff[%] analysis eliminated the inverse square factor and there was no statistically significant difference (p value=0.8931) between high and low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was <2% of PD, on average, if appropriate attention is paid to selecting a manual dose point in 3D planning CT images.

  14. Time Course of Improvement of Metabolic Parameters after a 12 Week Physical Exercise Programme in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Influence of Gender in a Nigerian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Adeniyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is a major determinant of the outcomes of many health interventions. This study documents the order of significant improvements in metabolic parameters of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM having metabolic syndrome within 12 weeks of physical exercise programmes. Twenty-nine patients, mean age 49.6 ± 3.7 years, presenting with high fasting plasma glucose, high triglycerides, hypertension, and high waist circumference undertook a thrice weekly aerobic and endurance exercise programme in addition to their drugs and diet. Variables were assessed at baseline and end of every two weeks for twelve weeks. Compared with baseline, significant improvement (P<0.05 in the metabolic parameters occurred in this order for the male participants: fasting glucose (2nd week, triglycerides and waist circumference (4th week, and systolic blood pressure (12th week. For the female participants, it was fasting glucose (4th week, triglycerides (6th week, and waist circumference (10th week. Regardless of the gender, fasting glucose was the first to improve significantly, followed by triglycerides. Hypertension did not improve significantly at all in the female participants as they may require more than twelve weeks of therapeutic exercise for any significant improvement in hypertension.

  15. Estimates for the parameters of the heavy quark expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Johannes; Mannel, Thomas [Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We give improved estimates for the non-perturbative parameters appearing in the heavy quark expansion for inclusive decays. While the parameters appearing in low orders of this expansion can be extracted from data, the number of parameters in higher orders proliferates strongly, making a determination of these parameters from data impossible. Thus, one has to rely on theoretical estimates which may be obtained from an insertion of intermediate states. We refine this method and attempt to estimate the uncertainties of this approach.

  16. Using a knowledge-based planning solution to select patients for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Alexander R; Dahele, Max; Tol, Jim P; Kuijper, Ingrid T; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2017-08-01

    Patient selection for proton therapy by comparing proton/photon treatment plans is time-consuming and prone to bias. RapidPlan™, a knowledge-based-planning solution, uses plan-libraries to model and predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume-histograms (DVHs). We investigated whether RapidPlan, utilizing an algorithm based only on photon beam characteristics, could generate proton DVH-predictions and whether these could correctly identify patients for proton therapy. Model PROT and Model PHOT comprised 30 head-and-neck cancer proton and photon plans, respectively. Proton and photon knowledge-based-plans (KBPs) were made for ten evaluation-patients. DVH-prediction accuracy was analyzed by comparing predicted-vs-achieved mean OAR doses. KBPs and manual plans were compared using salivary gland and swallowing muscle mean doses. For illustration, patients were selected for protons if predicted Model PHOT mean dose minus predicted Model PROT mean dose (ΔPrediction) for combined OARs was ≥6Gy, and benchmarked using achieved KBP doses. Achieved and predicted Model PROT /Model PHOT mean dose R 2 was 0.95/0.98. Generally, achieved mean dose for Model PHOT /Model PROT KBPs was respectively lower/higher than predicted. Comparing Model PROT /Model PHOT KBPs with manual plans, salivary and swallowing mean doses increased/decreased by <2Gy, on average. ΔPrediction≥6Gy correctly selected 4 of 5 patients for protons. Knowledge-based DVH-predictions can provide efficient, patient-specific selection for protons. A proton-specific RapidPlan-solution could improve results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SU-F-T-622: Comparative Analysis of Pencil Beam and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of Thoracic Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; Nicolai, W; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Wang, F; Lominskac, C [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Ramanjappa, T [S. K. University, Anantapur, AP (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the impact of Pencil Beam(PB) and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm(AAA) dose calculation algorithms on OARs and planning target volume (PTV) in thoracic spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Ten Spine SBRT patients were planned on Brainlab iPlan system using hybrid plan consisting of 1–2 non-coplanar conformal-dynamic arcs and few IMRT beams treated on NovalisTx with 6MV photon. Dose prescription varied from 20Gy to 30Gy in 5 fractions depending on the situation of the patient. PB plans were retrospectively recalculated using the Varian Eclipse with AAA algorithm using same MUs, MLC pattern and grid size(3mm).Differences in dose volume parameters for PTV, spinal cord, lung, and esophagus were analyzed and compared for PB and AAA algorithms. OAR constrains were followed per RTOG-0631. Results: Since patients were treated using PB calculation, we compared all the AAA DVH values with respect to PB plan values as standard, although AAA predicts the dose more accurately than PB. PTV(min), PTV(Max), PTV(mean), PTV(D99%), PTV(D90%) were overestimated with AAA calculation on average by 3.5%, 1.84%, 0.95%, 3.98% and 1.55% respectively as compared to PB. All lung DVH parameters were underestimated with AAA algorithm mean deviation of lung V20, V10, V5, and 1000cc were 42.81%,19.83%, 18.79%, and 18.35% respectively. AAA overestimated Cord(0.35cc) by mean of 17.3%; cord (0.03cc) by 12.19% and cord(max) by 10.5% as compared to PB. Esophagus max dose were overestimated by 4.4% and 5cc by 3.26% for AAA algorithm as compared to PB. Conclusion: AAA overestimated the PTV dose values by up to 4%.The lung DVH had the greatest underestimation of dose by AAA versus PB. Spinal cord dose was overestimated by AAA versus PB. Given the critical importance of accuracy of OAR and PTV dose calculation for SBRT spine, more accurate algorithms and validation of calculated doses in phantom models are indicated.

  18. An optimal autonomous microgrid cluster based on distributed generation droop parameter optimization and renewable energy sources using an improved grey wolf optimizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami Goodarzi, Hamed; Kazemi, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-05-01

    Microgrid (MG) clustering is regarded as an important driver in improving the robustness of MGs. However, little research has been conducted on providing appropriate MG clustering. This article addresses this shortfall. It proposes a novel multi-objective optimization approach for finding optimal clustering of autonomous MGs by focusing on variables such as distributed generation (DG) droop parameters, the location and capacity of DG units, renewable energy sources, capacitors and powerline transmission. Power losses are minimized and voltage stability is improved while virtual cut-set lines with minimum power transmission for clustering MGs are obtained. A novel chaotic grey wolf optimizer (CGWO) algorithm is applied to solve the proposed multi-objective problem. The performance of the approach is evaluated by utilizing a 69-bus MG in several scenarios.

  19. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  20. An Ensemble Approach to Knowledge-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based planning (KBP utilizes experienced planners’ knowledge embedded in prior plans to estimate optimal achievable dose volume histogram (DVH of new cases. In the regression-based KBP framework, previously planned patients’ anatomical features and DVHs are extracted, and prior knowledge is summarized as the regression coefficients that transform features to organ-at-risk DVH predictions. In our study, we find that in different settings, different regression methods work better. To improve the robustness of KBP models, we propose an ensemble method that combines the strengths of various linear regression models, including stepwise, lasso, elastic net, and ridge regression. In the ensemble approach, we first obtain individual model prediction metadata using in-training-set leave-one-out cross validation. A constrained optimization is subsequently performed to decide individual model weights. The metadata is also used to filter out impactful training set outliers. We evaluate our method on a fresh set of retrospectively retrieved anonymized prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT cases and head and neck IMRT cases. The proposed approach is more robust against small training set size, wrongly labeled cases, and dosimetric inferior plans, compared with other individual models. In summary, we believe the improved robustness makes the proposed method more suitable for clinical settings than individual models.

  1. Improving Distribution Resiliency with Microgrids and State and Parameter Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Yin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Modern society relies on low-cost reliable electrical power, both to maintain industry, as well as provide basic social services to the populace. When major disturbances occur, such as Hurricane Katrina or Hurricane Sandy, the nation’s electrical infrastructure can experience significant outages. To help prevent the spread of these outages, as well as facilitating faster restoration after an outage, various aspects of improving the resiliency of the power system are needed. Two such approaches are breaking the system into smaller microgrid sections, and to have improved insight into the operations to detect failures or mis-operations before they become critical. Breaking the system into smaller sections of microgrid islands, power can be maintained in smaller areas where distribution generation and energy storage resources are still available, but bulk power generation is no longer connected. Additionally, microgrid systems can maintain service to local pockets of customers when there has been extensive damage to the local distribution system. However, microgrids are grid connected a majority of the time and implementing and operating a microgrid is much different than when islanded. This report discusses work conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that developed improvements for simulation tools to capture the characteristics of microgrids and how they can be used to develop new operational strategies. These operational strategies reduce the cost of microgrid operation and increase the reliability and resilience of the nation’s electricity infrastructure. In addition to the ability to break the system into microgrids, improved observability into the state of the distribution grid can make the power system more resilient. State estimation on the transmission system already provides great insight into grid operations and detecting abnormal conditions by leveraging existing measurements. These transmission-level approaches are expanded to using

  2. Improvement of plant parameters of the ROBO gamma irradiation facility due to design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Chu, R.

    1999-01-01

    Two industrial scale, ROBO type Co 60 gamma irradiation facilities have recently been put into operation in Syria and Peru, and the dosimetry commissioning of both plants have been carried out to determine dose distribution with products and to calculate plant parameters such as efficiency, dose uniformity ratio and throughput. There are some design modifications between the two plants in connection with the location of the carriers with respect to the source plaque and also to each other. The effect of these construction modifications on the plant parameters is discussed in the analysis of the dose distribution data measured in the carriers with depth and height among the four irradiation rows on both sides of the source plaque. The plant parameters were also calculated and measured results were compared to each other. (author)

  3. Screening key parameters related to passive system performance based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guohang; Yu, Yu; Huang, Xiong; Peng, Yuan; Ma, Nan; Shan, Zuhua; Niu, Fenglei; Wang, Shengfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved AHP method is presented for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • We take the special bottom parameters as criterion for calculation and the abrupt change of the results are verified. • Combination weights are also affected by uncertainty of input parameters. - Abstract: Passive safety system is widely used in the new generation nuclear power plant (NPP) designs such as AP1000 to improve the reactor safety benefitting from its simple construction and less request for human intervene. However, the functional failure induced by uncertainty in the system thermal–hydraulic (T–H) performance becomes one of the main contributors to system operational failure since the system operates based on natural circulation, which should be considered in the system reliability evaluation. In order to improve the calculation efficiency the key parameters which significantly affect the system T–H characteristics can be screened and then be analyzed in detail. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the efficient methods to analyze the influence of the parameters on a passive system based on the experts’ experience. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is one of the typical passive safety systems, nevertheless too many parameters need to be analyzed and the T–H model itself is more complicated, so the traditional AHP method should be mended to use for screening key parameters efficiently. In this paper, we adapt the improved method in hierarchy construction and experts’ opinions integration, some parameters at the bottom justly in the traditional hierarchy are studied as criterion layer in improved AHP, the rationality of the method and the effect of abrupt change with the data are verified. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is evaluated as an example, and four key parameters are selected from 49 inputs

  4. Highly Efficient Training, Refinement, and Validation of a Knowledge-based Planning Quality-Control System for Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan; Carmona, Ruben [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Sirak, Igor; Kasaova, Linda [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Followill, David [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    versus KBP{sub FINAL} plans across the 35-patient validation set. Paired t tests were used to test differences between planning sets. Results: KBP{sub FINAL} plans outperformed manual planning across the validation set in all protocol-specific DVH cutpoints. The mean normal tissue complication probability for gastrointestinal toxicity was lower for KBP{sub FINAL} versus validation-set plans (48.7% vs 53.8%, P<.001). Similarly, the estimated mean white blood cell count nadir was higher (2.77 vs 2.49 k/mL, P<.001) with KBP{sub FINAL} plans, indicating lowered probability of hematologic toxicity. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a KBP system can be efficiently trained and refined for use in radiation therapy clinical trials with minimal effort. This patient-specific plan quality control resulted in improvements on protocol-specific dosimetric endpoints.

  5. An improved chaotic fruit fly optimization based on a mutation strategy for simultaneous feature selection and parameter optimization for SVM and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Lou, Xin Yuan; Sun, Lin Fu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new support vector machine (SVM) optimization scheme based on an improved chaotic fly optimization algorithm (FOA) with a mutation strategy to simultaneously perform parameter setting turning for the SVM and feature selection. In the improved FOA, the chaotic particle initializes the fruit fly swarm location and replaces the expression of distance for the fruit fly to find the food source. However, the proposed mutation strategy uses two distinct generative mechanisms for new food sources at the osphresis phase, allowing the algorithm procedure to search for the optimal solution in both the whole solution space and within the local solution space containing the fruit fly swarm location. In an evaluation based on a group of ten benchmark problems, the proposed algorithm's performance is compared with that of other well-known algorithms, and the results support the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this algorithm is successfully applied in a SVM to perform both parameter setting turning for the SVM and feature selection to solve real-world classification problems. This method is called chaotic fruit fly optimization algorithm (CIFOA)-SVM and has been shown to be a more robust and effective optimization method than other well-known methods, particularly in terms of solving the medical diagnosis problem and the credit card problem.

  6. Improvements in welding parameters for a new design of zircaloy-4 tube-end plug joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.L.; Fernandez, L.; Corso, H.L.; Ausas, J; Santisteban, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results for the characterization of welds using a new design for zircaloy-4 tube-end plug joints, applicable to the production of fuel elements for the Atucha I Nuclear Plant. Test specimens were prepared following the new joint design and were welded using orbital welding equipment. Hydrogen content was measured in the different welding areas, and corrosion tests, and mechanical and microstructural descriptions were carried out, obtaining values that meet the current production standards. We reported previously that test samples welded in equipment with a smaller camera showed some relatively high hydrogen levels, together with alterations in the welded zone in the corrosion tests. Given these results, new tests were undertaken to optimize the welding parameters, being very careful with the purity of the welding atmosphere and in the handling of the samples. The intensity of the welding current was increased slightly to obtain better penetration of the material, without significantly increasing the heat input. The traction resistance values improved, reducing the hydrogen content to well below the maximum allowed by the standards (25 ppm) in all the welding zones and obtaining satisfactory results in the corrosion tests

  7. Improving Wind Predictions in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer through Parameter Estimation in a Single-Column Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jared A.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Delle Monache, Luca; Kosović, Branko; Clifton, Andrew; Vandenberghe, Francois; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz

    2016-12-14

    A current barrier to greater deployment of offshore wind turbines is the poor quality of numerical weather prediction model wind and turbulence forecasts over open ocean. The bulk of development for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) parameterization schemes has focused on land, partly due to a scarcity of observations over ocean. The 100-m FINO1 tower in the North Sea is one of the few sources worldwide of atmospheric profile observations from the sea surface to turbine hub height. These observations are crucial to developing a better understanding and modeling of physical processes in the marine ABL. In this study, we use the WRF single column model (SCM), coupled with an ensemble Kalman filter from the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), to create 100-member ensembles at the FINO1 location. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which model parameter estimation can improve offshore wind forecasts.

  8. Online identification of linear loudspeakers parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Rubak, Per

    2007-01-01

    Feed forward nonlinear error correction of loudspeakers can improve sound quality. For creating a realistic feed forward strategy identification of the loudspeaker parameters is needed. The strategy of the compensator is that the nonlinear behaviour of the loudspeakers has relatively small drift...

  9. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Robyn; Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  10. Method for Estimating the Parameters of LFM Radar Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuan-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reliable estimate of parameters, it is very important to protect the integrality of linear frequency modulation (LFM signal. Therefore, in the practical LFM radar signal processing, the length of data frame is often greater than the pulse width (PW of signal. In this condition, estimating the parameters by fractional Fourier transform (FrFT will cause the signal to noise ratio (SNR decrease. Aiming at this problem, we multiply the data frame by a Gaussian window to improve the SNR. Besides, for a further improvement of parameters estimation precision, a novel algorithm is derived via Lagrange interpolation polynomial, and we enhance the algorithm by a logarithmic transformation. Simulation results demonstrate that the derived algorithm significantly reduces the estimation errors of chirp-rate and initial frequency.

  11. Improved correlation of histological data with DCE MRI parameter maps by 3D reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of the histological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Le-Huu, Martin; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kunert, Tobias; Thorn, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Vosseler, Silvia; Fusenig, Norbert E.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Hoffend, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Due to poor correlation of slice thickness and orientation, verification of radiological methods with histology is difficult. Thus, a procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of histological data was developed, enabling a proper correlation with radiological data. Two different subcutaneous tumors were examined by MR microangiography and DCE-MRI, the latter being post-processed using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Subsequently, tumors were serially sectioned and vessels stained with immunofluorescence markers. A ray-tracing algorithm performed three-dimensional visualization of the histological data, allowing virtually reslicing to thicker sections analogous to MRI slice geometry. Thick slices were processed as parameter maps color coding the marker density in the depth of the slice. Histological 3D reconstructions displayed the diffuse angioarchitecture of malignant tumors. Resliced histological images enabled specification of high enhancing areas seen on MR microangiography as large single vessels or vessel assemblies. In orthogonally reconstructed histological slices, single vessels were delineated. ROI analysis showed significant correlation between histological parameter maps of vessel density and MR parameter maps (r=0.83, P=0.05). The 3D approach to histology improves correlation of histological and radiological data due to proper matching of slice geometry. This method can be used with any histological stain, thus enabling a multivariable correlation of non-invasive data and histology. (orig.)

  12. Improvement of plant parameters of the robo gamma irradiation facility due to design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Del Valle Odar, C.; Seminario, A.; Linares, M.; Huamanlazo, P.; Aymar, J.; Chu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two industrial scale, 'ROBO' type 60 Co gamma irradiation facilities have recently been put into operation in Syria and Peru, and the dosimetry commissioning of both plants have been carried out to determine dose distribution within products and to calculate plant parameters such as efficiency, dose uniformity ratio and throughput. There are some design modifications between the two plants in connection with the location of the carriers with respect to the source plaque and also to each other. The effect of these construction modifications on the plant parameters is discussed in the analysis of the dose distribution data measured in the carriers with depth and height among the four irradiation rows on both sides of the source plaque. The plant parameters were also calculated for different product densities using the technical data of the facilities, and the calculated and measured results were compared to each other

  13. Improving exergetic and sustainability parameters of a DI diesel engine using polymer waste dissolved in biodiesel as a novel diesel additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohammadi, Pouya; Pourvosoughi, Navid; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of diesel engine fuelled with various SBE biodiesel–diesel blends containing EPS. • Profound effect of engine speed and load on exergetic performance parameters of diesel engine. • Selection of B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel as the best mixture. • Potential application of the applied framework for optimizing sustainability index of IC engines. - Abstract: Exergy analysis of a DI diesel engine running on several biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) containing various quantities of expanded polystyrene (EPS) was carried out. Neat diesel and B5 were also investigated during the engine tests. The biodiesel used was produced using waste oil extracted from spend bleaching earth (SBE). The experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fuel type, engine speed, and load on thermal efficiency, exergetic parameters, and sustainability index of the diesel engine. The obtained results revealed that the exergetic parameters strongly depended on the engine speed and load. Generally, increasing engine speed remarkably decreased the exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine. However, increasing engine load initially enhanced the exergy efficiency and sustainability index, while its further augmentation did not profoundly affect these parameters. The maximum exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine (i.e. 40.21% and 1.67, respectively) were achieved using B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel. Generally, the approach presented herein could be a promising strategy for energy recovery from polymer waste, emissions reduction, and performance improvement. The findings of the present study also confirmed that exergy analysis could be employed to minimize the irreversibility and losses occurring in modern engines and to enhance the sustainability index of combustion processes.

  14. Deposition parameters to improve the fouling-release properties of thin siloxane coatings prepared by PACVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akesso, Laurent; Navabpour, Parnia; Teer, Dennis; Pettitt, Michala E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Liu Chen; Su Xueju; Wang Su; Zhao Qi; Donik, Crtomir; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, Monika; Callow, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A range of SiO x -like coatings was deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD. The effect of varying deposition parameters, specifically ion cleaning time and HMDSO/O 2 ratios, on the coating properties and antifouling performance was investigated. At low HMDSO/O 2 ratios, the resulting coatings were close to SiO 2 . Carbon content in the bulk of the coatings increased with increasing HMDSO/O 2 ratio. Coatings deposited at high HMDSO/O 2 ratios and with the longest cleaning time (30 min), elevated the relative carbon content to 25 atomic %. Surface energies (22-43 mJ/m) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon content. With the exception of the most polar coatings the apolar component of the surface energy (γ LW ) was the dominant component. In the most hydrophilic coatings, the Lewis base component of the surface energy (γ - ) was dominant. Significantly improved antifouling performance was detected with the most reduced coatings deposited using the extended ion cleaning times. For both, the removal of sporelings of the marine green alga, Ulvalinza and the initial adhesion of the freshwater bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, there was a strong, positive correlation between strength of attachment and ion cleaning time. Increased ion cleaning time will elevate the deposition temperature, increasing decomposition rates and thus the crosslinking of the polymer. Increased cross-linking may render these coatings less permeable to penetration and mechanical interlocking by the adhesive polymers used by these organisms, thus reducing their adhesion. Films with improved biological performance have potential for use as coatings in the control of biofouling in applications such as heat exchangers, where thin films are important for effective thermal transfer, or optical windows where transparency is important.

  15. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using the Data Processing Approach and the Support Vector Machine Model Optimized by the Improved Cuckoo Search Parameter Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power systems could be at risk when the power-grid collapse accident occurs. As a clean and renewable resource, wind energy plays an increasingly vital role in reducing air pollution and wind power generation becomes an important way to produce electrical power. Therefore, accurate wind power and wind speed forecasting are in need. In this research, a novel short-term wind speed forecasting portfolio has been proposed using the following three procedures: (I data preprocessing: apart from the regular normalization preprocessing, the data are preprocessed through empirical model decomposition (EMD, which reduces the effect of noise on the wind speed data; (II artificially intelligent parameter optimization introduction: the unknown parameters in the support vector machine (SVM model are optimized by the cuckoo search (CS algorithm; (III parameter optimization approach modification: an improved parameter optimization approach, called the SDCS model, based on the CS algorithm and the steepest descent (SD method is proposed. The comparison results show that the simple and effective portfolio EMD-SDCS-SVM produces promising predictions and has better performance than the individual forecasting components, with very small root mean squared errors and mean absolute percentage errors.

  16. Improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and quality of life following treatment with dual-release hydrocortisone in patients with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Roberta; Guaraldi, Federica; Marinazzo, Elisa; Fumarola, Federica; Rampino, Alessia; Berardelli, Rita; Karamouzis, Ioannis; Lucchiari, Manuela; Manetta, Tilde; Mengozzi, Giulio; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio

    2016-02-01

    In patients with Addison's disease (AD), a dual-release preparation of hydrocortisone (Plenadren, PLEN) has been demonstrated to maintain cortisol levels in a more physiological range than conventional glucocorticoid therapy, and to exert positive effects. This study aimed to assess variations of anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal parameters in patients with AD after switching from conventional hydrocortisone (HC) treatment to PLEN. In nineteen AD patients (15 F and 4 M, age 27-65 years) treated with HC 20 mg/day thrice daily, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HbA1c, serum lipids, plasma renin activity, electrolytes, and blood pressure were evaluated at baseline, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after switching from HC to PLEN. At baseline, and after 1 and 12 months of PLEN, blood ACTH and cortisol (at 0800 h at fasting, and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 min after drug ingestion), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), using 30-AddiQoL questionnaire, were evaluated. During PLEN, waist and serum lipid progressively decreased. After 12 months of PLEN, a significant difference was observed in waist circumference (P = 0.007), HbA1c (P = 0.002), total and LDL-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). ACTH levels at 240 min and the area under the curve (AUC) were lower (P < 0.05) during PLEN than HC, while cortisol peaks and AUC were similar. 30-AddiQoL total score also improved (P = 0.04) during PLEN. In AD patients, PLEN reduces central adiposity, and improves glucose and metabolism parameters and HRQoL.

  17. Feasibility of MR-only proton dose calculations for prostate cancer radiotherapy using a commercial pseudo-CT generation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Landry, Guillaume; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia; Seevinck, Peter R.; Raaymakers, Bas W.; Kurz, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR)-only radiotherapy workflow can reduce cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registration. A crucial prerequisite is generating the so called pseudo-CT (pCT) images for accurate dose calculation and planning. Many pCT generation methods have been proposed in the scope of photon radiotherapy. This work aims at verifying for the first time whether a commercially available photon-oriented pCT generation method can be employed for accurate intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) dose calculation. A retrospective study was conducted on ten prostate cancer patients. For pCT generation from MR images, a commercial solution for creating bulk-assigned pCTs, called MR for Attenuation Correction (MRCAT), was employed. The assigned pseudo-Hounsfield Unit (HU) values were adapted to yield an increased agreement to the reference CT in terms of proton range. Internal air cavities were copied from the CT to minimise inter-scan differences. CT- and MRCAT-based dose calculations for opposing beam IMPT plans were compared by gamma analysis and evaluation of clinically relevant target and organ at risk dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters. The proton range in beam’s eye view (BEV) was compared using single field uniform dose (SFUD) plans. On average, a (2%, 2 mm) gamma pass rate of 98.4% was obtained using a 10% dose threshold after adaptation of the pseudo-HU values. Mean differences between CT- and MRCAT-based dose in the DVH parameters were below 1 Gy (radiotherapy, is feasible following adaptation of the assigned pseudo-HU values.

  18. Rectal Toxicity After Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes of Prospective Studies Conducted at the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Rovel J.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McKibben, Brian T. [Baptist Health Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal H.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Baptist Health Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@floridaproton.org [The University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Study goals were to characterize gastrointestinal effects of proton therapy (PT) in a large cohort of patients treated for prostate cancer, identify factors associated with rectal bleeding (RB), and compare RB between patients receiving investigational protocols versus those in outcome-tracking protocols. Methods and Materials: A total of 1285 consecutive patients were treated with PT between August 2006 and May 2010. Potential pre-existing clinical and treatment-related risk factors for rectal toxicity were recorded. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to score toxicity. Results: Transient RB was the predominant grade 2 or higher (GR2+) toxicity after PT, accounting for 95% of gastrointestinal events. GR1 RB occurred in 217 patients (16.9%), GR2 RB in 187 patients (14.5%), and GR3 in 11 (0.9%) patients. There were no GR4 or GR5 events. Univariate analyses showed correlations between GR2+ RB and anticoagulation therapy (P=.008) and rectal and rectal wall dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, anticoagulation therapy (P=.0034), relative volume of rectum receiving 75 Gy (V75; P=.0102), and relative rectal wall V75 (P=.0017) were significant predictors for G2+ RB. Patients treated with investigational protocols had toxicity rates similar to those receiving outcome-tracking protocols. Conclusions: PT was associated with a low rate of GR2+ gastrointestinal toxicity, predominantly transient RB, which was highly correlated with anticoagulation and rectal DVH parameters. Techniques that limit rectal exposure should be used when possible.

  19. Rectal Toxicity After Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes of Prospective Studies Conducted at the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, Rovel J.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; McKibben, Brian T.; Henderson, Randal H.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Study goals were to characterize gastrointestinal effects of proton therapy (PT) in a large cohort of patients treated for prostate cancer, identify factors associated with rectal bleeding (RB), and compare RB between patients receiving investigational protocols versus those in outcome-tracking protocols. Methods and Materials: A total of 1285 consecutive patients were treated with PT between August 2006 and May 2010. Potential pre-existing clinical and treatment-related risk factors for rectal toxicity were recorded. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to score toxicity. Results: Transient RB was the predominant grade 2 or higher (GR2+) toxicity after PT, accounting for 95% of gastrointestinal events. GR1 RB occurred in 217 patients (16.9%), GR2 RB in 187 patients (14.5%), and GR3 in 11 (0.9%) patients. There were no GR4 or GR5 events. Univariate analyses showed correlations between GR2+ RB and anticoagulation therapy (P=.008) and rectal and rectal wall dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, anticoagulation therapy (P=.0034), relative volume of rectum receiving 75 Gy (V75; P=.0102), and relative rectal wall V75 (P=.0017) were significant predictors for G2+ RB. Patients treated with investigational protocols had toxicity rates similar to those receiving outcome-tracking protocols. Conclusions: PT was associated with a low rate of GR2+ gastrointestinal toxicity, predominantly transient RB, which was highly correlated with anticoagulation and rectal DVH parameters. Techniques that limit rectal exposure should be used when possible

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary

  1. Inter fractional dose variation during intensity-modulated radiation therapy for cervical cancer assessed by weekly CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Youngyih; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Won

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the inter fractional dose variation of a small-bowel displacement system (SBDS)-assisted intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Four computed tomography (CT) scans were carried out in 10 patients who received radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. The initial CT was taken by use of the SBDS, before the beginning of radiotherapy, and 3 additional CT scans with the SBDS were done in subsequent weeks. IMRT was planned by use of the initial CT, and the subsequent images were fused with the initial CT set. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes of the targets (planning target volume [PTV] = clinical target volume [CTV] + 1.5 cm) and of the critical organs were evaluated after obtaining the volumes of each organ on 4 CT sets. Results: No significant differences were found in PTV volumes. Changes on the DVH of the CTVs were not significant, whereas DVH changes of the PTVs at 40% to 100% of the prescription dose level were significant (V 90% ; 2nd week: p = 0.0091, 3rd week: p = 0.0029, 4th week: p = 0.0050). The changes in the small-bowel volume included in the treatment field were significant. These were 119.5 cm 3 (range, 26.9-251.0 cm 3 ), 126 cm 3 (range, 38.3-336 cm 3 ), 161.9 cm 3 (range, 37.7-294.6 cm 3 ), and 149.1 cm 3 (range, 38.6-277.8 cm 3 ) at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks, respectively, and were significantly correlated with the DVH change in the small bowel, which were significant at the 3rd (V 80% ; p = 0.0230) and 4th (V 80% ; p = 0.0263) weeks. The bladder-volume change correlated to the large volume change (>20%) of the small-bowel volume. Conclusions: Significant DVH differences for the small bowel can result because of interfractional position variations, whereas the DVH differences of the CTV were not significant. Strict bladder-filling control and an accurate margin for the PTV, as well as image-guided position verification, are important to achieve the goal of IMRT

  2. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  3. Modular Estimation Strategy of Vehicle Dynamic Parameters for Motion Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawash Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motion control or active safety systems in vehicles have become increasingly important for improving vehicle performance and handling and negotiating dangerous driving situations. The performance of such systems would be improved if combined with knowledge of vehicle dynamic parameters. Since some of these parameters are difficult to measure, due to technical or economic reasons, estimation of those parameters might be the only practical alternative. In this paper, an estimation strategy of important vehicle dynamic parameters, pertaining to motion control applications, is presented. The estimation strategy is of a modular structure such that each module is concerned with estimating a single vehicle parameter. Parameters estimated include: longitudinal, lateral, and vertical tire forces – longitudinal velocity – vehicle mass. The advantage of this strategy is its independence of tire parameters or wear, road surface condition, and vehicle mass variation. Also, because of its modular structure, each module could be later updated or exchanged for a more effective one. Results from simulations on a 14-DOF vehicle model are provided here to validate the strategy and show its robustness and accuracy.

  4. Six months of daily treatment with vardenafil improves parameters of endothelial inflammation and of hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes and erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Granata, Antonio R M; Guidi, Alessandro; Pignatti, Elisa; Trenti, Tommaso; Roli, Laura; Bozic, Roberto; Zaza, Stefano; Pacchioni, Chiara; Romano, Stefania; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Rochira, Vincenzo; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a reduction of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) improve NO levels. The aim of the study was to investigate whether long-term, chronic treatment with the PDE5i vardenafil improves systemic endothelial function in diabetic men. A prospective, investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted. In total, 54 male patients affected by T2DM, diagnosed within the last 5 years, and erectile dysfunction were enrolled, regardless of testosterone levels. In all, 26 and 28 patients were assigned to verum and placebo groups respectively. The study consisted of an enrollment phase, a treatment phase (24 weeks) (vardenafil/placebo 10  mg twice in a day) and a follow-up phase (24 weeks). Parameters evaluated were as follows: International Index of Erectile Function 15 (IIEF-15), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), serum interleukin 6 (IL6), endothelin 1 (ET-1), gonadotropins and testosterone (measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry). IIEF-15 erectile function improved during the treatment (Ptreatment both FMD (P=0.040) and IL6 (P=0.019) significantly improved. FMD correlated with serum testosterone levels (R(2)=0.299; Ptreatment and returned in the eugonadal range only in hypogonadal men (n=13), without changes in gonadotropins. Chronic vardenafil treatment did not result in relevant side effects. This is the first double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment of vardenafil on endothelial health-related parameters and sexual hormones in patients affected by a chronic disease. Chronically administered vardenafil is effective and improves endothelial parameters in T2DM patient. Moreover, chronic vardenafil therapy improves hypogonadism in diabetic, hypogonadal men. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Improved accuracy of quantitative parameter estimates in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT study with low temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mo, E-mail: Sunmo.Kim@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Yeung, Ivan W. T. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: A previously proposed method to reduce radiation dose to patient in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT is enhanced by principal component analysis (PCA) filtering which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of time-concentration curves in the DCE-CT study. The efficacy of the combined method to maintain the accuracy of kinetic parameter estimates at low temporal resolution is investigated with pixel-by-pixel kinetic analysis of DCE-CT data. Methods: The method is based on DCE-CT scanning performed with low temporal resolution to reduce the radiation dose to the patient. The arterial input function (AIF) with high temporal resolution can be generated with a coarsely sampled AIF through a previously published method of AIF estimation. To increase the SNR of time-concentration curves (tissue curves), first, a region-of-interest is segmented into squares composed of 3 × 3 pixels in size. Subsequently, the PCA filtering combined with a fraction of residual information criterion is applied to all the segmented squares for further improvement of their SNRs. The proposed method was applied to each DCE-CT data set of a cohort of 14 patients at varying levels of down-sampling. The kinetic analyses using the modified Tofts’ model and singular value decomposition method, then, were carried out for each of the down-sampling schemes between the intervals from 2 to 15 s. The results were compared with analyses done with the measured data in high temporal resolution (i.e., original scanning frequency) as the reference. Results: The patients’ AIFs were estimated to high accuracy based on the 11 orthonormal bases of arterial impulse responses established in the previous paper. In addition, noise in the images was effectively reduced by using five principal components of the tissue curves for filtering. Kinetic analyses using the proposed method showed superior results compared to those with down-sampling alone; they were able to maintain the accuracy in the

  6. Correlation between gamma index passing rate and clinical dosimetric difference for pre-treatment 2D and 3D volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Yan, H; Han, C; Zhou, Y; Yi, J; Xie, C

    2015-03-01

    To investigate comparatively the percentage gamma passing rate (%GP) of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetric verification and their correlation and sensitivity with percentage dosimetric errors (%DE). %GP of 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT quality assurance (QA) with different acceptance criteria was obtained by ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) for 20 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 20 patients with oesophageal cancer. %DE were calculated from planned dose-volume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by 3DVH® software (Sun Nuclear Corporation). Correlation and sensitivity between %GP and %DE were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Relatively higher %DE on some DVH-based metrics were observed for both patients with NPC and oesophageal cancer. Except for 2%/2 mm criterion, the average %GPs for all patients undergoing VMAT were acceptable with average rates of 97.11% ± 1.54% and 97.39% ± 1.37% for 2D and 3D 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. The number of correlations for 3D was higher than that for 2D (21 vs 8). However, the general correlation was still poor for all the analysed metrics (9 out of 26 for 3D 3%/3 mm criterion). The average area under the curve (AUC) of ROCs was 0.66 ± 0.12 and 0.71 ± 0.21 for 2D and 3D evaluations, respectively. There is a lack of correlation between %GP and %DE for both 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT dosimetric evaluation. DVH-based dose metrics evaluation obtained from 3DVH will provide more useful analysis. Correlation and sensitivity of %GP with %DE for VMAT QA were studied for the first time.

  7. SU-F-T-450: The Investigation of Radiotherapy Quality Assurance and Automatic Treatment Planning Based On the Kernel Density Estimation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J; Fan, J; Hu, W; Wang, J [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a fast automatic algorithm based on the two dimensional kernel density estimation (2D KDE) to predict the dose-volume histogram (DVH) which can be employed for the investigation of radiotherapy quality assurance and automatic treatment planning. Methods: We propose a machine learning method that uses previous treatment plans to predict the DVH. The key to the approach is the framing of DVH in a probabilistic setting. The training consists of estimating, from the patients in the training set, the joint probability distribution of the dose and the predictive features. The joint distribution provides an estimation of the conditional probability of the dose given the values of the predictive features. For the new patient, the prediction consists of estimating the distribution of the predictive features and marginalizing the conditional probability from the training over this. Integrating the resulting probability distribution for the dose yields an estimation of the DVH. The 2D KDE is implemented to predict the joint probability distribution of the training set and the distribution of the predictive features for the new patient. Two variables, including the signed minimal distance from each OAR (organs at risk) voxel to the target boundary and its opening angle with respect to the origin of voxel coordinate, are considered as the predictive features to represent the OAR-target spatial relationship. The feasibility of our method has been demonstrated with the rectum, breast and head-and-neck cancer cases by comparing the predicted DVHs with the planned ones. Results: The consistent result has been found between these two DVHs for each cancer and the average of relative point-wise differences is about 5% within the clinical acceptable extent. Conclusion: According to the result of this study, our method can be used to predict the clinical acceptable DVH and has ability to evaluate the quality and consistency of the treatment planning.

  8. SU-F-T-450: The Investigation of Radiotherapy Quality Assurance and Automatic Treatment Planning Based On the Kernel Density Estimation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J; Fan, J; Hu, W; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast automatic algorithm based on the two dimensional kernel density estimation (2D KDE) to predict the dose-volume histogram (DVH) which can be employed for the investigation of radiotherapy quality assurance and automatic treatment planning. Methods: We propose a machine learning method that uses previous treatment plans to predict the DVH. The key to the approach is the framing of DVH in a probabilistic setting. The training consists of estimating, from the patients in the training set, the joint probability distribution of the dose and the predictive features. The joint distribution provides an estimation of the conditional probability of the dose given the values of the predictive features. For the new patient, the prediction consists of estimating the distribution of the predictive features and marginalizing the conditional probability from the training over this. Integrating the resulting probability distribution for the dose yields an estimation of the DVH. The 2D KDE is implemented to predict the joint probability distribution of the training set and the distribution of the predictive features for the new patient. Two variables, including the signed minimal distance from each OAR (organs at risk) voxel to the target boundary and its opening angle with respect to the origin of voxel coordinate, are considered as the predictive features to represent the OAR-target spatial relationship. The feasibility of our method has been demonstrated with the rectum, breast and head-and-neck cancer cases by comparing the predicted DVHs with the planned ones. Results: The consistent result has been found between these two DVHs for each cancer and the average of relative point-wise differences is about 5% within the clinical acceptable extent. Conclusion: According to the result of this study, our method can be used to predict the clinical acceptable DVH and has ability to evaluate the quality and consistency of the treatment planning.

  9. MHODE: a local-homogeneity theory for improved source-parameter estimation of potential fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni; Paoletti, Valeria

    2015-08-01

    We describe a multihomogeneity theory for source-parameter estimation of potential fields. Similar to what happens for random source models, where the monofractal scaling-law has been generalized into a multifractal law, we propose to generalize the homogeneity law into a multihomogeneity law. This allows a theoretically correct approach to study real-world potential fields, which are inhomogeneous and so do not show scale invariance, except in the asymptotic regions (very near to or very far from their sources). Since the scaling properties of inhomogeneous fields change with the scale of observation, we show that they may be better studied at a set of scales than at a single scale and that a multihomogeneous model is needed to explain its complex scaling behaviour. In order to perform this task, we first introduce fractional-degree homogeneous fields, to show that: (i) homogeneous potential fields may have fractional or integer degree; (ii) the source-distributions for a fractional-degree are not confined in a bounded region, similarly to some integer-degree models, such as the infinite line mass and (iii) differently from the integer-degree case, the fractional-degree source distributions are no longer uniform density functions. Using this enlarged set of homogeneous fields, real-world anomaly fields are studied at different scales, by a simple search, at any local window W, for the best homogeneous field of either integer or fractional-degree, this yielding a multiscale set of local homogeneity-degrees and depth estimations which we call multihomogeneous model. It is so defined a new technique of source parameter estimation (Multi-HOmogeneity Depth Estimation, MHODE), permitting retrieval of the source parameters of complex sources. We test the method with inhomogeneous fields of finite sources, such as faults or cylinders, and show its effectiveness also in a real-case example. These applications show the usefulness of the new concepts, multihomogeneity and

  10. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese dragon’s blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon’s blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon’s blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Improvement of physicochemical parameters of acyclovir using cocrystallization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acyclovir is an antiviral drug having potent activity against the virus of herpes family and varicella zoster. Unfortunately, drug suffers very poor oral bioavailability (15-30%. The main objective of present study was to develop acyclovir cocrystals with improved solubility which may result in improvement of bioavailability. Hansen solubility approach was used as a tool to predict the cocrystal formation of a drug with selected coformer. Cocrystals of acyclovir with various coformers were screened in order to enhance their water solubility. Cocrystals of the drug were prepared using various methods like solvent evaporation, wet grinding, and antisolvent addition. Formation of cocrystals by solvent evaporation method was found to be better method amongst all. Optimization of cocrystal formation was carried out by employing different solvents as well as the stoichiometric ratio of acyclovir with that of coformer. Synthesis of cocrystals was optimized using water as a solvent system resulted in good agreements. The potential cocrystal formation of acyclovir was characterized by IR, PXRD and DSC techniques. An in-vitro dissolution study was performed to determine the dissolution rate of cocrystals. The results suggest that acyclovir forms cocrystals with tartaric acid and the initial dissolution rate of synthesized cocrystals were considerably faster as compared to pure acyclovir.

  12. Improving filtering and prediction of spatially extended turbulent systems with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershgorin, B.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The filtering and predictive skill for turbulent signals is often limited by the lack of information about the true dynamics of the system and by our inability to resolve the assumed dynamics with sufficiently high resolution using the current computing power. The standard approach is to use a simple yet rich family of constant parameters to account for model errors through parameterization. This approach can have significant skill by fitting the parameters to some statistical feature of the true signal; however in the context of real-time prediction, such a strategy performs poorly when intermittent transitions to instability occur. Alternatively, we need a set of dynamic parameters. One strategy for estimating parameters on the fly is a stochastic parameter estimation through partial observations of the true signal. In this paper, we extend our newly developed stochastic parameter estimation strategy, the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF), to filtering sparsely observed spatially extended turbulent systems which exhibit abrupt stability transition from time to time despite a stable average behavior. For our primary numerical example, we consider a turbulent system of externally forced barotropic Rossby waves with instability introduced through intermittent negative damping. We find high filtering skill of SPEKF applied to this toy model even in the case of very sparse observations (with only 15 out of the 105 grid points observed) and with unspecified external forcing and damping. Additive and multiplicative bias corrections are used to learn the unknown features of the true dynamics from observations. We also present a comprehensive study of predictive skill in the one-mode context including the robustness toward variation of stochastic parameters, imperfect initial conditions and finite ensemble effect. Furthermore, the proposed stochastic parameter estimation scheme applied to the same spatially extended Rossby wave system demonstrates

  13. Some implications of accurate thermal parameters for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Whitehurst, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Authoritative values for the parameters of harmonic thermal motion have been used as criteria for various least-squares refinements of the structure model for beryllium metal. A change in the absolute scale of Brown [Philos. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377-1394] improves the correspondence of the associated data with the true thermal parameters. Contraction of the core-electron distribution upon bonding is a possible implication of the rescaled data. (Auth.)

  14. An improved chaotic fruit fly optimization based on a mutation strategy for simultaneous feature selection and parameter optimization for SVM and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xin Yuan; Sun, Lin Fu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new support vector machine (SVM) optimization scheme based on an improved chaotic fly optimization algorithm (FOA) with a mutation strategy to simultaneously perform parameter setting turning for the SVM and feature selection. In the improved FOA, the chaotic particle initializes the fruit fly swarm location and replaces the expression of distance for the fruit fly to find the food source. However, the proposed mutation strategy uses two distinct generative mechanisms for new food sources at the osphresis phase, allowing the algorithm procedure to search for the optimal solution in both the whole solution space and within the local solution space containing the fruit fly swarm location. In an evaluation based on a group of ten benchmark problems, the proposed algorithm’s performance is compared with that of other well-known algorithms, and the results support the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this algorithm is successfully applied in a SVM to perform both parameter setting turning for the SVM and feature selection to solve real-world classification problems. This method is called chaotic fruit fly optimization algorithm (CIFOA)-SVM and has been shown to be a more robust and effective optimization method than other well-known methods, particularly in terms of solving the medical diagnosis problem and the credit card problem. PMID:28369096

  15. A neutronics study for improving the safety and performance parameters of a 3600 MWth Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kaichao; Krepel, Jiri; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Chawla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    , having almost no impact on the other considered parameters. A lower H/D ratio can also reduce void reactivity, but normally corresponds to worse neutron economy and, as such, leads to a less positive breeding gain and a smaller nominal reactivity margin. The Doppler constant, which is very sensitive to the neutron spectrum, can be significantly improved by the spectrum softening in the moderator pins case. Initial plutonium content effectively influences the nominal reactivity and breeding gain at the beginning-of-life, without significant changes of the safety related parameters. Finally, two different “synthesis core” concepts are proposed for further study, the common boundary condition set being to have a positive nominal reactivity margin at the end of equilibrium closed fuel cycle. Their considered safety and performance parameters at different fuel cycle states are presented in the end

  16. Impacts of Different Types of Measurements on Estimating Unsaturatedflow Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the value of different types of measurements for estimating soil hydraulic parameters. A numerical method based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is presented to solely or jointly assimilate point-scale soil water head data, point-scale soil water content data, surface soil water content data and groundwater level data. This study investigates the performance of EnKF under different types of data, the potential worth contained in these data, and the factors that may affect estimation accuracy. Results show that for all types of data, smaller measurements errors lead to faster convergence to the true values. Higher accuracy measurements are required to improve the parameter estimation if a large number of unknown parameters need to be identified simultaneously. The data worth implied by the surface soil water content data and groundwater level data is prone to corruption by a deviated initial guess. Surface soil moisture data are capable of identifying soil hydraulic parameters for the top layers, but exert less or no influence on deeper layers especially when estimating multiple parameters simultaneously. Groundwater level is one type of valuable information to infer the soil hydraulic parameters. However, based on the approach used in this study, the estimates from groundwater level data may suffer severe degradation if a large number of parameters must be identified. Combined use of two or more types of data is helpful to improve the parameter estimation.

  17. Optimization Design of Multi-Parameters in Rail Launcher System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the energy storage systems are still encumbering, therefore it is useful to think about the optimization of a railgun system in order to achieve the best performance with the lowest energy input. In this paper, an optimal design method considering 5 parameters is proposed to improve the energy conversion efficiency of a simple railgun. In order to avoid costly trials, the field- circuit method is employed to analyze the operations of different structural railguns with different parameters respectively. And the orthogonal test approach is used to guide the simulation for choosing the better parameter combinations, as well reduce the calculation cost. The research shows that the proposed method gives a better result in the energy efficiency of the system. To improve the energy conversion efficiency of electromagnetic rail launchers, the selection of more parameters must be considered in the design stage, such as the width, height and length of rail, the distance between rail pair, and pulse forming inductance. However, the relationship between these parameters and energy conversion efficiency cannot be directly described by one mathematical expression. So optimization methods must be applied to conduct design. In this paper, a rail launcher with five parameters was optimized by using orthogonal test method. According to the arrangement of orthogonal table, the better parameters’ combination can be obtained through less calculation. Under the condition of different parameters’ value, field and circuit simulation analysis were made. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency of the system is increased by 71.9 % after parameters optimization.

  18. Evaluation of Injection Molding Process Parameters for Manufacturing Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah O.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality control is an important aspect in manufacturing process. The quality of product in injection moulding is influenced by injection moulding process parameter. In this study, the effect of injection moulding parameter on defects quantity of PET preform was investigated. Optimizing the parameter of injection moulding process is critical to enhance productivity where parameters must operate at an optimum level for an acceptable performance. Design of Experiment (DOE by factorial design approach was used to find an optimum parameter setting and reduce the defects. In this case study, Minitab 17 software was used to analyses the data. The selected input parameters were mould hot runner temperature, water cooling chiller temperature 1 and water cooling chiller temperature 2. Meanwhile, the output for the process was defects quantity of the preform. The relationship between input and output of the process was analyzed using regression method and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. In order to interpolate the experiment data, mathematical modeling was used which consists of different types of regression equation. Next, from the model, 95% confidence level (p-value was considered and the significant parameter was figured out. This study involved a collaboration with a preform injection moulding company which was Nilai Legasi Plastik Sdn Bhd. The collaboration enabled the researchers to collect the data and also help the company to improve the quality of its production. The results of the study showed that the optimum parameter setting that could reduce the defect quantity of preform was MHR= 88°C, CT1= 24°C and CT2= 27°C. The comparison defect quantity analysis between current companies setting with the optimum setting showed improvement by 21% reduction of defect quantity at the optimum setting. Finally, from the optimization plot, the validation error between the prediction value and experiment was 1.72%. The result proved that quality of products

  19. Transfusion treatment impact in the improvement of haematological parameters in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliriane Bunjaku

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transfusion treatment (TT is necessary in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB for lost blood substitution. This study was aimed at assessing the changes in haematological parameters  (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, white cell count, platelet count and prothrombin time before and after TT in anaemic patients with GIB in order to analyse the effect of this treatment.Methods: There have been included 293 patients with GIB (the average age was 57.3, ranged from 18-89 years who were treated with TT at the Internal Clinic at the University Clinical Center Prishtina during oneyear period. Data for applied blood product and results of the coagulation screen (PT were collected from the Kosovo’s Blood Transfusion Center (KBTC.Results: TT has been carried out in 404 episodes, with 714 units of concentrated red blood cells (78.6%, 189 units of fresh frozen plasma (20.8% and concentrated platelets (0.6%, with an average dose 3.1 fortransfunded patients. Average values of Hb before and after TT were 71.8 g/L and 81.4 g/L, respectively; while the average values of hematocrite before and after TT were 22.9% and 25.6%, respectively. The averageerythrocytes count before TT was 2.6 respectively after treatment 2.8(pConclusions: Having in mind difficult clinical and unsustainable situation in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, the Transfusion Treatment resulted in the considerable improvement of the specific blood indicators.

  20. Parameter extraction of different fuel cell models with transferred adaptive differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Wenyin; Yan, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaobo; Cai, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design and control of FC (fuel cell) models, it is important to extract their unknown parameters. Generally, the parameter extraction problems of FC models can be transformed as nonlinear and multi-variable optimization problems. To extract the parameters of different FC models exactly and fast, in this paper, we propose a transferred adaptive DE (differential evolution) framework, in which the successful parameters of the adaptive DE solving previous problems are properly transferred to solve new optimization problems in the similar problem-domains. Based on this framework, an improved adaptive DE method (TRADE, in short) is presented as an illustration. To verify the performance of our proposal, TRADE is used to extract the unknown parameters of two types of fuel cell models, i.e., PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell). The results of TRADE are also compared with those of other state-of-the-art EAs (evolutionary algorithms). Even though the modification is very simple, the results indicate that TRADE can extract the parameters of both PEMFC and SOFC models exactly and fast. Moreover, the V–I characteristics obtained by TRADE agree well with the simulated and experimental data in all cases for both types of fuel cell models. Also, it improves the performance of the original adaptive DE significantly in terms of both the quality of final solutions and the convergence speed in all cases. Additionally, TRADE is able to provide better results compared with other EAs. - Highlights: • A framework of transferred adaptive differential evolution is proposed. • Based on the framework, an improved differential evolution (TRADE) is presented. • TRADE obtains very promising results to extract the parameters of PEMFC and SOFC models

  1. Dosimetric advantage and clinical implication of a micro-multileaf collimator in the treatment of prostate with intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Hoban, Peter; Paskalev, Kamen; Yang Jie; Li Jinsheng; Chen Lili; Xiong Weijun; Ma, Charlie

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the dosimetric benefits of a micro-multileaf (4-mm leaf width) collimator (mMLC) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning of the prostate cancer and its potential application for dose escalation and hypofractionation. We compared treatment plans for IMRT delivery using 2 different multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths (4 vs. 10 mm) for 10 patients with prostate cancer. Treatment planning was performed on the XknifeRT2 treatment planning system. All beams and optimization parameters were identical for the mMLC and MLC plans. All of the plans were normalized to ensure that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received 100% of the prescribed dose (74 Gy). The differences in dose distribution between the 2 groups of plans using the mMLC and the MLC were assessed by dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the target and critical organs. Significant reductions in the volume of rectum receiving medium to higher doses were achieved using the mMLC. The average decrease in the volume of the rectum receiving 40, 50, and 60 Gy using the mMLC plans was 40.2%, 33.4%, and 17.7%, respectively, with p-values less than 0.0001 for V 40 and V 50 and 0.012 for V 60 . The mean dose reductions for D 17 and D 35 for the rectum were 20.0% (p 0.78). Because of the reduction of rectal volume receiving medium to higher doses, dose to the prostate target can be escalated by about 20 Gy to over 74 Gy, while keeping the rectal dose (either denoted by D 17 or D 35 ) the same as those with the use of the MLC. The maximum achievable dose, derived when the rectum is allowed to reach the tolerance level, was found to be in the range of 113-172 Gy (using the tolerance value of D 17 ). We conclude that the use of the mMLC for IMRT of the prostate may facilitate dose hypofractionation due to its dosimetric advantage in significantly improving the DVH parameters of the prostate and critical organs. When used for conventional fractionation scheme, m

  2. Clinical feasibility of combined intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer employing MRI with a tandem/ring applicator in situ and virtual preplanning of the interstitial component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokdal, Lars; Tanderup, Kari; Hokland, Steffen Bjerre; Røhl, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Paludan, Merete; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility of virtually planned needles, changes in DVH parameters and clinical feasibility of combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) pulsed dose rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT) for locally advanced cervical cancer based on 3D MRI preplanning. Material and methods: Fifty-eight consecutively patients accrued in the EMBRACE study were included. Treatment was initiated with external beam radiotherapy and cisplatin. Three BT implants and MRI with the applicator in situ were performed in all patients, i.e. week 5 (BT0), week 6 (BT1) and week 7 (BT2) of the treatment. BT0 was only used for preplanning of subsequent implantations, whereas BT1 and BT2 comprised 2 equal sized fractions of PDR BT. Results: Based on BT0, 24 patients (41%) were selected for a combined IC/IS implant at BT1 and BT2. Patients treated with IC/IS BT had significantly larger tumours compared with patients treated with IC BT only (p < 0.03). Additional time in general anaesthesia for the IC/IS component was on average 16 min. The number of preplanned virtual needles was 5.3 ± 2.7 compared to 5.3 ± 2.9 and 5.4 ± 3.0 needles implanted at BT1 and BT2, respectively (p = 0.72). Planned needle implantation depth was 33 ± 15 mm compared to 30 ± 10 mm at BT1 and 29 ± 11 mm at BT2 (p = 0.04). In the 24 patients selected for IC/IS BT both the virtual IC/IS plan (BT0) and the actually delivered plan (BT1 + BT2) significantly increased D90 and D100 for HR CTV (p < 0.01) and reduced D2cc for sigmoid (p < 0.01) and bowel (p = 0.04) compared to the optimised IC preplan (BT0). IC/IS BT was only associated with minor morbidity, which was resolved at a 3-month follow up. Conclusion: Combined IC/IS BT based on full 3D MRI preplanning is clinically feasible. The virtual preplanned needle positions are reproducible at subsequent BT applications leading to significantly improved DVH parameters and a clinically feasible and fast implant procedure

  3. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  4. Turn-around improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, S.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient turn-around will be an important parameter for the integrated luminosity performance at LHC in 2012, when an operation with steady beam parameters and machine configuration will be achieved at the beginning of the run. Improvements of the operational cycle were already put successfully in place after the 2010 experience but additional ways to reduce the time required to setup collisions are possible. In this paper, the 2011 turn-around performance is reviewed and the benefits of the improvements from 2010 are presented. Phases of the operational cycle when further amelioration is possible are discussed and some proposal for a faster turn-around in 2012 are outlined. (authors)

  5. Measuring Parameters of Massive Black Hole Binaries with Partially Aligned Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A.; Cornish, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    The future space-based gravitational wave detector LISA will be able to measure parameters of coalescing massive black hole binaries, often to extremely high accuracy. Previous work has demonstrated that the black hole spins can have a strong impact on the accuracy of parameter measurement. Relativistic spin-induced precession modulates the waveform in a manner which can break degeneracies between parameters, in principle significantly improving how well they are measured. Recent studies have indicated, however, that spin precession may be weak for an important subset of astrophysical binary black holes: those in which the spins are aligned due to interactions with gas. In this paper, we examine how well a binary's parameters can be measured when its spins are partially aligned and compare results using waveforms that include higher post-Newtonian harmonics to those that are truncated at leading quadrupole order. We find that the weakened precession can substantially degrade parameter estimation, particularly for the "extrinsic" parameters sky position and distance. Absent higher harmonics, LISA typically localizes the sky position of a nearly aligned binary about an order of magnitude less accurately than one for which the spin orientations are random. Our knowledge of a source's sky position will thus be worst for the gas-rich systems which are most likely to produce electromagnetic counterparts. Fortunately, higher harmonics of the waveform can make up for this degradation. By including harmonics beyond the quadrupole in our waveform model, we find that the accuracy with which most of the binary's parameters are measured can be substantially improved. In some cases, the improvement is such that they are measured almost as well as when the binary spins are randomly aligned.

  6. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy

  7. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a lumped-parameter model of a chain of lymphangions in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalian, Samira; Bertram, Christopher D; Richardson, William J; Moore, James E

    2013-12-01

    Any disruption of the lymphatic system due to trauma or injury can lead to edema. There is no effective cure for lymphedema, partly because predictive knowledge of lymphatic system reactions to interventions is lacking. A well-developed model of the system could greatly improve our understanding of its function. Lymphangions, defined as the vessel segment between two valves, are the individual pumping units. Based on our previous lumped-parameter model of a chain of lymphangions, this study aimed to identify the parameters that affect the system output the most using a sensitivity analysis. The system was highly sensitive to minimum valve resistance, such that variations in this parameter caused an order-of-magnitude change in time-average flow rate for certain values of imposed pressure difference. Average flow rate doubled when contraction frequency was increased within its physiological range. Optimum lymphangion length was found to be some 13-14.5 diameters. A peak of time-average flow rate occurred when transmural pressure was such that the pressure-diameter loop for active contractions was centered near maximum passive vessel compliance. Increasing the number of lymphangions in the chain improved the pumping in the presence of larger adverse pressure differences. For a given pressure difference, the optimal number of lymphangions increased with the total vessel length. These results indicate that further experiments to estimate valve resistance more accurately are necessary. The existence of an optimal value of transmural pressure may provide additional guidelines for increasing pumping in areas affected by edema.

  8. Improvement of the accuracy by the measurement of the electrical cell membrane parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlíček, Vojtěch; Rech, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 169-177 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : patch clamp technique * electrical parameters of the cell membrane * memebrane capacity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  9. An internet-based telemonitoring system of multiphysiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuicai, Wu; Haomin, Li; Fangfang, Du; Yanping, Bai; Song, Zhang

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to design and realize a real-time tele-monitoring system with multiphysiological parameters using the Internet. Both the Client/Server (C/S) mode and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) mode were used in the system's network communication. The C/S mode is used to upload, retrieve, and download physiological data. The P2P mode provides realtime tele-monitoring and video chatting between doctors and patients. Experiment results show that P2P technology could efficiently improve the transmission speed of the physiological parameters. This study demonstrates an effective method of remote monitoring of physiological parameters in real time.

  10. An improved robust model predictive control for linear parameter-varying input-output models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, H.S.; Hanema, J.; Tóth, R.; Mohammadpour, J.; Meskin, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a new robust model predictive control (MPC) scheme to control the discrete-time linear parameter-varying input-output models subject to input and output constraints. Closed-loop asymptotic stability is guaranteed by including a quadratic terminal cost and an ellipsoidal terminal

  11. Penalty parameter of the penalty function method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Cheng Yong; Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    The penalty parameter of penalty function method is systematically analyzed and discussed. For the problem that Deb's feasibility-based rule doesnot give the detailed instruction as how to rank two solutions when they have the same constraint violation, an improved Deb's feasibility-based rule is...

  12. An Iterative Optimization Algorithm for Lens Distortion Correction Using Two-Parameter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santana-Cedrés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for the automatic estimation of two-parameter radial distortion models, considering polynomial as well as division models. The method first detects the longest distorted lines within the image by applying the Hough transform enriched with a radial distortion parameter. From these lines, the first distortion parameter is estimated, then we initialize the second distortion parameter to zero and the two-parameter model is embedded into an iterative nonlinear optimization process to improve the estimation. This optimization aims at reducing the distance from the edge points to the lines, adjusting two distortion parameters as well as the coordinates of the center of distortion. Furthermore, this allows detecting more points belonging to the distorted lines, so that the Hough transform is iteratively repeated to extract a better set of lines until no improvement is achieved. We present some experiments on real images with significant distortion to show the ability of the proposed approach to automatically correct this type of distortion as well as a comparison between the polynomial and division models.

  13. On the effect of response transformations in sequential parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tobias; Wessing, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Parameter tuning of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) is attracting more and more interest. In particular, the sequential parameter optimization (SPO) framework for the model-assisted tuning of stochastic optimizers has resulted in established parameter tuning algorithms. In this paper, we enhance the SPO framework by introducing transformation steps before the response aggregation and before the actual modeling. Based on design-of-experiments techniques, we empirically analyze the effect of integrating different transformations. We show that in particular, a rank transformation of the responses provides significant improvements. A deeper analysis of the resulting models and additional experiments with adaptive procedures indicates that the rank and the Box-Cox transformation are able to improve the properties of the resultant distributions with respect to symmetry and normality of the residuals. Moreover, model-based effect plots document a higher discriminatory power obtained by the rank transformation.

  14. An automatic and effective parameter optimization method for model tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zhang

    2015-11-01

    simulation results show that the optimum combination of these parameters determined using this method is able to improve the model's overall performance by 9 %. The proposed methodology and software framework can be easily applied to other GCMs to speed up the model development process, especially regarding unavoidable comprehensive parameter tuning during the model development stage.

  15. Measurement of agricultural parameters using wireless sensor network (WSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaña-Moya, Javier; Sánchez-Almeida, Tarquino; Salgado-Reyes, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    The technological advances have allowed to create new applications in telecommunications, applying low power and reduced costs in their equipment, thus achieving the evolution of new wireless networks or also denominated Wireless Sensor Network. These technologies allow the generation of measurements and analysis of environmental parameter data and soil. Precision agriculture requires parameters for the improvement of production, obtained through WSN technologies. This research analyzes the climatic requirements and soil parameters in a rose plantation in a greenhouse at an altitude of 3,100 meters above sea level. In the present investigation, maximum parameters were obtained in the production of roses, which are in the optimum range of production, whereas the minimum parameters of temperature, humidity and luminosity, evidenced that these parameters can damage the plants, since temperatures less than 10 °C slow down the growth of the plant and allow the proliferation of diseases and fungi.

  16. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Valentino, E.; Brinckmann, T.; Gerbino, M.; Poulin, V.; Bouchet, F. R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Melchiorri, A.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Delabrouille, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Hooper, D. C.; Lattanzi, M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Salvati, L.; Cabass, G.; Caputo, A.; Giusarma, E.; Hivon, E.; Natoli, P.; Pagano, L.; Paradiso, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Achúcarro, A.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartolo, N.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; de Bernardis, P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, G.; Challinor, A.; Charles, I.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; De Petris, M.; De Zotti, G.; Diego, J. M.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; de Gasperis, G.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hazra, D. K.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martin, S.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melin, J.-B.; Mohr, J. J.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Ringeval, C.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Väliviita, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vermeulen, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    We forecast the main cosmological parameter constraints achievable with the CORE space mission which is dedicated to mapping the polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). CORE was recently submitted in response to ESA's fifth call for medium-sized mission proposals (M5). Here we report the results from our pre-submission study of the impact of various instrumental options, in particular the telescope size and sensitivity level, and review the great, transformative potential of the mission as proposed. Specifically, we assess the impact on a broad range of fundamental parameters of our Universe as a function of the expected CMB characteristics, with other papers in the series focusing on controlling astrophysical and instrumental residual systematics. In this paper, we assume that only a few central CORE frequency channels are usable for our purpose, all others being devoted to the cleaning of astrophysical contaminants. On the theoretical side, we assume ΛCDM as our general framework and quantify the improvement provided by CORE over the current constraints from the Planck 2015 release. We also study the joint sensitivity of CORE and of future Baryon Acoustic Oscillation and Large Scale Structure experiments like DESI and Euclid. Specific constraints on the physics of inflation are presented in another paper of the series. In addition to the six parameters of the base ΛCDM, which describe the matter content of a spatially flat universe with adiabatic and scalar primordial fluctuations from inflation, we derive the precision achievable on parameters like those describing curvature, neutrino physics, extra light relics, primordial helium abundance, dark matter annihilation, recombination physics, variation of fundamental constants, dark energy, modified gravity, reionization and cosmic birefringence. In addition to assessing the improvement on the precision of individual parameters, we also forecast the post-CORE overall reduction of the allowed

  17. Optimization of process parameters during carbonization for improved carbon fibre strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Pursche, F.; Burscheidt, P.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Based on their extraordinary properties, carbon fibres nowadays play a significant role in modern industries. In the last years carbon fibres are increasingly used for lightweight constructions in the energy or the transportation industry. However, a bigger market penetration of carbon fibres is still hindered by high prices (~ 22 /kg) [3]. One crucial step in carbon fibre production is the process of carbonization of stabilized fibres. However, the cause effect relationships of carbonization are nowadays not fully understood. Therefore, the main goal of this research work is the quantification of the cause-effect relationships of process parameters like temperature and residence time on carbon fibre strength.

  18. Improved ferroelectric and pyroelectric parameters in iminodiacetic acid doped TGS crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of Iminodiacetic acid (HN(CH 2COOH) 2) doped Triglycine sulphate (IDATGS) has been grown from aqueous solution at constant temperature by slow evaporation technique. The concentration of the dopant in the TGS solution was 2 mol%. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that there is significant change in the lattice parameters compared to pure TGS crystal. The IDATGS crystal has larger transition temperature and observed higher and uniform figure of merit over most part of the ferroelectric phase. These crystals also exhibit higher internal bias field and micro-hardness number compared to pure TGS. Therefore IDATGS may be a potential material for IR detectors.

  19. Postprocessing MPEG based on estimated quantization parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    the case where the coded stream is not accessible, or from an architectural point of view not desirable to use, and instead estimate some of the MPEG stream parameters based on the decoded sequence. The I-frames are detected and the quantization parameters are estimated from the coded stream and used...... in the postprocessing. We focus on deringing and present a scheme which aims at suppressing ringing artifacts, while maintaining the sharpness of the texture. The goal is to improve the visual quality, so perceptual blur and ringing metrics are used in addition to PSNR evaluation. The performance of the new `pure......' postprocessing compares favorable to a reference postprocessing filter which has access to the quantization parameters not only for I-frames but also on P and B-frames....

  20. Parameter sensitivity analysis of nonlinear piezoelectric probe in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for measurement improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Rachael; Nima Mahmoodi, S., E-mail: nmahmoodi@eng.ua.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The equations of motion for a piezoelectric microcantilever are derived for a nonlinear contact force. The analytical expressions for natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. Then, the method of multiple scales is used to analyze the analytical frequency response of the piezoelectric probe. The effects of nonlinear excitation force on the microcantilever beam's frequency and amplitude are analytically studied. The results show a frequency shift in the response resulting from the force nonlinearities. This frequency shift during contact mode is an important consideration in the modeling of AFM mechanics for generation of more accurate imaging. Also, a sensitivity analysis of the system parameters on the nonlinearity effect is performed. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that it is possible to choose parameters such that the frequency shift minimizes. Certain parameters such as tip radius, microcantilever beam dimensions, and modulus of elasticity have more influence on the nonlinearity of the system than other parameters. By changing only three parameters—tip radius, thickness, and modulus of elasticity of the microbeam—a more than 70% reduction in nonlinearity effect was achieved.

  1. Process parameter optimization based on principal components analysis during machining of hardened steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant B. Chandgude

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimum selection of process parameters has played an important role for improving the surface finish, minimizing tool wear, increasing material removal rate and reducing machining time of any machining process. In this paper, optimum parameters while machining AISI D2 hardened steel using solid carbide TiAlN coated end mill has been investigated. For optimization of process parameters along with multiple quality characteristics, principal components analysis method has been adopted in this work. The confirmation experiments have revealed that to improve performance of cutting; principal components analysis method would be a useful tool.

  2. Identifiability of altimetry-based rating curve parameters in function of river morphological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; André Garambois, Pierre; Calmant, Stéphane; Paiva, Rodrigo; Walter, Collischonn; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frédérique; Monnier, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Estimating river discharge for ungauged river reaches from satellite measurements is not straightforward given the nonlinearity of flow behavior with respect to measurable and non measurable hydraulic parameters. As a matter of facts, current satellite datasets do not give access to key parameters such as river bed topography and roughness. A unique set of almost one thousand altimetry-based rating curves was built by fit of ENVISAT and Jason-2 water stages with discharges obtained from the MGB-IPH rainfall-runoff model in the Amazon basin. These rated discharges were successfully validated towards simulated discharges (Ens = 0.70) and in-situ discharges (Ens = 0.71) and are not mission-dependent. The rating curve writes Q = a(Z-Z0)b*sqrt(S), with Z the water surface elevation and S its slope gained from satellite altimetry, a and b power law coefficient and exponent and Z0 the river bed elevation such as Q(Z0) = 0. For several river reaches in the Amazon basin where ADCP measurements are available, the Z0 values are fairly well validated with a relative error lower than 10%. The present contribution aims at relating the identifiability and the physical meaning of a, b and Z0given various hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions. Synthetic river bathymetries sampling a wide range of rivers and inflow discharges are used to perform twin experiments. A shallow water model is run for generating synthetic satellite observations, and then rating curve parameters are determined for each river section thanks to a MCMC algorithm. Thanks to twin experiments, it is shown that rating curve formulation with water surface slope, i.e. closer from Manning equation form, improves parameter identifiability. The compensation between parameters is limited, especially for reaches with little water surface variability. Rating curve parameters are analyzed for riffle and pools for small to large rivers, different river slopes and cross section shapes. It is shown that the river bed

  3. The level density parameters for fermi gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuang Youxiang; Wang Cuilan; Zhou Chunmei; Su Zongdi

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear level densities are crucial ingredient in the statistical models, for instance, in the calculations of the widths, cross sections, emitted particle spectra, etc. for various reaction channels. In this work 667 sets of more reliable and new experimental data are adopted, which include average level spacing D D , radiative capture width Γ γ 0 at neutron binding energy and cumulative level number N 0 at the low excitation energy. They are published during 1973 to 1983. Based on the parameters given by Gilbert-Cameon and Cook the physical quantities mentioned above are calculated. The calculated results have the deviation obviously from experimental values. In order to improve the fitting, the parameters in the G-C formula are adjusted and new set of level density parameters is obsained. The parameters is this work are more suitable to fit new measurements

  4. Should the bladder be full or empty during gynecologic brachytherapy applications? A bladder dose volume histogram analysis and implications for treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Lewandowski, Loretta A.; Higgins, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic radiation cystitis is an uncommon but debilitating late complication of definitive external beam (EB) and brachytherapy (BT) for cervix cancer. During BT an indwelling catheter is usually placed in the bladder, collapsing it closer to the BT sources. We have devised a method to deliver BT with a full bladder. The difference in bladder dose in the full and empty state were analyzed during definitive EBT and BT for cervix cancer. Methods: The technique of Lyman and Wolbarst (1) were used to evaluate the bladder complication probability for a representative cervix cancer patient undergoing EBT and BT. DVHs were generated from CT scans obtained with a full and empty bladder. Three possible dose prescriptions were analyzed. Results: The DVH for the full and empty situations are shown. With the bladder full, the volume of bladder predicted to receive ≥ 80 Gy was approximately 10% for all dose schemes evaluated, whereas with the bladder empty, up to 50% of the bladder volume received ≥ 80 Gy. Conclusions: A distended bladder improves the DVH. A technique for performing full bladder LDR brachytherapy will be discussed

  5. An enhancement to the NA4 gear vibration diagnostic parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Harry J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A new vibration diagnostic parameter for health monitoring of gears, NA4*, is proposed and tested. A recently developed gear vibration diagnostic parameter NA4 outperformed other fault detection methods at indicating the start and initial progression of damage. However, in some cases, as the damage progressed, the sensitivity of the NA4 and FM4 parameters tended to decrease and no longer indicated damage. A new parameter, NA4* was developed by enhancing NA4 to improve the trending of the parameter. This allows for the indication of damage both at initiation and also as the damage progresses. The NA4* parameter was verified and compared to the NA4 and FM4 parameters using experimental data from single mesh spur and spiral bevel gear fatigue rigs. The primary failure mode for the test cases was naturally occurring tooth surface pitting. The NA4* parameter is shown to be a more robust indicator of damage.

  6. Statistics of Parameter Estimates: A Concrete Example

    KAUST Repository

    Aguilar, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Most mathematical models include parameters that need to be determined from measurements. The estimated values of these parameters and their uncertainties depend on assumptions made about noise levels, models, or prior knowledge. But what can we say about the validity of such estimates, and the influence of these assumptions? This paper is concerned with methods to address these questions, and for didactic purposes it is written in the context of a concrete nonlinear parameter estimation problem. We will use the results of a physical experiment conducted by Allmaras et al. at Texas A&M University [M. Allmaras et al., SIAM Rev., 55 (2013), pp. 149-167] to illustrate the importance of validation procedures for statistical parameter estimation. We describe statistical methods and data analysis tools to check the choices of likelihood and prior distributions, and provide examples of how to compare Bayesian results with those obtained by non-Bayesian methods based on different types of assumptions. We explain how different statistical methods can be used in complementary ways to improve the understanding of parameter estimates and their uncertainties.

  7. WIND TURBINE OPERATION PARAMETER CHARACTERISTICS AT A GIVEN WIND SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kamiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of the CFD simulation of the flow around Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The examined rotor was designed following patent application no. 402214. The turbine operation is characterised by parameters, such as opening angle of blades, power, torque, rotational velocity at a given wind velocity. Those parameters have an impact on the performance of entire assembly. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in the turbine can change, depending on the angle of rotor rotation. Moreover, the resultant force derived from the force acting on the oncoming and leaving blades should be as high as possible. Accordingly, those parameters were individually simulated over time for each blade in three complete rotations. The attempts to improve the performance of the entire system resulted in a new research trend to improve the performance of working turbine rotor blades.

  8. Clinical-Radiological Parameters Improve the Prediction of the Thrombolysis Time Window by Both MRI Signal Intensities and DWI-FLAIR Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madai, Vince Istvan; Wood, Carla N; Galinovic, Ivana; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Revankar, Gajanan S; Martin, Steve Z; Zaro-Weber, Olivier; Moeller-Hartmann, Walter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Ebinger, Martin; Fiebach, Jochen B; Sobesky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With regard to acute stroke, patients with unknown time from stroke onset are not eligible for thrombolysis. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI relative signal intensity (rSI) biomarkers have been introduced to predict eligibility for thrombolysis, but have shown heterogeneous results in the past. In the present work, we investigated whether the inclusion of easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters would improve the prediction of the thrombolysis time window by rSIs and compared their performance to the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch. In a retrospective study, patients from 2 centers with proven stroke with onset value/mean value of the unaffected hemisphere). Additionally, the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch was evaluated. Prediction of the thrombolysis time window was evaluated by the area-under-the-curve (AUC) derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Factors such as the association of age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, MRI field strength, lesion size, vessel occlusion and Wahlund-Score with rSI were investigated and the models were adjusted and stratified accordingly. In 82 patients, the unadjusted rSI measures DWI-mean and -SD showed the highest AUCs (AUC 0.86-0.87). Adjustment for clinical-radiological covariates significantly improved the performance of FLAIR-mean (0.91) and DWI-SD (0.91). The best prediction results based on the AUC were found for the final stratified and adjusted models of DWI-SD (0.94) and FLAIR-mean (0.96) and a multivariable DWI-FLAIR model (0.95). The adjusted visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch did not perform in a significantly worse manner (0.89). ADC-rSIs showed fair performance in all models. Quantitative DWI and FLAIR MRI biomarkers as well as the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch provide excellent prediction of eligibility for thrombolysis in acute stroke, when easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters are included in the prediction

  9. NCTPlan. The new PC version of MacNCTPlan improvements and validation of the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Yam, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The treatment planning system that has been used routinely in phase-I clinical trials of BNCT at Harvard/MIT consists of the MacNCTPlan interactive planning software coupled to the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The physical and mathematical principles of MacNCTPlan as well as its architecture, operation and application have been previously described elsewhere. The use of this software in clinical trials together with a detailed analysis of the code led to the identification of some limitations and deficiencies. The motivation for this PC version, Neutron Capture Therapy Planning, relies basically in two major reasons: the need to integrate the different steps for making a plan and the need to improve some features of the Macintosh version. NCTPlan aims to reproduce all the features and capabilities present in the Macintosh version. Working on this, some deficiencies were corrected and several changes in the interface were performed in order to provide a more friendly and reliable program. Among the changes intended to facilitate the treatment planning process, the most important are the integration of the auxiliary program MPREP to NCTPlan and a great improvement in the visualization of isodose contours. NCTPlan has the ability to show the isodose distributions superimposed on two orthogonal planes of the CT volume, these planes being updated in real time as the orientation of the planes is changed. The major modifications to the mathematical algorithms concerned the material assignment in the geometric model, dose distribution calculations and three-dimensional dose-volume histogram (DVH) derivation. Therefore, NCTPlan provides a user-friendly interface thanks to the integration of the different steps involved in treatment planning. Complete control of the MCNP radiation transport code is under study. Cross-validation of NCTPlan against reference calculations made apparent the improvements performed on the mathematical algorithms

  10. Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehn, Matthias; Yan Di; Liang Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade ≥ 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed worse

  11. Parameter allocation of parallel array bistable stochastic resonance and its application in communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Zhai Qi-Qing; Wang You-Guo; Liu Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a parameter allocation scheme in a parallel array bistable stochastic resonance-based communication system (P-BSR-CS) to improve the performance of weak binary pulse amplitude modulated (BPAM) signal transmissions. The optimal parameter allocation policy of the P-BSR-CS is provided to minimize the bit error rate (BER) and maximize the channel capacity (CC) under the adiabatic approximation condition. On this basis, we further derive the best parameter selection theorem in realistic communication scenarios via variable transformation. Specifically, the P-BSR structure design not only brings the robustness of parameter selection optimization, where the optimal parameter pair is not fixed but variable in quite a wide range, but also produces outstanding system performance. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that in the P-BSR-CS the proposed parameter allocation scheme yields considerable performance improvement, particularly in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. (paper)

  12. A history and overview of the safety parameter display system concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.P.; Lapinsky, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Inquiries into the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2, on March 28, 1979 brought to public attention the need to improve operators' capabilities to interact with the systems under their control. Recommendations ran the full gamut of human/machine interaction, from improvements in training and procedures to improvements in control and display hardware in the control room. This presentation briefly traces the history and development of a display concept that evolved in the post-TMI era, the Safety Parameter Display System or SPDS. The SPDS is intended to function as a detection aid for control room operators, providing an integrated overview of significant plant parameters. The purpose of this report is to describe the general concept of SPDS, its history, and its current regulatory status. A review of NRC guidance documents is included, as well as a discussion of NRC requirements placed on the SPDS. The presentation concludes with an outline of the NRC staff review process for safety parameter display systems and a synopsis of the results of generic SPDS reviews performed thus far

  13. The D1 parameter for the equatorial F1 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the effort at improving the representation of the F1 equatorial ionospheric region in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. The D1 parameter has been proposed for describing the F1 layer. We have therefore produced a maiden table of D1 parameter for an equatorial station. Diurnal and seasonal effects were considered. (author)

  14. Pulsatility Index as a Diagnostic Parameter of Reciprocating Wall Shear Stress Parameters in Physiological Pulsating Waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Avrahami

    Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.

  15. An improved method for predicting the evolution of the characteristic parameters of an information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushkin, A. V.; Kasatkina, T. I.; Novoseltsev, V. I.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a forecasting method that allows, based on the given values of entropy and error level of the first and second kind, to determine the allowable time for forecasting the development of the characteristic parameters of a complex information system. The main feature of the method under consideration is the determination of changes in the characteristic parameters of the development of the information system in the form of the magnitude of the increment in the ratios of its entropy. When a predetermined value of the prediction error ratio is reached, that is, the entropy of the system, the characteristic parameters of the system and the depth of the prediction in time are estimated. The resulting values of the characteristics and will be optimal, since at that moment the system possessed the best ratio of entropy as a measure of the degree of organization and orderliness of the structure of the system. To construct a method for estimating the depth of prediction, it is expedient to use the maximum principle of the value of entropy.

  16. TECHNICAL AND ENERGY PARAMETERS IMPROVEMENT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES THROUGH THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS OF A DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Today the issue, connected with diesel traction remains relevant for the majority of industrial enterprises and Ukrainian railways and diesel engine continues to be the subject of extensive research and improvements. Despite the intensive process of electrification, which accompanies Railway Transport of Ukraine the last few years, diesel traction continues to play an important role both in the main and in the industrial railway traction rolling stock. Anyway, all kinds of maneuvering and chores are for locomotives, they are improved and upgraded relentlessly and hourly. This paper is focused on finding the opportunities to improve technical and energy parameters of diesels due to the development of modern control method of the fuel equipment in the diesel engine. Methodology. The proposed method increases the power of locomotives diesel engines in the range of crankshaft rotation (from idle running to maximum one. It was based on approach of mixture ignition timing up to the top «dead» center of piston position. Findings. The paper provides a brief historical background of research in the area of operating cycle in the internal combustion engine (ICE. The factors affecting the process of mixing and its quality were analyzed. The requirements for fuel feed system in to the cylinder and the «weak points» of the process were presented. A variant of the modification the fuel pump drive, which allows approaching to the regulation of fuel feed system from the other hand and to improve it was proposed. Represents a variant of embodiment of the complex system with specification of mechanical features and control circuits. The algorithm of the system operation was presented and its impact on the performance of diesel was made. Originality. The angle regulating system of fuel supply allows automating the process of fuel injection advance angle into the cylinder. Practical value. At implementation the angle regulating system of fuel supply

  17. Testing the new ICRU 62 'Planning Organ at Risk Volume' concept for the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Karlsdottir, Asa; Kvinnsland, Yngve; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dahl, Olav

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To study the impact of the new ICRU 62 'Planning organ at Risk Volume' (PRV) concept on the relationship between rectum dose-volume histogram (DVH) data and toxicity. Patients and methods: The acute gastro-intestinal (GI) RTOG toxicity in 127 prostate cancer patients prescribed a total dose of 70 Gy with conformal irradiation to either the prostate, the prostate and seminal vesicles or the whole pelvis (initial 50 Gy only) were analysed. DVHs were derived for the rectum only and for rectum extended with six PRV margin sets (narrow/intermediate/wide; anterior/anterior and posterior). The data was analysed using permutation tests, logistic regression and effective uniform dose (EUD) calculations. Results: Acute Grade 2 GI toxicity was seen in 22 of 127 cases (17%). Permutation tests showed that the difference between DVHs for patients with and without Grade 2 effects was significant, both for rectum only and rectum PRVs (P-value range: 0.02-0.04), with generally lower P-values for the PRVs. In the logistic regression, the fractional DVH variables (i.e. volumes) were significantly related to toxicity, with approximately 2-3 times as many significant dose levels for the PRVs as for rectum only. E.g. with wide anterior and posterior margins (16 and 11 mm, respectively) the relation was significant at 26 different dose levels (6-7, 13-14, 35-43, 60-71 and 73 Gy), compared to nine levels (38-40, 43-44 and 71-74 Gy) for rectum only. EUDs were significantly different for patients with and without Grade 2 effects both for rectum only and the PRVs (95% confidence interval for EUD increase with Grade 2 effects: 0.1-3.1 Gy). Conclusions: All statistical methods applied indicated a small, but definite difference in DVH parameters between patients with versus those without Grade 2 effects. The difference was most pronounced when margins of 16 mm anterior and 11 mm posterior were applied

  18. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  19. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  20. Use of Covariances in a Consistent Data Assimilation for Improvement of Basic Nuclear Parameters in Nuclear Reactor Applications: From Meters to Femtometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Mike; Hoblit, Sam; Gustavo, Nobre; Palumbo, Annalia; Pigni, M.T.; Palmiotti, G.; Hiruta, H.; Salvatores

    2013-01-01

    Extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies and the availability of new covariance data have allowed preliminary quantification of the impact of current nuclear data uncertainties on the design parameters of the Generation-IV systems (both fast neutron and thermal neutron systems). Similar quantifications can be done for the parameters that characterize the associated innovative fuel cycle to insure sustainability, waste minimization and drastic reduction of the proliferation risks. In parallel, there has been a growing and very significant trend to develop a new generation of reactor simulation tools that rely more and more on first principles. It is safe to say that the next generation of innovative nuclear systems will be assessed with a completely new set of tools, more science based, in sharp contrast with what has been done in the past. However, the studies mentioned above point out that the present uncertainties in nuclear data should be significantly reduced in order to fully benefit from advances in modeling and simulation. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more general and well validated calculational tools to meet new design target accuracies. One further consideration related to the development of new advanced simulation tools is that there should be a more explicit link with the more fundamental physics parameters underlying the models used to describe cross sections that would avoid the use of processed, application-oriented, data (like multigroup cross sections). Finally, current methodologies for reducing uncertainties coming from nuclear data, which rely on the use of integral experiment information to perform statistical multigroup (i.e., energy spectrum weighted) cross section data assimilation should evolve to embrace new frontiers in advanced simulation. One of the drawbacks of the classical methodologies is related to the energy group structure and the type of

  1. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  2. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    1997-09-01

    Application of numerical models for predicting future spreading of contaminants into ground water aquifers is dependent on appropriate characterization of the soil hydraulic properties controlling flow and transport in the unsaturated zone. This thesis reviews the current knowledge on two aspects of characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters; estimation of the basic hydraulic parameters for homogeneous soils and statistical representation of heterogeneity for spatially variable soils. The retention characteristic is traditionally measured using steady-state procedures, but new ideas based on dynamic techniques have been developed that reduce experimental efforts and that produce retention curves which compare to those measured by traditional techniques. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is difficult to establish by steady-state procedures, and extensive research efforts have been focused on alternative methods that are based on inverse estimation. The inverse methods have commonly been associated with problems of numerical instability and ill-posedness of the parameter estimates, but recent investigations have shown that the uniqueness of parameter estimates can be improved by including additional, independent information on, for instance, the retention characteristic. Also, uniqueness may be improved by careful selection of experimental conditions are parametric functions. (au) 234 refs.

  3. Improved estimation of the noncentrality parameter distribution from a large number of t-statistics, with applications to false discovery rate estimation in microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Long; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2012-12-01

    Given a large number of t-statistics, we consider the problem of approximating the distribution of noncentrality parameters (NCPs) by a continuous density. This problem is closely related to the control of false discovery rates (FDR) in massive hypothesis testing applications, e.g., microarray gene expression analysis. Our methodology is similar to, but improves upon, the existing approach by Ruppert, Nettleton, and Hwang (2007, Biometrics, 63, 483-495). We provide parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric estimators for the distribution of NCPs, as well as estimates of the FDR and local FDR. In the parametric situation, we assume that the NCPs follow a distribution that leads to an analytically available marginal distribution for the test statistics. In the nonparametric situation, we use convex combinations of basis density functions to estimate the density of the NCPs. A sequential quadratic programming procedure is developed to maximize the penalized likelihood. The smoothing parameter is selected with the approximate network information criterion. A semiparametric estimator is also developed to combine both parametric and nonparametric fits. Simulations show that, under a variety of situations, our density estimates are closer to the underlying truth and our FDR estimates are improved compared with alternative methods. Data-based simulations and the analyses of two microarray datasets are used to evaluate the performance in realistic situations. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Adaptive firefly algorithm: parameter analysis and its application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngaam J Cheung

    Full Text Available As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithm - adaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa. There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1 a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2 a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3 five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem - protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise.

  5. Transfusion treatment impact in the improvement of haematological parameters in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliriane Bunjaku

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transfusion treatment (TT is necessary in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB for lost blood substitution. This study was aimed at assessing the changes in haematological parameters  (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, white cell count, platelet count and prothrombin time before and after TT in anaemic patients with GIB in order to analyse the effect of this treatment.Methods: There have been included 293 patients with GIB (the average age was 57.3, ranged from 18-89 years who were treated with TT at the Internal Clinic at the University Clinical Center Prishtina during oneyear period. Data for applied blood product and results of the coagulation screen (PT were collected from the Kosovo’s Blood Transfusion Center (KBTC.Results: TT has been carried out in 404 episodes, with 714 units of concentrated red blood cells (78.6%, 189 units of fresh frozen plasma (20.8% and concentrated platelets (0.6%, with an average dose 3.1 fortransfunded patients. Average values of Hb before and after TT were 71.8 g/L and 81.4 g/L, respectively; while the average values of hematocrite before and after TT were 22.9% and 25.6%, respectively. The averageerythrocytes count before TT was 2.6 respectively after treatment 2.8(p<0.0001. The PT was carried out in the 43% of patients with GIB before treatment with FFP, but after that only in 2% of cases.Conclusions: Having in mind difficult clinical and unsustainable situation in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, the Transfusion Treatment resulted in the considerable improvement of the specific blood indicators.

  6. Parameter extraction using global particle swarm optimization approach and the influence of polymer processing temperature on the solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.

  7. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.-S.; Park, H.-S.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.; Lee, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  8. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-S.; Lee, Y.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  9. Assimilation of Earth rotation parameters into a global ocean model (FESOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androsov, A.; Schröter, J.; Brunnabend, S.; Saynisch, J.

    2012-04-01

    Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are used to improve estimates of the ocean circulation and mass budget. GRACE data can be used for verification or for further improvements. The Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) is used to simulate weekly ocean circulation and mass variations. The FESOM model is a hydrostatic ocean circulation model with a fully non-linear free surface. It solves the hydrostatic primitive equations with volume (Boussinesq approximation) and mass (Greatbatch correction) conservation. Fresh water exchange with the atmosphere and land is modelled as mass flux. This flux is the weakest part of the mass budget as it is the difference of large and uncertain quantities: evaporation, precipitation and river runoff. All uncertainties included in these parameters are directly reflected in the model results. ERP help in closing the budget in a realistic manner. Our strategy is designed for testing parametric estimation on a weekly basis. First, Oceanographic Earth rotation parameters (OERP) are calculated by subtracting atmospheric and hydrologic estimates from observed ERP. They are compared to OERP derived from a global ocean circulation model. The difference can be inverted to diagnose a correction of the oceanic mass budget. Additionally mass variations measured by GRACE are used for verification. In a second step, the global mass correction parameter, derived by the inversion, is used to improve the fresh water budget of FESOM.

  10. Improved performance of photosynthetic light response equations with unified parameters for rice leaves with different SPAD values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Peng, S.; Kong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The rectangular hyperbola (RH), Mitscherlich (M) and YE equation were applied to describe the photosynthetic light response (PLR) curves measured from rice leaves with different SPAD values, to reveal the relationship between SPAD values and parameters in different equations, and to establish the modified PLR equations. The parameters in PLR equations are largely varied. SPAD value, as an indicator of leaf N contents, was highly correlated to the parameter of Pnmax in RH, M and YE equations. Incorporating the factor SPAD into PLR equations, the modified equations (MRH, MM, and MYE) were established which were feasible to describing the PLR curves for leaves with different SPAD values using the identical parameters for the ten PLR curves as a whole, and perform much better than the general PLR equations (GRH, GM, and GYE). It indicated that incorporating easy available indicators of leaf physiological and morphological traits in the PLR equations, such as SPAD as an indicator of leaf N or Chlorophyll contents, is an easy way to overcome the shortcoming of parameters variation in PLR equations between individuals of the same specie growing in different environments. Further validation should be done for different crops with both SPAD and other possible factors. (author)

  11. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  12. The Parameters Selection of PSO Algorithm influencing On performance of Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent optimization. Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity. And then PSO with dynamic parameters has been applied on the neural network training for gearbox fault diagnosis, the results with different parameters of PSO are compared and analyzed. At last some suggestions for parameters selection are proposed to improve the performance of PSO.

  13. Methodology for Evaluating Safety System Operability using Virtual Parameter Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, Tae Wan

    2014-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and UTK (University of Tennessee Knoxville) are working on the I-NERI project to suggest complement of this problem. This research propose the methodology which provide the alternative signal in case of unable guaranteed reliability of some instrumentation with KAERI. Proposed methodology is assumed that several instrumentations are working normally under the power supply condition because we do not consider the instrumentation survivability itself. Thus, concept of the Virtual Parameter Network (VPN) is used to identify the associations between plant parameters. This paper is extended version of the paper which was submitted last KNS meeting by changing the methodology and adding the result of the case study. In previous research, we used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) inferential technique for estimation model but every time this model showed different estimate value due to random bias each time. Therefore Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR) model which have same number of inputs and outputs is used to estimate. Also the importance measures in the previous method depend on estimation model but importance measure of improved method independent on estimation model. Also importance index of previous method depended on estimation model but importance index of improved method is independent on estimation model. In this study, we proposed the methodology to identify the internal state of power plant when severe accident happens also it has been validated through case study. SBLOCA which has large contribution to severe accident is considered as initiating event and relationship amongst parameter has been identified. VPN has ability to identify that which parameter has to be observed and which parameter can be alternative to the missing parameter when some instruments are failed in severe accident. In this study we have identified through results that commonly number 2, 3, 4 parameter has high connectivity while

  14. Methodology for Evaluating Safety System Operability using Virtual Parameter Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Wan [Kepco International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and UTK (University of Tennessee Knoxville) are working on the I-NERI project to suggest complement of this problem. This research propose the methodology which provide the alternative signal in case of unable guaranteed reliability of some instrumentation with KAERI. Proposed methodology is assumed that several instrumentations are working normally under the power supply condition because we do not consider the instrumentation survivability itself. Thus, concept of the Virtual Parameter Network (VPN) is used to identify the associations between plant parameters. This paper is extended version of the paper which was submitted last KNS meeting by changing the methodology and adding the result of the case study. In previous research, we used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) inferential technique for estimation model but every time this model showed different estimate value due to random bias each time. Therefore Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR) model which have same number of inputs and outputs is used to estimate. Also the importance measures in the previous method depend on estimation model but importance measure of improved method independent on estimation model. Also importance index of previous method depended on estimation model but importance index of improved method is independent on estimation model. In this study, we proposed the methodology to identify the internal state of power plant when severe accident happens also it has been validated through case study. SBLOCA which has large contribution to severe accident is considered as initiating event and relationship amongst parameter has been identified. VPN has ability to identify that which parameter has to be observed and which parameter can be alternative to the missing parameter when some instruments are failed in severe accident. In this study we have identified through results that commonly number 2, 3, 4 parameter has high connectivity while

  15. Optimization Design of Multi-Parameters in Rail Launcher System

    OpenAIRE

    Yujiao Zhang; Weinan Qin; Junpeng Liao; Jiangjun Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Today the energy storage systems are still encumbering, therefore it is useful to think about the optimization of a railgun system in order to achieve the best performance with the lowest energy input. In this paper, an optimal design method considering 5 parameters is proposed to improve the energy conversion efficiency of a simple railgun. In order to avoid costly trials, the field- circuit method is employed to analyze the operations of different structural railguns with different paramete...

  16. Updated climatological model predictions of ionospheric and HF propagation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.H.; Rhoads, F.J.; Goodman, J.M.; Singh, M.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction performances of several climatological models, including the ionospheric conductivity and electron density model, RADAR C, and Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Predictions Program, are evaluated for different regions and sunspot number inputs. Particular attention is given to the near-real-time (NRT) predictions associated with single-station updates. It is shown that a dramatic improvement can be obtained by using single-station ionospheric data to update the driving parameters for an ionospheric model for NRT predictions of f(0)F2 and other ionospheric and HF circuit parameters. For middle latitudes, the improvement extends out thousands of kilometers from the update point to points of comparable corrected geomagnetic latitude. 10 refs

  17. A Novel Nonlinear Parameter Estimation Method of Soft Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elastic parameters of soft tissues are important for medical diagnosis and virtual surgery simulation. In this study, we propose a novel nonlinear parameter estimation method for soft tissues. Firstly, an in-house data acquisition platform was used to obtain external forces and their corresponding deformation values. To provide highly precise data for estimating nonlinear parameters, the measured forces were corrected using the constructed weighted combination forecasting model based on a support vector machine (WCFM_SVM. Secondly, a tetrahedral finite element parameter estimation model was established to describe the physical characteristics of soft tissues, using the substitution parameters of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio to avoid solving complicated nonlinear problems. To improve the robustness of our model and avoid poor local minima, the initial parameters solved by a linear finite element model were introduced into the parameter estimation model. Finally, a self-adapting Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was presented, which is capable of adaptively adjusting iterative parameters to solve the established parameter estimation model. The maximum absolute error of our WCFM_SVM model was less than 0.03 Newton, resulting in more accurate forces in comparison with other correction models tested. The maximum absolute error between the calculated and measured nodal displacements was less than 1.5 mm, demonstrating that our nonlinear parameters are precise.

  18. Using measurable dosimetric quantities to characterize the inter-structural tradeoff in inverse planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Dong, Peng; Xing, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Traditional inverse planning relies on the use of weighting factors to balance the conflicting requirements of different structures. Manual trial-and-error determination of weighting factors has long been recognized as a time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the dosimetric tradeoff among the structures with physically meaningful quantities to simplify the search for clinically sensible plans. In this formalism, instead of using weighting factors, the permissible variation range of the prescription dose or dose volume histogram (DVH) of the involved structures are used to characterize the ‘importance’ of the structures. The inverse planning is then formulated into a convex feasibility problem, called the dosimetric variation-controlled model (DVCM), whose goal is to generate plans with dosimetric or DVH variations of the structures consistent with the pre-specified values. For simplicity, the dosimetric variation range for a structure is extracted from a library of previous cases which possess similar anatomy and prescription. A two-phase procedure (TPP) is designed to solve the model. The first phase identifies a physically feasible plan to satisfy the prescribed dosimetric variation, and the second phase automatically improves the plan in case there is room for further improvement. The proposed technique is applied to plan two prostate cases and two head-and-neck cases and the results are compared with those obtained using a conventional CVaR approach and with a moment-based optimization scheme. Our results show that the strategy is able to generate clinically sensible plans with little trial and error. In all cases, the TPP generates a very competitive plan as compared to those obtained using the alternative approaches. Particularly, in the planning of one of the head-and-neck cases, the TPP leads to a non-trivial improvement in the resultant dose distribution

  19. Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dral, Pavlo O.; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Thiel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempirical OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C 7 H 10 O 2 , for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules

  20. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  1. Landau parameters for finite range density dependent nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farine, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Landau parameters represent the effective particle-hole interaction at Fermi level. Since between the physical observables and the Landau parameters there is a direct relation their derivation from an effective interaction is of great interest. The parameter F 0 determines the incompressibility K of the system. The parameter F 1 determines the effective mass (which controls the level density at the Fermi level). In addition, F 0 ' determines the symmetry energy, G 0 the magnetic susceptibility, and G 0 ' the pion condensation threshold in nuclear matter. This paper is devoted to a general derivation of Landau parameters for an interaction with density dependent finite range terms. Particular carefulness is devoted to the inclusion of rearrangement terms. This report is part of a larger project which aims at defining a new nuclear interaction improving the well-known D1 force of Gogny et al. for describing the average nuclear properties and exotic nuclei and satisfying, in addition, the sum rules

  2. Parameters in panoramic radiography for differentiation of radiolucent lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Raitz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity. In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un, 8 recently graduated dentists (D, 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2. The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1. The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively. RESULTS: Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %; no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. CONCLUSIONS: The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners.

  3. Assumptions of the primordial spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    The observables of the perturbed universe, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and large structures depend on a set of cosmological parameters, as well as the assumed nature of primordial perturbations. In particular, the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) is, at best, a well-motivated assumption. It is known that the assumed functional form of the PPS in cosmological parameter estimation can affect the best-fit-parameters and their relative confidence limits. In this paper, we demonstrate that a specific assumed form actually drives the best-fit parameters into distinct basins of likelihood in the space of cosmological parameters where the likelihood resists improvement via modifications to the PPS. The regions where considerably better likelihoods are obtained allowing free-form PPS lie outside these basins. In the absence of a preferred model of inflation, this raises a concern that current cosmological parameter estimates are strongly prejudiced by the assumed form of PPS. Our results strongly motivate approaches toward simultaneous estimation of the cosmological parameters and the shape of the primordial spectrum from upcoming cosmological data. It is equally important for theorists to keep an open mind towards early universe scenarios that produce features in the PPS. (paper)

  4. Method for Lumped Parameter simulation of Digital Displacement pumps/motors based on CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power pumps/motors offers improved efficiency and performance compared to traditional variable displacement pump/motors. These improvements are made possible by using efficient electronically controlled seat valves and careful design of the flow geometry. To optimize...... the design and control of digital displacement machines, there is a need for simulation models, preferably models with low computational cost. Therefore, a low computational cost generic lumped parameter model of digital displacement machine is presented, including a method for determining the needed model...... parameters based on steady CFD results, in order to take detailed geometry information into account. The response of the lumped parameter model is compared to a computational expensive transient CFD model for an example geometry....

  5. Better temperature predictions in geothermal modelling by improved quality of input parameters: a regional case study from the Danish-German border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Bording, Thue S.; Balling, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Thermal modelling is used to examine the subsurface temperature field and geothermal conditions at various scales (e.g. sedimentary basins, deep crust) and in the framework of different problem settings (e.g. scientific or industrial use). In such models, knowledge of rock thermal properties is prerequisites for the parameterisation of boundary conditions and layer properties. In contrast to hydrogeological ground-water models, where parameterization of the major rock property (i.e. hydraulic conductivity) is generally conducted considering lateral variations within geological layers, parameterization of thermal models (in particular regarding thermal conductivity but also radiogenic heat production and specific heat capacity) in most cases is conducted using constant parameters for each modelled layer. For such constant thermal parameter values, moreover, initial values are normally obtained from rare core measurements and/or literature values, which raise questions for their representativeness. Some few studies have considered lithological composition or well log information, but still keeping the layer values constant. In the present thermal-modelling scenario analysis, we demonstrate how the use of different parameter input type (from literature, well logs and lithology) and parameter input style (constant or laterally varying layer values) affects the temperature model prediction in sedim