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Sample records for improves cycling performance

  1. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Multi-bed Mass Recovery Adsorption Cycle -Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Zafar Iqbal; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The study aims at clarifying the performance of a 3-bed, mass recovery silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycle. The cycle with mass recovery can be driven by waste heat at near ambient temperatures (between 50 and 90°C). All components of adsorption cycle are operated in different pressure levels. The 3-bed chiller with mass recovery process utilizes those pressure levels to enhance the refrigerant mass circulation. The innovative adsorption chiller comprises with three sorption elements (SEs), one evaporator and one condenser. The configuration of SE1 and SE2 are uniform but the configuration of SE3 is taken as half of SE1 or SE2. Two cycles (cycle-1, cycle-2) with mass recovery process are used and compare the performance with each other. In cycle-1, mass recovery process occurs between SE3 with either SE1 or SE2 and no mass recovery between SE1 and SE2 occurs. In cycle-2, mass recovery process occurs between SE1 and SE2, and no mass recovery process occurs between SE3 with either SE1 or SE2. The mathematical model shown herein is solved numerically. Simulated results are obtained from transient to cyclic steady state. Simulated results show that the COP and SCP of cycle-1 are better than those of cycle-2.

  3. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    -derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  4. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  5. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  6. 'Virtual' central business office: how UMMS improved revenue cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciak, Bill; Fontaine, Christine; Fields, Keith; Parks, Stacy

    2010-06-01

    Based on its experience with implementing a virtual central business office, UMMS recommends the following steps to ensure the success of such an initiative: Define the process flow for the organization's day-today revenue cycle operations prior to implementation. Then select best practices and milestones for managing accounts. Identify any possible technology issues that could arise during implementation prior to go live. Hold a midproject debriefing with staff. Develop an organizational chart that details who is responsible for handling issues that arise during implementation and afterward.

  7. Improved cycling performance with ingestion of hydrolyzed marine protein depends on performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegge Geir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect on performance of protein ingestion during or after exercise is not clear. This has largely been attributed to the utilization of different scientific protocols and the neglection of accounting for factors such as differences in physical and chemical properties of protein supplements and differences in athletic performance level. Methods We hypothesized that ingestion of unprocessed whey protein (15.3 g·h-1 together with carbohydrate (60 g·h-1, would provide no ergogenic effect on 5-min mean-power performance following 120 min cycling at 50% of maximal aerobic power (2.8 ± 0.2 W·kg-1, corresponding to 60 ± 4% of VO2max, compared to CHO alone (60 g·h-1. Conversely, we hypothesized that ingestion of the hydrolyzed marine protein supplement NutriPeptin™ (Np, 2.7 g·h-1, a processed protein supplement with potentially beneficial amino acid composition, together with a PROCHO beverage (12.4 g·h-1 and 60 g·h-1, respectively would provide an ergogenic effect on mean-power performance. We also hypothesized that the magnitude of the ergogenic effect of NpPROCHO would be dependent on athletic performance. As for the latter analysis, performance level was defined according to a performance factor, calculated from individual pre values of Wmax, VO2max and 5-min mean-power performance, wherein the performance of each subject was ranked relative to the superior cyclist whos performance was set to one. Twelve trained male cyclists (VO2max = 65 ± 4 ml·kg-1·min-1 participated in a randomized double-blinded cross-over study. Results and conclusions Overall, no differences were found in 5-min mean-power performance between either of the beverages (CHO 5.4 ± 0.5 W·kg-1; PROCHO 5.3 ± 0.5 W·kg-1; NpPROCHO 5.4 ± 0.3 W·kg-1 (P = 0.29. A negative correlation was found between NpPROCHO mean-power performance and athletic performance level (using CHO-performance as reference; Pearson R = -0.74, P = 0.006. Moreover

  8. Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vitor-Costa

    Full Text Available The central nervous system seems to have an important role in fatigue and exercise tolerance. Novel noninvasive techniques of neuromodulation can provide insights on the relationship between brain function and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on physical performance and physiological and perceptual variables with regard to fatigue and exercise tolerance. Eleven physically active subjects participated in an incremental test on a cycle simulator to define peak power output. During 3 visits, the subjects experienced 3 stimulation conditions (anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS-with an interval of at least 48 h between conditions in a randomized, counterbalanced order to measure the effects of tDCS on time to exhaustion at 80% of peak power. Stimulation was administered before each test over 13 min at a current intensity of 2.0 mA. In each session, the Brunel Mood State questionnaire was given twice: after stimulation and after the time-to-exhaustion test. Further, during the tests, the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles, perceived exertion, and heart rate were recorded. RM-ANOVA showed that the subjects performed better during anodal primary motor cortex stimulation (491 ± 100 s compared with cathodal stimulation (443 ± 11 s and sham (407 ± 69 s. No significant difference was observed between the cathodal and sham conditions. The effect sizes confirmed the greater effect of anodal M1 tDCS (anodal x cathodal = 0.47; anodal x sham = 0.77; and cathodal x sham = 0.29. Magnitude-based inference suggested the anodal condition to be positive versus the cathodal and sham conditions. There were no differences among the three stimulation conditions in RPE (p = 0.07 or heart rate (p = 0.73. However, as hypothesized, RM- ANOVA revealed a main effect of time for the two variables (RPE and HR: p < 0.001. EMG activity also did not

  9. Strength training improves cycling performance, fractional utilization of VO2max and cycling economy in female cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, O; Ellefsen, S; Trøen, Ø; Hollan, I; Hanestadhaugen, M; Raastad, T; Rønnestad, B R

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding heavy strength training to well-trained female cyclists' normal endurance training on cycling performance. Nineteen female cyclists were randomly assigned to 11 weeks of either normal endurance training combined with heavy strength training (E+S, n = 11) or to normal endurance training only (E, n = 8). E+S increased one repetition maximum in one-legged leg press and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) more than E (P < 0.05), and improved mean power output in a 40-min all-out trial, fractional utilization of VO2 max and cycling economy (P < 0.05). The proportion of type IIAX-IIX muscle fibers in m. vastus lateralis was reduced in E+S with a concomitant increase in type IIA fibers (P < 0.05). No changes occurred in E. The individual changes in performance during the 40-min all-out trial was correlated with both change in IIAX-IIX fiber proportion (r = -0.63) and change in muscle CSA (r = 0.73). In conclusion, adding heavy strength training improved cycling performance, increased fractional utilization of VO2 max , and improved cycling economy. The main mechanisms behind these improvements seemed to be increased quadriceps muscle CSA and fiber type shifts from type IIAX-IIX toward type IIA.

  10. Performance Improvement of Combined Cycle Power Plant Based on the Optimization of the Bottom Cycle and Heat Recuperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenguo XIANG; Yingying CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Many F class gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plants are built in China at present because of less emission and high efficiency. It is of great interest to investigate the efficiency improvement of GTCC plant. A combined cycle with three-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is selected for study in this paper.In order to maximize the GTCC efficiency, the optimization of the HRSG operating parameters is performed. The operating parameters are determined by means of a thermodynamic analysis, i.e. the minimization of exergy losses. The influence of HRSG inlet gas temperature on the steam bottoming cycle efficiency is discussed. The result shows that increasing the HRSG inlet temperature has less improvement to steam cycle efficiency when it is over 590℃. Partial gas to gas recuperation in the topping cycle is studied. Joining HRSG optimization with the use of gas to gas heat recuperation, the combined plant efficiency can rise up to 59.05% at base load. In addition,the part load performance of the GTCC power plant gets much better. The efficiency is increased by 2.11% at 75% load and by 4.17% at 50% load.

  11. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

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    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-06-25

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status.

  12. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake (V·peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min−1, 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V·peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg−1 caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants’ training status. PMID:27348000

  13. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Graham-Paulson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD age 24 (4 years, body mass 85.1 (14.6 kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak 42.9 (7.3/27.6 (5.1 mL∙kg∙min−1, 160 (168 mg/day caffeine consumption completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg−1 caffeine (CAF or placebo (PLA. Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033 but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153 TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007 and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001 and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006. Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05 but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05. Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla and/or participants’ training status.

  14. Ice slurry ingestion during cycling improves Olympic distance triathlon performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher John; Dascombe, Ben; Boyko, Andriy; Sculley, Dean; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion during a triathlon on intragastric temperature and 10 km running performance in the heat. Nine well-trained male triathletes performed two randomised trials of a simulated Olympic distance triathlon in hot conditions (32-34°C). Exercise intensity during the swim (1500 m) and cycle (1 hr) legs was standardised, and the 10 km run leg was a self-paced time trial. During the cycle leg, either 10 g · kgBM(-1) of ice slurry (triathlon running performance in the heat. The attenuation of intragastric temperature and perceived thermal stress were likely contributors to the self-selection of a higher running intensity and improved performance time.

  15. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists.

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    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Blacker, Sam David; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-11-01

    Blackcurrant intake increases peripheral blood flow in humans, potentially by anthocyanin-induced vasodilation which may affect substrate delivery and exercise performance. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on substrate oxidation, cycling time-trial performance and plasma lactate responses following the time-trial in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 14 healthy men (age: 38 ± 13 years, height: 178 ± 4 cm, body mass: 77 ± 9 kg, VO2max: 53 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), mean ± SD) ingested NZBC extract (300 mg day(-1) CurraNZ™ containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo (PL, 300 mg microcrystalline cellulose M102) for 7 days (washout 14 days). On day 7, participants performed 30 min of cycling (3 × 10 min at 45, 55 and 65 % VO2max), followed by a 16.1 km time-trial with lactate sampling during a 20-min passive recovery. NZBC extract increased fat oxidation at 65 % VO2max by 27 % (P < 0.05) and improved 16.1 km time-trial performance by 2.4 % (NZBC: 1678 ± 108 s, PL: 1722 ± 131 s, P < 0.05). Plasma lactate was higher with NZBC extract immediately following the time-trial (NZBC: 7.06 ± 1.73 mmol L(-1), PL: 5.92 ± 1.58 mmol L(-1), P < 0.01). Seven-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance and increases fat oxidation during moderate intensity cycling.

  16. Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, E A; Raastad, T

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of heavy strength training on the mean power output in a 5-min all-out trial following 185 min of submaximal cycling at 44% of maximal aerobic power output in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E+S; n=11 (♂=11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n=9 (♂=7, ♀=2)]. The strength training performed by E+S consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. E+S increased 1 RM in half-squat (P≤0.001), while no change occurred in E. E+S led to greater reductions than E in oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (P<0.05) during the last hour of the prolonged cycling. Further, E+S increased the mean power output during the 5-min all-out trial (from 371 ± 9 to 400 ± 13 W, P<0.05), while no change occurred in E. In conclusion, adding strength training to usual endurance training improves leg strength and 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling in well-trained cyclists.

  17. Does a non-circular chainring improve performance in the bicycle motocross cycling start sprint?

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    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key PointsThis work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system.This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysisAll data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team.Some variables influencing performance as subjects' physical fitness are discussed.Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance.

  18. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Paige

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min, experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10 trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4 underwent "sham" training (20, 5 min sessions, and the control group (n = 6 did no training. Results After training, the experimental group increased their respiratory muscle endurance capacity by 12 %. Performance on a bicycle time trial test designed to last about 40 min improved by 4.7 % (9 of 10 subjects showed improvement. There were no test-re-test improvements in either respiratory muscle or bicycle exercise endurance performance in the placebo group, nor in the control group. After training, the experimental group had significantly higher ventilatory output and VO2, and lower PCO2, during constant work-rate exercise; the placebo and control groups did not show these changes. The perceived respiratory effort was unchanged in spite of the higher ventilation rate after training. Conclusions The results suggest that respiratory muscle endurance training improves cycling performance in fit, experienced cyclists. The relative hyperventilation with no change in respiratory effort sensations suggest that respiratory muscle training allows subjects to tolerate the higher exercise ventilatory response without more dyspnea. Whether or not this can explain the enhanced performance is unknown.

  19. Acclimation training improves endurance cycling performance in the heat without inducing endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-actively males (n=24 were allocated randomly to either HOT (n=8, 35oC and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n=8, 20oC and 45% RH; or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n=8. Over the 18 day study HOT and NEUTRAL performed seven training sessions (40 min cycling at 55% of V̇O2 max and all participants completed three heat stress tests (HST at 35oC and 70% RH. The HST protocol comprised three x sub-maximal intervals followed by a 5 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. Serum samples were collected before and after each HST and analysed for interleukin-6, immunoglobulin M and lipopolysaccharide. Results: Both HOT and NEUTRAL groups experienced substantial improvement to 5 km time trial performance (HOT -33 ± 20 s, p = 0.02, NEUTRAL -39 ± 18 s, p = 0.01 but only HOT were faster (-45 ± 25 s and -12 s ± 7 s, p = 0.01 in HST3 compared to baseline and HST2. Interleukin-6 was elevated after exercise for all groups however there were no significant changes for immunoglobulin M or lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: Short-term heat training enhances 5 km cycling time trial performance in moderately-fit subjects by ~6%, similar in magnitude to exercise training in neutral conditions. Three top-up training sessions yielded a further 3% improvement in performance for the HOT group. Furthermore, the heat training did not pose a substantial challenge to the immune system.

  20. Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2014-06-01

    We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max : 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ⁢ a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P performance by 7.4% above CON (∼ 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance.

  1. Doing supplements to improve performance in club cycling: a life-course analysis.

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    Stewart, B; Outram, S; Smith, A C T

    2013-12-01

    Using qualitative life-course and pathway analysis, this article explores the beliefs that serious club cyclists have about performance improvement, and what they think are appropriate and inappropriate ways of achieving it. We interviewed 11 cyclists from suburban clubs in Melbourne, Australia, and invited them to discuss their approach to training, racing, and supplementation. We found that each of the 11 cyclists were not only committed to the sport, but also paid a keen interest in bike technology and training regimes. In addition, they believed that supplement use was integral to meeting the physical and mental demands of their sport, even at club level. They also understood that supplement use, like training regimes, followed a sequential pathway where the accumulation of capacity, know-know, and knowledge, allowed progression to the next level of performance. And, like similar studies of club cycling in Europe, this cohort of cyclists balked at using banned substances, but also believed that in order to effectively transition to the elite - that is, professional - level, some additional supplement and drug-use was essential.

  2. Analysis of different image-based biofeedback models for improving cycling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbo, D.; Conforto, S.; Bernabucci, I.; Carli, M.; Schmid, M.; D'Alessio, T.

    2012-03-01

    Sport practice can take advantage from the quantitative assessment of task execution, which is strictly connected to the implementation of optimized training procedures. To this aim, it is interesting to explore the effectiveness of biofeedback training techniques. This implies a complete chain for information extraction containing instrumented devices, processing algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to extract valuable information (i.e. kinematics, dynamics, and electrophysiology) to be presented in real-time to the athlete. In cycling, performance indexes displayed in a simple and perceivable way can help the cyclist optimize the pedaling. To this purpose, in this study four different GUIs have been designed and used in order to understand if and how a graphical biofeedback can influence the cycling performance. In particular, information related to the mechanical efficiency of pedaling is represented in each of the designed interfaces and then displayed to the user. This index is real-time calculated on the basis of the force signals exerted on the pedals during cycling. Instrumented pedals for bikes, already designed and implemented in our laboratory, have been used to measure those force components. A group of subjects underwent an experimental protocol and pedaled with (the interfaces have been used in a randomized order) and without graphical biofeedback. Preliminary results show how the effective perception of the biofeedback influences the motor performance.

  3. Improvement of CaO-based sorbent performance for CO{sub 2} looping cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents research on CO{sub 2} capture by lime-based looping cycles. This is a new and promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as the developing technologies for CO{sub 2} capture, especially those based on CaO looping cycles. This technology is at the pilot plant demonstration stage and there are still significant challenges that require solutions. The technology is based on a dual fluidized bed reactor which contains a carbonator - a unit for CO{sub 2} capture, and a calciner - a unit for CaO regeneration. The major technology components are well known from other technologies and easily applicable. However, even though CaO is a very good candidate as a solid CO{sub 2} carrier, its performance in a practical system still has significant limitations. Thus, research on CaO performance is critical and this paper discusses some of the more important problems and potential solutions that are being examined at CETC-O. To date, the most promising methods were reactivation of spent sorbent by steam, thermal pretreatment of sorbent, and doping, most likely with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The combination of these methods, including pelletization, should provide us with enhanced sorbent performance. 75 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    -load performance. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis......The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part...

  5. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  6. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-05-09

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  7. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V˙O2max: 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  8. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Nilay Kulaksız

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate (CHO concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12% after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05. Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05. In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  9. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglind, F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-02-15

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part-load performance. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part-load performance. (author)

  10. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Paige; Sattler Angela; Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" tra...

  11. Does a Non-Circular Chainring Improve Performance in the Bicycle Motocross Cycling Start Sprint?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s, using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8. Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23, whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02. Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders.

  12. Improved Team Performance During Pediatric Resuscitations After Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice Compared With Traditional Debriefing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Daniel S; Fielder, Elaine K; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B

    2016-10-06

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) improves medical knowledge compared with no intervention. In traditional SBME, more time is spent debriefing than practicing skills. Rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) simulation allows learners to practice skills repetitively, receive brief interspersed feedback, and has been shown to improve individual performance of resuscitation skills in simulation; it has not been compared with traditional simulation methods. The aim of the study was to compare traditional and RCDP SBME. Four pediatric resuscitation cases (3 for teaching and 1 for testing) were developed. For the RCDP arm, traditional cases were deconstructed into sequences of progressively difficult rounds. The last RCDP round served as the traditional arm scenario.Learners received 1 type of instruction on 2 separate days. Pretest and posttest performance during simulation were video recorded and scored using the Simulation Team Assessment Tool; satisfaction surveys were collected. Pretest team performance was similar in both groups. Simulation Team Assessment Tool score improvement for RCDP was 7.2% (95% confidence interval, 3.4% to 11%) and traditional was 0.8% (95% confidence interval, -11% to 13%). The difference in improvement of the human factors subscore was statistically significant; RCDP improved 10.2% and traditional improved 1.7% (P = 0.013). The RCDP technique was well received by learners but caused fatigue. This pilot study showed a trend toward greater improvement in team performance and significantly greater improvement for human factors with RCDP compared with traditional simulation. Future studies comparing RCDP with other methods are needed to identify best practices and applications of RCDP, including which learners and learning objectives are best suited to RCDP.

  13. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Per I; Sailer, Manuela; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Jeppesen, Per B; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; pintake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance.

  14. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKristoffersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists (age: 47 ±6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 57.9 ±3.7 ml. kg-1. min-1 were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate (73-82 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax interval training (5 x 6 min with a cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 minutes of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9±2.4 vs. 62.2±3.2 ml. kg-1. min-1, VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ±3.8 vs. 51.8±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 and during the 30 min performance test (52.8±3.0 vs. 54.7±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1, and power output at lactate threshold (284 ±47 vs. 294 ±48 W and during the 30 min performance test (284±42 vs. 297±50 W. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm interval training at moderate intensity (73-82 % of HRmax twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax and duration (90 minutes weekly at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations.

  15. Acclimation Training Improves Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat without Inducing Endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Guy; David Bruce Pyne; Glen Deakin; Catherine Margaret Miller; Andrew Mark Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-acti...

  16. African primary care research: Quality improvement cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Van Deventer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of clinical care and translating evidence into clinical practice is commonly a focus of primary care research. This article is part of a series on primary care research and outlines an approach to performing a quality improvement cycle as part of a research assignment at a Masters level. The article aims to help researchers design their quality improvement cycle and write their research project proposal.

  17. African primary care research: quality improvement cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, Claire; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-24

    Improving the quality of clinical care and translating evidence into clinical practice is commonly a focus of primary care research. This article is part of a series on primary care research and outlines an approach to performing a quality improvement cycle as part of a research assignment at a Masters level. The article aims to help researchers design their quality improvement cycle and write their research project proposal.

  18. System to improve the Understanding of Collected Logistic Data, to Optimize Cycle-Time and Delivery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Wim-Jan; Rodriguez, Ben

    2002-12-01

    A complex production mask-house faces the issue of handling and understanding the logistics information from the production process of the masks. We managed to control key performance indicators like cycle-time, flow-factor, line-speed, WIP, etc. To improve the line flow, we set-up rules for optimising batching at operations and forbid batching between operations, we defined maximum and minimum WIP at the operations, scheduled urgency of the different lots and built rules for bottleneck management. Also we restricted the number of "hot lots". By migrating to the modern MES (manufacturing execution system) MaTISSe, which manages the shopfloor control, and a reporting database, we are able to eliminate the time deviations within our data, caused by data-extraction for different reports at different moments. This gives us a better understanding of our fixed bottleneck and a faster recognition of the temporarily bottlenecks caused by missing availability of machines or men. In this paper we describe the features and advantages of our new MES, as well as the migration process. We have already achieved considerable benefits. Our plan is to extend decision support within the MES, to help both managers and operators to make the right decisions. The project behind this paper reaped major benefits described here and we are looking forward to further challenges and successes.

  19. Improved Cycling Performance of a Si Nanoparticle Anode Utilizing Citric Acid as a Surface-Modifying Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Seo, Daniel M; Chandrasiri, K W D K; Lucht, Brett L

    2017-09-19

    Citric acid and its analogues have been investigated as surface-modifying agents for Si nanoparticle anodes using electrochemical cycling, attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A Si nanoparticle anode prepared with citric acid (CA) has better capacity retention than one containing 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BA), but both electrodes outperform Si-PVDF. The Si-CA anode has an initial specific capacity of 3530 mA h/g and a first cycle efficiency of 82%. Surprisingly, the Si-CA electrode maintains a high specific capacity of ∼2200 mA h/g after 250 cycles, corresponding to 64% capacity retention, which is similar to the Si prepared with long-chain poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). On the contrary, the silicon electrode prepared with PVDF has a fast capacity fade and retains only 980 mA h/g after 50 cycles. The IR and XPS data show that the Si-CA electrode has an SEI composed primarily of lithium citrate during the first 50 cycles, resulting from the electrochemical reduction of citric acid. Only low concentrations of electrolyte reduction products are observed. The lithium citrate layer derived from CA stabilizes the silicon surface and suppresses electrolyte reduction, which likely contributes to the enhanced cycling performance of the Si nanoparticle anode.

  20. Improvement of Capacity and Cycling Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials with TiO2-B Nanobelts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.;

    2013-01-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 was modified with TiO2-B nanobelts to improve its specific capacity and cycling performance. TiO2-B/LiMn2O4 composites were fabricated by a facile liquid phase mixing method. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  1. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  2. Preexercise energy drink consumption does not improve endurance cycling performance but increases lactate, monocyte, and interleukin-6 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melody D; Rola, Kelyn S; Christensen, Kenneth V; Ross, Jacob W; Mitchell, Joel B

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an energy drink (ED) on cycling performance and immune-related variables. Eleven trained male cyclists (33.4 ± 8.9 years; 81 ± 7.6 kg; maximal VO2, 52 ± 3.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) consumed 500 ml of (a) ED (2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 56 g carbohydrate [CHO], and B vitamins), (b) cola matched for caffeine and CHO (CC), or (c) flavored placebo (PL: sparking water and flavoring) 50 minutes before racing in a randomized, crossover design. Performance was measured as time to complete (TTC) a 25-mile simulated road race. Blood was collected at baseline, 30 minutes after drink consumption, during exercise at miles 5 (M5), 15 (M15), and immediately (POEX) and 30 minutes (30minPO) after exercise. TTC was not different (p > 0.05) among trials (ED, 68.6 ± 2.7; CC, 68.9 ± 3.8; PL, 69.6 ± 3.8 minutes). Consumption of CC and ED elicited a mild hypoglycemia elicited a mild hypoglycemia during cycling. POEX interleukin-6 (IL-6) was greatest after ED, whereas CC IL-6 was greater than PL (10.2 ± 1.6, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 4.8 ± 0.7 pg·ml(-1), respectively; p Cycling increased leukocyte number in all conditions with ED leukocyte number greater than that of PL at M15 (9.8 ± 0.6, 8.5 ± 0.3 × 10(6) cells·mL(-1)). Energy drink induced an earlier recruitment of monocytes to the blood stream than CC. Mean fat oxidation was greater in PL compared with CC (0.43 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.04 g·min(-1); p = 0.033) but did not differ between ED (0.32 ± 0.06) and PL. Lactate was higher in ED compared with CC and PL at M5 and M15 (p = 0.003), but there was no significant influence of either ED or CC on performance. Carbohydrate and caffeine consumption before endurance cycling significantly increased the IL-6 release and leukocytosis, and the additional ingredients in ED seem to have further augmented these responses.

  3. Modeling road-cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, T S; Norton, K I; Lowe, E L; Olive, S; Reay, F; Ly, S

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a complete set of equations for a "first principles" mathematical model of road-cycling performance, including corrections for the effect of winds, tire pressure and wheel radius, altitude, relative humidity, rotational kinetic energy, drafting, and changed drag. The relevant physiological, biophysical, and environmental variables were measured in 41 experienced cyclists completing a 26-km road time trial. The correlation between actual and predicted times was 0.89 (P road-cycling performance are maximal O2 consumption, fractional utilization of maximal O2 consumption, mechanical efficiency, and projected frontal area. The model is then applied to some practical problems in road cycling: the effect of drafting, the advantage of using smaller front wheels, the effects of added mass, the importance of rotational kinetic energy, the effect of changes in drag due to changes in bicycle configuration, the normalization of performances under different conditions, and the limits of human performance.

  4. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • A dual core-shell hPANI/S/PANI composite was prepared in situ synthesis. • Cycle performance of the hPANI/S/PANI composite was enhanced. • The improvement was due to fine sulfur particles wrapped by two PANI films. • Some positive effects were elaborated. - Abstract: In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  5. High performance heat pump absorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.; Rossetto, L.

    1988-10-01

    Absorption heat pumps can provide high performances when operating in suitable cycles with multiple effects. This report describes some multistage cycles and evaluates the coefficient of performance realistically obtainable both in winter and summer working conditions.

  6. Coefficient of Performance Enhancement of Refrigeration Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Naser R. M. AL-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerator is one of the home appliance utilizing mechanical vapor compression cycle in its process. Performance of the systems become the main issue and many researches are still ongoing to evaluate and improve the efficiency of any used system. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of the refrigeration cycles. A small rrefrigerator is used as the test rig. The Coefficient of Performance (COP is studied by using different condenser designs and under varying evaporator loads. Three condenser designs are used in present work. These condensers are regular condenser of domestic refrigerator, condenser with copper plain tubes (Cond.1 and condenser with copper tubes welded with stainless steel flat plate (Cond.2. pressures and temperatures measurements of each point in the refrigeration cycle are collected in order to evaluate the refrigerator performance. The results showed that the average COP of Cond.1 and Cond.2 are increased up to 20 % and 14% respectively more than regular condenser design under no load. The evaporator load effects on the machine performance, where the COP of the machine increases with the increase of the evaporator load.

  7. Embarking on performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs.

  8. Performance Characteristics of Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Based on Ericsson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Nobumi; Kishi, Takayuki; Nishio, Toshio

    The purpose of this research and investigation is to confirm and clarify the performance characteristics of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle based on the Ericsson Cycle (referred to hereinafter as "this cycle" in this paper). The theoretical analysis and comparison in performance of the conventional refrigeration cycle with this cycle using 12 different but typical refrigerants, produced the following essential and interesting results, i.e., (1) there are conditions for maximizing the COP of this cycle using the expansion valve, (2)both the COP and refrigeration capacity using this cycle showed improvement for all refrigerants other than R717 and R32, (3)the improvement rate for the COP and the refrigeration capacity becomes larger as the specific heat ratio at the gas outlet point of the regenerative heat exchanger becomes smaller, with the rate value differing according to the type of refrigerant.

  9. Improvement of Capacity and Cycling Performance of Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials with TiO2-B Nanobelts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that TiO2-B nanobelts are uniformly distributed in LiMn2O4 particle. Compared with bare LiMn2O4, TiO2-B/LiMn2O4 composite cathode material shows enhanced specific capacity of 129 mA h g−1 and improved cycling stability. After 50...

  10. Analysis of Refrigeration Cycle Performance with an Ejector

    OpenAIRE

    Wani J. R.; Baheta Aklilu T.; Woldeyohannes Abraham D.; Hassan Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A conventional refrigeration cycle uses expansion device between the condenser and the evaporator which has losses during the expansion process. A refrigeration cycle with ejector is a promising modification to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration cycle. The ejector is used to recover some of the available work so that the compressor suction pressure increases. To investigate the enhancement a model with R134a refrigerant was developed. To solve the set of equations and simul...

  11. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions....

  12. Performance of an irreversible quantum refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ji-Zhou; Ouyang Wei-Pin; Wu Xin

    2006-01-01

    A new model of a quantum refrigeration cycle composed of two adiabatic and two isomagnetic field processes is established. The working substance in the cycle consists of many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems. The performance of the cycle is investigated, based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach. The general expressions of several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate, and power input, are given. It is found that the coefficient of performance of this cycle is in the closest analogy to that of the classical Carnot cycle. Furthermore, at high temperatures the optimal relations of the cooling rate and the maximum cooling rate are analysed in detail. Some performance characteristic curves of the cycle are plotted, such as the cooling rate versus the maximum ratio between high and low "temperatures" of the working substances, the maximum cooling rate versus the ratio between high and low "magnetic fields" and the "temperature" ratio between high and low reservoirs. The obtained results are further generalized and discussed, so that they may be directly applied to describing the performance of the quantum refrigerator using spin-J systems as the working substance. Finally, the optimum characteristics of the quantum Carnot and Ericsson refrigeration cycles are derived by analogy.

  13. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  14. Automating claims management improves revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivison, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    One healthcare organization was able to improve revenue cycle operations by automating its claims management. Using web-based technology enabled the organization to streamline internal workflow processes, redeploy staff, and reduce overhead costs. As a result, cash flow increased 7 percent, and A/R days dropped 16 percent.

  15. Ingesting a high-dose carbohydrate solution during the cycle section of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon improves subsequent run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Shannon, Oliver; Betts, James

    2012-08-01

    The well-established ergogenic benefit of ingesting carbohydrates during single-discipline endurance sports has only been tested once within an Olympic-distance (OD) triathlon. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ingesting a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution with a placebo on simulated OD triathlon performance. Six male and 4 female amateur triathletes (age, 25 ± 7 years; body mass, 66.8 ± 9.2 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 4.2 ± 0.6 L·min(-1)) completed a 1500-m swim time-trial and an incremental cycle test to determine peak oxygen uptake before performing 2 simulated OD triathlons. The swim and cycle sections of the main trials were of fixed intensities, while the run section was completed as a time-trial. Two minutes prior to completing every quarter of the cycle participants consumed 202 ± 20 mL of either a solution containing 1.2 g·min(-1) of maltodextrin plus 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose at 14.4% concentration (CHO) or a sugar-free, fruit-flavored drink (PLA). The time-trial was 4.0% ± 1.3% faster during the CHO versus PLA trial, with run times of 38:43 ± 1:10 min:s and 40:22 ± 1:18 min:s, respectively (p = 0.010). Blood glucose concentrations were higher in the CHO versus PLA trial (p triathlon enhances subsequent 10-km run performance in triathletes.

  16. Experimental jetlag disrupts circadian clock genes but improves performance in racehorses after light-dependent rapid resetting of neuroendocrine systems and the rest-activity cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortonese, D J; Preedy, D F; Hesketh, S A; Webb, H N; Wilkinson, E S; Allen, W R; Fuller, C J; Townsend, J; Short, R V

    2011-12-01

    Abrupt alterations in the 24-h light : dark cycle, such as those resulting from transmeridian air travel, disrupt circadian biological rhythms in humans with detrimental consequences on cognitive and physical performance. In the present study, a jetlag-simulated phase shift in photoperiod temporally impaired circadian peaks of peripheral clock gene expression in racehorses but acutely enhanced athletic performance without causing stress. Indices of aerobic and anaerobic capacities were significantly increased by a phase-advance, enabling prolonged physical activity before fatigue occurred. This was accompanied by rapid re-entrainment of the molecular clockwork and the circadian pattern of melatonin, with no disturbance of the adrenal cortical axis, but a timely rise in prolactin, which is a hormone known to target organs critical for physical performance. Subsequent studies showed that, unlike the circadian pattern of melatonin, and in contrast to other species, the daily rhythm of locomotor activity was completely eliminated under constant darkness, but it was restored immediately upon the reintroduction of a light : dark cycle. Resetting of the rhythm of locomotion was remarkably fast, revealing a rapid mechanism of adaptation and a species dependency on light exposure for the expression of daily diurnal activity. These results show that horses are exquisitely sensitive to sudden changes in photoperiod and that, unlike humans, can benefit from them; this appears to arise from powerful effects of light underlying a fast and advantageous process of adjustment to the phase shift.

  17. Performance comparison of magnetic refrigeration cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.C.; Chen, G.L.; Murphy, R.W.; Mei, V.C.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration has been used for cryogenic cooling at temperatures near absolute zero for many years. In these cases, a single-step adiabatic demagnetization method that does not provide continuous refrigeration is commonly used. The possibilities of providing continuous cooling through magnetic refrigeration cycles and of extending the range of applications above near-absolute-zero temperatures have been investigated only in recent years. This paper reports the results of a parametric performance study of three magnetic refrigeration cycles using four rare-earth magnetic materials operating near their respective Curie temperatures. The thermodynamic cycles employed are the magnetic-equivalent Carnot, Ericsson, and ideal regenerative cycles, and the four magnetic materials are terbium, holmium, erbium, and thulium. Our findings show that the Carnot cycle is not possible for cases of temperature lift beyond 10 K for a magnetic field variation of Tesla, that the performance and capacity of an ideal regenerative cycle are higher than that of the corresponding Ericsson cycle, and that the magnetocaloric effects of erbium and thulium seem to be too weak for practical applications. 14 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Analysis of Refrigeration Cycle Performance with an Ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional refrigeration cycle uses expansion device between the condenser and the evaporator which has losses during the expansion process. A refrigeration cycle with ejector is a promising modification to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration cycle. The ejector is used to recover some of the available work so that the compressor suction pressure increases. To investigate the enhancement a model with R134a refrigerant was developed. To solve the set of equations and simulate the cycle performance a subroutine was written on engineering equation solver (EES environment. At specific conditions, the refrigerant properties are obtained from EES. At the design conditions the ejector refrigeration cycle achieved 5.141 COP compared to 4.609 COP of the conventional refrigeration cycle. This means that ejector refrigeration cycle offers better COP with 10.35% improvement compared to conventional refrigeration cycle. Parametric analysis of ejector refrigeration cycle indicated that COP was influenced significantly by evaporator and condenser temperatures, entrainment ratio and diffuser efficiency.

  19. A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The figure presents a cross-sectional view of a supercharged, variable-compression, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine that offers significant advantages over prior such engines. The improvements are embodied in a combination of design changes that contribute synergistically to improvements in performance and economy. Although the combination of design changes and the principles underlying them are complex, one of the main effects of the changes on the overall engine design is reduced (relative to prior two-cycle designs) mechanical complexity, which translates directly to reduced manufacturing cost and increased reliability. Other benefits include increases in the efficiency of both scavenging and supercharging. The improvements retain the simplicity and other advantages of two-cycle engines while affording increases in volumetric efficiency and performance across a wide range of operating conditions that, heretofore have been accessible to four-cycle engines but not to conventionally scavenged two-cycle ones, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of the two-cycle engine into all areas now dominated by the four-cycle engine. The design changes and benefits are too numerous to describe here in detail, but it is possible to summarize the major improvements: Reciprocating Shuttle Inlet Valve The entire reciprocating shuttle inlet valve and its operating gear is constructed as a single member. The shuttle valve is actuated in a lost-motion arrangement in which, at the ends of its stroke, projections on the shuttle valve come to rest against abutments at the ends of grooves in a piston skirt. This shuttle-valve design obviates the customary complex valve mechanism, actuated from an engine crankshaft or camshaft, yet it is effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines.

  20. Sildenafil does not improve steady state cardiovascular hemodynamics, peak power, or 15-km time trial cycling performance at simulated moderate or high altitudes in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressler, Jochen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Roos, Bernard A; Friedlander, Anne L; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2011-12-01

    Sildenafil improves oxygen delivery and maximal exercise capacity at very high altitudes (≥ 4,350 m), but it is unknown whether sildenafil improves these variables and longer-duration exercise performance at moderate and high altitudes where competitions are more common. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), peak exercise capacity (W (peak)), and 15-km time trial performance in endurance-trained subjects at simulated moderate (MA; ~2,100 m, 16.2% F(I)O(2)) and high (HA; ~3,900 m, 12.8% F(I)O(2)) altitudes. Eleven men and ten women completed two HA W (peak) trials after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. Subjects then completed four exercise trials (30 min at 55% of altitude-specific W (peak) + 15-km time trial) at MA and HA after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. All trials were performed in randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion. Sildenafil had little influence on cardiovascular hemodynamics at MA or HA, but did result in higher SaO(2) values (+3%, p < 0.05) compared to placebo during steady state and time trial exercise at HA. W (peak) at HA was 19% lower than SL (p < 0.001) and was not significantly affected by sildenafil. Similarly, the significantly slower time trial performance at MA (28.1 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.016) and HA (30.3 ± 0.6 min, p < 0.001) compared to SL (27.5 ± 0.6 min) was unaffected by sildenafil. We conclude that sildenafil is unlikely to exert beneficial effects at altitudes <4,000 m for a majority of the population.

  1. Improvement of the cascading closed loop cycle system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CAI Ruixian

    2007-01-01

    Aspen Plus was used to simulate and get more information about the cascading closed loop cycle (CCLC)system [1-3].Following evaluation of the variable temperature heat source (e.g.gas turbine flue gas) utilized by the CCLC,both qualitative and quantitive comparisons between the system and simple steam Rankine cycle,were made.The results indicate that CCLC has the advantage in recuperating exergy from flue gas,but it cannot sufficiently convert the recuperated exergy to useful work.To improve the utilization of low temperature flue gas heat,the properties and parameters of the working substance must match conditions of the low temperature heat source.A better cycle scheme and pressure distribution was proposed to raise the efficiency of the CCLC.In addition,the multifunction system concept was introduced to improve the performance of CCLC with solar energy.

  2. Correlates of simulated hill climb cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, R C; Swan, D; Coleman, D; Bird, S

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between several commonly used aerobic and anaerobic cycle ergometer tests and performance during a treadmill cycling hill climb. Eight competitive cyclists (age 27+/-7 years; body mass 73.2+/-5.2 kg; height 177+/-6 cm; mean +/- s) completed six tests in random order: a lactate minimum test; a Wingate anaerobic power test; and two 6-km climbs at 6% and two 1-km climbs at 12% gradient performed on a motorized treadmill. The mean times and power outputs for the 6-km and 1-km climbs were 16:30+/-1:08 min: s and 330+/-17.8 W, and 4:19+/-0:27 min: s and 411+/-24.4 W, respectively. The best individual predictor of 6-km and 1-km performance times was the time for the corresponding climb at the other distance (r = 0.97). The next strongest predictor of both hill climb performances was the average power produced during the Wingate test divided by body mass. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the two variables contributing most to the prediction equation for both climbs were the Wingate average power per unit of body mass and maximal aerobic power divided by total mass (rider + bike), which together accounted for 92 and 96% of the variability in the 6-km and 1-km climbs. In conclusion, among competitive cyclists, the Wingate average power per unit of body mass was the best single predictor of simulated cycling hill climb performance at the distance and gradient used.

  3. Improve First-Cycle Efficiency and Rate Performance of Layered-Layered Li1.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O2 Using Oxygen Stabilizing Dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Zhan, Chun; Lu, Jun; Yuan, Yifei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Qiu, Xinping; Amine, Khalil

    2015-07-29

    The poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and rate performance of the Li-rich layered-layered oxides are associated with oxygen gas generation in the first activation charging and sluggish charge transportation along the layers. In this work, we report that barium doping improves the first-cycle efficiency of Li-rich layered-layered Li1.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O2 via suppression of the oxidation of O(2-) ions in the first charging. This effect can be attributed to the stabilizing effect of the barium cations on the oxygen radical intermediates generated during the oxidation of O(2-). Meanwhile, because the stabilized oxygen radicals likely facilitate the charge transportation in the layered-layered structure, the barium-doped Li1.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O2 exhibits significant improvement in rate performance. Stabilizing the oxygen radicals could be a promising strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered-layered oxides.

  4. Strength training improves cycling efficiency in master endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Julien; Hausswirth, Christophe; Easthope, Christopher; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a 3-week strength training program of knee extensor muscles on cycling delta efficiency in master endurance athletes. Nine master (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and 8 young (age 25.6 ± 5.9 years) endurance athletes with similar training levels participated in this study. During three consecutive weeks, all the subjects were engaged in a strength training program of the knee extensor muscles. Every week, they performed three training sessions consist of 10 × 10 knee extensions at 70% of maximal repetition with 3 min rest between in a leg extension apparatus. Maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC torque) and force endurance (End) were assessed before, after every completed week of training, and after the program. Delta efficiency (DE) in cycling was evaluated before and after the training period. Before the training period, MVC torque, End, and DE in cycling were significantly lower in masters than in young. The strength training induced a significant improvement in MVC torque in all the subjects, more pronounced in masters (+17.8% in masters vs. +5.9% in young, P < 0.05). DE in cycling also significantly increased after training in masters, whereas it was only a trend in young. A significant correlation (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) was observed between MVC torque and DE in cycling in masters. The addition of a strength training program for the knee extensor muscles to endurance-only training induced a significant improvement in strength and cycling efficiency in master athletes. This enhancement in muscle performance alleviated all the age-related differences in strength and efficiency.

  5. Improving Performance Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    A positive and creative results-oriented management appraisal system is needed. This article reviews the benefits and requirements of such a system, lists the common pitfalls of shoddy evaluation attempts, describes the four basic kinds of performance appraisal systems, and offers suggestions for creating a successful system. (DC)

  6. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Figure 5.2.4 – Teen / Twenty Berm Bays from Tank 11 Corner Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 63 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical...5.3.9 Pump Discharge Pressure Measurement Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 76 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report...chamber pressure Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 173 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report Seaman Corporation could not be

  7. Two-watt, 4-Kelvin closed cycle refrigerator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A 2-watt, 4-K helium refrigerator using the Gifford-McMahon/Joule Thomson cycle is described. The unit features a removable displacer cylinder and high-efficiency, low-pressure drop heat exchangers. These improvements result in a 100 percent increase in cooling power over the existing Deep Space Network system. The effects of the heat exchanger efficiency and Gifford-McMahon expander performance on refrigerator capacity are also discussed.

  8. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  9. Technological tendencies for the improvement of the performance of combined cycle power stations; Tendencias tecnologicas para el mejoramiento del desempeno de centrales de cilco combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; Chavez T, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article are dealt some the aspects that have turned the combined cycle generating power stations (CCGPS) into the dominant way for the electrical generation in the world. In the first part it is presented the plan of expansion of the national electrical generation and similar information that the U.S.A. has for the CCGPS, which will give an idea of the importance and the impact that has this technology at the moment. The basic characteristics that are necessary to specify in order to satisfy the environmental and operation requirements, and the available technologies to increase the global efficiency of the CCGPS are also exposed. Finally it describes the evolution of the technology of control for CCGPS developed in the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), as well as the capacities available to support the electrical sector in this technological discipline. [Spanish] En este articulo se tratan algunos de los aspectos que han convertido a las centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado (CGCC) en el modo dominante para la generacion electrica en el mundo. En la primera parte se presenta el plan de expansion de la generacion electrica nacional e informacion similar que los EE.UU. tienen para las CGCC, lo que dara una idea de la importancia y del impacto que tiene actualmente esta tecnologia. Se exponen tambien las caracteristicas principales que es necesario especificar a fin de satisfacer los requerimientos ambientales y de operacion, y las tecnologias disponibles para incrementar la eficiencia global de las CGCC. Finalmente se describe la evolucion de la tecnologia de control para CGCC desarrollada en la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), asi como las capacidades disponibles para apoyar al sector electrico en esta disciplina tecnologica.

  10. Performance improvement in multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to develop a performance improvement model template which supports multinational corporations in their daily operations. This has been achieved through literature review and four case studies. With analysis and synthesis, a complete performance improvement model template is carried out based on balanced score card which can be considered as an instruction or reference for improvement work in multinational corporations. After experienced the transformation from i...

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  12. Metracker version 1.5: Life-cycle performance metricstracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2002-01-17

    Buildings often do not perform as well in practice as expected during pre-design planning, nor as intended at the design stage, nor even as measured during commissioning and maintenance operations. While this statement is generally considered to be true, it is difficult to quantify the impacts and long-term economic implications of a building in which performance does not meet expectations. This leads to a building process that is devoid of quantitative feedback that could be used to detect and correct problems both in an individual building and in the building process itself. A key element in this situation is the lack of a standardized method for documenting and communicating information about the intended and actual performance of a building. This deficiency leads to several shortcomings in the life-cycle management of building information. Planners have no means of clearly specifying their expectations. Designers do not concisely document their design intent. Commissioning personnel have no standardized method for documenting the results of performance testing. Post-occupancy building performance cannot readily be compared to expectations in an attempt to evaluate and improve design and operation decisions. Lastly, without quantification of the magnitude of performance problems it is difficult to motivate building process participants to alter their current practice. This document describes an information management concept and a prototype tool based on this concept that has been developed to address this situation. The Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) has been designed to manage a wide range of building related information across the life cycle of a building project. Metracker is a prototype implementation of BLISS based on the International Alliance for Interoperability's (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The IFC is an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry

  13. Performance metrics and life-cycle information management for building performance assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Commercial buildings account for over $85 billion per year in energy costs, which is far more energy than technically necessary. One of the primary reasons buildings do not perform as well as intended is that critical information is lost, through ineffective documentation and communication, leading to building systems that are often improperly installed and operated. A life-cycle perspective on the management of building information provides a framework for improving commercial building energy performance. This paper describes a project to develop strategies and techniques to provide decision-makers with information needed to assure the desired building performance across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element in this effort is the development of explicit performance metrics that quantitatively represent performance objectives of interest to various building stakeholders. The paper begins with a discussion of key problems identified in current building industry practice, and ongoing work to address these problems. The paper then focuses on the concept of performance metrics and their use in improving building performance during design, commissioning, and on-going operations. The design of a Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) is presented. BLISS is intended to provide an information infrastructure capable of integrating a variety of building information technologies that support performance assurance. The use of performance metrics in case study building projects is explored to illustrate current best practice. The application of integrated information technology for improving current practice is discussed.

  14. Improving long term outcomes in urea cycle disorders-report from the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; Gropman, Andrea L; Batshaw, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) has conducted, beginning in 2006, a longitudinal study (LS) of eight enzyme deficiencies/transporter defects associated with the urea cycle. These include N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGSD); Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D); Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD); Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (ASSD) (Citrullinemia); Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD) (Argininosuccinic aciduria); Arginase deficiency (ARGD, Argininemia); Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia, homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome (or mitochondrial ornithine transporter 1 deficiency [ORNT1D]); and Citrullinemia type II (mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier deficiency [CITRIN]). There were 678 UCD patients enrolled in 14 sites in the U.S., Canada, and Europe at the writing of this paper. This review summarizes findings of the consortium related to outcome, focusing primarily on neuroimaging findings and neurocognitive function. Neuroimaging studies in late onset OTCD offered evidence that brain injury caused by biochemical dysregulation may impact functional neuroanatomy serving working memory processes, an important component of executive function and regulation. Additionally, there were alteration in white mater microstructure and functional connectivity at rest. Intellectual deficits in OTCD and other urea cycle disorders (UCD) vary. However, when neuropsychological deficits occur, they tend to be more prominent in motor/performance areas on both intelligence tests and other measures. In some disorders, adults performed significantly less well than younger patients. Further longitudinal follow-up will reveal whether this is due to declines throughout life or to improvements in diagnostics (especially newborn screening) and treatments in the younger generation of patients.

  15. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  16. Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

  17. Building effectiveness communication ratios for improved building life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, E.; Keane, M.; McCarthy, J. [Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE; O' Donnell, J. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE

    2005-07-01

    The construction and operation of buildings consumes 35 per cent of total U.S. energy production. Although the application of building energy simulation models in early design stages can significantly increase performance throughout the building life cycle, energy simulation modeling has not been widely adopted by the design community. The complexity and length of time needed to prepare energy models are considered to be barriers, as well as the lack of energy appraisal tools capable of modeling a wide spectrum of hybrid heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A performance-based strategy using building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building Information Models (BIM) was presented in this paper. The strategy aimed to link currently fragmented stages within the building life cycle. It was suggested that the ability to share and exchange information will reduce the amount of user time required for building simulation models. The proposed Building Energy Monitoring Analyzing and Communication (BEMAC) framework is an integrated environment that allows users to share data with other applications through an integrated data model. The data models allow each participant to employ tools specific to their needs without compromising or corrupting project data. Data values elicited from the model act as best-possible values. It was anticipated that by assigning spaces within the simulation model with proposed HVAC systems, reproductions of the energy use by these mechanical systems can contribute to overall energy data representation and analysis. Idealized Effectiveness Ratios and Performance Effectiveness Ratios were discussed in relation to a case study of the Glucksman Art Gallery at the National University of Ireland. Results indicated that the Idealized Effectiveness Ratio is applicable across the entire building life cycle, while the Performance Effectiveness Ratio allows facility managers to investigate the energy saving potential of the

  18. MONITORING SWIMMING SPRINT PERFORMANCE DURING A TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation for a major competition is an important concern of coaches and athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution in sprint performance during a training macro cycle in age-group swimmers of both genders. The sample comprised twenty four age-group swimmers (12.0 ± 0.72 years old, 41.43 ± 6.88 kg, 1.51 ± 0.09 m. The evaluations occurred during nine weeks of swimming training in the first macro cycle. During this period the subjects performed 54 training units (6 units per week. In all weeks, the performance in two trials of a 25 m front crawl all out test, with 15 min of rest, was recorded. Only the bestperformance was used to assess the effects of training. Comparisons between the first week and the following weeks were conducted using pair-sample t-test. The significance level was set at 5%. The sprint performance did not change during the first 6 weeks of preparation. In the last three weeks the performance in the 25 m front crawl test was improved when compared with the first week, although the major changes occurred at the last week of preparation.It seems that in age-group swimmers seven weeks of specific swimming training enables improving swimmer’s sprint performance, although some differences exists between male and female swimmers. Thesedata could be used by coaches to program the training season and the evolution of the load components.

  19. Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Refrigeration Cycle with an Improved Impulse Turbo Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The impulse turbo expander (ITE is employed to replace the throttling valve in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to improve the system performance. An improved ITE and the corresponding cycle are presented. In the new cycle, the ITE not only acts as an expansion device with work extraction, but also serves as an economizer with vapor injection. An increase of 20% in the isentropic efficiency can be attained for the improved ITE compared with the conventional ITE owing to the reduction of the friction losses of the rotor. The performance of the novel cycle is investigated based on energy and exergy analysis. A correlation of the optimum intermediate pressure in terms of ITE efficiency is developed. The improved ITE cycle increases the exergy efficiency by 1.4%–6.1% over the conventional ITE cycle, 4.6%–8.3% over the economizer cycle and 7.2%–21.6% over the base cycle. Furthermore, the improved ITE cycle is also preferred due to its lower exergy loss.

  20. Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.

  1. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  2. Alternative Approach for predicting the performance of Irreversible Otto Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nadeem Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an air-standard Otto cycle with variation of cycle peak temperature and variable specific heats of working fluid is analyzed. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects cycle peak temperature and variable specific heats of working fluid on the cycle performance are analyzed. The results show that the effects of cycle peak temperature and variable specific heats of working fluid on the cycle performance are obvious, andthey should be considered in practice cycle analysis. The results obtained from this work are presented in the form of generalized equations for specific work output in term of compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency and compression ratio of the cycle. These equations can be used by the designers for predicting the performance of real otto cycle. The results obtained in this paper may provide guidance for the design of practice internal combustion engines.

  3. Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryor J Luke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Methods Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day; half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Results Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p Conclusions One week of betaine ingestion improved cycling sprint power in recreationally active males and females.

  4. Economics and Performance Forecast of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaotao; SUGISHITA Hideaki; NI Weidou; LI Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Forecasts of the economics and performance of gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) with various types of gas turbines will help power plant designers to select the best type of gas turbine for future Chinese powerplants. The cost and performance of various designs were estimated using the commercial software GT PRO. Improved GTCC output will increase the system efficiency which may induce total investment and will certainly increase the cumulative cash which then will induce the cost and the payback period. The relative annual fuel output increases almost in proportion to the relative GTCC output. China should select the gas turbine that provides the most economical output according to its specific conditions. The analysis shows that a GTCC power plant with a medium-sized 100 to 200 MW output gas turbine is the most suitable for Chinese investors.

  5. Performance improvement CME: managing schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2011-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms and poor functioning in almost every area of life. Multiple antipsychotics have demonstrated varying levels of efficacy in reducing symptoms in schizophrenia, but adverse effects are common, adherence to medication is low, and relapse rates are high. Psychosocial interventions used in conjunction with antipsychotic pharmacotherapy may help improve treatment outcomes. This Performance Improvement CME activity focuses on individualizing treatment for schizophrenia, assessing treatment adherence, minimizing medication-induced adverse events, and preventing relapse, for children, adolescents, and adults with schizophrenia.

  6. Can cycle power predict sprint running performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Jacobs, R; de Koning, J J

    1991-01-01

    A major criticism of present models of the energetics and mechanics of sprint running concerns the application of estimates of parameters which seem to be adapted from measurements of running during actual competitions. This study presents a model which does not perpetuate this solecism. Using data obtained during supra-maximal cycle ergometer tests of highly trained athletes, the kinetics of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways were modelled. Internal power wasted in the acceleration and deceleration of body limbs and the power necessary to overcome air friction was calculated from data in the literature. Assuming a mechanical efficiency as found during submaximal cycling, a power equation was constructed which also included the power necessary to accelerate the body at the start of movement. The differential equation thus obtained was solved through simulation. The model appeared to predict realistic times at 100 m (10.47 s), 200 m (19.63 s) and 400 m (42.99 s) distances. By comparison with other methods it is argued that power equations of locomotion should include the concept of mechanical efficiency.

  7. Process Cycle Efficiency Improvement Through Lean: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Mohanram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific, objective techniques that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value adding activities resulting in greatly reduced wait time, queue time, move time, administrative time, and other delays. This work addresses the implementation of lean principles in a construction equipment company. The prime objective is to evolve and test several strategies to eliminate waste on the shop floor. This paper describes an application of value stream mapping (VSM. Consequently, the present and future states of value stream maps are constructed to improve the production process by identifying waste and its sources. A noticeable reduction in cycle time and increase in cycle efficiency is confirmed. The production flow was optimized thus minimizing several non-value added activities/times such as bottlenecking time, waiting time, material handling time, etc. This case study can be useful in developing a more generic approach to design lean environment.

  8. Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninckx, Erwin; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 60 +/- 1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were grouped into the weight training (WT n = 9) or the isokinetic training group (IT n = 9) matched for training background and sprint power (P (max)), assessed from five maximal sprints (5 s) on an isokinetic bicycle ergometer at cadences between 40 and 120 rpm. Crank torque was measured (1 kHz) to determine the torque distribution during pedaling. Endurance performance was evaluated by measuring power, heart rate and lactate during a graded exercise test to exhaustion and a 30-min performance test. All tests were performed on subjects' individual race bicycle. Knee extension torque was evaluated isometrically at 115 degrees knee angle and dynamically at 200 degrees s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. P (max) at 40 rpm increased in both the groups (~15%; P < 0.05). At 120 rpm, no improvement of P (max) was found in the IT training group, which was possibly related to an observed change in crank torque at high cadences (P < 0.05). Both groups improved their power output in the 30-min performance test (P < 0.05). Isometric knee extension torque increased only in WT (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at low cadences, P (max) improved in both training groups. However, in the IT training group, a disturbed pedaling technique compromises an improvement of P (max) at high cadences.

  9. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  10. Quality improvement cycles that reduced waiting times at Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TDH is a level-one hospital, delivering services in the centre of Pretoria since February 2006. ... finding better ways to provide better care and service.11 The QI cycle is a recognised tool for analysing and improving the efficiency and quality ..... in reducing waiting times and improving patient satisfaction.14 The need for ...

  11. Chromium doping as a new approach to improve the cycling performance at high temperature of 5 V LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based positive electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklalouch, Mohamed [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 28049 Madrid (Spain); ECME, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Av. A. El Khattabi, B.P.549 Marrakech (Morocco); Amarilla, Jose Manuel; Rojas, Rosa M.; Rojo, Jose Maria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 28049 Madrid (Spain); Saadoune, Ismael [ECME, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Av. A. El Khattabi, B.P.549 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2008-10-15

    LiCr{sub 2Y}Ni{sub 0.5-Y}Mn{sub 1.5-Y}O{sub 4} (0 < Y {<=} 0.2) spinels have been synthesized by a sucrose-aided combustion method. Two sets of Cr-doped samples have been obtained by heating the ''as-prepared'' samples at 700 and 900 C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric data show that pure and single phase spinels with similar lattice parameter have been synthesized. The homogeneity and the sub-micrometric particle size of the spinels have been shown by SEM and TEM. The main effect of the temperature is to increase the particle size from {approx}50 to {approx}500 nm, on heating from 700 to 900 C. The study of the influence of Cr-dopant content and thermal treatment on the electrochemical properties at 25 C and at 55 C has been carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-cells. The discharge capacity ({approx}130 mAh g{sup -1}) does not noticeably change with the synthesis conditions; but the cycling performances are strongly modified. Key factors that control the cycling performances have been determined. The most highlighted result is that spinels heated at 900 C with Y {<=} 0.1 have very high capacity retention at 55 C (>96% after 40 cycles, cyclability >99.9% by cycle) indicating that metal doping is a new approach to prepare 5 V LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 5}-based cathodes with excellent cycling performances at high temperature. (author)

  12. High Performance Electrolyzers for Hybrid Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John W. Weidner

    2009-05-10

    Extensive electrolyzer testing was performed at the University of South Carolina (USC). Emphasis was given to understanding water transport under various operating (i.e., temperature, membrane pressure differential and current density) and design (i.e., membrane thickness) conditions when it became apparent that water transport plays a deciding role in cell voltage. A mathematical model was developed to further understand the mechanisms of water and SO2 transport, and to predict the effect of operating and design parameters on electrolyzer performance.

  13. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinity, Joel D.; Pahnke, Matthew D.; Trombold, Justin R.; Coyle, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. PMID:24667134

  14. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Trinity

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12. Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat.

  15. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Antoniou, I.; Dahlberg, J.A. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  16. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    the paper describes how the net energy gain from a complete typical window can be increased in a fairly simple way by reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content. The changes primary increase the g-value. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  17. Performance evaluation of space solar Brayton cycle power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zheng-Gang

    1992-06-01

    Unlike gas turbine power systems which consume chemical or nuclear energy, the energy consumption and/or cycle efficiency should not be a suitable criterion for evaluating the performance of space solar Brayton cycle power. A new design goal, life cycle cost, can combine all the power system characteristics, such as mass, area, and station-keeping propellant, into a unified criterion. Effects of pressure ratio, recuperator effectiveness, and compressor inlet temperature on life cycle cost were examined. This method would aid in making design choices for a space power system.

  18. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination performance, but results suggest a better verbal memory performance associated with high estrogen levels; short term memory performance didn’t show to be sensitive to fluctuations in estrogen levels.

  19. Performance Characteristics of Absorption Hybrid Cycle Introduced Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Kotani, Yuji; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle which introduced the compressor in the absorption cycle were proposed. As basic cycle of absorption refrigerating machine, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and two kinds of double effect absorption refrigerating machine. As a working medium-absorbent system, NH3-H2O system, C2H5NH2-H2O system and C2H5NH2-H2O-LiBr system were adopted. Using these three kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  20. [Sports performance of women during the menstrual cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaroli, G

    1980-11-30

    Sports woman performance during menstrual cycle has been examined by many Authors, but the comparison of performance during all menstrual cycle has been less examined. The results of a research carried out on a group of 40 women attending the Parallel Courses' of Verona, of ISEF of Bologna, are illustrated. The conclusion of this research are: a less sporting efficiency in the premenstrual period, a normal or almost normal efficiency in the other period, including the menstrual one as well.

  1. Quantum Performance of Thermal Machines over Many Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; Talkner, Peter; del Campo, Adolfo

    2017-02-01

    The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.

  2. The Performance of CSAM SAM when Cycle Length is extended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to verify validation of that, CPC Axial Power Distribution is compared with Axial Power Distribution based on ICI every week. The difference between CPC Axial Power Distribution and Axial Power Distribution based on ICI increases according as fuels are burned. It is called CPC Axial Power Distribution Root Mean Square Error (CPC RMS Error). SAM and calibration of ex-core detector are important factors influencing the magnitude of the difference. According to vendor, the difference is limited by 8%. Otherwise, CPC penalty increases as many as difference increase. Therefore, KHNP developed Constrained Simulated Annealing Method (CSAM), which has better performance than that of Least Square Method (LSM), to calculate SAM constant. The CSA SAM contributed largely to maintain CPC operating margin. Somewhat, KHNP is developing the technology to be able to operate nuclear power plants for 24 month to optimize their efficiency. This paper shows trends of CPC RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation. Trends are based on data of a few OPR1000s under operation. It is data of OPR1000s that CSA SAM is applied. KHNP is developing the technology to extend operation cycle length in order to optimize the operation efficiency of OPR1000. To verify effect of extended operation cycle length on CPC, CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation was expected using operation data of six cycles in OPR1000. In cases that CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error exceeds threshold, operation margin is decreased due to CPC penalty. To prevent CPC operation margin from being decreased, improved method to calculate SAM or to calibrate ex-core detector is required. KHNP will consider the way to maintain CPC operation margin along with 24 month operation technology development, hereafter.

  3. Innovative predictive maintenance concepts to improve life cycle management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.

    2014-01-01

    For naval systems with typically long service lives, high sustainment costs and strict availability requirements, an effective and efficient life cycle management process is very important. In this paper four approaches are discussed to improve that process: physics of failure based predictive maint

  4. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test

    OpenAIRE

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer...

  5. Improving the quality of care for patients with hypertension in Moshupa District, Botswana: Quality improvement cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Kande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no prevalence studies on hypertension in Botswana, this condition is thought to be common and the quality of care to be poor.Aim: The aim of this project was to assess and improve the quality of primary care forhypertension.Setting: Moshupa clinic and catchment area, Botswana.Methods: Quality improvement cycle.Results: Two hundred participants were included in the audit. Sixty-eight per cent were women with a mean age of 55 years. In the baseline audit none of the target standards were met. During the re-audit six months later, six out of nine structural target standards, five out of 11 process target standards and one out of two outcome target standards were achieved. Statistically-significant improvement in performance (p < 0.05 was shown in 10 criteria although the target standard was not always met. In the re-audit, the target of achieving blood pressure control (< 140/90 in 70% of patients was achieved.Conclusion: The quality of care for hypertension was suboptimal in our setting. Simple interventions were designed and implemented to improve the quality of care. These interventions led to significant improvement in structural and process criteria. A corresponding significant improvement in the control of blood pressure was also seen.

  6. The Cycle Performance of a Hybrid Carbon Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sang-Chai; Jung, Ho-Young

    2016-02-01

    The behavior of a hybrid carbon battery is studied by using the Hg/Hg2SO4 reference electrode. The performance is confirmed in the discharge mode and a short-term cycle test. The capacities of the cell were 76.1, 60.3, 40.5, and 31.7 mAh at discharge currents of 150, 300, 600, and 900 mA, respectively. In the short-term cycle test, the capacity of the cell, 52.3 mAh at the first cycle, continuously increased to 66.7 mAh upon the fifth cycle (cut-off voltage 0.5 V in the deep cycle mode), indicating high feasibility of the hybrid carbon battery as a large-capacity energy storage system.

  7. Cycling in the heat: performance perspectives and cerebral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, L

    2010-10-01

    Cycling performances require periods with high power output and consequently large endogenous heat production. During cycling in temperate or cold climates, heat is mainly released from the skin to the surroundings via convection, whereas evaporative heat loss becomes the dominant or only mechanism for heat dissipation when the environmental temperature increases. Accordingly, large sweat rates are required, which may challenge the cyclists' electrolyte and water balance. Furthermore, the cooling capacity of the environment may become a limiting factor for the ability to maintain heat balance, for example during cycling in very humid climates or when cycling up-hill as the wind speed decreases and reduces the maximal rate of evaporative heat loss. Hyperthermia may in itself hamper performance, but especially in combination with dehydration it may deteriorate the cyclist's ability to maintain power output. Fatigue mechanisms involve cardiovascular stressing, but it also appears that factors within the central nervous system are of major importance for motor performance during such exercise. However, the influence of the environmental temperature on cycling performance appears to vary markedly depending on the course, the air humidity and the cyclist ability to avoid dehydration. If hyperthermia becomes a major issue, it will deteriorate performance, but as long as temperature and water balance can be established, the high air temperature may actually benefit performance because air density and air resistance will decrease and lower the power output required to maintain a given velocity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.2)O2 by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Xin, Huolin L; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M

    2015-09-14

    The present study aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  9. Effect of the Rotor Crank System on Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Simon A.; Hopker, James; Galbraith, Andrew; Coleman, Damian A.; Nevill, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1) completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON) or the novel Rotor (ROT) pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05). Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency). Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor ‘regulation point’ and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently. Key points The Rotor crank system does not improve gross efficiency in well-trained cyclists. The Rotor crank system has no measurable impact on laboratory 40.23-km time-trial performance. A 6-week period of familiarisation does not increase the effectiveness of the Rotor crank system. PMID:24150012

  10. Cycling in the heat: performance perspectives and cerebral challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Cycling performances require periods with high power output and consequently large endogenous heat production. During cycling in temperate or cold climates, heat is mainly released from the skin to the surroundings via convection, whereas evaporative heat loss becomes the dominant or only mechani...... and air resistance will decrease and lower the power output required to maintain a given velocity....... depending on the course, the air humidity and the cyclist ability to avoid dehydration. If hyperthermia becomes a major issue, it will deteriorate performance, but as long as temperature and water balance can be established, the high air temperature may actually benefit performance because air density...

  11. Chronic eccentric cycling improves quadriceps muscle structure and maximum cycling power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, C H; McDermott, W J; Elmer, S J; Martin, J C

    2014-06-01

    An interesting finding from eccentric exercise training interventions is the presence of muscle hypertrophy without changes in maximum concentric strength and/or power. The lack of improvements in concentric strength and/or power could be due to long lasting suppressive effects on muscle force production following eccentric training. Thus, improvements in concentric strength and/or power might not be detected until muscle tissue has recovered (e. g., several weeks post-training). We evaluated alterations in muscular structure (rectus-femoris, RF, and vastus lateralis, VL, thickness and pennation angles) and maximum concentric cycling power (Pmax) 1-week following 8-weeks of eccentric cycling training (2×/week; 5-10.5 min; 20-55% of Pmax). Pmax was assessed again at 8-weeks post-training. At 1 week post-training, RF and VL thickness increased by 24±4% and 13±2%, respectively, and RF and VL pennation angles increased by 31±4% and 13±1%, respectively (all Peccentric cycling can be a time-effective intervention for improving muscular structure and function in the lower body of healthy individuals. The larger Pmax increase detected at 8-weeks post-training implies that sufficient recovery might be necessary to fully detect changes in muscular power after eccentric cycling training.

  12. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Hudson, P; Edwards, B

    2010-08-01

    In an in vivo laboratory controlled study, 12 healthy male students cycled at self-chosen work-rates while listening to a program of six popular music tracks of different tempi. The program lasted about 25 min and was performed on three occasions--unknown to the participants, its tempo was normal, increased by 10% or decreased by 10%. Work done, distance covered and cadence were measured at the end of each track, as were heart rate and subjective measures of exertion, thermal comfort and how much the music was liked. Speeding up the music program increased distance covered/unit time, power and pedal cadence by 2.1%, 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively; slowing the program produced falls of 3.8%, 9.8% and 5.9%. Average heart rate changes were +0.1% (faster program) and -2.2% (slower program). Perceived exertion and how much the music was liked increased (faster program) by 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and decreased (slower program) by 3.6% and 35.4%. That is, healthy individuals performing submaximal exercise not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Implications of these findings for improving training regimens are discussed.

  13. Fuel Cycle Performance of Thermal Spectrum Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Todosow, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors may offer potential benefits, such as enhanced operational flexibility. However, it is vital to understand the holistic impact of small modular reactors on the nuclear fuel cycle and fuel cycle performance. The focus of this paper is on the fuel cycle impacts of light water small modular reactors in a once-through fuel cycle with low-enriched uranium fuel. A key objective of this paper is to describe preliminary reactor core physics and fuel cycle analyses conducted in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Options Campaign. Challenges with small modular reactors include: increased neutron leakage, fewer assemblies in the core (and therefore fewer degrees of freedom in the core design), complex enrichment and burnable absorber loadings, full power operation with inserted control rods, the potential for frequent load-following operation, and shortened core height. Each of these will impact the achievable discharge burn-up in the reactor and the fuel cycle performance. This paper summarizes the results of an expert elicitation focused on developing a list of the factors relevant to small modular reactor fuel, core, and operation that will impact fuel cycle performance. Preliminary scoping analyses were performed using a regulatory-grade reactor core simulator. The hypothetical light water small modular reactor considered in these preliminary scoping studies is a cartridge type one-batch core with 4.9% enrichment. Some core parameters, such as the size of the reactor and general assembly layout, are similar to an example small modular reactor concept from industry. The high-level issues identified and preliminary scoping calculations in this paper are intended to inform on potential fuel cycle impacts of one-batch thermal spectrum SMRs. In particular, this paper highlights the impact of increased neutron leakage and reduced number of batches on the achievable burn-up of the reactor. Fuel cycle performance

  14. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  15. Direction of Improvement for Licensing Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Yook, Dae Sik; Jeong, Seung Yeong; Jeong, Chan Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The final spent fuel management method has yet to be established, and the South Korean government is expected to decide on the final spent fuel management method under a national consensus. In particular, two methods of spent fuel management are under consideration: Direct disposal in base rock several hundred meters underground and recycling. The present study reviewed the direction of improvement of the regulatory system that can be applied when an advanced fuel cycle for recycling spent fuel is adopted as the final management method. For recycling to be adopted as the domestic final spent fuel management method, there remains the task of having to overcome the stumbling blocks of a national consensus and the Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning the Civil Use of Atomic Energy (Korea-US Atomic Energy Agreement). To resolve this and to construct and operate advanced fuel cycle facilities, it is necessary to establish an applicable legal system, which the present study reviewed. The results of the present study are expected to be used as the basic data in improving the legal system after the realization of advanced fuel cycles in the future. In addition, research on the development of technical standards and safety requirements for advanced fuel cycle facilities will continue to be necessary.

  16. Performance Enhancement Technology for the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'o, Tatsunori

    High efficiency refrigerator have been developed. For energy saving that is concerned with against global warming, performance enhancement of vapor compression refrigerator is required in field of air condition and refrigeration facility. In this paper, a review of recent performance enhancement technologies for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is presented. This review contains high performance cycles of large sized centrifugal chiller, small to middle sized chiller and packaged air conditioner. Moreover, researches and developments of the refrigeration cycle recovering throttling loss, applications of ejector to boost in compressor suction pressure and to recirculate vapor refrigerant in the evaporator for heat transfer enhancement, and applications of expander to employ expansion work for compression work, are reviewed.

  17. Effects of eccentric cycling and endurance training versus low cadence cycling and endurance training on muscle strength and cycling performance in trained individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Eidsheim, Hedda Øyeflaten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown a positive effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on performance in cycling. Still, few studies have investigated the effect of eccentric cycling (ECC) and low cadence cycling (LCC) on muscle strength and determinants of cycling performance. Aim: Compare the effect of concurrent ECC and endurance training with concurrent LCC and endurance training on strength development, muscle thickness, and cycling performance in trained...

  18. Nanosatellite Architectures for Improved Study of the Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Osaretin, I.; Cahoy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The need for low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that meet stringent performance requirements pervades the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. To address these challenges, we present nanosatellite constellation architectures that would profoundly improve both the performance and cost/risk/schedule profiles of NASA Earth and Space Science missions by leveraging recent technology advancements. As a key enabling element, we describe a scalable and mission-flexible 6U CubeSat-based self-organizing constellation architecture (the Distributed Observatory for Monitoring of Earth, henceforth "DOME") that will achieve state-of-the-art performance (and beyond) relative to current systems with respect to spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. A focus of this presentation is an assessment of the viability of a cross-linked CubeSat constellation with onboard propulsion systems for high-fidelity Earth and Space Science research. Such architecture could provide game-changing advances by reducing costs by at least an order of magnitude while increasing robustness to launch and sensor failures, allowing fast-track insertion of new technologies, and improving science performance. High-resolution passive microwave atmospheric sounding is an ideal sensing modality for nanosatellite implementation due to rapidly advancing microwave and millimeterwave receiver technology. The DOME constellation would nominally comprise 6U CubeSat Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (CMAS) satellites. Each CMAS satellite would host a complete 6U CubeSat atmospheric sounder, including a radiometer payload module with passive microwave receivers operating near atmospheric absorption lines near 60 and 183.31 GHz, and a spacecraft bus with attitude determination and control, avionics, power, cross-linked communications (spacecraft-to-spacecraft and spacecraft-to-ground), and propulsion systems. A

  19. A conceptual model for manufacturing performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Karim

    2009-07-01

    potential for managers and engineers to adopt the model in a wide range of manufacturing organisations.Originality/value: Traditional ways of checking product quality are different types of testing, inspection and screening out bad products after manufacturing them. In today’s manufacturing where product life cycle is very short, it is necessary to focus on not to manufacturing them first rather than screening out the bad ones. This study introduces, for the first time, the idea of relationship based advanced quality practices (AQP and suggests AQPs will enable manufacturers to develop reliable products and minimize the manufacturing anomalies. This paper explores some of the attributes of AQP capable of reducing manufacturing difficulties and improving manufacturing performances. The proposed conceptual model contributes to the existing knowledge base of quality practices and subsequently provides impetus and guidance towards increasing manufacturing performance.

  20. Effects of Priming and Pacing Strategy on Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics and Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Black, Matthew I; DiMenna, Fred J; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-05-01

    To assess whether combining prior "priming" exercise with an all-out pacing strategy is more effective at improving oxygen-uptake (VO2) kinetics and cycling performance than either intervention administered independently. Nine men completed target-work cycling performance trials using a self-paced or all-out pacing strategy with or without prior severe-intensity (70%Δ) priming exercise. Breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and cycling power output were measured during all trials. Compared with the self-paced unprimed control trial (22 ± 5 s), the VO2 mean response time (MRT) was shorter (VO2 kinetics were faster) with all-out pacing (17 ± 4 s) and priming (17 ± 3 s), with the lowest VO2 MRT observed when all-out pacing and priming were combined (15 ± 4 s) (P primed trials (P primed (93 ± 8 s) and all-out primed (92 ± 8 s) trials (P .05). These findings suggest that combining an all-out start with severe-intensity priming exercise additively improves VO2 MRT but not total O2 consumption and cycling performance since these were improved by a similar magnitude in both primed trials relative to the self-paced unprimed control condition. Therefore, these results support the use of priming exercise as a precompetition intervention to improve oxidative metabolism and performance during short-duration high-intensity cycling exercise, independent of the pacing strategy adopted.

  1. Performance evaluation of six homocysteine cycle enzymatic detection systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安崇文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of six homocysteine(Hcy)analysis systems.Methods This is a methodological evaluation study.We analyzed six cycle enzymatic systems,and their correlation and deviation compared with chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay(CMIA)from Abbott Architect plus i2000 system,Precision,accuracy,anti-interference and analytical

  2. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  3. Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

  4. Effective Parameters on Performance of Multipressure Combined Cycle Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Thamir K. Ibrahim; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    A parametric analysis is performed for numerous configurations of a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant, including single-pressure, double-pressure, triple-pressure, triple-pressure with reheat, and supplementary triple-pressure with reheat. The compression ratio of the gas turbine and the steam pressure of the steam turbine are taken as design parameters. The thermodynamic model was developed based on an existing MARAFIQ CCGT power plant and performance model code developed using t...

  5. The CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New front mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The New Front Mount was evaluated in component tests including stress, deflection/distortion and fatigue tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.1% in cruise sfc, 16% in compressor stall margin and 10% in compressor stator angle margin. The New Front Mount hardware successfully completed 35,000 simulated flight cycles endurance testing.

  6. Performance improvement. The American way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-02-15

    The role of a US-style 'improvement adviser' is to ensure chages are successfully implemented. They use coaching and facilitation to support project teams and are trained to overcome common obstacles. The advisers have advantages over traditional consultants, as they work with full inside knowledge of the organization and are there for the long-term.

  7. Improving Reading Performances through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of one hypnotic session on the reading improvement of high-risk college students with low aptitude scores and histories of failure in academic situations. The 27 students in the experimental group participated in a one-hour hypnosis session in which they were given a procedure to follow for…

  8. Potential Improvements of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of strong candidates for a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is subjected to a sodium water reaction, which can deteriorate the safety of a SFR. To prevent any hazards from sodium-water reaction, a SFR with the Brayton cycle using Helium or Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO2) as working fluids can be an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. As in a helium cycle, there has been an investigation to modify thermo-physical properties to increase the efficiency of the cycle and reduce the size of turbomachineries. Particularly, He-Xe or He-N2 binary mixture were successful to decrease the stages of turbomachines due to the increment of molecular weight of gas mixture than that of pure helium. Similar to the case of helium, CO2 has a potential to modify its thermo-physical properties by mixing with other gases. For instance, it was reported that critical point of CO2 can be shifted by mixing with different gases. Since, the efficiency of a S-CO2 cycle is limited to the critical point of CO2, the shift in critical point implies that there is a possibility of improving the cycle efficiency than the current design. This paper presents the results of a preliminary analysis to identify the effects of CO2 critical point modification on the Brayton cycle performance.

  9. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-29

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  10. Hydrogen Sorption Performance of Pure Magnesium during Continued Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.;

    1983-01-01

    pressures up to 2.0 MPa above equilibrium. Desorption was with a few exceptions done at 400°C at hydrogen pressures below 150 kPa. For practical application the hydrogen exchange may be limited to 75–90% of the complete metal to stoichiometric hydride reaction. A change of the macroscopic structure......Preliminary investigations of the hydrogen absorption - desorption by commercially pure magnesium powder under continuous operation show little or no reduction in hydrogen capacity up to 70 cycles and high temperature exposure exceeding 1200 h. Absorption was studied at 260°–425°C and hydrogen...... of the powder into a highly porous, sintered agglomerate did not reduce the hydrogen capacity or the reaction rate. Although this change in structure caused no deterioration of the cycling performance a further development may not be acceptable. For observation over a much larger number of cyclings a fully...

  11. Room for Improvement: Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gisela

    1989-01-01

    Describes a performance management approach to library personnel management that stresses communication, clarification of goals, and reinforcement of new practices and behaviors. Each phase of the evaluation process (preparation, rating, administrative review, appraisal interview, and follow-up) and special evaluations to be used in cases of…

  12. Benchmark for Strategic Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Annette

    1997-01-01

    Explains benchmarking, a total quality management tool used to measure and compare the work processes in a library with those in other libraries to increase library performance. Topics include the main groups of upper management, clients, and staff; critical success factors for each group; and benefits of benchmarking. (Author/LRW)

  13. The effects of resistance training on road cycling performance among highly trained cyclists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Linda M; Klau, Jennifer F; Casa, Douglas J; Kraemer, William J; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-02-01

    Highly trained cyclists may be hesitant to incorporate resistance training (RT) with their endurance training (ET) because of the mixed data regarding concurrent RT and ET (CT). The purpose of this review was to search the scientific body of literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CT on road cycling performance for highly trained cyclists. Key words (including cycling and strength training) were used to search relevant databases through September 2009 for literature related to CT. Randomized controlled trials were included if they scored > or =5 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: highly trained road cyclists (>7 h.wk or > 150 km.wk, with at least 6 months of training), outcome measure was cycling performance (time trial or time to exhaustion), and RT performed off-bike. Two of the 5 studies found no improvement in performance with CT, but these studies added RT on top of the athletes' existing ET. The 3 studies with improved cycling performance replaced a portion of the athletes' ET with RT, and 2 of the 3 studies included high-intensity explosive-type resistance exercises. Despite the limited research on CT for highly trained cyclists, it is likely that replacing a portion of a cyclist's ET with RT will result in improved time trial performance and maximal power.

  14. The influence of body position on maximal performance in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, E; Clijsen, L P

    1990-01-01

    Six healthy male subjects performed a 3-min supramaximal test in four different cycling positions: two with different trunk angles and two with different saddle-tube angles. Maximal power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured. Maximal power output was significantly higher in a standard sitting (SS, 381 W, SD 49) upright position compared to all other positions: standard racing (SR, 364 W, SD 49), recumbent backwards (RB, 355 W, SD 44) and recumbent forwards (RF, 341 W, SD 54). Although VO2max was also highest in SS (4.31 l.min-1, SD 0.5) upright position, the differences in VO2max were not significant (SR, 4.2 l.min-1, SD 0.53; RB, 4.17 l.min-1, SD 0.58; RF, 4.11 l.min-1, SD 0.66). It is concluded that (supra)maximal tests on a cycle ergometer should be performed in a sitting upright position and not in a racing position. In some cases when cycling on the road, higher speeds can be attained when sitting upright. This is especially true when cycling uphill when high power must be generated to overcome gravity but the road speed, and hence the power required to overcome air resistance, is relatively low.

  15. Optimum performance of explosives in a quasistatic detonation cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ernest L.; Stiel, Leonard I.

    2017-01-01

    Analyses were conducted on the behavior of explosives in a quasistatic detonation cycle. This type of cycle has been proposed for the determination of the maximum work that can be performed by the explosive. The Jaguar thermochemical equilibrium program enabled the direct analyses of explosive performance at the various steps in the detonation cycle. In all cases the explosive is initially detonated to a point on the Hugoniot curve for the reaction products. The maximum useful work that can be obtained from the explosive is equal to the P-V work on the isentrope for expansion after detonation to atmospheric pressure, minus one-half the square of the particle velocity at the detonation point. This quantity is calculated form the internal energy of the explosive at the initial and final atmospheric temperatures. Cycle efficiencies (net work/ heat added) are also calculated with these procedures. For several explosives including TNT, RDX, and aluminized compositions, maximum work effects were established through the Jaguar calculations for Hugoniot points corresponding to C-J, overdriven, underdriven and constant volume detonations. Detonation to the C-J point is found to result in the maximum net work in all cases.

  16. Combination ultracapacitor-battery performance dependence on drive cycle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John M.; Deshpande, Uday [Maxwell Technologies, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Dougherty, Thomas J. [Monolith Engines, Inc., Waukesha, WI (United States); Bohn, Thedore P. [Argonne National Lab. (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Automotive performance and economy assessments are generally made using the UDDS, urban dynamometer drive schedule, to quantify vehicle attributes against a cycle representative of how individuals actually drive. But how does selection of drive cycle influence the sizing and efficiency of the ESS, energy storage system? In this paper three representative driving schedules are used to evaluate the energy storage system current demanded of the ultracapacitors in combination with the lithium-ion battery, but a simpler, more generic electric vehicle drive cycle is used to make the comparisons. The drive cycle current demand is then imposed on the hybridized battery to identify via multi-attribute characterization the trade-offs between ultracapacitor useable energy, voltage window and power electronic converter input current requirement. A value proposition is made that demonstrates that today, using the Maxwell Technologies dry electrode processing technique, Thi{sub c}kFLEX trademark, that energy optimized lithium-ion battery can be realized having substantial cost savings over conventional processing. This cost save in turn becomes the budget for the ultracapacitors and dc-dc converter used to decouple power and energy in the combination energy storage system. Our finding is the Maxwell electrode process enables the cost savings on lithium-ion needed to realize the combined ultracapacitor plus lithium-ion performance goals. (orig.)

  17. Development of a pressure gain combustor for improved cycle efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental research program attempting to improve the thermodynamic efficiencies of gas-turbine combustors. An elementary thermodynamic analysis shows that the thermodynamic cycle efficiencies of gas turbines can be significantly improved by using unsteady combustion that achieves quasi-constant-volume combustion. The ability to produce the so-called pressure gain via this process has already been demonstrated by others for pressures less than 3 atmospheres. This paper presents experimental results for pressures up to 11 atmospheres, compares certain process parameters to a numerical simulation, and briefly examines the problem of scale-up. Results of pollutant measurements over the 2--11 atmospheric range of operation are also included.

  18. Process improvement by cycle time reduction through Lean Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, R.; patan, Mahamed naveed khan; lakshmi pavan kumar, Mane; Purusothaman, M.; pitchai, S. Antony; Jegathish, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In present world, every customer needs their products to get on time with good quality. Presently every industry is striving to satisfy their customer requirements. An aviation concern trying to accomplish continuous improvement in all its projects. In this project the maintenance service for the customer is analyzed. The maintenance part service is split up into four levels. Out of it, three levels are done in service shops and the fourth level falls under customer’s privilege to change the parts in their aircraft engines at their location. An enhancement for electronics initial provisioning (eIP) is done for fourth level. Customers request service shops to get their requirements through Recommended Spare Parts List (RSPL) by eIP. To complete this RSPL for one customer, it takes 61.5 hours as a cycle time which is very high. By mapping current state VSM and takt time, future state improvement can be done in order to reduce cycle time using Lean tools such as Poke-Yoke, Jidoka, 5S, Muda etc.,

  19. Large-Scale Organizational Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Rudy; Young, Jonathan O'Donnell

    1999-01-01

    Describes the steps involved in a performance improvement program in the context of a large multinational corporation. Highlights include a training program for managers that explained performance improvement; performance matrices; divisionwide implementation, including strategic planning; organizationwide training of all personnel; and the…

  20. Physiological correlates to off-road cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Sassi, Aldo; Mognoni, Piero; Marcora, Samuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between maximal and submaximal tests for aerobic fitness and performance in an off-road cross-country circuit race. Thirteen competitive off-road male cyclists participated in the study. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, and lactate thresholds corresponding to 1 mmol x l(-1) above baseline (lactate threshold) and to 4 mmol x l(-1) (onset of blood lactate accumulation) were measured during an incremental cycling test. Race time and final ranking within the same group of cyclists were determined during a cross-country off-road competition. All correlations between the measured parameters of aerobic fitness and off-road cycling performance were significant, particularly between race time and physiological parameters scaled to body mass0.79 (r = -0.68 to -0.94; P road cyclists. Furthermore, our results suggest body size should be taken into account when evaluating such athletes.

  1. Performance evaluation of combined ejector LiBr/H2O absorption cooling cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sh. Majdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a computer simulation program to evaluate the performance of solar-assited combined ejector absorption (single-effect cooling system using LiBr/H2O as a working fluid and operating under steady-state conditions. The ejector possess no moving parts and is simple and reliable, which makes it attractive for combination with single-stage absorption cycle for further improvement to the system's performance. In this research, improvement to the system is achieved by utilizing the potential kinetic energy of the ejector to enhance refrigeration efficiency. The effects of the entrainment ratio of the ejector, operating temperature, on the thermal loads, and system performance have been investigated. The results showed that the evaporator and condenser loads, post-addition of the ejector, is found to be permanently higher than that in the basic cycle, which indicates a significant enhancement of the proposed cycle and the cooling capacity of the system increasing with the increase in evaporator temperature and entrainment ratio. The COP of the modified cycle is improved by up to 60 % compared with that of the basic cycle at the given condition. This process stabilizes the refrigeration system, enhanced its function, and enabled the system to work under higher condenser temperatures.

  2. Performance improvement CME: managing chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Scott M

    2010-12-01

    Performance Improvement CME (PI CME) is an educational activity in which clinicians retrospectively assess their current clinical practice, choose areas for improvement and implement interventions based on treatment guidelines and health care standards, and then re-evaluate their clinical practice to assess the improvements made. This PI CME activity focuses on improving the safety and efficacy of treating chronic pain with opioid medications.

  3. On the coupled system performance of transcritical CO2 heat pump and rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Tian, Jingrui; Hou, Xiujuan

    2013-12-01

    As one of the natural refrigerants, CO2 is a potential substitute for synthesized refrigerants with favorable environmental properties. In order to improve the performance of rankine cycle (RankC), the coupled system cycle (CSC) was designed and the performance was analyzed in this paper, which the CSC is combined by the RankC and the transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle with an expander. Based on thermodynamic principles, the performance analysis platform was designed and the performance analysis was employed. The results show that the average efficiency of the RankC is about 30 %, and the extraction cycle is about 32 %, while the CSC is about 39 %, and the last one is better than the others at the same parameters. With increasing of the boiler feed water temperature, the efficiencies of the three kinds of cycles show increasing trend. With increasing of pressure in conderser-evaporator or outlet temperature of gas cooler, the efficiency of the CSC shows a downward trend. Some fundamental data were obtained for increasing the RankC efficiency by waste heat recovery, and play an active role in improvement the efficiency of power plants.

  4. Jet engine performance enhancement through use of a wave-rotor topping cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model is used to calculate the thermal efficiency and specific power of simple jet engines and jet engines with a wave-rotor topping cycle. The performance of the wave rotor is based on measurements from a previous experiment. Applied to the case of an aircraft flying at Mach 0.8, the calculations show that an engine with a wave rotor topping cycle may have gains in thermal efficiency of approximately 1 to 2 percent and gains in specific power of approximately 10 to 16 percent over a simple jet engine with the same overall compression ratio. Even greater gains are possible if the wave rotor's performance can be improved.

  5. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  6. Improved cycling and rate performance of Sm-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode materials for 5 V lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Mingyue [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hui, K.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Xiaoting; Guo, Junsheng; Ye, Chengcong; Li, Aiju [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Nanqian; Huang, Zhenze; Jiang, Jianhui; Liang, Jingzhi [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Hongyu, E-mail: hychen1234@163.com [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Base of Production, Education and Research on Energy Storage and Power Battery of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Spinel powders of Sm-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Sm{sub x}Mn{sub 1.5−x}O{sub 4} with different Sm contents (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) have been synthesized by a gelatin-assisted solid-state method. The structural and electrochemical properties of the electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The partial substitution of Sm{sup 3+} for Mn{sup 3+} in LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter and unit cell volumes, resulting in an improvement of structural stability, enhance the electronic conductivity and diminish the polarization and the charge transfer resistance. As a result, the cyclic ability at 25 °C performances and rate performances of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} electrode materials are significantly improved with the increasing Sm addition, compared to the pristine LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}, though high doping gives rise to a small reduction of the initial discharge capacity.

  7. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  8. Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Mujika, I

    2014-08-01

    Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness.

  9. Methodologies to improve product life cycle decision making in the telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Carl Dennis

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. As pressure from regulation and customers increases on telecommunications equipment manufacturers and service providers to reduce the hazardous material content of telecommunications products and generally improve environmental performance, new methods for Product Life Cycle Management are required. Supplier and component environmental evaluation are vital and fundamental elements of any Prod...

  10. Effects of heavy strength training on performance determinants and performance in cycling and running

    OpenAIRE

    Vikmoen, Olav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents data from one large research project resulting in four research papers. The main aim of the project was to examine the effects of adding heavy strength training to female endurance athletes’ normal endurance training on performance in cycling and running, factors affecting performance, and possible mechanisms behind changes in performance and performance determinants. The secondary aim of the thesis was to compare strength related adaptations after a streng...

  11. Energy and exergy performance investigation of transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XinRong; LI XiaoJuan

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive performance evaluation of a solar assisted transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle system is made with exergy analysis method.The actual thermal data taken from the all-day experiment of the system are utilized to determine energy transfer and the exergy destructions in each component of the system.In addition,a hypothetical carbon dioxide expansion turbine is introduced,then two thermodynamic models for solar transcritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycles with a throttling valve (experiment) and with an expansion turbine have been established with exergy analysis method.The obtained results clearly show that solar collector contributes the largest share to system irreversibility and entropy generation in the all-day working state,and the exergy improvement potential of solar collector is the maximum in the working state.So this component should be the optimization design focus to improve system exergy effectiveness.For the cycle with the turbine,the energy efficiency and the entropy generation are not much higher than the cycle with throttling valve,but the exergy efficiency of the cycle with turbine is twice of the cycle with throttling valve.It provides more guidance when the transcritical CO2-based Rankine system is in a large-scale solar application.

  12. Simulated single-cycle kinetics improves the design of surface plasmon resonance assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, William; Di Primo, Carmelo

    2013-09-30

    Instruments based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle are widely used to monitor in real time molecular interactions between a partner, immobilized on a sensor chip surface and another one injected in a continuous flow of buffer. In a classical SPR experiment, several cycles of binding and regeneration of the surface are performed in order to determine the rate and the equilibrium constants of the reaction. In 2006, Karlsson and co-workers introduced a new method named single-cycle kinetics (SCK) to perform SPR assays. The method consists in injecting sequentially increasing concentrations of the partner in solution, with only one regeneration step performed at the end of the complete binding cycle. A 10 base-pair DNA duplex was characterized kinetically to show how simulated sensorgrams generated by the BiaEvaluation software provided by Biacore™ could really improve the design of SPR assays performed with the SCK method. The DNA duplex was investigated at three temperatures, 10, 20 and 30 °C, to analyze fast and slow rate constants. The results show that after a short obligatory preliminary experiment, simulations provide users with the best experimental conditions to be used, in particular, the maximum concentration used to reach saturation, the dilution factor for the serial dilutions of the sample injected and the duration of the dissociation and association phases. The use of simulated single-cycle kinetics saves time and reduces sample consumption. Simulations can also be used to design SPR experiments with ternary complexes.

  13. Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

  14. Method for controlling start-up and steady state performance of a closed split flow recompression brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, James Jay

    2017-02-07

    A method of resolving a balanced condition that generates control parameters for start-up and steady state operating points and various component and cycle performances for a closed split flow recompression cycle system. The method provides for improved control of a Brayton cycle thermal to electrical power conversion system. The method may also be used for system design, operational simulation and/or parameter prediction.

  15. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  16. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55°C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35°C to 7°C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating-condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35°C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0m3/htonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling potentials being evaporation at low temperatures yet high recovery ratio makes the cycle suitable for effectively and efficiently handling highly concentrated feed water such as produced water, brine rejected from other desalination plants and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Peer groups and operational cycle enhancements to the performance indicator report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Vanden Heuvel, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods.

  18. Carbohydrates, Muscle Glycogen, and Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. Mike

    1987-01-01

    One way to improve athletic performance without harming the athlete's health is diet manipulation. This article explores the relationship between muscular endurance and muscle glycogen and discusses a diet and training approach to competition. (Author/MT)

  19. Physiological and biomechanical factors associated with elite endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Feltner, M E; Kautz, S A; Hamilton, M T; Montain, S J; Baylor, A M; Abraham, L D; Petrek, G W

    1991-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the physiological and biomechanical responses of "elite-national class" (i.e., group 1; N = 9) and "good-state class" (i.e., group 2; N = 6) cyclists while they simulated a 40 km time-trial in the laboratory by cycling on an ergometer for 1 h at their highest power output. Actual road racing 40 km time-trial performance was highly correlated with average absolute power during the 1 h laboratory performance test (r = -0.88; P less than 0.001). In turn, 1 h power output was related to each cyclists' VO2 at the blood lactate threshold (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Group 1 was not different from group 2 regarding VO2max (approximately 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 5.01 l.min-1) or lean body weight. However, group 1 bicycled 40 km on the road 10% faster than group 2 (P less than 0.05; 54 vs 60 min). Additionally, group 1 was able to generate 11% more power during the 1 h performance test than group 2 (P less than 0.05), and they averaged 90 +/- 1% VO2max compared with 86 +/- 2% VO2max in group 2 (P = 0.06). The higher performance power output of group 1 was produced primarily by generating higher peak torques about the center of the crank by applying larger vertical forces to the crank arm during the cycling downstroke. Compared with group 2, group 1 also produced higher peak torques and vertical forces during the downstroke even when cycling at the same absolute work rate as group 2. Factors possibly contributing to the ability of group 1 to produce higher "downstroke power" are a greater percentage of Type I muscle fibers (P less than 0.05) and a 23% greater (P less than 0.05) muscle capillary density compared with group 2. We have also observed a strong relationship between years of endurance training and percent Type I muscle fibers (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001). It appears that "elite-national class" cyclists have the ability to generate higher "downstroke power", possibly as a result of muscular adaptations stimulated by more years of endurance

  20. Double Girder Bridge Crane with Double Cycling: Scheduling Strategy and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel quay crane design, double girder bridge crane (DGBC. DGBC is capable of handling containers of two adjacent bays simultaneously, avoiding crane collisions, saving travelling and reposition cost, and eventually improving terminal efficiency. This problem is formulated as a resource-constrained project scheduling with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed in which an operating sequences on each bay is obtained by double cycling, and the integrated timetable for both bays is constructed by solving resource conflicts using the proposed minimum cost strategy. We examine effectiveness and performance of applying DGBC with double cycling. A case study is presented to illustrate how DGBC works with the two-stage method. Three extreme cases with respective conflict types are investigated to develop the performance bounds of DGBC with double cycling. The results show that DGBC can significantly improve terminal productivity, and outperforms single girder crane in both makespan and the lift operation percentage. The highest DGBC efficiency does not require maximum double cycles in two bay schedules; rather the integrated timetable for two bays is the main contribution to the DGBC performance as it yields better cooperation between two spreaders and the driver.

  1. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  2. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  3. An Adaptive Middleware for Improved Computational Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal

    , we are improving computational performance by exploiting modern hardware features, such as dynamic voltage-frequency scaling and transactional memory. Adapting software is an iterative process, requiring that we continually revisit it to meet new requirements or realities; a time consuming process......The performance improvements in computer systems over the past 60 years have been fueled by an exponential increase in energy efficiency. In recent years, the phenomenon known as the end of Dennard’s scaling has slowed energy efficiency improvements — but improving computer energy efficiency...... is more important now than ever. Traditionally, most improvements in computer energy efficiency have come from improvements in lithography — the ability to produce smaller transistors — and computer architecture - the ability to apply those transistors efficiently. Since the end of scaling, we have seen...

  4. Methods to Improve Meat Performance on Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan P.; Xu B.Z.; Yang B,H.

    2005-01-01

    To compare the quality of yak meat with that of other livestock, the growth and development of yak from birth to 48-month old were measured, slaughter tests of 6-, 24-, 48-month old were made. It can improve meat performance on yak to crossbreed with beef cattle or wild yak, to improve traditional feeding and management, etc.

  5. Can FES-augmented active cycling training improve locomotion in post-acute elderly stroke patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Peri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy. The intervention consisted of fifteen 30-minutes sessions carried out within 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after training, through functional scales, gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy group. Sixteen patients completed the training. After treatment, a general improvement of all clinical scales was obtained for both groups. Only the mechanical efficiency highlighted a group effect in favor of the experimental group. Although a group effect was not found for any other cycling or gait parameters, the experimental group showed a higher percentage of change with respect to the control group (e.g. the gait velocity was improved of 35.4% and 25.4% respectively, and its variation over time was higher than minimal clinical difference for the experimental group only. This trend suggests that differences in terms of motor recovery between the two groups may be achieved increasing the training dose. In conclusion, this study, although preliminary, showed that FES-augmented active cycling training seems to be effective in improving cycling and walking ability in post-acute elderly stroke patients. A higher sample size is required to confirm results.

  6. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  7. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle that employs internal heat recovery between the evaporator and the condenser, utilizing an encapsulated evaporator-condenser unit for effective heat transfer. A simulation model has been developed based on the actual sorption characteristics of the adsorbent-adsorbate pair, energy and mass balances applied to the components of the AD cycle. With an integrated design, the temperature in the evaporator and the vapor pressurization of the adsorber are raised due to the direct heat recovery from the condenser, resulting in the higher water production rates, typically improved by as much as three folds of the conventional AD cycle. In addition, the integrated design eliminates two pumps, namely, the condenser cooling water and the chilled water pumps, lowering the overall electricity consumption. The performance of the cycle is analyzed at assorted heat source and cooling water temperatures, and different cycle times as well as the transient heat transfer coefficients of the evaporation and condensation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  9. Single-leg cycle training is superior to double-leg cycling in improving the oxidative potential and metabolic profile of trained skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Laursen, Paul B; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Martin, David T; Hawley, John A; Fatehee, Naeem N; Martin, James C

    2011-05-01

    Single-leg cycling may enhance the peripheral adaptations of skeletal muscle to a greater extent than double-leg cycling. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of 3 wk of high-intensity single- and double-leg cycle training on markers of oxidative potential and muscle metabolism and exercise performance. In a crossover design, nine trained cyclists (78 ± 7 kg body wt, 59 ± 5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) maximal O(2) consumption) performed an incremental cycling test and a 16-km cycling time trial before and after 3 wk of double-leg and counterweighted single-leg cycle training (2 training sessions per week). Training involved three (double) or six (single) maximal 4-min intervals with 6 min of recovery. Mean power output during the single-leg intervals was more than half that during the double-leg intervals (198 ± 29 vs. 344 ± 38 W, P training-induced increase in Thr(172)-phosphorylated 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α-subunit for both groups (P Training-induced improvements in maximal O(2) consumption (3.9 ± 6.2% vs. 0.6 ± 3.6%) and time-trial performance (1.3 ± 0.5% vs. 2.3 ± 4.2%) were similar following both interventions. We conclude that short-term high-intensity single-leg cycle training can elicit greater enhancement in the metabolic and oxidative potential of skeletal muscle than traditional double-leg cycling. Single-leg cycling may therefore provide a valuable training stimulus for trained and clinical populations.

  10. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    For silicon nanowires (Si NWs) to be used as a successful high capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling stability are required. Here we show that a conductive polymer surface coating on the Si NWs improves cycling stability; coating with PEDOT causes the capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles to increase from 30% to 80% over bare NWs. The improvement in cycling stability is attributed to the conductive coating maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cycled Si material, along with preserving electrical connections between NWs that would otherwise have become electrically isolated during volume changes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Assessing environmental performance by combining life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new analytical tool, called COMPLIMENT, which can be used to provide detailed information on the overall environmental impact of a business. COMPLIMENT integrates parts of tools such as life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators. It avoids di

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIORHYTHM (PHYSICAL CYCLE AND SPORTS PERFORMANCE IN WOMEN'S BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiee Shahram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Despite many researches that have been done in the field of biorhythm and due to lack of single view among scholars, as well as importance of forecasting of athletes’ performance to improve their results, the purpose of this study is to determine relationship between biorhythm (physical cycle and sports performance of Iranian Super League women basketball players. Material : This is a descriptive-correlational study. Statistical population was women basketball players in 1394-95 women's Super League and the statistical sample included all of the players of the teams, qualified as semi-finalists (44 players. The tool, used in this research, was athletes’ performance questionnaire (Charbonneau, 2001 containing five questions by a Likert scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent points. Biorhythm software and descriptive tests and also inferential statistical test including Chi-Square, independent T-test and one way ANOVA at significance level of (a<0.05 in SPSS software were used for analyzing the collected data. Results: results showed that there was no significant relationship between physical energy and performance of athletes (p = 0.85. Also the results of one way ANOVA test showed that there was no significant difference between performance of athletes at three levels (positive, negative and critical and physical cycle (p = 0.96. The value of Chi-Square was equal to 2.63 that showed there was no significant relationship between different levels of physical cycle and the results (win or lose of match (p = 0.026. Conclusion : The results of this study revealed that physical performance did not depend on 23-day cycle, stated in the Biorhythm theory, and there was no evidence proving existence of these cycles. It can be concluded that there is no justifying reason to use the Biorhythm software in hard exercises.

  13. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas [Dominican Univ., River Forest, IL (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gulley, Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The cycling of high-capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries results in significant volumetric expansion and contraction, and this leads to mechanical failure of the electrodes. To increase battery performance and reliability, there is a drive towards the use of nanostructured electrode materials and nanoscale surface coatings. As a part of the Visiting Faculty Program (VFP) last summer, we examined the ability of aluminum oxide and gold film surface coatings to improve the mechanical and cycling properties of vapor-deposited aluminum films in lithium-ion batteries. Nanoscale gold coatings resulted in significantly improved cycling behavior for the thinnest aluminum films whereas aluminum oxide coatings did not improve the cycling behavior of the aluminum films. This summer we performed a similar investigation on vapor-deposited germanium, which has an even higher theoretical capacity per unit mass than aluminum. Because the mechanism of lithium-alloying is different for each electrode material, we expected the effects of coating the germanium surface with aluminum oxide or gold to differ significantly from previous observations. Indeed, we found that gold coatings gave only small or negligible improvements in cycling behavior of germanium films, but aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coatings gave significant improvements in cycling over the range of film thicknesses tested.

  14. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg(-1) friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key pointsThe Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring.This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase.This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition.Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences.

  15. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team

  16. EFFECT OF THE ROTOR CRANK SYSTEM ON CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Jobson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1 completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON or the novel Rotor (ROT pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05. Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency. Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor 'regulation point' and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently

  17. Improvement of the COP of the LiBr-Water Double-Effect Absorption Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Atsushi

    Prevention of the global warming has called for a great necessity for energy saving. This applies to the improvement of the COP of absorption chiller-heaters. We started the development of the high efficiency gas-fired double-effect absorption chiller-heater using LiBr-H2O to achieve target performance in short or middle term. To maintain marketability, the volume of the high efficiency machine has been set below the equal to the conventional machine. The absorption cycle technology for improving the COP and the element technology for downsizing the machine is necessary in this development. In this study, the former is investigated. In this report, first of all the target performance has been set at cooling COP of 1.35(on HHV), which is 0.35 higher than the COP of 1.0 for conventional machines in the market. This COP of 1.35 is practically close to the maximum limit achievable by double-effect absorption chiller-heater. Next, the design condition of each element to achieve the target performance and the effect of each mean to improve the COP are investigated. Moreover, as a result of comparing the various flows(series, parallel, reverse)to which the each mean is applied, it has been found the optimum cycle is the parallel flow.

  18. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes.

  19. Performance improvement with patient service partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J P

    1998-01-01

    Once the decision is made to use a patient-focused care delivery system, a variety of methods can be used to successfully design the model. The author describes the process used by a multilevel, multidisciplinary team at a community hospital to design and implement a Service Partner role that would meet and exceed customer expectations. Demonstrated performance improvements included increased patient satisfaction, productive labor dollar savings, and improvements in the work environment for staff members.

  20. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  1. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Anez, Francisco [Maintenance Training Centre, TECNATOM, S.A, Avd. Montes de Oca, 1. 28709-San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); Agueero Agueero, Jorge [Technologic Institute, TECNATOM, S.A, Avd. Montes de Oca, 1. 28709-San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  2. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. Part I. Cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, P.; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko N.

    The capacity fade of Sony 18650 Li-ion cells increases with increase in temperature. After 800 cycles, the cells cycled at RT and 45 °C showed a capacity fade of 30 and 36%, respectively. The cell cycled at 55 °C showed a capacity loss of about 70% after 490 cycles. The rate capability of the cells continues to decrease with cycling. Impedance measurements showed an overall increase in the cell resistance with cycling and temperature. Impedance studies of the electrode materials showed an increased positive electrode resistance when compared to that of the negative electrode for cells cycled at RT and 45 °C. However, cells cycled at 50 and 55 °C exhibit higher negative electrode resistance. The increased capacity fade for the cells cycled at high temperatures can be explained by taking into account the repeated film formation over the surface of anode, which results in increased rate of lithium loss and also in a drastic increase in the negative electrode resistance with cycling.

  3. Effect of an Internal Heat Exchanger on Performance of the Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the internal heat exchanger (IHE on the performance of the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander is analyzed theoretically on the basis of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The possible parameters affecting system efficiency such as heat rejection pressure, gas cooler outlet temperature, evaporating temperature, expander isentropic efficiency and IHE effectiveness are investigated. It is found that the IHE addition in the carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander increases the specific cooling capacity and compression work, and decreases the optimum heat rejection pressure and the expander output power. An IHE addition does not always improve the system performance in the refrigeration cycle with an expander. The throttle valve cycle with IHE provides a 5.6% to 17% increase in maximum COP compared to that of the basic cycle. For the ideal expander cycle with IHE, the maximum COP is approximately 12.3% to 16.1% lower than the maximum COP of the cycle without IHE. Whether the energy efficiency of the cycle by IHE can be improved depends on the isentropic efficiency level of the expander. The use of IHE is only applicable in the cases of lower expander isentropic efficiencies or higher gas cooler exit temperatures for the refrigeration cycle with an expander from the view of energy efficiency.

  4. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pawlowski, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  5. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Hintzy, Frédéric Grappe, Alain Belli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis, in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg-1 friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal. Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint, maximal power (towards the middle, and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint. Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05 when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance.

  6. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve...... the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated...... by changing the solar heat input to the receiver. Compared with the steam Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle has an additional degree of freedom in terms of the ammonia mass fraction which can be varied in order to maximize the part-load efficiency of the cycle. The results include the part-load curves...

  7. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine...... bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve...... the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated...

  8. Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

  9. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...... in connection with parameter estimation. Next, a realistic framework for interference whitening is presented, allowing flexibility in the selection of whether interference is accounted for via a discrete or a Gaussian distribution. The approximate method of sphere detection and decoding is outlined and various...... suggestions for improvements are presented. In addition, methods for using generalized BP to perform approximate joint detection and decoding in systems with convolutional codes are outlined. One such method is a natural generalization of the traditional Turbo principle and a generalized Turbo principle can...

  10. Improved sensorimotor performance via stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Manjarrez, Elias; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Tapia, Jesus A; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2012-09-05

    Several studies about noise-enhanced balance control in humans support the hypothesis that stochastic resonance can enhance the detection and transmission in sensorimotor system during a motor task. The purpose of the present study was to extend these findings in a simpler and controlled task. We explored whether a particular level of a mechanical Gaussian noise (0-15 Hz) applied on the index finger can improve the performance during compensation for a static force generated by a manipulandum. The finger position was displayed on a monitor as a small white point in the center of a gray circle. We considered a good performance when the subjects exhibited a low deviation from the center of this circle and when the performance had less variation over time. Several levels of mechanical noise were applied on the manipulandum. We compared the performance between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high noise (HN). In all subjects (8 of 8) the data disclosed an inverted U-like graph between the inverse of the mean variation in position and the input noise level. In other words, the mean variation was significantly smaller during ON than during ZN or HN. The findings suggest that the application of a tactile-proprioceptive noise can improve the stability in sensorimotor performance via stochastic resonance. Possible explanations for this improvement in motor precision are an increase of the peripheral receptors sensitivity and of the internal stochastic resonance, causing a better sensorimotor integration and an increase in corticomuscular synchronization.

  11. Verbal communication improves laparoscopic team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiliang Chang; Waid, Erin; Martinec, Danny V; Bin Zheng; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2008-06-01

    The impact of verbal communication on laparoscopic team performance was examined. A total of 24 dyad teams, comprised of residents, medical students, and office staff, underwent 2 team tasks using a previously validated bench model. Twelve teams (feedback groups) received instant verbal instruction and feedback on their performance from an instructor which was compared with 12 teams (control groups) with minimal or no verbal feedback. Their performances were both video and audio taped for analysis. Surgical backgrounds were similar between feedback and control groups. Teams with more verbal feedback achieved significantly better task performance (P = .002) compared with the control group with less feedback. Impact of verbal feedback was more pronounced for tasks requiring team cooperation (aiming and navigation) than tasks depending on individual skills (knotting). Verbal communication, especially the instructions and feedback from an experienced instructor, improved team efficiency and performance.

  12. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  13. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel organic Rankine cycle layout, named the organic split-cycle, designed for utilization of low grade heat. The cycle is developed by implementing a simplified version of the split evaporation concept from the Kalina split-cycle in the organic Rankine cycle in order....../pentane mixture which, for the 90 °C hot fluid inlet temperature case, achieves a 14.5% higher net power output than an optimized organic Rankine cycle using the same mixture. Two parameter studies suggest that optimum conditions for the organic split-cycle are when the temperature profile allows the minimum...... pinch point temperature difference to be reached at two locations in the boiler. Compared to the transcritical organic Rankine cycle, the organic split-cycle improves the boiling process without an entailing increase in the boiler pressure, thus enabling an efficient low grade heat to power conversion...

  14. Performance of extraction kicker magnet in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Junichiro; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masao

    2009-07-01

    Installation of the kicker magnets in the extraction section of the rapid cycling synchrotron in the J-PARC facility has been completed. They succeeded in extracting the proton beam accelerated up to 3 GeV in the first commissioning with beam. The operation parameters of the kicker system agreed well with the parameters, which were estimated from the magnetic field measurement and the current test of each power supply. The distribution of the integrated magnetic field is flat enough to meet the beam requirements. The beam based measurement of the flattop of the magnetic field was performed with the beam position monitors. Although a ringing structure was observed, which exceeded the specified limit, the degree of the flattop distortion could be corrected by the timing adjustment of the output current. The stability of the power supply is on the order of ±0.2%, which is sufficient to achieve stable beam extraction. The rise time of the output current largely depends on the gas pressure in the thyratrons. Dependence of the rise time on the gas pressure was strictly measured and the number of unwanted prefires could be reduced.

  15. Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Leigh R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, “Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N’,N’-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.

  16. [Primary care for diabetic patients: a quality improvement cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Martínez, A; Suárez-Beke, M P; Sánchez-Nicolás, J A; Lázaro-Aragues, P; de Jesús Jiménez-Vázquez, E; Huertas-de Mora, O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the quality of medical care provided to diabetic patients following the standards proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The study was conducted in three phases by analyzing data from the computerized clinical history of a sample of 340 patients. First phase (2010): cross-sectional, descriptive study which assessed the proportion of patients who met the standards related to the screening of diabetes, and goals of control and treatment. Subsequently, health professionals reviewed the results in order to promote the implementation of corrective action. Finally (2012), a new assessment with the same standards was performed. An increase in the number of patients treated with insulin (12.7% in 2010 and 20.2% in 2012) was observed (P < .01). There were also percentage increases in the number of patients who met the screening standards as regards analytical determinations: glycosylated hemoglobin (from 44.4% to 68.2%), lipid profile (47.6%-73.8%), creatinine (32.5% - 73.5%), and albumin-creatinine ratio (9.2%-24.4%) (P < .001). Only 6.4% (CI: 3.2- 9.8) of diabetic patients attained the composite target of glycosylated hemoglobin < 7%, blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dl in 2012. This study shows that medical care has improved the goals related to analytical determinations and the number of insulin-treated diabetic type 2 patients. An optimal level was also maintained in metabolic control of diabetes, but there was still poor control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. How to Assess Performance in Cycling: the Multivariate Nature of Influencing Factors and Related Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Margherita eCastronovo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding an optimum for the cycling performance is not a trivial matter, since the literature shows the presence of many controversial aspects. In order to quantify different levels of performance, several indexes have been defined and used in many studies, reflecting variations in physiological and biomechanical factors. In particular, indexes such as Gross Efficiency (GE, Net Efficiency (NE and Delta Efficiency (DE have been referred to changes in metabolic efficiency (EffMet, while the Indexes of Effectiveness (IE, defined over the complete crank revolution or over part of it, have been referred to variations in mechanical effectiveness (EffMech. All these indicators quantify the variations of different factors (i.e. muscle fibers type distribution, pedaling cadence, setup of the bicycle frame, muscular fatigue, environmental variables, ergogenic aids, psychological traits, which, moreover, show high mutual correlation. In the attempt of assessing cycling performance, most studies in the literature keep all these factors separated. This may bring to misleading results, leaving unanswered the question of how to improve cycling performance. This work provides an overview on the studies involving indexes and factors usually related to performance monitoring and assessment in cycling. In particular, in order to clarify all those aspects, the mutual interactions among these factors are highlighted, in view of a global performance assessment. Moreover, a proposal is presented advocating for a model-based approach that considers all factors mentioned in the survey, including the mutual interaction effects, for the definition of an objective function E representing the overall effectiveness of a training program in terms of both metabolic efficiency and mechanical effectiveness.

  18. Dynamic high-cadence cycling improves motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eRidgel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD often have deficits in kinesthesia. There is a need for rehabilitation interventions that improve these kinesthetic deficits. Forced (tandem cycling at a high cadence improves motor function. However, tandem cycling is difficult to implement in a rehabilitation setting. Objective: To construct an instrumented, motored cycle and to examine if high cadence dynamic cycling promotes improvements in motor function. Method: This motored cycle had two different modes: dynamic and static cycling. In dynamic mode, the motor maintained 75-85 rpm. In static mode, the rider determined the pedaling cadence. UPDRS Motor III and Timed Up and Go (TUG were used to assess changes in motor function after three cycling sessions. Results: Individuals in the static group showed a lower cadence but a higher power, torque and heart rate than the dynamic group. UPDRS score showed a significant 13.9% improvement in the dynamic group and only a 0.9% improvement in the static group. There was also a 16.5% improvement in TUG time in the dynamic group but only an 8% improvement in the static group. Conclusion: These findings show that dynamic cycling can improve PD motor function and that activation of proprioceptors with a high cadence but variable pattern may be important for motor improvements in PD.

  19. Business cycles and the financial performance of fuel cell companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Schulich School of Business

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in a hydrogen powered world. They will provide power to homes, modes of transportation and appliances. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature, but it must be extracted in order to be usable. It can be produced from oil, natural gas and coal or from renewable sources such as biomass, thermal or nuclear reactions. Fuel cells running on hydrogen extracted from non renewable resources have an efficiency of 30 per cent, which is twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine. The greatest barrier to mass commercialization is the cost of making hydrogen-powered auto engines. Also, an infrastructure must be developed to refill hydrogen cars. One solution is to build a hydrogen highway using the existing natural gas grid to produce hydrogen and sell it at existing filling stations. The cost of building 12,000 refueling pumps in urban areas which will provide access to 70 per cent of America's population is estimated at $10 to $15 billion. This paper described the vector autoregression (VAR) model which empirically examines the relationship between financial performance of fuel cell companies and business cycles. It was used to measure how sensitive the financial performance of fuel cell companies are to changes in macroeconomic activity. A four variable VAR model was developed to examine the relationship between stock prices, oil prices and interest rates. It was shown that the stock prices of fuel cell companies are affected by shocks to technology stock prices and oil prices, with the former having a longer lasting impact. These results add to the growing literature that oil price movements are not as important as once thought. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increa

  1. Improving DNA vaccine performance through vector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines are a rapidly deployed next generation vaccination platform for treatment of human and animal disease. DNA delivery devices, such as electroporation and needle free jet injectors, are used to increase gene transfer. This results in higher antigen expression which correlates with improved humoral and cellular immunity in humans and animals. This review highlights recent vector and transgene design innovations that improve DNA vaccine performance. These new vectors improve antigen expression, increase plasmid manufacturing yield and quality in bioreactors, and eliminate antibiotic selection and other potential safety issues. A flowchart for designing synthetic antigen transgenes, combining antigen targeting, codon-optimization and bioinformatics, is presented. Application of improved vectors, of antibiotic free plasmid production, and cost effective manufacturing technologies will be critical to ensure safety, efficacy, and economically viable manufacturing of DNA vaccines currently under development for infectious disease, cancer, autoimmunity, immunotolerance and allergy indications.

  2. Effects of high-intensity intermittent priming on physiology and cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    The pre-event warm-up or "priming" routine for optimising cycling performance is not well-defined or uniform to a specific event. We aimed to determine the effects of varying the intensity of priming on 3 km cycling performance. Ten endurance-trained male cyclists completed four 3 km time-trials (TT) on four separate occasions, each preceded by a different priming strategy including "self-selected" priming and three intermittent priming strategies incorporating 10 min of constant-load cycling followed by 5 × 10 s bouts of varying relative intensity (100% and 150% of peak aerobic power, Wpeak, and all-out priming). The self-selected priming trial (379 ± 44 W) resulted in similar mean power during the 3 km TT to intermittent priming at 100% (376 ± 45 W; -0.7%; unclear) and 150% (374 ± 48 W; -1.5%, unclear) of Wpeak, but significantly greater than all-out priming (357 ± 45 W; -5.8%, almost certainly harmful). Differences between intermittent and self-selected priming existed with regards to heart rate (6.2% to 11.5%), blood lactate (-22.9% to 125%) and VO2 kinetics (-22.9% to 8.2%), but these were not related to performance outcomes. In conclusion, prescribed intermittent priming strategies varying in intensity did not substantially improve 3 km TT performance compared to self-selected priming.

  3. Improvement in safety and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries by employing quercetin as an electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu-Han; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2012-09-01

    Quercetin, an organic antioxidant, has been employed as an additive in lithium-ion cells to enhance the electrochemical performance to enhance the cycle life and the overcharging characteristics of LiPF6/EC + EMC + DMC (1 M) when used as an electrolyte. A LiCoO2/graphite full cell with 0.05% quercetin showed a significant improvement in safety associated with overcharging tolerance and thermal stability, without causing damage in C-rate capability, and even a small improvement in cycle life performance. The quercetin-containing lithium battery showed an improvement in its electrochemical properties with 92% capacity retention after 350 cycles from 2.8 to 4.3 V, at a rate of 1 C; compared to 85% capacity retention for a cell without quercetin operated under the same conditions. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results for the LiCoO2 cathode show that the addition of 0.05% quercetin provides a significant suppression in the impedance of the cell after 60 cycles. The improvement might result from the formation of a passivation microstructure (from quercetin oxidation) on the electrode's surface. The quercetin-containing batteries provided long term cycling and a high safety performance, making them a viable power source for applications involving electric devices with significant safety requirements.

  4. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenyi, Roberto; James, Stanley D.

    1994-03-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was tested as an additive to the negative electrodes and P2291-40/20, a radiation-grafted polyethylene film, as a separator used in conjunction with silver-treated cellophane. EPM's used as negative electrode additives and also as coatings for Celgard 2500 microporous polypropylene greatly improved cells. Cells with EPM's used as coatings for the negative electrodes failed rapidly because of an error in formulation. Cells with 10 percent bismuth oxide in the negative electrodes exhibited substantially lower capacity than the standard cells and were removed from the test. Cells with radiation-grafted polyethylene separators provided fewer cycles than the standard cells, with 5 percent higher capacity and 6 percent lower utilization of active materials by cycle 60. However, the slightly better capacity of these cells, realized due to the additional space available for active materials, does not compensate for their generally unimpressive performance.

  5. Improving performance via mini-applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2009-09-01

    Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

  6. Performances of Saft Lithium-Ion Cells in LEO Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevot D.

    2017-01-01

    The article will thus present the whole LEO cycling results available for the two cells, and will provide afterwards the correlation status of Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM with all the experimental data acquired.

  7. Compression Techniques for Improved Algorithm Computational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of thermal data requires the processing of large amounts of temporal image data. The processing of the data for quantitative information can be time intensive especially out in the field where large areas are inspected resulting in numerous data sets. By applying a temporal compression technique, improved algorithm performance can be obtained. In this study, analysis techniques are applied to compressed and non-compressed thermal data. A comparison is made based on computational speed and defect signal to noise.

  8. Preoperative cross functional teams improve OR performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Justin; van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; van Amelsvoort, Pierre; Gooszen, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of the introduction of cross-functional team (CFT)-based organization, rather than, on planning and performance of OR teams. In total, two surgical departments of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center (RUNMC) in the Netherlands were selected to illustrate the effect on performance. Data were available for a total of seven consecutive years from 2005 until 2012 and consisted of 4,046 OR days for surgical Department A and 1,154 OR days for surgical Department B on which, respectively 8,419 and 5,295 surgical cases were performed. The performance indicator "raw utilization" of the two surgical Departments was presented as box-and-whisker plots per year (2005-2011). The relationship between raw utilization (y) and years (x) was analyzed with linear regression analysis, to observe if performance changed over time. Based on the linear regression analysis, raw utilization of surgical Department A showed a statistically significant increase since 2006. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 33 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Surgical Department B showed that raw utilization increased since 2005. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 21 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Hospitals need to improve their productivity and efficiency in response to higher societal demands and rapidly escalating costs. The RUNMC increased their OR performance significantly by introduction of CFT-based organization in the operative process and abandoning the so called functional silos. The stepwise reduction of variation - a decrease of IQR during the years - indicates an organizational learning effect. This study demonstrates that introducing CFTs improve OR performance by working together as a team.

  9. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: a multi-scale assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Dolman, M.A.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Boer, de H.C.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Bouma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands

  10. Sputtering graphite coating to improve the elevated-temperature cycling ability of the LiMn2O4 electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiexi; Zhang, Qiaobao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Xu, Daguo; Zhang, Kaili

    2014-08-14

    To improve the cycle performance of LiMn2O4 at elevated temperature, a graphite layer is introduced to directly cover the surface of a commercial LiMn2O4-based electrode via room-temperature DC magnetron sputtering. The as-modified cathodes display improved capacity retention as compared to the bare LiMn2O4 cathode (BLMO) at 55 °C. When sputtering graphite for 30 min, the sample shows the best cycling performance at 55 °C, maintaining 96.2% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Reasons with respect to the graphite layer for improving the elevated-temperature performance of LiMn2O4 are systematically investigated via the methods of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the graphite coated LiMn2O4 cathode has much less increased electrode polarization and electrochemical impedance than BLMO during the elevated-temperature cycling process. Furthermore, the graphite layer is able to alleviate the severe dissolution of manganese ions into the electrolyte and mitigate the morphological and structural degradation of LiMn2O4 during cycling. A model for the electrochemical kinetics process is also suggested for explaining the roles of the graphite layer in suppressing the Mn dissolution.

  11. [Improved performance in endurance sports through acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Stefan; Benner, K

    2010-09-01

    In many years of experience in treating athletes with acupuncture, I often had the impression that athletes in endurance sports showed improved performances after such treatments. In order to scientifically verify these impressions, I performed a field test with three groups of runners of different performance levels preparing for a marathon. The first group was given acupuncture, the second a placebo, with the third being the control group. After their maximum pulse rates were recorded, the runners were asked to run 5000m four times in 4 weeks at 75 % of their maximum pulse rate. Their pulse rates were measured for each runner at the finish of the run, and subsequently, one, two and five minutes after the run. Based on these data, the complexity factor (running time multiplied by the respective pulse rate) was calculated for all four recorded pulse rates for each run and each runner. All groups showed statistically significant enhancements in their running times and their complexity factors, but in the case of the runners treated with acupuncture, the improvements were highly significant. Therefore, the field test proves that acupuncture has a significant impact on the performance of the athletes in endurance sports.

  12. Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Kelly, Steve [ArcelorMittal USA; Hou, Wenkao [ArcelorMittal USA; Yan, Benda [ArcelorMittal USA; Wang, Zhifeng [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Yu, Zhenzhen [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Liu, Stephen [Colorado School of Mines, Golden

    2015-03-01

    Reported herein is technical progress on a U.S. Department of Energy CRADA project with industry cost-share aimed at developing the technical basis and demonstrate the viability of innovative in-situ weld residual stresses mitigation technology that can substantially improve the weld fatigue performance and durability of auto-body structures. The developed technology would be costeffective and practical in high-volume vehicle production environment. Enhancing weld fatigue performance would address a critical technology gap that impedes the widespread use of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials for auto body structure light-weighting. This means that the automotive industry can take full advantage of the AHSS in strength, durability and crashworthiness without the concern of the relatively weak weld fatigue performance. The project comprises both technological innovations in weld residual stress mitigation and due-diligence residual stress measurement and fatigue performance evaluation. Two approaches were investigated. The first one was the use of low temperature phase transformation (LTPT) weld filler wire, and the second focused on novel thermo-mechanical stress management technique. Both technical approaches have resulted in considerable improvement in fatigue lives of welded joints made of high-strength steels. Synchrotron diffraction measurement confirmed the reduction of high tensile weld residual stresses by the two weld residual stress mitigation techniques.

  13. Effects of power variation on cycle performance during simulated hilly time-trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Marc S; Marwood, Simon

    2016-11-01

    It has previously been shown that cyclists are unable to maintain a constant power output during cycle time-trials on hilly courses. The purpose of the present study is therefore to quantify these effects of power variation using a mathematical model of cycling performance. A hypothetical cyclist (body mass: 70 kg, bicycle mass: 10 kg) was studied using a mathematical model of cycling, which included the effects of acceleration. Performance was modelled over three hypothetical 40-km courses, comprising repeated 2.5-km sections of uphill and downhill with gradients of 1%, 3%, and 6%, respectively. Amplitude (5-15%) and distance (0.31-20.00 km) of variation were modelled over a range of mean power outputs (200-600 W) and compared to sustaining a constant power. Power variation was typically detrimental to performance; these effects were augmented as the amplitude of variation and severity of gradient increased. Varying power every 1.25 km was most detrimental to performance; at a mean power of 200 W, performance was impaired by 43.90 s (±15% variation, 6% gradient). However at the steepest gradients, the effect of power variation was relatively independent of the distance of variation. In contrast, varying power in parallel with changes in gradient improved performance by 188.89 s (±15% variation, 6% gradient) at 200 W. The present data demonstrate that during hilly time-trials, power variation that does not occur in parallel with changes in gradient is detrimental to performance, especially at steeper gradients. These adverse effects are substantially larger than those previously observed during flat, windless time-trials.

  14. Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

  15. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  16. Effects of low- vs. high-cadence interval training on cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carl D; Hopkins, Will G; Cook, Christian

    2009-09-01

    High-resistance interval training produces substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance of cyclists in the competitive phase of a season. Here, we report the effect of changing the cadence of the intervals. We randomized 18 road cyclists to 2 groups for 4 weeks of training. Both groups replaced part of their usual training with 8 30-minute sessions consisting of sets of explosive single-leg jumps alternating with sets of high-intensity cycling sprints performed at either low cadence (60-70 min(-1)) or high cadence (110-120 min(-1)) on a training ergometer. Testosterone concentration was assayed in saliva samples collected before and after each session. Cycle ergometry before and after the intervention provided measures of performance (mean power in a 60-s time trial, incremental peak power, 4-mM lactate power) and physiologic indices of endurance performance (maximum oxygen uptake, exercise economy, fractional utilization of maximum oxygen uptake). Testosterone concentration in each session increased by 97% +/- 39% (mean +/- between-subject SD) in the low-cadence group but by only 62% +/- 23% in the high-cadence group. Performance in the low-cadence group improved more than in the high-cadence group, with mean differences of 2.5% (90% confidence limits, +/-4.8%) for 60-second mean power, 3.6% (+/-3.7%) for peak power, and 7.0% (+/-5.9%) for 4-mM lactate power. Maximum oxygen uptake showed a corresponding mean difference of 3.2% (+/-4.2%), but differences for other physiologic indices were unclear. Correlations between changes in performance and physiology were also unclear. Low-cadence interval training is probably more effective than high-cadence training in improving performance of well-trained competitive cyclists. The effects on performance may be related to training-associated effects on testosterone and to effects on maximum oxygen uptake.

  17. Improving Contract Performance by Corrective Actions Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.S., jr.

    2002-06-23

    Corrective Action Plans (CAPs) are required to be developed, submitted, and reported upon by the prime contractors for the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Management and Operations (M and O) contracts. The best known CAP ''type,'' and there are many, is for Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) ''potential noncompliances.'' The M and O contractor fines for PAAA problems have increased from approximately $100,000 in 1996 to almost $2,000,000 in 2000. In order to improve CAP performance at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) site at Y-12 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the contractor chose to centralize the company-wide processes of problem identification and reporting with the PAAA (and other) CAP processes. This directly integrates these functional reports to the contractor General Manager. The functions contained in the M and O contractor central organization, called ''Performance Assurance,'' are: PAAA; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Liaison; Contract Requirements Management; Issues Management (including the CAP processes); Lessons Learned; Independent and Management Assessments; Internal Audits; and Ethics. By centrally locating and managing these problem identification and problem correction functions, the contractor, BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., has improved PAAA (and other) CAP performance more than 200 percent in the first year of the contract. Much of this improvement (see Table 1 for examples) has been achieved by increasing the knowledge and experience of management and workers in the specific contract and company requirements for CAPs. The remainder of this paper will describe some of the many CAP processes at Y-12 to show the reader the non-trivial scope of the CAP process. Improvements in CAP management will be discussed. In addition, a specific recommendation for CAP management, in a major capital construction project, will be presented.

  18. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  19. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business.

  20. Mexican Bottom of Barrel Life Cycle environmental improvement proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Fernandez, Georgina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Growing economies have the dual challenge of economical and industrial growing, but in a sustainable way and with protection of Ecosystems, all prior requirements are a must that are either satisfied or Human Kind will suffer the irreparable loss of Earth Biosphere. Prospective studies show that for the period 1990-2010 the petroleum will be heavier and richer in sulphur. In order to make a more sustainable use of Mexican heavy petroleum the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil can be modified through the proposal of producing an activated carbon (CAFOB) from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and Mexican petroleum coke applied in the flue gases desulphuration, therefore, experimental activated carbon was made from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and petroleum coke and desulphuration adsorption tests of a synthetic flue gas mixture similar in composition to flue gases produced from the burning of Mexican heavy fuel oil were made. Commercial activated carbons were used as reference materials. The CAFOB180M experimental activated carbon showed a good desulphuration capacity compared to commercial activated carbon, showing its potentiality in the process of evolving the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil to a more sustainable one. (author)

  1. Improved dehydrogenation cycle performance of the 1.1MgH2-2LiNH2-0.1LiBH4 system by addition of LaNi4.5Mn0.5 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵汪; 蒋利军; 武媛方; 叶建华; 袁宝龙; 李志念; 刘晓鹏; 王树茂

    2015-01-01

    The isothermal desorption kinetics of the 1.1MgH2-2LiNH2-0.1LiBH4 system were improved by addition of LaNi4.5Mn0.5 alloy. The hydrogen desorption peak temperature of the sample containing LaNi4.5Mn0.5 reduced by approximately 5 K and the acti-vation energy reduced by 9%. The results of isothermal dehydrogenation kinetics analysis implied that the isothermal desorption process at initial stage was controlled by the phase boundary mechanism. Moreover, the cycle performance of the materials was ex-tended. The growth and agglomeration of the sample particles caused the deterioration of kinetics during de-/hydrogenation cycles, and then resulted in an incomplete desorption/absorption reaction which were responsible for the capacity fading. The cracking and pulverization of LaNi4.5Mn0.5 alloy had an obvious effect on preventing the composites aggregating, and the fine alloy particles could enhance the catalytic effect of the alloy, thus effectively offsetting part of the deterioration of kinetics caused by particles growth.

  2. Powers and efficiency performance of an endo-reversible Braysson cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junlin, Zheng; Lingen, Chen; Fengrui, Sun [Faculty 306, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan (China); Chih, Wu [U.S. Naval Academy, Mechanical Engineering, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Performance analysis of a Braysson cycle has been performed using entropy generation minimization or finite time thermodynamics. The analytical formula about power output and efficiency of an endo-reversible Braysson cycle with heat resistance losses in the hot and cold-side heat exchangers are derived. The influences of the design parameters on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. (authors)

  3. The optimal performance of a quantum refrigeration cycle working with harmonic oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Bi Hong; Hua Ben

    2003-01-01

    The cycle model of a quantum refrigeration cycle working with many non-interacting harmonic oscillators and consisting of two isothermal and two constant-frequency processes is established. Based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach, the general performance of the cycle is investigated. Expressions for some important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate, power input, and rate of the entropy production, are derived. Several interesting cases are discussed and, especially, the optimal performance of the cycle at high temperatures is discussed in detail. Some important characteristic curves of the cycle, such as the cooling rate versus coefficient of performance curves, the power input versus coefficient of performance curves, the cooling rate versus power input curves, and so on, are presented. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding coefficient of performance are calculated. Other optimal performances are also analysed. The results obtained here ...

  4. The Effect of Cycling Cadence on Subsequent 10km Running Performance in Well-Trained Triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tew, Garry A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax wh...

  5. Improvements in resist performance towards EUV HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Hoefnagels, Rik; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Wuister, Sander; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Oosten, Anton; Derks, Paul; Finders, Jo; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 13.5 nm wavelength is the main option for sub-10nm patterning in the semiconductor industry. We report improvements in resist performance towards EUV high volume manufacturing. A local CD uniformity (LCDU) model is introduced and validated with experimental contact hole (CH) data. Resist performance is analyzed in terms of ultimate printing resolution (R), line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity (S), exposure latitude (EL) and depth of focus (DOF). Resist performance of dense lines at 13 nm half-pitch and beyond is shown by chemical amplified resist (CAR) and non-CAR (Inpria YA Series) on NXE scanner. Resolution down to 10nm half pitch (hp) is shown by Inpria YA Series resist exposed on interference lithography at the Paul Sherrer Institute. Contact holes contrast and consequent LCDU improvement is achieved on a NXE:3400 scanner by decreasing the pupil fill ratio. State-of-the-art imaging meets 5nm node requirements for CHs. A dynamic gas lock (DGL) membrane is introduced between projection optics box (POB) and wafer stage. The DGL membrane will suppress the negative impact of resist outgassing on the projection optics by 100%, enabling a wider range of resist materials to be used. The validated LCDU model indicates that the imaging requirements of the 3nm node can be met with single exposure using a high-NA EUV scanner. The current status, trends, and potential roadblocks for EUV resists are discussed. Our results mark the progress and the improvement points in EUV resist materials to support EUV ecosystem.

  6. Performance analysis and optimization of a supercharged Miller cycle Otto engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih Wu; Puzinauskas, P.V. [US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tsai, J.S. [Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce, Ping Tung (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-04-01

    One of the major alternatives of the Otto cycle has been examined to determine its potential for increased efficiency and net work power in the spark ignited internal combustion engine is to shorten the compression process relative to the expansion process by early close or late of intake valve. The modified Otto cycle is called Miller cycle. This paper deals with the analysis of a supercharged Otto engine adopted for Miller cycle operation. The Miller cycle shows no efficiency advantage and suffers a penalty in power output in the normally aspirated version. In the supercharged Otto engine adopted for Miller cycle version, it has no efficiency advantage but does provide increased net work output with reduced propensity to engine knock problem. Sensitivity analysis of cycle efficiency versus early close of intake valve and that of cycle net work versus early close of intake valve are performed. Optimization on the cycle efficiency is obtained. (author)

  7. Influence of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Cycling Performance in Normoxia and Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Naranjo Orellana, José; Santalla, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on ventilatory efficiency, in normoxia and hypoxia, and to investigate the relationship between ventilatory efficiency and cycling performance. Sixteen sport students (23.05 ± 4.7 years; 175.11 ± 7.1 cm; 67.0 ± 19.4 kg; 46.4 ± 8.7 ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomly assigned to an inspiratory muscle training group (IMTG) and a control group (CG). The IMTG performed two training sessions/day [30 inspiratory breaths, 50% peak inspiratory pressure (Pimax), 5 days/week, 6-weeks]. Before and after the training period subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to exhaustion with gas analysis, lung function testing, and a cycling time trial test in hypoxia and normoxia. Simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 16.45%), significantly altered the ventilatory efficiency response in all subjects (p < 0.05). Pimax increased significantly in the IMTG whereas no changes occurred in the CG (time × group, p < 0.05). Within group analyses showed that the IMTG improved ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope; EqCO2VT2) in hypoxia (p < 0.05) and cycling time trial performance [WTTmax (W); WTTmean (W); PTF(W)] (p < 0.05) in hypoxia and normoxia. Significant correlations were not found in hypoxia nor normoxia found between ventilatory efficiency parameters (VE/VCO2 slope; LEqCO2; EqCO2VT2) and time trial performance. On the contrary the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) was highly correlated with cycling time trial performance (r = 0.89; r = 0.82; p < 0.001) under both conditions. Even though no interaction effect was found, the within group analysis may suggest that IMT reduces the negative effects of hypoxia on ventilatory efficiency. In addition, the data suggest that OUES plays an important role in submaximal cycling performance. PMID:28337149

  8. Improving construction performance through supply chain management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王要武; 薛小龙

    2004-01-01

    A typical model of construction supply chain (CSC) is presented firstly. Then the characteristics and problems of CSC are identified. The authors also describe the progress towards adoption of supply chain management (SCM) in the construction industry. Traditional construction management approaches (CMAs) are compared with new SCM-based CMAs. The authors suggest that integrated SCM based on cooperating competition is crucial to improve construction performance. Based on relevant results from related research, a framework for integrated construction supply chain management (CSCM) is developed to guide the effective implementation of SCM in construction.

  9. Improved Operating Performance of Mining Machine Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, S.; Li, A.; Kurzina, I.; Sushko, A.

    2016-08-01

    The reasons of low performance of mining machine picks are stated herein. In order to improve the wear resistance and the cutting ability of picks a new design of a cutting carbide tip insert to be fixed on a removable and rotating pick head is developed. Owing to the new design, the tool ensures a twofold increase in the cutting force maintained longer, a twofold reduction in the specific power consumption of the breaking process, and extended service life of picks and the possibility of their multiple use.

  10. Disease management as a performance improvement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, S

    2001-11-01

    Disease management is a strategy of organizing care and services for a patient population across the continuum. It is characterized by a population database, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and evidence-based clinical information. The effectiveness of a disease management program has been measured by a combination of clinical, financial, and quality of life outcomes. In early 1997, driven by a strategic planning process that established three Centers of Excellence (COE), we implemented disease management as the foundation for a new approach to performance improvement utilizing five key strategies. The five implementation strategies are outlined, in addition to a review of the key elements in outcome achievement.

  11. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of internal heat exchanger influence on CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigola, Joaquim; Ablanque, Nicolas; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Oliva, Assensi [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The present paper is a numerical and experimental comparative study of the whole vapour compression refrigerating cycle in general, and reciprocating compressors in particular, with the aim of showing the possibilities that CO{sub 2} offers for commercial refrigeration, considering a single-stage trans-critical cycle using semi-hermetic reciprocating compressors under small cooling capacity systems. The present work is focussed on the influence of using an internal heat exchanger (IHX) in order to improve the cycle performance under real working conditions. In order to validate the numerical results, an experimental unit specially designed and built to analyze trans-critical refrigerating equipments considering IHX has been built. Both numerical results and experimental data show reasonable good agreement, while the comparative global values conclude the improvement of cooling capacity and COP when IHX is considered in the CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle. (author)

  12. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, G.; Bruck, E.H.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performanc

  13. Improvement of Automotive Part Supplier Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmunee, Chalermkwan; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research investigates the problem of the part supplier performance evaluation in a major Japanese automotive plant in Thailand. Its current evaluation scheme is based on experiences and self-opinion of the evaluators. As a result, many poor performance suppliers are still considered as good suppliers and allow to supply parts to the plant without further improvement obligation. To alleviate this problem, the brainstorming session among stakeholders and evaluators are formally conducted. The result of which is the appropriate evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The analytical hierarchy process is also used to find suitable weights for each criteria and sub-criteria. The results show that a newly developed evaluation method is significantly better than the previous one in segregating between good and poor suppliers.

  14. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  15. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-04-19

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  16. Performance characteristic of a Stirling refrigeration cycle in micro/nano scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wenjie; He, Jizhou; Du, Jianqiang

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the performance characteristics of a Stirling refrigeration cycle in micro/nano scale, in which the working substance of cycle is an ideal Maxwellian gas. Due to the quantum boundary effect on the gas particles confined in the finite domain, the cycle no longer possesses the condition of perfect regeneration. The inherent regenerative losses, the refrigeration heat and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle are derived. It is found that, for the micro/nano scaled Stirling refrigeration cycle devices, the refrigeration heat and COP of cycle all depend on the surface area of the system (boundary of cycle) besides the temperature of the heat reservoirs, the volume of system and other parameters, while for the macro scaled refrigeration cycle devices, the refrigeration heat and COP of cycle are independent of the surface area of the system. Variations of the refrigeration heat ratio rR and the COP ratio rε with the temperature ratio τ and volume ratio rV for the different surface area ratio rA are examined, which reveals the influence of the boundary of cycle on the performance of a micro/nano scaled Stirling refrigeration cycle. The results are useful for designing of a micro/nano scaled Stirling cycle device and may conduce to confirming experimentally the quantum boundary effect in the micro/nano scaled devices.

  17. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi eMochida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer designed crops to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  18. Monitoring of the thermoeconomic performance in an actual combined cycle power plant bottoming cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafaro, S.; Napoli, L.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [DIMSET (TPG), University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a research project carried out by TPG (Thermochemical Power Group) of University of Genoa to develop innovative monitoring and diagnostics procedures and software tools for software-aided maintenance and customer support. This work is concerned with preliminary outcomes regarding the thermoeconomic monitoring of the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle power plant, using real historical data. The software is able to calculate functional exergy flows (y), their related costs (c) (using the plant functional diagram); after that non dimensional parameters for the characteristic exergonomic indexes ({delta}c, {delta}c*, {delta}k*) are determined. Through a plant optimization (not described here) the reference conditions of the plant at each operating condition can be determined. Then, non dimensional indexes related to each thermoeconomic parameter are defined, in order to depict a ''cost degradation'', and thus a significant rise in the production cost of the main products of the bottoming cycle (steam and power). The methodology developed has been successfully applied to historical logged data of an existing 400 MW power plant, showing the capabilities in estimating the ''cost degradation'' of the elements of the BC over the plant life, and trends in the thermoeconomic indexes. (author)

  19. SRF Performance of CEBAF After Thermal Cycle to Ambient Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Robert; Preble, Joseph P; Reece, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    In September 2003, in the wake of Hurricane Isabel, JLab was without power for four days after a tree fell on the main power lines feeding the site. This was long enough to lose insulating vacuum in the cryomodules and cryogenic systems resulting in the whole accelerator warming up and the total loss of the liquid helium inventory. This thermal cycle stressed many of the cryomodule components causing several cavities to become inoperable due to helium to vacuum leaks. At the same time the thermal cycle released years of adsorbed gas from the cold surfaces. Over the next days and weeks this gas was pumped away, the insulating vacuum was restored and the machine was cooled back down and re-commissioned. In a testament to the robustness of SRF technology, only a small loss in energy capability was apparent, although individual cavities had quite different field-emission characteristics compared to before the event. In Summer 2004 a section of the machine was again cycled to room temperature during the long maint...

  20. Strategies of dietary carbohydrate manipulation and their effects on performance in cycling time trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Oliveira, Carlos Rafaell; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Dal'Molin Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between carbohydrate (CHO) availability and exercise performance has been thoroughly discussed. CHO improves performance in both prolonged, low-intensity and short, high-intensity exercises. Most studies have focused on the effects of CHO supplementation on the performance of constant-load, time-to-exhaustion exercises. Nevertheless, in the last 20 years, there has been a consistent increase in research on the effects of different forms of CHO supplementation (e.g., diet manipulation, CHO supplementation before or during exercise) on performance during closed-loop exercises, such as cycling time trials (TTs). A TT is a highly reproducible exercise and reflects a more realistic scenario of competition compared with the time-to-exhaustion test. CHO manipulation has been performed in various time periods, such as days before, minutes before, during a TT or in a matched manner (e.g. before and during a TT). The purpose of this review is to address the possible effects of these different forms of CHO manipulation on the performance during a cycling TT. Previous data suggest that when a high-CHO diet (~70% of CHO) is consumed before a TT (24-72 h before), the mean power output increases and reduces the TT time. When participants are supplemented with CHO (from 45 to 400 g) prior to a TT (from 2 min to 6 h before the TT), mean power output and time seem to improve due to an increase in CHO oxidation. Similarly, this performance also seems to increase when participants ingest CHO during a TT because such consumption maintains plasma glucose levels. A CHO mouth rinse also improves performance by activating several brain areas related to reward and motor control through CHO receptors in the oral cavity. However, some studies reported controversial results concerning the benefits of CHO on TT performance. Methodological issues such as time of supplementation, quantity, concentration and type of CHO ingested, as well as the TT duration and intensity, should be

  1. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  2. GPU Computing to Improve Game Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Asaduzzaman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the graphics processing unit (GPU was originally designed to accelerate the image creation for output to display, today’s general purpose GPU (GPGPU computing offers unprecedented performance by offloading computing-intensive portions of the application to the GPGPU, while running the remainder of the code on the central processing unit (CPU. The highly parallel structure of a many core GPGPU can process large blocks of data faster using multithreaded concurrent processing. A game engine has many “components” and multithreading can be used to implement their parallelism. However, effective implementation of multithreading in a multicore processor has challenges, such as data and task parallelism. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using a GPGPU with a CPU to design high-performance game engines. First, we implement a separable convolution filter (heavily used in image processing with the GPGPU. Then, we implement a multiobject interactive game console in an eight-core workstation using a multithreaded asynchronous model (MAM, a multithreaded synchronous model (MSM, and an MSM with data parallelism (MSMDP. According to the experimental results, speedup of about 61x and 5x is achieved due to GPGPU and MSMDP implementation, respectively. Therefore, GPGPU-assisted parallel computing has the potential to improve multithreaded game engine performance.

  3. Kaiser Permanente's performance improvement system, part 3: multisite improvements in care for patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whippy, Alan; Skeath, Melinda; Crawford, Barbara; Adams, Carmen; Marelich, Gregory; Alamshahi, Mezhgan; Borbon, Josefina

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, Kaiser Permanente Northern California implemented an initiative to improve sepsis care. Early detection and expedited implementation of sepsis treatment bundles that include early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for patients with severe sepsis were implemented. In a top-down, bottom-up approach to performance improvement, teams at 21 medical centers independently decided how to implement treatment bundles, using a "playbook" developed by rapid cycle pilot testing at two sites and endorsed by a sepsis steering committee of regional and medical center clinical leaders. The playbook contained treatment algorithms, standardized order sets and flow charts, best practice alerts, and chart abstraction tools. Regional mentors and improvement advisers within the medical centers supported team-building and rapid implementation. Timely and actionable data allowed ongoing identification of improvement opportunities. A consistent approach to performance improvement propelled local rapid improvement cycles and joint problem solving across facilities. The number of sepsis diagnoses per 1,000 admissions increased from a baseline value of 35.7 in July 2009 to 119.4 in May 2011. The percent of admitted patients who have blood cultures drawn who also have a serum lactate level drawn increased from a baseline of 27% to 97% in May 2011. The percent of patients receiving EGDT who had a second and lower lactate level within six hours increased from 52% at baseline to 92% in May 2011. Twenty-one cross-functional frontline teams redesigned processes of care to provide regionally standardized, evidence-based treatment algorithms for sepsis, substantially increasing the identification and risk stratification of patients with suspected sepsis and the provision of a sepsis care bundle that included EGDT.

  4. Investigation of microwave antennas with improved performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongguo

    This dissertation presents the investigation of antennas with improved performances at microwave frequencies. It covers the following three topics: the study of the metamaterial with near-zero index of refraction and its application in directive antenna design, the design technique of a wideband circularly polarized patch antenna for 60GHz wireless application and the investigation of a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique inspired by human auditory system. First, the metamaterial composed of two-dimensional (2-D) metallic wire arrays is investigated as an effective medium with an effective index of refraction less than unity (neff interpretations of the directive monopole antenna embedded in the wire array medium are also discussed. Second, a fully packaged wideband circularly polarized patch antenna is designed for 60GHz wireless communication. The patch antenna incorporates a diagonal slot at the center and features a superstrate and an air cavity backing to achieve desired performances including wide bandwidth, high efficiency and low axial ratio. The detailed design procedure of the circularly polarized antenna, including the design of the microstrip-fed patch antenna and the comparison of the performances of the antenna with different feeding interfaces, is described. The experimental results of the final packaged antenna agree reasonably with the simulation results. Third, an improved two-antenna direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique is explored, which is inspired by the human auditory system. The idea of this work is to utilize a lossy scatter, which emulates the low-pass filtering function of the human head at high frequency, to achieve more accurate DOA estimation. A simple 2-monopole example is studied and the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is applied to calculate the DOA. The improved estimation accuracy is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment. Furthermore, inspired by the sound localization

  5. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  6. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    pits inside the pipe. Therefore, an optimisation of the roll geometry and rolling parameters was not possible. However, a significant fatigue life improvement was achieved. Based on experiments, a roller with similar profile as the thread root is recommended. A rolling force of maximum 20 kN is recommended to minimise the possibility of damaging the thread profile. Shallow cracks were observed typically when 5% of the fatigue life had expired. Re-rolling after 50% of expected improved fatigue life, when also short cracks were observed in the notch roots further increased the fatigue improvement. Pretensioned small steel specimens with a notch were used to simulate cold rolled threads. The specimens were fatigue tested in tension with minimum load close to zero. Pretensioning increased the fatigue life from approximately 50 000 cycles to an infinite number of cycles. In these tests non-propagating cracks of typically 0.4 mm length were found. The benefit from pretensioning gradually disappeared with increasing mean stress. FE analyses indicated that an almost instant relaxation of residual stresses to a level with no monotonic strain hardening from preloading would take place when cycled at moderate mean stress. Cycled at low mean stress, an instant relaxation of the surface layer was found in analysis. All observations from notched pretensioned fatigue specimens were in good agreement with the available literature. However, preloading was found to be strain rate dependent in tests where a pretension load held for 2 minutes gave a longer fatigue life than a sinusoidal loading-unloading cycle performed over a one minute interval. Strain hardening was found not contributing to the fatigue life improvement, whereas the polishing effect from improved surface quality after cold rolling increased the fatigue initiation period. However, residual stress and subsequent early crack closure was the dominating effect at moderate cyclic mean loads. The material data required to

  7. MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, James M.

    Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high

  8. Performance improvement of double-tube gas cooler in CO2 refrigeration system using nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analyses of the double-tube gas cooler in transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle have been performed to study the performance improvement of gas cooler as well as CO2 cycle using Al2O3, TiO2, CuO and Cu nanofluids as coolants. Effects of various operating parameters (nanofluid inlet temperature and mass flow rate, CO2 pressure and particle volume fraction are studied as well. Use of nanofluid as coolant in double-tube gas cooler of CO2 cycle improves the gas cooler effectiveness, cooling capacity and COP without penalty of pumping power. The CO2 cycle yields best performance using Al2O3-H2O as a coolant in double-tube gas cooler followed by TiO2-H2O, CuO-H2O and Cu-H2O. The maximum cooling COP improvement of transcritical CO2 cycle for Al2O3-H2O is 25.4%, whereas that for TiO2-H2O is 23.8%, for CuO-H2O is 20.2% and for Cu-H2O is 16.2% for the given ranges of study. Study shows that the nanofluid may effectively use as coolant in double-tube gas cooler to improve the performance of transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle.

  9. Model improvements for tritium transport in DEMO fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • T inventory and permeation of DEMO blankets have been assessed under pulsed operation. • 1-D model for T transport has been developed for the HCLL DEMO blanket. • The 1-D model evaluated T partial pressure and T permeation rate radial profiles. - Abstract: DEMO operation requires a large amount of tritium, which is directly produced inside the reactor by means of Li-based breeders. During its production, recovering and purification, tritium comes in contact with large surfaces of hot metallic walls, therefore it can permeate through the blanket cooling structure, reach the steam generator and finally the environment. The development of dedicated simulation tools able to predict tritium losses and inventories is necessary to verify the accomplishment of the accepted tritium environmental releases as well as to guarantee a correct machine operation. In this work, the FUS-TPC code is improved by including the possibility to operate in pulsed regime: results in terms of tritium inventory and losses for three pulsed scenarios are shown. Moreover, the development of a 1-D model considering the radial profile of the tritium generation is described. By referring to the inboard segment on the equatorial axis of the helium-cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) blanket, preliminary results of the 1-D model are illustrated: tritium partial pressure in Li–Pb and tritium permeation in the cooling and stiffening plates by assuming several permeation reduction factor (PRF) values. Future improvements will consider the application of the model to all segments of different blanket concepts.

  10. Improving cardiac myocytes performance by CNTs platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eMartinelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to the cardiovascular system has increasingly caught scientists’ attention as a potentially powerful tool for the development of new generation devices able to interface, repair or boost the performance of cardiac tissue. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered as promising materials for nanomedicine applications in general and have been recently tested towards excitable cell growth. CNTs are cylindrically shaped structures made up of rolled-up graphene sheets, with unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties, able to effectively conducting electrical current in electrochemical interfaces. CNTs-based scaffolds have been recently found to support the in vitro growth of cardiac cells: in particular, their ability to improve cardiomyocytes proliferation, maturation and electrical behavior are making CNTs extremely attractive for the development and exploitation of interfaces able to impact on cardiac cells physiology and function.

  11. Assessing the performance of thermospheric modelling with data assimilation throughout solar cycles 23 and 24

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Sophie A; Jackson, David R; Bruinsma, Sean L

    2015-01-01

    Data assimilation procedures have been developed for thermospheric models using satellite density measurements as part of the EU Framework Package 7 ATMOP Project. Two models were studied; one a general circulation model, TIEGCM, and the other a semi-empirical drag temperature model, DTM. Results of runs using data assimilation with these models were compared with independent density observations from CHAMP and GRACE satellites throughout solar cycles 23 and 24. Time periods of 60 days were examined at solar minimum and maximum, including the 2003 Hallowe'en storms. The differences between the physical and the semi-empirical models have been characterised. Results indicate that both models tend to show similar behaviour; underestimating densities at solar maximum, and overestimating them at solar minimum. DTM performed better at solar minimum, with both models less accurate at solar maximum. A mean improvement of ~4% was found using data assimilation with TIEGCM. With further improvements, the use of general ...

  12. Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianyong; Yu, Jianlin [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a new refrigeration cycle (NRC) using the binary non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture R32/R134a is presented, which can be an alternative refrigeration cycle applied in residential air-conditioner. In the NRC, refrigerant circuit of the evaporator is separated into two branches. Because the non-azeotropic mixture has the characteristic of temperature glide, an important benefit of such configuration is that the Lorentz cycle can be realized. Compared with that of conventional cycle configuration, the new cycle efficiency can be improved. The calculating results show that, in the conventional refrigeration cycle (CRC), the mixture R32/R134a has a close performance to that is obtainable with pure refrigerant R22. However, the mixture R32/R134a in the NRC will result in a better performance. The maximal COP can be improved in a range of 8-9% over that of the CRC, and the volumetric refrigerating capacity can be approximately increased by 9.5%. (author)

  13. Improving the performance of photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmer, S W [Department of Engineering and Technology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Townsend, P D, E-mail: pdtownsend@googlemail.co [Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-20

    Photomultipliers are ubiquitous detectors of low level light signals, but their performance is limited by the complexity of photocathode technology. Two contributory problems are that light is lost both by surface reflection and by transmission through the photocathode layer. Knowledge of the dielectric constants has allowed predictive modelling of the reflectivity and absorption of the light as a function of angle of incidence, cathode thickness and polarization. The predictions have stimulated designs of extremely simple and very low cost retrofit approaches to improve the overall effectiveness of photomultipliers. One simple design presented here exploits signal that is normally lost by the surface reflection. A simple external conical torch reflector is clipped over the photomultiplier end face. The reflector raised the efficiency of an S20 multialkali photocathode by between 20% and 10% across the blue to red spectral range. An alternative semi-cylindrical glass coupler has improved the absorption efficiency by allowing the input signal to arrive at 60{sup 0} incidence to the photocathode surface, rather than normal incidence as in the standard head-on geometry. Enhancements are from 30% to 500% across the spectral range. The greater gains are at long wavelengths, and so are particularly valuable as this is the region of lowest quantum efficiency. The latter high-incidence angle approach, when applied to a low-efficiency C grade tube, has raised the performance to greater than the best of the A grade tubes, as used in the normal head-on operation. Both methods are equally applicable to other cathode compositions.

  14. Can quantization improve error performance in CDMA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efraim, Hadar; Yacov, Nadav; Kanter, Ido [Minerva Center and Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shental, Ori [Center for Magnetic Recording Research (CMRR), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: hadar.efraim@mail.biu.ac.il, E-mail: oshental@ucsd.edu, E-mail: nadav.yacov@mail.biu.ac.il, E-mail: kanter@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-09-12

    A K-user direct-sequence spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system with (q << log{sub 2}K)-bit baseband signal quantization at the demodulator is considered. It is shown that additionally quantizing the K + 1 level output signal of the CDMA modulator into q bits improves significantly the average bit-error performance in a non-negligible regime of noise variance, {sigma}{sup 2}, and user load, {beta}, under various system settings, like additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, single-user detection, multi-user detection, random and orthogonal spreading codes. For the case of single-user detection in random spreading AWGN-CDMA, this regime is identified explicitly as {sigma}<{gamma}(q){radical}{beta}, where {gamma}(q) is a certain pre-factor depending on q, and the associated BER improvement is derived analytically for q = 1, 2. For the other examined system settings, computer simulations are provided, corroborating this interesting behavior.

  15. Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC

  16. Evaluation of motor performances of hemiplegic patients using a virtual cycling wheelchair: an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Norihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Kojima, Yoshihisa; Abe, Makoto; Homma, Noriyasu; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Nobuyasu

    2013-01-01

    Cycling is known to be an effective rehabilitation exercise for hemiplegic patients who face difficulty during walking because of stroke or other brain disorders. A cycling wheelchair (CWC) is a useful tool to provide exercise for these patients and improve their quality of life. In previous studies, our group developed a system that allows patients to safely practice driving a CWC in a virtual environment. However, it has been difficult to check their motor performances and determine the effects of the exercise on a daily basis. This study is an exploratory trial for developing a method to evaluate the motor performances of users based on their CWC pedaling patterns. An experiment with some hemiplegic patients and healthy subjects was conducted and their pedaling patterns were analyzed. Results showed a significant difference between the hemiplegic patients and healthy subjects in an index that reflects pedaling balance between the feet. This result indicates a possible method of evaluating the motor performances of users based on their pedaling patterns.

  17. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.; Neri, D. F.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ronda, J. M.; Riel, E.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Hughes, R. J.; Elliott, A. R.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  18. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  19. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a coupled transcritical and subcritical organic Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi Wu [Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhejian (China); Wang, Xiao Qiong; Li, You Rong; Wu, Chun Mei [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-07-15

    We present a novel coupled organic Rankine cycle (CORC) system driven by the low-grade waste heat, which couples a transcritical organic Rankine cycle with a subcritical organic Rankine cycle. Based on classical thermodynamic theory, a detailed performance analysis on the novel CORC system was performed. The results show that the pressure ratio of the expander is decreased in the CORC and the selection of the working fluids becomes more flexible and abundant. With the increase of the pinch point temperature difference of the internal heat exchanger, the net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC all decrease. With the increase of the critical temperature of the working fluid, the system performance of the CORC is improved. The net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC with isentropic working fluids are higher than those with dry working fluids.

  20. Effect of steam addition on cycle performance of simple and recuperated gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the cycle efficiency and specific power of simple and recuperated gas turbine cycles in which steam is generated and used to increase turbine flow. Calculations showed significant improvements in cycle efficiency and specific power by adding steam. The calculations were made using component efficiencies and loss assumptions typical of stationary powerplants. These results are presented for a range of operating temperatures and pressures. Relative heat exchanger size and the water use rate are also examined.

  1. The ecological validity of laboratory cycling: Does body size explain the difference between laboratory- and field-based cycling performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, S A; Nevill, A M; Palmer, G S; Jeukendrup, A E; Doherty, M; Atkinson, G

    2007-01-01

    Previous researchers have identified significant differences between laboratory and road cycling performances. To establish the ecological validity of laboratory time-trial cycling performances, the causes of such differences should be understood. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to quantify differences between laboratory- and road-based time-trial cycling and to establish to what extent body size [mass (m) and height (h)] may help to explain such differences. Twenty-three male competitive, but non-elite, cyclists completed two 25 mile time-trials, one in the laboratory using an air-braked ergometer (Kingcycle) and the other outdoors on a local road course over relatively flat terrain. Although laboratory speed was a reasonably strong predictor of road speed (R2 = 69.3%), a significant 4% difference (P cycling speed was identified (laboratory vs. road speed: 40.4 +/- 3.02 vs. 38.7 +/- 3.55 km x h(-1); mean +/- s). When linear regression was used to predict these differences (Diff) in cycling speeds, the following equation was obtained: Diff (km x h(-1)) = 24.9 - 0.0969 x m - 10.7 x h, R2 = 52.1% and the standard deviation of residuals about the fitted regression line = 1.428 (km . h-1). The difference between road and laboratory cycling speeds (km x h(-1)) was found to be minimal for small individuals (mass = 65 kg and height = 1.738 m) but larger riders would appear to benefit from the fixed resistance in the laboratory compared with the progressively increasing drag due to increased body size that would be experienced in the field. This difference was found to be proportional to the cyclists' body surface area that we speculate might be associated with the cyclists' frontal surface area.

  2. How can LCA approaches contribute to improve geo-cycles management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Delgado, F.; Andrade, F.; Franco, J.; Pereira, C. D.

    2012-04-01

    as a basis for prioritizing industrial technologies, procedures or materials, based on the reduction of impacts. The ECODEEP project intents to contribute to the competitiveness of the national agri-food sector in particular the Central Region of Portugal. Through the development of eco-efficiency tools it allows a more careful management of inputs, optimizing consumption energy and raw materials. ECODEEP seeks to improve the performance of the sector, allowing an improvement of production processes and a reduction of the investment on end-of-line solutions, therefore reducing products costs, which become more competitive, while reducing the impact on geo-cycles and the ecosystems. The overall purpose of this paper is, based on a case study, discuss the use of LCA approach to improve overall competitiveness while reducing the impact over the geo-cycles and the environment in general.

  3. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    , such as muscle fibre type composition and power reserve, relate to endurance time. Twenty males underwent testing to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), power output corresponding to 90% of VO(2max) at 80 rpm (W90), FCPR at W90, percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres (% MHC I), maximal leg power...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables......The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables...

  4. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    errors, while generally overestimating FRE. Including information on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle provided the most promising avenue to improve FRE estimations. This approach also improved the performance on relatively high spatiotemporal resolutions, although only when aggregating model results to coarser spatial and/or temporal scale good correlation was found with the full SEVIRI hourly reference dataset. In general model performance was best in areas of frequent fire and low errors of omission. We recommend the use of regionally varying fire diurnal cycle information within the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) used in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Services, which will improve FRE estimates and may allow for further reconciliation of biomass burning emission estimates from different inventories.

  5. Study on Cooling Performance of Stirling Cycle Machine wiht New Regenerator Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Kitahama, Dai; Takeuchi, Takuro; Matsuguchi, Atsushi; Tsuruno, Seizo

    In order to develop Stirling cycle machines with high efficiency, suitable regenerator for each machine must be designed. To realize the flexibility of design and to improve the performance of regenerator, a new matrix, mesh sheet was proposed. It is a plate type with electrically etched holes. Each small hole is connected with neighboring holes by grooves on the plate. The performance test of cooling mode was carried out with a 3-kW Stirling engine in order to measure its cooling performance. Three types of the mesh sheet were developed and two of them were respectively stacked to install in the machine. Also, the pressure and regenerator losses were compared with conventional stacked wire gauzes and the mesh sheets. From the results, it was clarified that the performance of the cooling mode was improved about 5 to 40 % by the mesh sheet. In this paper, the relation between the dimensions of the mesh sheet, the pressure and regenerator losses were also clarified.

  6. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  7. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  8. Life cycle considerations for improving sustainability assessments in seafood awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  9. Clinical performance improvement series. Classic CQI integrated with comprehensive disease management as a model for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M S; Bernard, D B

    1999-08-01

    challenge is to provide leadership support, to reward and recognize best practice performers, and to emphasize the use of data for feedback and improvement. As these processes are implemented successfully, and evidence of improved outcomes is documented, it is likely that this approach will be more widely embraced and that organizationwide performance improvement will increase significantly. Health care has traditionally invested extraordinary resources in developing best practice approaches, including guidelines, education programs, or other tangible products and services. Comparatively little time, effort, and resources have been targeted to implementation and use, the stage at which most efforts fail. CQI's emphasis on data, rapid diffusion of innovative programs, and rapid cycle improvements enhance the implementation and effectiveness of disease management.

  10. An integrated turbocharger design approach to improve engine performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Turbocharging technology is today considered as a promising way for internal combustion engine energy saving and CO2 reduction.Turbocharger design is a major challenge for turbocharged engine performance improvement.The turbocharger designer must draw upon the information of engine operation conditions,and an appropriate link between the engine requirements and design features must be carefully developed to generate the most suitable design recommendation.The objective of this research is to develop a turbocharger design approach for better turbocharger matching to an internal combustion engine.The development of the approach is based on the concept of turbocharger design and interaction links between engine cycle requirements and design parameter values.A turbocharger through flow model is then used to generate the design alternatives.This integrated method has been applied with success to a gasoline engine turbocharger assembly.

  11. Justifying plans to improve performance of an existing cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States); Godard, D.; Randall, R. [Niagara-Mohawk Power Company, Syracuse, NY (United States); Cooper, J. [Cooper & Associates, P.A., Tampa, FL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the kinds of quantitative justification needed to convince today`s cost-conscious, informed utility management that proposed improvements to the cooling system are feasible and will be of strong economic benefit to the station. It summarizes the evaluations developed during the review of circulating water system improvement candidates that accompanied the recent 4.5% power uprate of an existing large station with a closed cycle cooling system which utilizes a natural draft cooling tower. Presented in the paper are the capital costs and turbine performance improvements related to: air blanketing reduction by baffle plate additions to the condenser air coolers; minimizing costs of waterbox/bundle cleaning programs; cooling system performance monitoring enhancements; the prudency of tube staking after uprate; the benefits of a circulating water flow increase; better cooling tower hot water distribution; adding a layer of fill to the cooling tower; and finally the value of a helper tower. Considered too in this paper are the performance test surveys of both the condenser and cooling tower that identified the cause and/or performance deficiencies. The general principles to be discussed will be applicable to all sizes and types of power plant cooling systems. The paper however, will focus on the 1994-1995 case study of a 675,000 GPM closed cooling system with a 537 ft. counterflow natural draft cooling tower and a 670,000 sq. ft. six bundle single pass condenser which serves the six flow low pressure (LP) turbine of an 1100 MW nuclear plant. One example of the outcome of the program was an approximate 20% increase in condenser cleanliness from 55% to 75%. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  12. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia, CAIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Gartner estimates, due to increased variety, speed and data volume, by 2015 there will be a global demand of 4.4 million professionals for real-time analysis of data from sources with different structures, but only one third of the demand will be met. The purpose of this research is to identify possible solutions for improved academic results in the IT domain, considering the time management policies, the content and the student motivations, as well as the business strategy tendencies. These proposals are targeted toward meeting the IT specialists demand. The research is composed of two parts: the first explores the Romanian IT labour market characteristics, while the second investigates the academic education policies that can help mitigate deficiencies and attain higher performance. The deficiencies are identified through a series of statistical research and analysis based on national level databases, adopting a quantitative approach. The policies proposed are supported by a flow model developed considering the students' activity, motivation, traits and results, measured and analysed quantitatively.

  13. Ideal Strategy to Improve Datawarehouse Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Sultan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse is set up for the benefits of business analysts and executives across all functional areas. The primary goal of data warehouse is to free the information locked up in the operational database so that decision makers and business analyst can make queries, analysis and planning regardless of the data changes inoperational database. Data analysis in a large database requires some innovative techniques; there should be some new methods and procedures to look at the data with different angles. While executing adhoc queries over a large database degrade the query performance atconsiderable level because query will have to go through from large volume of data after making lot of joins. Moreover, as the number of queries is large, therefore, in certain cases there is reasonable probability that same query submitted by the one or multiple users at different times. Each time when query is executed, all the data ofwarehouse is analyzed to generate the result of that query. In this paper we purpose an ideal approach which definitely minimizes esponse time and improves the efficiency of data warehouse overall, articularly when data warehouse is updated at regular interval. Thisapproach has been validated by Formal Method.

  14. Learning to improve path planning performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  15. Optimal analysis on the performance of an irreversible harmonic quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2003-11-01

    An irreversible model of a quantum refrigeration cycle working with many noninteracting harmonic oscillators is established. The refrigeration cycle consists of two adiabatic and two constant-frequency processes. The general performance characteristics of the cycle are investigated, based on the quantum master equation and the semigroup approach. The expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate, power input, and rate of entropy production are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the refrigeration cycle subject to finite cycle duration is optimized. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal region of the coefficient of performance and the optimal ranges of temperatures of the working substance and times spent on the two constant-frequency processes are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance of the cycle in the high-temperature limit is compared with that of a classical Brayton refrigerator working with an ideal gas. The results obtained here show that in the high-temperature limit a harmonic quantum Brayton cycle may be equivalent to a classical Brayton cycle.

  16. Study on effective parameter of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Thamir K.; Rahman M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle gas turbines with duct burner are presented and discussed in this paper. The overall performance of a combined cycle gas turbine power plant is influenced by the ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature. These parameters affect the overall thermal efficiency, power output and the heat-rate. In this study a thermodynamic model was development on an existing actual combined cycle gas turbin...

  17. Performance analysis of a solar-powered organic rankine cycle engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska-Mazurek, Anna; Swieboda, Tymoteusz; Mazurek, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a power plant with the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The power plant is supplied by thermal energy utilized from a solar energy collector. R245fa was the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. The organic cycle with heat regeneration was built and tested experimentally. The ORC with a heat regenerator obtained the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of approximately 9%.

  18. Using business intelligence to improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Tom; Graves, Brian; Glass, Steve; Harrison, A Marc; Donovan, Chris; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Cleveland Clinic's enterprise performance management program offers proof that comparisons of actual performance against strategic objectives can enable healthcare organization to achieve rapid organizational change. Here are four lessons Cleveland Clinic learned from this initiative: Align performance metrics with strategic initiatives. Structure dashboards for the CEO. Link performance to annual reviews. Customize dashboard views to the specific user.

  19. The impact of obesity on walking and cycling performance and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbeau Jean

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the influence of overweight and obesity on pulmonary function, exercise tolerance, quality of life and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. Methods 261 patients with COPD were divided into three groups: normal body mass index (BMI, overweight and obese. Baseline and post rehabilitation pulmonary function, 6-min walking test (6MWT, endurance time during a constant workrate exercise test (CET and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ scores were compared between all three classes of BMI. Results At baseline, obese and overweight patients had less severe airflow obstruction compared to normal BMI patients. There was no baseline difference in CET performance or SGRQ scores across BMI classes and 6MWT was reduced in the presence of obesity (p Conclusions Walking, but not cycling performance was worse in obese patients. This difference was maintained post rehabilitation despite significant improvements. Weight excess may counterbalance the effect of a better preserved respiratory function in the performance of daily activities such as walking. However, obesity and overweight did not influence the magnitude of improvement after pulmonary rehabilitation.

  20. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  1. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Xuxian Kan, Fengrui Sun, Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate and the utilization factor (COP for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  2. Power optimization and performance improvement for embedded Ethernet SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhao-xia; ZOU Lian-ying; GAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Information appliance is the combination of traditional home appliances and the internet technology. In this article, an Ethernet controller system-on-chip (SOC) solution for information appliances is presented. To achieve high performance, the embedded 8 bits 8051 micro control unit (MCU) is optimized by an independent instruction bus and a data bus. Besides, a two-stage pipeline feature is added. Compared with the existing 8051 core, the enhanced one-cycle MCU offers ten times improvement in instruction execution efficiency. Mean- while, the performance of media access control (MAC) circuit is greatly improved by adopting various techniques such as direct memory access (DMA) control, paging strategy, etc. To reduce the power consumption, clock gating, low power supply, and multi-working-clock are adopted. Moreover, to achieve rapid data communication in different clock frequency circuits, a simple ping-pong first in first out (FIFO) circuit is realized. The chip is implemented using TSMC 0.25 μm two-poly four-metal mixed signal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Its die area is mm. The test results show that the maximum throughput of Ethernet packets can reach 7 Mb/s while the power consumption is rather low-the working current is just about 200 mA.

  3. Improving of cycle-slip detection and correction of Blewitt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Huang, C.; Lu, X. S.

    2005-04-01

    On the basis of introducing Blewitt method, new idea and arithmetic were put forward on bad observations deletion, cycle-slip detection and correction, and ambiguity float solution in allusion to some questions of Blewitt method. To discuss the feasibility from error theory and to analyzed it with some samples, it was tested: cycle-slip detection was more clean and more clean and more reasonable and viable after improving.

  4. Quality improvement on chemistry practicum courses through implementation of 5E learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-03-01

    Two of bachelor of chemical education's competences are having practical skills and mastering chemistry material. Practicum courses are organized to support the competency achievement. Based on observation and evaluation, many problems were found in the implementation of practicum courses. Preliminary study indicated that 5E Learning Cycle can be used as an alternative solution in order to improve the quality of chemistry practicum course. The 5E Learning Cycle can provide positive influence on the achievement of the competence, laboratory skills, and students' understanding. The aim of the research was to describe the feasibility of implementation of 5E Learning Cycle on chemistry practicum courses. The research was based on phenomenology method in qualitative approach. The participants of the research were 5 person of chemistry laboratory manager (lecturers at chemistry and chemistry education department). They concluded that the 5E Learning Cycle could be implemented to improve the quality of the chemistry practicum courses. Practicum guides and assistant competences were organized to support the implementation of 5E Learning Cycle. It needed training for assistants to understand and implement in the stages of 5E Learning Cycle. Preparation of practical guidelines referred to the stages of 5E Learning Cycle, started with the introduction of contextual and applicable materials, then followed with work procedures that accommodate the stage of engagement, exploration, explanation, extension, and evaluation

  5. Improved cycling performance of Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} cathode materials for lithium-ion battery under high cutoff voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Manfang; Hu, Guorong; Liang, Longwei; Peng, Zhongdong; Du, Ke; Cao, Yanbing, E-mail: cybcsu@csu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Uniform spherical xLi{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} materials were successfully prepared through a solid state synthesis. To investigate the material characterization and electrochemical performance after Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} modification, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical tests were applied. The results of the XRD, Rietveld refinement, SEM and EDS analyses showed that a Mo atom may be incorporated into the crystal lattice of the layer structure. Moreover, the presence of Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} on the LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} surface was observed. The thickness of the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} coating layer on the xLi{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-inlaid LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} material (x = 0.02) was approximately 25 nm. Similarly, XPS was performed to determine the effect of Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} modification, confirming the presence of Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. The xLi{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-inlaid (x = 0.02) LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} materials exhibited a retention capacity 83.5% higher than that of the bare material (40.9%) after 200 cycles at 0.5 C between 3.0 and 4.4 V, and it also exhibited the best electrochemical properties at a cutoff voltage of 4.5 V. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed that the modification of Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} plays an important role in improving the electrochemical performance of pristine LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} is improved by Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} modification. • Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} modification can make the structure of the bare material stable. • Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-inlaid Li[Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.3}]O{sub 2

  6. The age-related performance decline in Ironman triathlon starts earlier in swimming than in cycling and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Ilja; Rüst, Christoph A; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-02-21

    In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015. Split and overall race times of 329,066 (80%) male and 81,815 (20%) female athletes competing in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analysed. The number of finishers increased in all age groups with exception of women in age group 75-79 years. In pro athletes, performance improved in all disciplines. In age group athletes, performance improved in younger age groups for running (18-24 to 40-44 years) and older age groups for swimming (50-54 to 65-69 years) and cycling (35-39 to 55-59 years), while it impaired in younger age groups for swimming (18-24 to 45-49 years) and cycling (18-24 to 30-34), and older age groups in running (45-49 to 70-74 years). The age-related performance decline started in women in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 30-34 years in cycling, running and overall race time, whereas it started in men in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 35-39 years in cycling, running and overall race time. For athletes and coaches, performance improved in younger age groups for running and older age groups for swimming and cycling and the age-related decline in performance started earlier in swimming than in cycling and running. In summary, women should start competing in Ironman triathlon before the age of 30 years and men before the age of 35 years to achieve their personal best Ironman race time.

  7. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency.

  8. Performance samples on academic tasks : improving prediction of academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanilon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies br

  9. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  10. Enhancement effect of trace H2O on the charge-discharge cycling performance of a Li metal anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    The effects of a small amount of H2O with and without CO2 in an electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate on the cycling life of a Li metal anode is investigated in this paper using charge-discharge cycling. A low cycling performance, which is less than 55%, is observed with the electrolyte with trace H2O but without CO2; however, when the trace H2O is accompanied by CO2, performance drastically improves and coulombic efficiency reaches a maximum of 88.9%. In the presence of CO2, the cycling performance is found to be strongly affected by the H2O content in the electrolyte, and increases with an increase in H2O content of up to 35 ppm. From an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, trace H2O is found to affect the compounds of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the lithium surface and produces an Li2CO3 and LiF layer on the upper part of the SEI, both known to be good passivation layers for preventing side reactions during charge-discharge cycling.

  11. The effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 10km running performance in well-trained triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Garry

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC), PC+15% (fast cadence) and PC-15% (slow cadence). Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD). Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001) without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω(2) = 0.006) (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s(-1) for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges usually used by triathletes. Key PointsCompared with an isolated run, completion of a cycling event impairs the performance of a subsequent run independently of the pedalling cadence.The choice of cadence within triathletes' usual range does not seem to influence the performance of a 10km run.The results

  12. Afferent electrical stimulation during cycling improves spinal processing of sensorimotor function after incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Stefano; Serrano-Muñoz, Diego; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Torricelli, Diego; Segura-Fragosa, Antonio; Pons, José Luis; Taylor, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate afferent feedback delivery during the execution of motor tasks is important for rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, during leg-cycling therapy, the plantar afferent feedback is minimal. We hypothesize that the augmentation of sensory input by combining cycling with a locomotor-like stimulation of plantar cutaneous innervations (ES-cycling), might help to restore proper spinal processing of sensorimotor function. Thirteen non-injured subjects and 10 subjects with iSCI performed 10 minutes of cycling and, on another session, of ES-cycling. To assess spinal processing of sensorimotor function, soleus H-reflex response was tested following a conditioning plantar electrical stimulation applied at 25-100 ms inter-stimulus intervals (ISI's), measured before and after the execution of the tasks. Before tasks execution, the conditioned H-reflex response was modulated in non-injured subjects, and absent in subjects with iSCI; after cycling, modulation profiles were unchanged. However, after ES-cycling a significant increase in H-reflex excitability was observed in the non-injured group at 100 ms ISI (p spinal processing of sensorimotor function. Reflex modulation recovery after ES-cycling may indicate the partial reactivation of these mechanisms.

  13. Effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on continuous cycling exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Pereira, Gleber; Papini, Camila B; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on exercise distance, Heart Rate (HR), and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during continuous cycling exercise performed at high intensity. Fifteen participants performed five test sessions. During two sessions, they cycled with fixed workload on ergometer to determine the Critical Power (CP) intensity. Then, they performed three more sessions cycling at CP intensity: listening to Preferred Music, listening to Nonpreferred Music, and No Music. The HR responses in the exercise sessions did not differ among all conditions. However, the RPE was higher for Nonpreferred Music than in the other conditions. The performance under Preferred Music (9.8 +/- 4.6 km) was greater than under Nonpreferred Music (7.1 +/- 3.5 km) conditions. Therefore, listening to Preferred Music during continuous cycling exercise at high intensity can increase the exercise distance, and individuals listening to Nonpreferred Music can perceive more discomfort caused by the exercise.

  14. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  15. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  16. How design can improve company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); M. Candi (Marina); G. Gemser (Gerda)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEmphasising design and including designers in product development teams contributes to new product success. Likewise, involving designers in developing websites and corporate visual identity helps to improve firm image. When taken together this can contribute to improved company performa

  17. Factors affecting cadence choice during submaximal cycling and cadence influence on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst A; Smith, Gerald

    2009-03-01

    Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a number of papers have been published that have brought novel insight into the subject. For example, under the influence of spinal central pattern generators, a robust innate voluntary motor rhythm has been suggested as the primary basis for freely chosen cadence in cycling. This might clarify the cadence paradox in which the freely chosen cadence during low-to-moderate submaximal cycling is considerably higher and thereby less economical than the energetically optimal cadence. A number of factors, including age, power output, and road gradient, have been shown to affect the choice of cadence to some extent. During high-intensity cycling, close to the maximal aerobic power output, cyclists choose an energetically economical cadence that is also favorable for performance. In contrast, the choice of a relatively high cadence during cycling at low-to-moderate intensity is uneconomical and could compromise performance during prolonged cycling.

  18. Factors Affecting Sustainable Performance of Construction Projects during Project Life Cycle Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Enshassi; Bernd Kochendoerfer; Hadeel Al Ghoul

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development (SD) is one of the main challenges faced by the construction industry, which has acquired global attention. Sustainable performance (SP) of a construction project during its life cycle (LC) is considered crucial to achieve the SD. The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases in the Gaza Strip. A total of 53 sustainable factors (economic, social, and environmental sust...

  19. Performance through transformation of identity in road cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Olesen, Jesper

    In this paper I investigate the relationship between skills and identity of an elite cyclist, who during his career managed to become a big star in the professional peleton. This is Jesper Skibby. The paper is based on a reading of his autobiography "Forstå mig ret." In the book he reproduces his...... career chronologically progressing through a series of identities from an amateur rider, to a team rider and a captain. On the surface and in his own self-understanding these identities and the corresponding competencies belong to the individual. But on closer reading based on actor-network theory......, it turns out that the conception of the self-reliant, performing individual does not hold. In this paper I will argue that the rider achieve his skills through the deletion of personal boundaries and re-assembly with an ever-wider range of actors in the surrounding world. To develop as a rider...

  20. Performance through transformation of identity in road cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Olesen, Jesper

    In this paper I investigate the relationship between skills and identity of an elite cyclist, who during his career managed to become a big star in the professional peleton. This is Jesper Skibby. The paper is based on a reading of his autobiography "Forstå mig ret." In the book he reproduces his...... career chronologically progressing through a series of identities from an amateur rider, to a team rider and a captain. On the surface and in his own self-understanding these identities and the corresponding competencies belong to the individual. But on closer reading based on actor-network theory......, it turns out that the conception of the self-reliant, performing individual does not hold. In this paper I will argue that the rider achieve his skills through the deletion of personal boundaries and re-assembly with an ever-wider range of actors in the surrounding world. To develop as a rider...

  1. Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf,Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N = 31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to...

  2. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kang Ma; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

    2009-10-01

    Finite-time exergoeconomic performance of a Newtonian heat transfer law system generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle model with finite-rate heat transfer, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is presented in this paper. The operation of the generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The performance optimization of the cycle is performed by taking profit as the objective. The optimal profit rate, optimal COP (coefficient of performance), as well as the relation between the optimal profit rate and COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to obtain the compromise optimization between economics (profit rate) and the energy utilization factor (COP) for the cycle, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit rate, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, the effects of various factors, including heat leakage, internal irreversibility and the price ratio, on the profit rate performance of the cycle are analysed by detailed numerical examples.

  3. Improving Performance Of Industrial Enterprises With CGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgih, I. N.; Bannova, K. A.; Kuzmina, N. A.; Zdanova, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    At the present day, a falling in the overall level of efficiency production activities, especially in the machine-building companies makes it necessary to development various actions in the State support, including through the creation consolidated taxation system. Such support will help improve efficiency of activity not only the industrial companies, but also will allow improve economic and social situation in regions where often large engineering factories is city-forming.

  4. How Six Sigma Methodology Improved Doctors' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology was used in a District General Hospital to assess the effect of the introduction of an educational programme to limit unnecessary admissions. The performance of the doctors involved in the programme was assessed. Ishikawa Fishbone and 5 S's were initially used and Pareto analysis of their findings was performed. The results…

  5. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  6. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  7. Using Performance Task Data to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Amy L.; Wren, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Two well-accepted ideas among educators are (a) performance assessment is an effective means of assessing higher-order thinking skills and (b) data-driven instruction planning is a valuable tool for optimizing student learning. This article describes a locally developed performance task (LDPT) designed to measure critical thinking, problem…

  8. Aspects Regarding the Improving of Fitness and Health Issues by Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Octavian MĂNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is trying to explain all the benefits cycling has over fitness and specific health issues, the importance of a training plan, of a balanced diet and a good hydration during a training period of time and, also, presents the results of some studies regarding the importance of ride biking, generally, and exercising, particularly. Riding a bike is a healthy activity. Regular exercise in the form of cycling will make people fitter, stronger, will help them reduce fat levels and look in better shape, boost their energy and generally improve their mood. For many people, cycling is the first step to independence and exploration. Good planning and preparation are essential to ensure that cycling is a positive experience to everybody.

  9. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    pits inside the pipe. Therefore, an optimisation of the roll geometry and rolling parameters was not possible. However, a significant fatigue life improvement was achieved. Based on experiments, a roller with similar profile as the thread root is recommended. A rolling force of maximum 20 kN is recommended to minimise the possibility of damaging the thread profile. Shallow cracks were observed typically when 5% of the fatigue life had expired. Re-rolling after 50% of expected improved fatigue life, when also short cracks were observed in the notch roots further increased the fatigue improvement. Pretensioned small steel specimens with a notch were used to simulate cold rolled threads. The specimens were fatigue tested in tension with minimum load close to zero. Pretensioning increased the fatigue life from approximately 50 000 cycles to an infinite number of cycles. In these tests non-propagating cracks of typically 0.4 mm length were found. The benefit from pretensioning gradually disappeared with increasing mean stress. FE analyses indicated that an almost instant relaxation of residual stresses to a level with no monotonic strain hardening from preloading would take place when cycled at moderate mean stress. Cycled at low mean stress, an instant relaxation of the surface layer was found in analysis. All observations from notched pretensioned fatigue specimens were in good agreement with the available literature. However, preloading was found to be strain rate dependent in tests where a pretension load held for 2 minutes gave a longer fatigue life than a sinusoidal loading-unloading cycle performed over a one minute interval. Strain hardening was found not contributing to the fatigue life improvement, whereas the polishing effect from improved surface quality after cold rolling increased the fatigue initiation period. However, residual stress and subsequent early crack closure was the dominating effect at moderate cyclic mean loads. The material data required to

  10. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  11. Improvement of physical performance by transcutaneous nerve stimulation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaada, B

    1984-01-01

    The present pilot study tested the exercise response to transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) of 21 volunteers, who were well-trained competitive athletes. In 62 experiments (n) they received low-frequency TNS (2 Hz) for 30-45 min prior to either a road or track race, swimming race, bicycle ergometer exercise, isometric muscular endurance test, or dynamometer hand grip test. Improvement in performance compared with a corresponding number of control tests, without TNS or with placebo stimulation in the same subjects, was almost regularly observed in running, swimming and ergometer cycling, although with great individual variations. The average improvement was 4.3 sec (2.2%) in 1.000 m road racing (n = 9); 2.3 sec (1.8%) in 800 m track racing (n = 5); 0.9 sec (1.4%) in 100 m swimming (n = 12); 1.3 sec (0.8%) in 200 m swimming (n = 6); and 2.5 sec (0.9%) in 400 m swimming (n = 3). In a bicycle ergometer test with stepwise, progressive exercise to muscular fatigue, the maximal capacity was increased by 9% (n = 4). Local isometric muscle endurance of the elbow flexors (n = 7) and hand grip strengths (n = 11) were not significantly altered. Possible mechanisms involved in the response to TNS are discussed.

  12. Does Advertising Spending Improve Sales Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Mattila, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Hotel managers and investors commonly analyze the impact of advertising spending on firm performance. This paper investigates such an impact using a comprehensive framework incorporating the moderating effects of hotel size and star ratings. We estimated sales performance via dynamic, stochastic...... frontier modelling. Using longitudinal data from a sample of Slovenian and Croatian hotels, we demonstrate that advertising spending has a positive impact on hotel sales performance, and that the relationship strengthens for larger hotels and hotels with higher star ratings. Theoretical and managerial...

  13. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  14. Improve Compressed Air System Performance with AIRMaster+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    AIRMaster+ provides a systematic apporach for assessing the supply-side performance of compressed air systems. Using plant-specific data, the software effectively evaluates supply-side operational costs for various equipment configurations and system pro

  15. Performance of Spandex Sector Improves Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Zhejiang Huafeng Spandex Co., Ltd.(SZ: 002064) and Sichuan Sofcra Special-Typed Fiber Co., Ltd. (SZ: 000584)as major listed spandex companies in China have recently published their performance statements for the first quarter of 2007.

  16. Performance appraisal: a tool for practice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesme, Dean H; Wiseman, Marian

    2011-03-01

    Yours may be among the many oncology practices without an appropriate performance review system in place. Lack of an effective evaluation system increases the risk of inefficiency, poor office morale, and high turnover rates.

  17. Improving competitiveness through performance-measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L J; Lockamy, A

    2001-12-01

    Parallels exist between the competitive pressures felt by U.S. manufacturers over the past 30 years and those experienced by healthcare providers today. Increasing market deregulation, changing government policies, and growing consumerism have altered the healthcare arena. Responding to similar pressures, manufacturers adopted a strategic orientation driven by customer needs and expectations that led them to achieve high performance levels and surpass their competition. The adoption of integrated performance-measurement systems was instrumental in these firms' success. An integrated performance-measurement model for healthcare organizations can help to blend the organization's strategy with the demands of the contemporary healthcare environment. Performance-measurement systems encourage healthcare organizations to focus on their mission and vision by aligning their strategic objectives and resource-allocation decisions with customer requirements.

  18. Performance investigation on a 4-bed adsorption desalination cycle with internal heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2016-10-08

    Multi-bed adsorption cycle with the internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator is investigated for desalination application. A numerical model is developed for a 4-bed adsorption cycle implemented with the master-and-slave configuration and the aforementioned internal heat recovery scheme. The present model captures the reversed adsorption/desorption phenomena frequently associated with the unmatched switching periods. Mesoporous silica gel and water vapor emanated from the evaporation of the seawater are employed as the adsorbent and adsorbate pair. The experimental data and investigation for such configurations are reported for the first time at heat source temperatures from 50 °C to 70 °C. The numerical model is validated rigorously and the parametric study is conducted for the performance of the cycle at assorted operation conditions such as hot and cooling water inlet temperatures and the cycle times. The specific daily water production (SDWP) of the present cycle is found to be about 10 m/day per tonne of silica gel for the heat source temperature at 70 °C. Performance comparison is conducted for various types of adsorption desalination cycles. It is observed that the AD cycle with the current configuration provides superior performance whilst is operational at unprecedentedly low heat source temperature as low as 50 °C.

  19. Improving the Performance and Portability of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Peters, Evan; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2016-10-01

    VPIC is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code which is able to deliver novel science at unprecedened scale. Most notably, this includes the attainment of petaflop performance during the simulation of trillions of particles. Such high levels of performance have historically been achieved though the use of vectorization, and explicit compiler intrinsics in VPIC. An approach which can offer good performance, at the cost of the code needing to be re-written for each new vector-width or hardware architecture. In this work we present an investigation of how modern coding techniques and auto-vectorization can be used to enable VPIC to automatically scale to new vector-widths and hardware platforms, using a single codebase which no longer needs to be manually adapted for new vector-widths. To achieve this, we express the core PIC algorithm in such a way that the compiler is able to generate auto-vectorized instructions, including an adaptation of the algorithm so that it no longer contains data dependencies. We also present a performance study for this new code variant, showing that it is able to achieve vector performance comparable to that of historic hand coded intrinsics on both Intel Knights Landing and traditional Intel Xeon platforms. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  20. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  1. Performance Improvement/HPT Model: Guiding the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessinger, Joan Conway; Moseley, James L.; Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary is part of an ongoing dialogue that began in the October 2011 special issue of "Performance Improvement"--Exploring a Universal Performance Model for HPT: Notes From the Field. The performance improvement/HPT (human performance technology) model represents a unifying process that helps accomplish successful change, create…

  2. Numerical simulation of the effects of a suction line heat exchanger on vapor compression refrigeration cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Hwan; Park, Sang Goo; Sarker, Debasish [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Most modern refrigerators incorporate heat transfer between the refrigerant in a capillary tube and the refrigerant in a suction line. This heat transfer is achieved by a non-adiabatic capillary tube called a capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger and is supposed to improve the performance of the small vapor compression refrigeration cycle by removing some enthalpy of the refrigerant at the evaporator entrance. To investigate the effects of this heat transfer on the refrigeration cycle, a computer program was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. The non-adiabatic capillary tube model is based on a homogeneous two-phase flow model. The simulation results show that both the location and length of the heat exchange section influence the coefficient of performance (COP) as well as the cooling capacity. It is noteworthy that the influence was not monotonic; that is, the performance may be deteriorated under certain conditions.

  3. Effect of methylene methanedisulfonate as an additive on the cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renheng; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Bao, E-mail: 123501032@csu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun

    2015-11-05

    In order to overcome the poor cyclability of lithium-ion batteries with spinel lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}), methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) is evaluated as electrolyte additive. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicate that MMDS participates in the formation process of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film above 1 V, which is due to the interfacial reaction between the electrode and electrolyte: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anodes are previously considered free from SEI films when cycled between 1 and 3 V. The stable SEI film around Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is seen most effective as a barrier layer in suppressing the interfacial reaction and resulting gassing from the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface. In addition, the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrate that a thin and good conductive film can be formed on the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface ascribed to MMDS additive, which resulting the improvement of conductivity and a good ability of Li{sup +} migration. - Highlights: • MMDS used as additive to improve cycling performance of the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Li cells. • A SEI film can be formed using MMDS in the electrolyte above 1 V. • Sulfur-containing species is the main component of the SEI formed by MMDS.

  4. Compounds and methods for improving plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas Joseph

    2016-09-20

    The invention is directed to methods and compositions for increasing a growth characteristic of a plant, increasing nutrient use efficiency of a plant, or improving a plant's ability to overcome stress comprising applying a composition comprising ketosuccinamate, a derivative thereof, or a salt thereof, to the plant or to a propagation material of the plant.

  5. Compounds and methods for improving plant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas Joseph

    2016-09-20

    The invention is directed to methods and compositions for increasing a growth characteristic of a plant, increasing nutrient use efficiency of a plant, or improving a plant's ability to overcome stress comprising applying a composition comprising ketosuccinamate, a derivative thereof, or a salt thereof, to the plant or to a propagation material of the plant.

  6. Improvement of methodological and data background for life cycle assessment of nano-metaloxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko

    that considers the whole life cycle of a product or system and is able to quantify impacts from a wide range of impact categories. In theory LCA is the needed tool, but still there is a limited amount of LCAs performed on ENM products and there are concerns raised on how to apply such a tool on an emerging......Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) introduction into consumer products and the increasing amount of ENM product has led to concerns. Based on this, an all-inclusive environmental assessment method of the potential impacts from these is needed. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an assessment method...... that there are several challenges. Firstly the LCAs are limited to the first part of the life cycle, the cradle-to-gate. The main reason for this is that the data and approaches for assessing the remainder of the life cycle are not there. Industrial data inventories are missing, e.g. the data for production of ENMs...

  7. THE EFFECT OF CYCLING CADENCE ON SUBSEQUENT 10KM RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry A. Tew

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km, and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run. During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC, PC+15% (fast cadence and PC-15% (slow cadence. Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD. Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001 without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω2 = 0.006 (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s-1 for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD. However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the slow cadence condition was associated with a significantly lower HR (p = 0.012 and VE (p = 0.026 during cycling than in the fast cadence condition. The results confirm the deterioration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges

  8. An analysis of the aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP) : a life cycle cost approach

    OpenAIRE

    Borer, Chris Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Increasing budgetary constraints have prompted actions to reduce the maintenance cost of current naval aircraft. This thesis examines the Aircraft Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP), its impact on these cost at the organizational and intermediate levels of maintenance, and savings from these improvements. The objectives of the research were to identify current life cycle cost (LCC) models used by the Navy andor the other services...

  9. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  10. Improving Student's Lab Practices: the Performance Grade

    CERN Document Server

    Lippi, G L

    2015-01-01

    Instilling good laboratory working attitudes in students is a difficult but very important task, especially in the first level courses. The introduction of a grade, based on the observation of work practices during laboratory sessions, can be strongly beneficial towards the acquisition of positive skills covering not only the technical aspects, but also the acquisition of both independence and team work. Explicit suggestions are given for basing the grade on specific observations and a quantitative analysis is performed to guarantee that the higher intrinsic volatility of the Performance Grade does not affect the final laboratory grade.

  11. The effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussana, A; Galy, O; Hue, O; Matecki, S; Varray, A; Ramonatxo, M; Le Gallais, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance during a cycle-run succession as performed in the triathlon. We hypothesized that despite the moderate intensity of exercise and the absence of exhaustion, the crouched cycling position would induce a decrease in respiratory muscle performance that would be reversed by the successive vertical run position. Ten male triathletes (22.6 +/- 1.1 yr) performed a four-trial protocol: (1) an incremental cycle test to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), (2) 20 min of cycling (C), (3) 20 min of running (R), and (4) 20 min of cycling followed by 20 min of running (C-R). Trials 2, 3 and 4 were performed at the same metabolic intensity, i. e., 75 % of VO2max. Respiratory muscle force was assessed by measuring maximal expiratory (P(Emax)) and inspiratory (P(Imax)) pressures from the functional residual capacity (FRC) before and 10 min after C, R, and C-R. Respiratory muscle endurance was assessed one day before and 30 min after C, R, and C-R, by measuring the time limit (T(lim)), which corresponds to the length of time a respiratory load can be sustained before the process of fatigue develops sufficiently to cause task failure. The results showed a similar significant decrease in P(Imax) (132.4 +/- 4.9 versus 125.7 +/- 5.6 cm H2O, p 0.05). We concluded that moderate intensity exercise not performed to exhaustion induced a decrease in respiratory muscle performance. Moreover, the respiratory muscle fatigue induced by prior cycling was maintained, and neither reversed nor worsened, by the successive run.

  12. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer.

  13. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  14. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of sp

  15. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  16. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  17. Improving Oral Performance through Interactions Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Jasson

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project that addressed the issue of low oral performance in English among third grade learners at a public girls' school in Bogota, Colombia. The issue was identified via content analysis of ten field logs compiled over the third and fourth quarter of the second semester, 2010. To address the problem of…

  18. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  19. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of

  20. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  1. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  2. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  3. Optimal timing for performing hysterectomy according to different phase of menstrual cycle: Which is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Jin; Kang, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Kyo Won; Kim, Kye Hyun; Song, Taejong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the different phases of the menstrual cycle could affect operative bleeding in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. This was a retrospective comparative study. Based on the adjusted day of menstrual cycle, 212 women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy were classified into three groups: the follicular phase (n = 51), luteal phase group (n = 125), and menstruation group (n = 36). The primary outcome measure was the operative bleeding. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the patients belonging to the three groups. For the groups, there were no significant differences in operative bleeding (p = .469) and change in haemoglobin (p = .330), including operative time, length of hospital stay and complications. The menstrual cycle did not affect the operative bleeding and other parameters. Therefore, no phase of the menstrual cycle could be considered as an optimal timing for performing laparoscopic hysterectomy with minimal operative bleeding. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: the menstrual cycle results in periodic changes in haemostasis and blood flow in the reproductive organs. What the results of this study add: the menstrual cycle did not affect the operative bleeding and other operative parameters during laparoscopic hysterectomy. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: no phase of the menstrual cycle could be considered as an optimal timing for performing laparoscopic hysterectomy with minimal operative bleeding.

  4. Performance assessment and optimization of an irreversible nano-scale Stirling engine cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad-Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah

    2015-09-01

    Developing new technologies like nano-technology improves the performance of the energy industries. Consequently, emerging new groups of thermal cycles in nano-scale can revolutionize the energy systems' future. This paper presents a thermo-dynamical study of a nano-scale irreversible Stirling engine cycle with the aim of optimizing the performance of the Stirling engine cycle. In the Stirling engine cycle the working fluid is an Ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Moreover, two different strategies are proposed for a multi-objective optimization issue, and the outcomes of each strategy are evaluated separately. The first strategy is proposed to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F . Furthermore, the second strategy is suggested to maximize the thermal efficiency ( η), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F). All the strategies in the present work are executed via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithms based on NSGA∥ method. Finally, to achieve the final answer in each strategy, three well-known decision makers are executed. Lastly, deviations of the outcomes gained in each strategy and each decision maker are evaluated separately.

  5. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigamonti, L., E-mail: lucia.rigamonti@polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  6. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle: A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically, i

  7. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle: A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically,

  8. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  9. The performance characteristics of an irreversible quantum Otto harmonic refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiZhou; HE Xian; TANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,an irreversible quantum Otto refrigeration cycle working with harmonic systems is estab-lished.Base on Heisenberg quantum master equation,the equations of motion for the set of harmonic systems thermodynamic observables are derived.The simulated diagrams of the quantum Otto refrig-eration cycle are plotted.The relationship between average power of friction,cooling rate,power input,and the time of adiabatic process is analyzed by using numerical calculation.Moreover,the influence of the heat conductance and the time of iso-frequency process on the performance of the cycle is dis-cussed.

  10. The performance characteristics of an irreversible quantum Otto harmonic refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an irreversible quantum Otto refrigeration cycle working with harmonic systems is established. Base on Heisenberg quantum master equation, the equations of motion for the set of harmonic systems thermodynamic observables are derived. The simulated diagrams of the quantum Otto refrigeration cycle are plotted. The relationship between average power of friction, cooling rate, power input, and the time of adiabatic process is analyzed by using numerical calculation. Moreover, the influence of the heat conductance and the time of iso-frequency process on the performance of the cycle is discussed.

  11. Diversity improves performance in excitable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gollo, Leonardo L; Roberts, James A

    2016-01-01

    As few real systems comprise indistinguishable units, diversity is a hallmark of nature. Diversity among interacting units shapes properties of collective behavior such as synchronization and information transmission. However, the benefits of diversity on information processing at the edge of a phase transition, ordinarily assumed to emerge from identical elements, remain largely unexplored. Analyzing a general model of excitable systems with heterogeneous excitability, we find that diversity can greatly enhance optimal performance (by two orders of magnitude) when distinguishing incoming inputs. Heterogeneous systems possess a subset of specialized elements whose capability greatly exceeds that of the nonspecialized elements. Nonetheless, the behavior of the whole network can outperform all subgroups. We also find that diversity can yield multiple percolation, with performance optimized at tricriticality. Our results are robust in specific and more realistic neuronal systems comprising a combination of excit...

  12. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagami Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC, a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  13. Performance improvement in the perioperative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen V; Krupka, Dan C

    2012-12-01

    Hospital finance leaders should work with their organizations' perioperative leaders to implement a three-step process for identifying projects with the greatest potential for improving quality while reducing costs and increasing revenue. In essence, this process involves mapping the strategy, developing a list of potential projects, and culling projects that cannot reasonably be accomplished with available resources. The extent to which staff resources are available for such projects can best be measured using a simple spreadsheet designed for tracking special assignments of each staff member.

  14. Mental Toughness Moderates Social Loafing in Cycle Time-Trial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J.; Peters, Derek M.; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Method: Twenty-seven men (M[subscript age] = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual…

  15. Temporal strategy and performance during a fatiguing short-cycle repetitive task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Mathiassen, S.E.; Hallman, D.; Looze, M.P. de; Lyskov, E.; Visser, B.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated temporal changes in movement strategy and performance during fatiguing short-cycle work. Eighteen participants performed six 7-min work blocks with repetitive reaching movements at 0.5 Hz, each followed by a 5.5-min rest break for a total duration of 1 h. Electromyography (EM

  16. Expectancy and the Menstrual Cycle: Effects on Performance and Self-Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhaus, Amy L.

    The impact of false information concerning the effect of the menstrual cycle on test performance and subjects' perception of the adequacy of that performance were investigated. Women (N=65) were studied either during the premenstrual or midcycle phase. Subjects were given one of three interpretations: (1) they should do well because of their…

  17. Expectancy and the Menstrual Cycle: Effects on Performance and Self-Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhaus, Amy L.

    The impact of false information concerning the effect of the menstrual cycle on test performance and subjects' perception of the adequacy of that performance were investigated. Women (N=65) were studied either during the premenstrual or midcycle phase. Subjects were given one of three interpretations: (1) they should do well because of their…

  18. Effect of heat and heat acclimatization on cycling time trial performance and pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Périard, Julien D; Karlsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heat-acclimatization on performance and pacing during outdoor cycling time-trials (TT, 43.4km) in the heat. METHODS: Nine cyclists performed 3 TTs in hot ambient conditions (TTH, ∼37ºC) on the first (TTH-1), sixth (TTH-2) and fourteenth (TTH-3) days of trainin...

  19. Directed evolution strategies for improved enzymatic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalby Paul A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The engineering of enzymes with altered activity, specificity and stability, using directed evolution techniques that mimic evolution on a laboratory timescale, is now well established. However, the general acceptance of these methods as a route to new biocatalysts for organic synthesis requires further improvement of the methods for both ease-of-use and also for obtaining more significant changes in enzyme properties than is currently possible. Recent advances in library design, and methods of random mutagenesis, combined with new screening and selection tools, continue to push forward the potential of directed evolution. For example, protein engineers are now beginning to apply the vast body of knowledge and understanding of protein structure and function, to the design of focussed directed evolution libraries, with striking results compared to the previously favoured random mutagenesis and recombination of entire genes. Significant progress in computational design techniques which mimic the experimental process of library screening is also now enabling searches of much greater regions of sequence-space for those catalytic reactions that are broadly understood and, therefore, possible to model. Biocatalysis for organic synthesis frequently makes use of whole-cells, in addition to isolated enzymes, either for a single reaction or for transformations via entire metabolic pathways. As many new whole-cell biocatalysts are being developed by metabolic engineering, the potential of directed evolution to improve these initial designs is also beginning to be realised.

  20. Performance analysis of irreversible quantum Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycles and their parametric optimum criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2006-08-01

    The influence of both the quantum degeneracy and the finite-rate heat transfer between the working substance and the heat reservoirs on the optimal performance of an irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycle using an ideal Fermi or Bose gas as the working substance is investigated, based on the theory of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic properties of ideal quantum gases. The inherent regeneration losses of the cycle are analysed. Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the cycle is optimized for a given power input. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal regions of the coefficient of performance and power input are determined. In particular, the optimal performance of the cycle in the strong and weak gas degeneracy cases and the high temperature limit are discussed in detail. The analytic expressions of some optimized parameters are derived. Some optimum criteria are given. The distinctions and connections between the Stirling refrigeration cycles working with the ideal quantum and classical gases are revealed.

  1. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  2. Continuing education for performance improvement: a creative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patti-Ann; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L; Zisblatt, Lara

    2012-10-01

    In an effort to improve patient safety and health care outcomes, continuing medical education has begun to focus on performance improvement initiatives for physician practices. Boston University School of Medicine's (BUSM) Continuing Nursing Education Accredited Provider Unit has begun a creative project to award nursing contact hours for nurses' participation in performance improvement activities. This column highlights its initial efforts.

  3. Improving Spelling Performance by Imitating a Child's Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Jo Ann Hiroshige; Gerber, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    When a contingent imitation and modeling procedure was used with a learning disabled eight-year-old, results indicated significant improvement in the number of correctly spelled words. On a transfer test, performance was slightly improved over pretest performance. However, analysis of error quality revealed substantial improvement in ability.…

  4. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  5. Applying sport psychology to improve clinical performance().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Helen R; Rumbold, James L; Sandars, John

    2017-08-08

    Preparedness for practice has become an international theme within Medical Education: for healthcare systems to maintain their highest clinical standards, junior doctors must "hit the ground running" on beginning work. Despite demonstrating logical, structured assessment and management plans during their undergraduate examinations, many newly qualified doctors report difficulty in translating this theoretical knowledge into the real clinical environment. "Preparedness" must constitute more than the knowledge and skills acquired during medical school. Complexities of the clinical environment overwhelm some junior doctors, who acknowledge that they lack strategies to manage their anxieties, under-confidence and low self-efficacy. If uncontrolled, such negative emotions and behaviors may impede the delivery of time-critical treatment for acutely unwell patients and compound junior doctors' self-doubt, thus impacting future patient encounters. Medical Education often seeks inspiration from other industries for potential solutions to challenges. To address "preparedness for practice," this AMEE Guide highlights sport psychology: elite sportspeople train both physically and psychologically for their discipline. The latter promotes management of negative emotions, distractions and under-confidence, thus optimizing performance despite immense pressures of career-defining moments. Similar techniques might allow junior doctors to optimize patient care, especially within stressful situations. This AMEE Guide introduces the novel conceptual model, PERFORM, which targets the challenges faced by junior doctors on graduation. The model applies pre-performance routines from sport psychology with the self-regulatory processes of metacognition to the clinical context. This model could potentially equip junior doctors, and other healthcare professionals facing similar challenges, with strategies to optimize clinical care under the most difficult circumstances.

  6. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  7. Improved PSI Performance for Landslide Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Javier; Iglesias, Ruben; Blanco, Pablo; Sanchez, Francisco; Albiol, David

    2015-05-01

    The work proposed in this paper shows advanced Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) processing based on the use of the Non-Local Interferometric SAR (NLInSAR) filtering for improving landslides monitoring applications. The rationale is to enhance the interferometric phase quality, preserving the full resolution of SAR images, in order to detect both distributed and deterministic scatterers, with the objective of increasing the density of final PSI products. Moreover, since SAR systems are only sensitive to detect displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, the importance of projecting PSI displacement products along the steepest gradient of the terrain slope is put forward. Two TerraSAR-X data sets acquired in ascending mode corresponding to the period from April to November 2011, and from August to November 2013, respectively, over the area of El Portalet (Central Spanish Pyrenees), are employed for this purpose.

  8. Algorithms for improved performance in cryptographic protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn

    2003-11-01

    Public key cryptographic algorithms provide data authentication and non-repudiation for electronic transmissions. The mathematical nature of the algorithms, however, means they require a significant amount of computation, and encrypted messages and digital signatures possess high bandwidth. Accordingly, there are many environments (e.g. wireless, ad-hoc, remote sensing networks) where public-key requirements are prohibitive and cannot be used. The use of elliptic curves in public-key computations has provided a means by which computations and bandwidth can be somewhat reduced. We report here on the research conducted in an LDRD aimed to find even more efficient algorithms and to make public-key cryptography available to a wider range of computing environments. We improved upon several algorithms, including one for which a patent has been applied. Further we discovered some new problems and relations on which future cryptographic algorithms may be based.

  9. An isocaloric glucose-fructose beverage's effect on simulated 100-km cycling performance compared with a glucose-only beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Darren; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Benardot, Dan

    2010-04-01

    A number of recent research studies have demonstrated that providing glucose and fructose together in a beverage consumed during exercise results in significantly higher oxidation rates of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) than consuming glucose alone. However, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the increased exogenous CHO oxidation improves endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming a beverage containing glucose and fructose (GF) would result in improved cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage (G). Nine male competitive cyclists (32.6 +/- 5.8 years, peak oxygen uptake 61.5 +/- 7.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed a familiarization trial and then 2 simulated 100-km cycling time trials on an electronically braked Lode cycle ergometer separated by 5-7 d. During the randomly ordered experimental trials, participants received 36 g of CHO of either G or GF in 250 ml of water every 15 min. All 9 participants completed the 100-km time trial significantly faster when they received the GF beverage than with G (204.0 +/- 23.7 vs. 220.6 +/- 36.6 min; p = .023). There was no difference at any time point between trials for blood glucose or for blood lactate. Total CHO oxidation increased significantly from rest during exercise but was not statistically significant between the GF and G trials, although there was a trend for CHO oxidation to be higher with GF in the latter stages of the time trial. Consumption of a CHO beverage containing glucose and fructose results in improved 100-km cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage.

  10. Improving the Gas Instantaneous Water Heaters Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Kloub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a study of a theoretical and practical investigation of the gas Instantaneous (Tankless water Heaters performance. The results allow us to obtain realistic values of the control system in the various capacities gaseous flowing water heaters. The objective of this work is to study the operation of the plans in the field of controlling and checking low capacity gaseous flowing water in order to choose the proper plan of the logical values and measures for these equipments that may be used in industrial conditions. Also results of the work proved to be accurate. A design of the control system was made. The results of the practical experiment of the control system were similar to the arithmetic results.

  11. Improving neural network performance on SIMD architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonova, Elena; Ilin, Dmitry; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Neural network calculations for the image recognition problems can be very time consuming. In this paper we propose three methods of increasing neural network performance on SIMD architectures. The usage of SIMD extensions is a way to speed up neural network processing available for a number of modern CPUs. In our experiments, we use ARM NEON as SIMD architecture example. The first method deals with half float data type for matrix computations. The second method describes fixed-point data type for the same purpose. The third method considers vectorized activation functions implementation. For each method we set up a series of experiments for convolutional and fully connected networks designed for image recognition task.

  12. Improving video processing performance using temporal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Karmouch, Ahmed

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, we present a system, called MediABS, for extracting key frames in a video segment. First we will describe the overall architecture of the system and we will show how our system can handle multiple video formats with a single video-processing module. Then we will present a new algorithm, based on color histograms. The algorithm exploits the temporal characteristic of the visual information and provides techniques for avoiding false cuts and eliminating the possibility of missing true cuts. A discussion, along with some results, will be provided to show the merits of our algorithm compared to existing related algorithms. Finally we will discuss the performance (in terms of processing time and accuracy) obtained by our system in extracting the key frames from a video segment. This work is part of the Mobile Agents Alliance project involving University of Ottawa, National Research Council (NRC) and Mitel Corporation.

  13. Performance improvement of CGHs for optical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, Christof; Reichelt, Stephan; Korolkov, Victor P.; Osten, Wolfgang; Tiziani, Hans J.

    2003-05-01

    The expansion of the field of diffractive optics applications is accompanied by toughening performance requirements for CGHs. Optical testing sets especially high requirements, concerning wavefront accuracy and diffraction efficiency. The key point in fabrication technology is the writing system creating the photomask or the profiled pattern. The diffractive optics fabrication facility at ITO (University of Stuttgart) is based on the circular laser writing system CLWS-300. This flexible and high-accurate tool was originally designed for binary diffractive optics fabrication. This paper presents novel enhancements of this system allowing direct laser writing of a wide range of binary and continuous-relief CGHs on photoresist layers, chromium films and LDW-glass. Main topics of the enhancements were the scanning accuracy and exposure control. Many types of CGHs (binary precision holograms for optical testing, Shack-Hartmann arrays, microlens discs for confocal microscopy, diffractive interferometer objectives, doughnut generators etc.) have been manufactured using the developed algorithms and hardware.

  14. Effects of baroreceptor stimulation on performance of the Sternberg short-term memory task: a cardiac cycle time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelhas Martins, Amadeu; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Activation of arterial baroreceptors can affect cortical activity. Cardiac cycle time studies have established that natural variations in baroreceptor activation are associated with changes in basic sensorimotor function whereas few have investigated more complex cognitive function. Aiming to improve our understanding of this phenomenon, this study examined performance on the Sternberg memory task as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle. In each trial, participants were shown either two or six digits followed by a probe digit that either had or had not been presented previously and were required to press one of two response buttons to indicate a match and mismatch, respectively. Response latency per additional digit was greater for stimuli presented late compared to early in the cardiac cycle whereas the zero intercept was greatest at the start of the cardiac cycle and reduced as the cycle progressed. These findings provide evidence that natural baroreceptor stimulation can affect complex cognitive processes, such as serial-comparison in short-term memory, as well as basic sensorimotor processes.

  15. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim to identify and discuss priority elements required to improve exposure estimates in Life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA aims at guiding decision-support to minimize damages on resources, humans, and ecosystems which incur via providing society with products and services. Potential...... human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...

  16. Improving building life-cycle information management through documentation and communication of project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-08-01

    Most currently available computer tools for the building industry proffer little more than productivity improvement in the transmission of graphical drawings and textual specifications, without addressing more fundamental changes in building life-cycle information management. This paper describes preliminary research into the development of a framework for the documentation and communication of the project objectives of a building project. When implemented in an interactive networked environment, this framework is intended to promote multiple participant involvement in the establishment and use of a common set of explicit goals, from the earliest phase of a project throughout its life cycle. A number of potential applications for this framework are identified. The requirements for integrating this life-cycle information with a product model of the physical design of a building, in an attempt to document and communicate design intent, are also discussed.

  17. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  18. Improving Hearing Performance Using Natural Auditory Coding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, Frank

    Sound transfer from the human ear to the brain is based on three quite different neural coding principles when the continuous temporal auditory source signal is sent as binary code in excellent quality via 30,000 nerve fibers per ear. Cochlear implants are well-accepted neural prostheses for people with sensory hearing loss, but currently the devices are inspired only by the tonotopic principle. According to this principle, every sound frequency is mapped to a specific place along the cochlea. By electrical stimulation, the frequency content of the acoustic signal is distributed via few contacts of the prosthesis to corresponding places and generates spikes there. In contrast to the natural situation, the artificially evoked information content in the auditory nerve is quite poor, especially because the richness of the temporal fine structure of the neural pattern is replaced by a firing pattern that is strongly synchronized with an artificial cycle duration. Improvement in hearing performance is expected by involving more of the ingenious strategies developed during evolution.

  19. Improving the Performance of Urban Road Intersection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fareed M.A.Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Road intersection is responsible for an important proportion of air pollution especially in urban areas, due to long queues of vehicles waiting for discharge. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify their emissions as accurately as possible. In this study an attempt was made to research on reducing the traffic air pollution such as CO, CO2, HC and NOx, fuel consumption and vehicle operating cost along with improving the traffic flow and delay at a road intersection. One major uncontrolled (un signalized intersection in capital city Sana'a (Yemen was chosen for the study. The traffic air pollution, fuel consumption and vehicle operating cost as well as vehicle delay was calculated for the base year 2012 using aaSIDRA 2.0 software developed in Australia. For the horizon year 2022, three scenarios were considered for investigation viz. (1 do nothing, (2 signalizing the intersection and (3 construction of flyover. The analysis shows that for the above mentioned parameters scenario (3 will be the best scenario followed by scenario (2, while worst case scenario will be do nothing.

  20. Performance improvements in arrayed waveguide grating modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Melissa; Fondeur, Barthelemy; Liddle, Craig; Marsh, John A.; Sala, Anca-Liliana

    2002-06-01

    The future of telecom system design relies heavily on combining many optical devices into multifunctional modules with superior performance, lower cost, and smaller overall package size. The AWG module developments discussed here will afford comprehensive benefits to advanced optical networks. Current AWG development efforts focus on lowering insertion loss, reducing crosstalk, increasing channel bandwidth, decreasing channel spacing, managing dispersion, decreasing package size, and incorporating intelligent electronics. Better matching of the waveguide geometry and index of the integrated circuit to the optical fiber reduces the coupling loss. Other design optimizations to the waveguide bend radius and waveguide pitch at the slab can decrease circuit loss. High quality processing reduces the inhomogenieties that cause phase errors in AWGs and thus increase channel crosstalk. Optical design modifications in AWG waveguide tapers at the slab can change the passband shape and increase the channel bandwidth. Dispersion can be managed by better controlling the dispersion slope allowing for compensation. Innovations for temperature control circuitry and novel packaging designs and materials allow for smaller modules and reduced power consumption.

  1. Improving Vaginal Examinations Performed by Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda S. Muliira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A vaginal examination (VE is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant,embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management ofpain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE.

  2. The influence of training status, age, and muscle fiber type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Coleman, Damian A; Gregson, Hannah C; Jobson, Simon A; Von der Haar, Tobias; Wiles, Jonathan; Passfield, Louis

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status, and muscle fiber-type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty men were recruited into one of four groups: young and old trained cyclists, and young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their peak O2 uptake, maximal heart rate, and maximal minute power output; a submaximal test of cycling gross efficiency (GE) at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and, in trained participants only, a 1-h cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on GE (P 0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average O2 uptake and GE, with standardized β-coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34, respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fiber type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the aging process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibers were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 revolutions/min was seen to predict cycling performance.

  3. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  4. Performance Improvement of Adsorption Refrigerating Machines by the Application of a Global Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Akahira, Akira

    The study used the particle swarm optimization to maximize the specific cooling capacity (SCC) of a single-stage adsorption chiller, as well as to maximize the coefficient of performance (COP) at part load conditions of the chiller. The cycle time, which consists of adsorption/desorption time and pre-heating/ pre-cooling time, was chosen as a design parameter. The simulation results of a mathematical model showed a good agreement with experimental results on SCC and COP. It was shown that the SCC could be improved by the optimum cycle time as much as by 30% compared with that by the fixed cycle time. It was also presented that the part load COP would be significantly increased by the cycle time optimization at part load conditions.

  5. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS, which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p=0.046 and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p=0.031; thus both methods show the significant difference.

  6. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chieh; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yeh, Chun-Yu; Lo, Hsin-Chang; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS), which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI) between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p = 0.046) and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p = 0.031); thus both methods show the significant difference.

  7. An improved dust emission model with insights into the global dust cycle's climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Fratini, G.; Gillies, J. A.; Ishizuka, M.; Leys, J. F.; Mikami, M.; Park, M.-S.; Park, S.-U.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Ward, D. S.; Zobeck, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Simulations of the global dust cycle and its interactions with a changing Earth system are hindered by the empirical nature of dust emission parameterizations in climate models. Here we take a step towards improving global dust cycle simulations by presenting a physically-based dust emission model. The resulting dust flux parameterization depends only on the wind friction speed and the soil's threshold friction speed, and can therefore be readily implemented into climate models. We show that our parameterization's functional form is supported by a compilation of quality-controlled vertical dust flux measurements, and that it better reproduces these measurements than existing parameterizations. Both our theory and measurements indicate that many climate models underestimate the dust flux's sensitivity to soil erodibility. This finding can explain why dust cycle simulations in many models are improved by using an empirical preferential sources function that shifts dust emissions towards the most erodible regions. In fact, implementing our parameterization in a climate model produces even better agreement against aerosol optical depth measurements than simulations that use such a source function. These results indicate that the need to use a source function is at least partially eliminated by the additional physics accounted for by our parameterization. Since soil erodibility is affected by climate changes, our results further suggest that many models have underestimated the climate sensitivity of the global dust cycle.

  8. Performance characteristics of low-dissipative generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄传昆; 郭君诚; 陈金灿

    2015-01-01

    Under the assumption of low-dissipation, a unified model of generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses is established. Analytical expressions for the power output and efficiency are derived. The general performance characteristics between the power output and the efficiency are revealed. The maximum power output and efficiency are calculated. The lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are determined. The results obtained here are universal and can be directly used to reveal the performance characteristics of different Carnot cycles, such as Carnot heat engines, Carnot-like heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, chemical engines, two-level quantum engines, etc.

  9. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  10. Effect of time of day on performance, hormonal and metabolic response during a 1000-M cycling time trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Lins Fernandes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of time of day on performance, pacing, and hormonal and metabolic responses during a 1000-m cycling time-trial. Nine male, recreational cyclists visited the laboratory four times. During the 1st visit the participants performed an incremental test and during the 2nd visit they performed a 1000-m cycling familiarization trial. On the 3rd and 4th visits, the participants performed a 1000-m TT at either 8 am or 6 pm, in randomized, repeated-measures, crossover design. The time to complete the time trial was lower in the evening than in the morning (88.2±8.7 versus 94.7±10.9 s, respectively, p0.05, but the norepinephrine response to the exercise was increased in the morning (+46%, p0.05. Our findings suggest that performance was improved in the evening, and it was accompanied by an improved hormonal and metabolic milieu.

  11. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, L; Falbo, A; Grosso, M

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of the 'GERLA' project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia - Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia - Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Complex Heat Exchangers for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, Gabriela Alejandra

    propagates along the channel. However, the sinusoidal behavior on one of the fluids does not fully translate to the other gets damped by the wall and the heat transfer coefficients that can be barely seen on the other flow. A scaling analysis and a parametric study were performed to determine the influence the different parameters on the system have on the time a heat exchanger takes to reach steady state. The results show the dependency of tst* (time a system takes to reach steady state) on the dimensionless parameters M, C, NTUh, NTUc, and Cw. t st* depends linearly on C and Cw, and it is a power function of M. It was also shown that tst* has a logarithmic dependency on NTUh and NTUc. A correlation was generated to approximate the time a system takes to reach steady state for systems where C w system is the start-up time and also how disturbances in reacting flow can affect the steam outlet temperature. The transient behavior during the system start-up was presented. In order to achieve the desired outlet steam temperature at a reasonable time, the system must operate at high gas mass flow rates. If the inlet temperature of the gas suffers a step change, it affects the reaction rate as well as the outlet steam temperature. A small perturbation on the gas mass flow rate has an effect on the profile shape. However, the maximum temperature reached by the gas due to reaction is not affected, and consequently, it has little effect on the steam temperature. Axial conduction in the reactor heat exchanger was also investigated, specifically in the gas section. Axial conduction cannot be assumed to be negligible in the reactor heat exchanger because of the iron-based catalytic bed. Results in this section show that axial conduction is detrimental for the system. It was found that for Peclet number greater than 100, axial conduction can be neglected. An alternative solution to address axial conduction was proposed, namely to include a well-insulated non-reacting section (without a

  13. HTR-Based Power Plants’ Performance Analysis Applied on Conventional Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carbia Carril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In high temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR specifically designed to operate as power plant heat sources, efficiency enhancement at effective cost under safe conditions can be achieved. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of two cycle structures: (a, a stand alone Brayton operating with helium and a stand alone Rankine cycle (RC with regeneration, operating with carbon dioxide at ultrasupercritical pressure as working fluid (WF, where condensation is carried out at quasicritical conditions, and (b, a combined cycle (CC, in which the topping closed Brayton cycle (CBC operates with helium as WF, while the bottoming RC is operated with one of the following WFs: carbon dioxide, xenon, ethane, ammonia, or water. In both cases, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE is proposed to provide thermal energy to the closed Brayton or to the Rankine cycles. The results of the case study show that the thermal efficiency, through the use of a CC, is slightly improved (from 45.79% for BC and from 50.17% for RC to 53.63 for the proposed CC with He-H2O operating under safety standards.

  14. Effect of 28 days of creatine ingestion on muscle metabolism and performance of a simulated cycling road race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatley Holly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The effects of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism and exercise performance during a simulated endurance road race was investigated. Methods Twelve adult male (27.3 ± 1.0 yr, 178.6 ± 1.4 cm, 78.0 ± 2.5 kg, 8.9 ± 1.1 %fat endurance-trained (53.3 ± 2.0 ml* kg-1* min-1, cycling ~160 km/wk cyclists completed a simulated road race on a cycle ergometer (Lode, consisting of a two-hour cycling bout at 60% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak with three 10-second sprints performed at 110% VO2 peak every 15 minutes. Cyclists completed the 2-hr cycling bout before and after dietary creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation (3 g/day for 28 days. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and five minutes before the end of the two-hour ride. Results There was a 24.5 ± 10.0% increase in resting muscle total creatine and 38.4 ± 23.9% increase in muscle creatine phosphate in the creatine group (P 2 peak, were not affected by creatine supplementation. Submaximal oxygen consumption near the end of the two-hour ride was decreased by approximately 10% by creatine supplementation (P +14.0 ± 6.3% than the placebo group (-10.4 ± 4.4%; P Conclusions It can be concluded that although creatine supplementation may increase resting muscle total creatine, muscle creatine phosphate, and plasma volume, and may lead to a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise, creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance at the end of endurance cycling exercise.

  15. Thermoeconomic impact on combined cycle performance of advanced blade cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, Francesco; Traverso, Alberto; Massardo, Aristide Fausto [Thermochemical Power Group (TPG), Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti (DIMSET) - University of Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In this work the thermoeconomic features of two different combined cycles using air ''open loop'' and steam ''closed loop'' cooled gas turbines are presented and compared in depth. In order to properly estimate both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performance of the different combined cycles an analytical model of the blade cooling system has been developed in details and outlined in the paper. Internal Thermoeconomic functional analysis is not performed here, as only economic results are shown and discussed. The blade cooling detailed model, originally developed by TPG researchers, has been integrated into the web based modular code WTEMP, already validated for GT based cycles, developed in the last ten years by TPG. It is shown that the closed loop blade cooling configuration has the greatest potential in terms of thermodynamic efficiency and economic competitivity in the mid-term. (author)

  16. EFFECTS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEEDBACK ON PERFORMANCE OF THE BMX CYCLING GATE START

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Zabala

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the administration of external feedback (FB on the time used to execute the gate start skill in BMX cycling discipline. The sample used was n = 6 riders from the Spanish national team (19.3 ± 2.1 years. An intragroup experimental design with repeated measures was used to compare the evolution of the skill developed by the participants before and after treatment, as well as the degree of retention of the possible learning. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the 2 first pre-test sessions (PRE, nor between any of the other treatment, post-test or re-test sessions (TREAT, POS and RET, respectively. Nevertheless, significant differences were observed between either of the PRE sessions and any of the TREAT, POS or RET sessions (p < 0.028, showing a significant reduction of the time needed to perform this skill after TREAT (1.264 ± 0.045 ms in PRE, 1.047 ± 0.019 ms in POS, and 1.041 ± 0.021 ms in RET. In conclusion, the use of audiovisual FB and cognitive training of the skill can result in a significant improvement in the execution of the gate start in BMX reducing the time to develop the task

  17. Evaluating ice sheet model performance over the last glacial cycle using paleo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexander; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Montoya, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Estimating the past evolution of ice sheets is important for improving our understanding of their role in the Earth system and for quantifying their contribution to sea-level changes. Limited but significant paleo data and proxies are available to give insights into past changes that are valid, at least, on a local scale. Meanwhile, models can be used to provide a mechanistic picture of ice sheet changes. Combined data-model comparisons are therefore useful exercises that allow models to be confronted with real-world information and lead to better understanding of the mechanisms driving changes. In turn, models can potentially be used to validate the data by providing a physical explanation for observed phenomena. Here we focus on the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet through the last glacial cycle to highlight common problems and potential opportunities for data-model comparisons. We will present several examples of how present generation model results are inconsistent with estimates from paleo data, either in terms of the boundary forcing given to the model or the resulting characteristics of the ice sheet. We also propose a set of data-model comparisons as the starting point for developing a more standardized paleo model performance check. Incorporating such a test into modeling efforts could generate new insights in coupled climate - ice sheet modeling.

  18. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ savings of 6%.

  19. A synthesis of research needs for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leiming; Lyman, Seth; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Gay, David A.; Wang, Shuxiao; Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Feng, Xinbin; Wania, Frank

    2017-07-01

    This synthesis identifies future research needs in atmospheric mercury science, based on a series of review papers, as well as recent developments in field data collection, modeling analysis, and emission assessments of speciated atmospheric mercury. Research activities are proposed that focus on areas that we consider important. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air-surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation. Knowledge gained in these research areas will significantly improve our understanding of atmospheric cycling from local to global scales.

  20. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  1. Balancing act. Using the clinic scorecard to improve practice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Art

    2007-02-01

    The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that impels managers to focus on the performance metrics that drive success. It measures the business process and links a management method for process improvement to strategic goals. A medical practice can use a balanced scorecard to improve operational performance and quality or service, which generates higher levels of patient satisfaction and better financial management.

  2. Squat Jump Performance during Growth in Both Sexes: Comparison with Cycling Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Eric; Bedu, Mario; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate leg muscle power and compare two activities (jumping and cycling) in 383 girls and 407 boys ages 9-19 years. Results in anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance were comparable until midadolescence, and sex differences were observed. Lean leg volume (LLV) was the reason for…

  3. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, K.; Koning, J.J. de; Foster, C.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling

  4. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress a

  5. Life cycle assessment of sisal fibre – Exploring how local practices can influence environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, Martijn L M; Dellaert, Stijn N C; Cok, Benjamin; Patel, Martin K.; Worrell, Ernst; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Sisal fibre can potentially replace glass fibre in natural fibre composites. This study focuses on the environmental performance of sisal fibre production by quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of producing sisal fibre in Tanzania and Brazil using life cycle assessment

  6. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and tw

  7. Performance evaluation of a vapor compression heat pump cycle using binary zeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shigeru; Yara, Tomoyasu

    1999-07-01

    The HCFC refrigerants such as R22 have been used widely as working fluids in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems until now. These refrigerants, however, should be phased out early in the next century to prevent the depletion of the ozone layer. In this situation, binary and/or ternary mixtures composed of HFC and/or natural refrigerants have attracted a great deal of attention due to the following possibilities: (1) to improve the coefficient of performance, COP, by utilizing the temperature glide during phase change processes; (2) to keep the system in more suitable condition for given temperature levels of heat source and heat sink by selecting the combination and composition of refrigerants, etc. From this point of view, in the present study, the performance prediction of a vapor compression heat pump cycle using binary zeotropic refrigerant mixtures is carried out to clarify the effects of the combination of refrigerants, the composition of refrigerants and the size of heat exchangers on COP. In the prediction calculation, a vapor compression heat pump cycle, which consists of a compressor, a vertical plate-fin condenser, an expansion valve, a liquid-vapor separator and a vertical plate-fin evaporator is treated, and the following assumptions are employed: (1) the compression process is isentropic, (2) the expansion process is isenthalpic, (3) the refrigerant is a saturated liquid at the condenser outlet and a superheated vapor at the evaporator outlet, (4) the pressure drop in the condenser is negligible, while that in the evaporator is considered, (5) the local heat transfer characteristics in heat exchangers are considered. The prediction calculation is done for the binary zeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC134a/HCFC123 on condition that the heat source water temperature at the condenser outlet, the heat sink water temperature at the evaporator inlet, the water temperature change through condenser and evaporator, the heat load of condenser, the

  8. Environmental cycling of cellulosic thermal insulation and its influence on fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    A study was conducted on climatological data for eleven cities located throughout the United States. Findings from this environmental study were used to develop conditioning cycles for a research project on the influence of environments on the fire performance of loose-fill cellulosic thermal insulation. Six cellulosic insulation materials with different compositions of fire retardant chemicals at an add-on level of 25% by weight were specially manufactured for this study. These materials were tested for fire performance using the smoldering combustion test and the attic flooring radiant panel test to establish a baseline. After the materials were exposed to the various environmental cycles, they were tested for fire performance. Results from these tests show that environmental exposure can have a significant effect on the fire performance of cellulosic insulation materials and indicates that long term fire protection provided by fire retardant compounds may be limited.

  9. Impact of cycle-hysteresis interactions on the performance of giant magnetocaloric effect refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. D.; Karaman, I.; Shamberger, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic refrigeration technology based on the giant magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants is known qualitatively to be limited by dissipative mechanisms accompanying hysteresis in the magneto-structural solid-solid phase transition. In this paper, we quantitatively explore the dependence of cycle performance metrics (cooling power, temperature span, work input, and fractional Carnot efficiency) on hysteresis properties (thermal hysteresis, one-way transition width) of the magneto-structural phase transition in a Ni45Co5Mn36.6In13.4 alloy system. We investigate a variety of Ericsson-type magnetic refrigeration cycles, using a Preisach-based non-equilibrium thermodynamic framework to model the evolution of the alloy's magnetic and thermal properties. Performance metrics are found to depend strongly on hysteresis parameters, regardless of the cycle chosen. However, for a given hysteresis parameter set, the material's transformation temperatures determine a unique cycle that maximizes efficiency. For the model system used undergoing Ericsson cycles with 5 and 1.5 {{T}} maximum field constraint, fractional Carnot efficiencies in excess of 0.9 require thermal hysteresis below 1.5 {{K}} and 0.5 {{K}}, respectively. We conclude briefly with some general materials considerations for mitigating these hysteresis inefficiencies through microstructure design and other materials processing strategies.

  10. Optimal thermoeconomic performance of an irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhichao [College of Physical Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Guo, Juncheng [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350116 China (China); Lin, Guoxing, E-mail: gxlin@xmu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Jincan [College of Physical Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of the Langevin theory of classical statistical mechanics, the magnetization, entropy, and iso-field heat capacity of ferromagnetic materials are analyzed and their mathematical expressions are derived. An irreversible regenerative Ericsson refrigeration cycle by using a ferromagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which finite heat capacity rates of low and high temperature reservoirs, non-perfect regenerative heat of the refrigeration cycle, additional regenerative heat loss, etc. are taken into account. Based on the regenerative refrigeration cycle model, a thermoeconomic function is introduced as one objective function and optimized with respect to the temperatures of the working substance in the two iso-thermal processes. By means of numerical calculation, the effects of the effective factor of the heat exchangers in high/low temperature reservoir sides, efficiency of the regenerator, heat capacity rate of the low temperature reservoir, and applied magnetic field on the optimal thermoeconomic function as well as the corresponding cooling rate and coefficient of performance are revealed. The results obtained in this paper can provide some theoretical guidance for the optimal design of actual regenerative magnetic refrigerator cycle. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic performance of ferromagnetic material is analyzed. • An irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle is set up. • The thermoeconomic objective function is introduced and optimized. • Impacts of the thermoeconomic and other parameters are discussed.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Hermetic Screw-Expander Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wei Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors experimentally investigate the performance of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC and screw expander under the influence of supply pressure and pressure ratio over the expander. Three tests were performed with expander pressure ratios of 2.4–3.5, 3.0–4.6, and 3.3–6.1, which cover the over-expansion and under-expansion operating modes. The test results show a maximum expander isentropic efficiency of 72.4% and a relative cycle efficiency of 10.5% at an evaporation temperature of 101 °C and condensation temperature of 45 °C. At a given pressure ratio over the expander, a higher supply pressure to the expander causes a higher expander isentropic efficiency and higher cycle efficiency in the over-expansion mode. However, in the under-expansion mode, the higher supply pressure results in a lower expander isentropic efficiency and adversely affects the cycle efficiency. The results also show that under the condition of operation at a given pressure ratio, a higher supply pressure yields a larger power output owing to the increased mass flow rate at the higher supply pressure. The study results demonstrate that a screw-expander ORC can be operated with a wide range of heat sources and heat sinks with satisfactory cycle efficiency.

  12. Improved thermal cycling durability and PCR compatibility of polymer coated quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Guan, Yifu

    2013-09-01

    Quantum dots have experienced rapid development in imaging, labeling and sensing in medicine and life science. To be suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, we have tested QD thermal cycling durability and compatibility, which have not been addressed in previous reports. In this study, we synthesized CdSe/ZnS QDs with a surface modification with high-MW amphiphilic copolymers and observed that Mg2+ ions in the PCR reaction could induce the QDs to precipitate and reduce their fluorescence signal significantly after thermal cycling. To overcome this problem, we used mPEG2000 to conjugate the QD surface for further protection, and found that this modification enables QDs to endure 40 thermal cycles in the presence of other components essential for PCR reactions. We have also identified that QDs have different effects on rTaq and Ex Taq polymerization systems. A high QD concentration could apparently reduce the PCR efficiency, but this inhibition was relieved significantly in the Ex PCR system as the concentration of Ex Taq polymerase was increased. Real-time PCR amplification results showed that QDs could provide a sufficiently measurable fluorescence signal without excessively inhibiting the DNA amplification. Based on this improved thermal cycling durability and compatibility with the PCR system, QDs have the potential to be developed as stable fluorescent sensors in PCR and real-time PCR amplification.

  13. Measurement of Overall Performance Effectiveness in Setup Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shye-Nee Low

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the setup process of injection molding machines by using the developed setup improvement methodology. Overall performance effectiveness (OPE was used to evaluate the setup improvement. A case study was tested on the application of the developed setup improvement methodology. A 50.1% reduction in setup time was attained by the developed methodology, and significant time savings were achieved with minimum investment. Comparisons between before and after improvement implementation were conducted through OPE to verify the improvement. In terms of OPE, the setup performance in the case study considered an acceptable value of 60.45%. The setup process performance of the developed setup improvement methodology was judged in terms of effectiveness. Results therefore indicate that OPE measurement is an effective way to analyze the efficiency of a single setup process.

  14. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luden, Nicholas D.; Saunders, Michael J.; D’Lugos, Andrew C.; Pataky, Mark W.; Baur, Daniel A.; Vining, Caitlin B.; Schroer, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    There is good evidence that mouth rinsing with carbohydrate (CHO) solutions can enhance endurance performance (≥30 min). The impact of a CHO mouth rinse on sprint performance has been less consistent, suggesting that CHO may confer benefits in conditions of ‘metabolic strain’. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the impact of late-exercise mouth rinsing on sprint performance. Secondly, we investigated the effects of a protein mouth rinse (PRO) on performance. Eight trained male cyclists participated in three trials consisting of 120 min of constant-load cycling (55% Wmax) followed by a 30 km computer-simulated time trial, during which only water was provided. Following 15 min of muscle function assessment, 10 min of constant-load cycling (3 min at 35% Wmax, 7 min at 55% Wmax) was performed. This was immediately followed by a 2 km time trial. Subjects rinsed with 25 mL of CHO, PRO, or placebo (PLA) at min 5:00 and 14:30 of the 15 min muscle function phase, and min 8:00 of the 10-min constant-load cycling. Magnitude-based inferential statistics were used to analyze the effects of the mouth rinse on 2-km time trial performance and the following physiological parameters: Maximum Voluntary Contract (MVC), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Heart Rate (HR), and blood glucose levels. The primary finding was that CHO ‘likely’ enhanced performance vs. PLA (3.8%), whereas differences between PRO and PLA were unclear (0.4%). These data demonstrate that late-race performance is enhanced by a CHO rinse, but not PRO, under challenging metabolic conditions. More data should be acquired before this strategy is recommended for the later stages of cycling competition under more practical conditions, such as when carbohydrates are supplemented throughout the preceding minutes/hours of exercise. PMID:27657117

  15. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  16. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  17. Performance Evaluation of HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    energy in periods of no thermal energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical power. A dynamic model based on empirical data of this system is used to determine the annual performance. Furthermore, this work assesses the benefits of different control strategies that address...... of the users. Results show that real load control logic can lessen the adverse effects of cycling in the compressor of the system as well as increase the thermal demand (up to 33%) and the electrical demand (max. 8.4%) covered by renewable energy (solar). However, the extension of these improvements is highly......In energy systems with high share of renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, it is paramount to deal with their intrinsic variability. The interaction between electric and thermal energy (heating and cooling) demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could...

  18. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  19. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘品; 马强; 方铮; 马洁; 胡勇胜; 周志彬; 李泓; 黄学杰; 陈立泉

    2016-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific ca-pacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (−3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7%after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries.

  20. Demonstrate VERA Core Simulator Performance Improvements L2:PHI.P13.03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hamilton, Steven P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrett, Michael G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Yuxuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toth, Alex [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yee, Ben [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report describes the performance improvements made to the VERA Core Simulator (VERA-CS) during FY2016. The development of the VERA Core Simulator has focused on the capability needed to deplete physical reactors and help solve various problems; this capability required the accurate simulation of many operating cycles of a nuclear power plant. The first section of this report introduces two test problems used to assess the run-time performance of VERA-CS using a source dated February 2016. The next section provides a brief overview of the major modifications made to decrease the computational cost. Following the descriptions of the major improvements, the run-time for each improvement is shown. Conclusions on the work are presented, and further follow-on performance improvements are suggested.

  1. Effects of Process and Human Performance Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Organizational performance is a function of many variables, two of which are work process factors and human performance factors. Our study compared the effects of changing a work process versus human performance improvement techniques and the combined effects of combing both techniques. A 2 (manual vs electronic process) x 2 (with vs without…

  2. A Multi(ple)-Media Approach to Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Rich; Nordenstam, Garry; Ziegler, Jody

    1998-01-01

    This case study describes a project to design a performance support system that incorporated an electronic performance tool, computer-based training, and paper-based deliverables that resulted in lower development costs and improved job performance. Highlights include audience analyses, cost analysis, creative resource allocation, and feedback…

  3. Documenting performance metrics in a building life-cycle information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-08-01

    In order to produce a new generation of green buildings, it will be necessary to clearly identify their performance requirements, and to assure that these requirements are met. A long-term goal is to provide building decision-makers with the information and tools needed to cost-effectively assure the desired performance of buildings, as specified by stakeholders, across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element required in achieving this goal is a method for explicitly documenting the building performance objectives that are of importance to stakeholders. Such a method should clearly define each objective (e.g., cost, energy use, and comfort) and its desired level of performance. This information is intended to provide quantitative benchmarks useful in evaluating alternative design solutions, commissioning the newly constructed building, and tracking and maintaining the actual performance of the occupied building over time. These quantitative benchmarks are referred to as performance metrics, and they are a principal element of information captured in the Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS). An initial implementation of BLISS is based on the International Alliance for Interoperability`s (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry firms and organizations. Within BLISS, the IFC data model has been extended to include performance metrics and a structure for archiving changing versions of the building information over time. This paper defines performance metrics, discusses the manner in which BLISS is envisioned to support a variety of activities related to assuring the desired performance of a building across its life cycle, and describes a performance metric tracking tool, called Metracker, that is based on BLISS.

  4. Assessing the performance of life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies for retirement saving: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Benjamin; Gesumaria, Robert; Leonesio, Michael V

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the performance of four life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies through stochastic simulation based on observed U.S. asset returns during 1926-2008. Annual worker contributions to retirement savings accounts are based on the actual lifetime earnings histories maintained by the Social Security Administration for 12,871 workers born during 1915-1942. Each strategy's performance is evaluated primarily on the basis of the distributions of internal rates of return on investments calculated at the time of retirement. Comparisons are made with the performance of four other investment strategies that vary in terms of their exposure to stock and bond market risk. Life-cycle plans with larger portfolio weights assigned to equities have higher average returns, but those gains come at the cost of increased risk of infrequent bad outcomes.

  5. Design of organic Rankine cycle power systems accounting for expander performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. Its design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due......-loaded stages in supersonic flow regimes. This paper proposes a design method where the conventional cycle analysis is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using a validated mean-line design tool. The high computational cost of the turbine optimization is tackled building a model which...... efficiency of an offshore platform. The analysis of the results obtained using a constant turbine efficiency and the method proposed in this paper indicates a maximum reduction of the expander performance of 10% points for pressure ratios between 10 and 35. This work also demonstrates that this approach can...

  6. Effect of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross E; James, Lewis J

    2017-03-31

    This study investigated the influence of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperature. Double-blind cross-over study. Eight healthy, recreationally active males (mean±SD; age: 22±1 years; body mass: 71.1±8.5kg; VO2peak: 55.9±5.8mLkg(-1)min(-1); Wmax: 318±37W) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants ingested a placebo or a 6mgkg(-1) caffeine dose 60min before exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 60min of cycle exercise at 55% Wmax, followed by a 30min performance task (total kJ produced) in 30°C and 50% RH. Performance was enhanced (Cohen's d effect size=0.22) in the caffeine trial (363.8±47.6kJ) compared with placebo (353.0±49.0kJ; p=0.004). Caffeine did not influence core (p=0.188) or skin temperature (p=0.577) during exercise. Circulating prolactin (p=0.572), cortisol (p=0.842) and the estimated rates of fat (p=0.722) and carbohydrate oxidation (p=0.454) were also similar between trial conditions. Caffeine attenuated perceived exertion during the initial 60min of exercise (p=0.033), with no difference in thermal stress across trials (p=0.911). Supplementation with 6mgkg(-1) caffeine improved endurance cycle performance in a warm environment, without differentially influencing thermoregulation during prolonged exercise at a fixed work-rate versus placebo. Therefore, moderate caffeine doses which typically enhance performance in temperate environmental conditions also appear to benefit endurance performance in the heat. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the Performances of NH3-H20 and Libr-H2O Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Nilesh B. Totla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in absorption cooling technology present an opportunity to achieve significant improvements on micro-scale to buildings, cooling, heating and power systems for residential and light commercial buildings. Their resultant effects are effective, energy efficient and economical. This study therefore contributes an important knowledge and method in the development, fabrication and application of an absorption refrigerator as a better alternative to the commonly used compressor refrigerators. Two fluid gas absorption refrigerators use electric based heater installed generator and no moving parts, such as pumps and compressors, and operate at a single system pressure. In this paper the performances analysis of the NH3-H2O and possible alternative cycles as lithium bromide-water are compared in respect of the (COP and different operating conditioning. The highest COP was found as a function of the absorber, generator, condenser, and evaporating temperature. This paper compares the performance of vapour absorption refrigeration cycles that are used for refrigeration temperatures below 0°C. Since the most common vapour absorption refrigeration systems use ammonia-water solution with ammonia as the refrigerant and water as the absorbent, research has been devoted to improvement of the performance of ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems in recent years.

  8. Learning by doing – creating competences in engineering students on how and when to perform and use life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    The course Life cycle assessment of products and systems has been given for eight consecutive years at the Technical University of Denmark. From the beginning, the course has been a targeted on life cycle assessment with a strong emphasis on the performance and use of life cycle assessment...

  9. The Impact of a Participant-Based Accounting Cycle Course on Student Performance in Intermediate Financial Accounting I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Ferdinand T.; Khan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated whether students in an Intermediate Financial Accounting I course who took a 1-credit, participant-based accounting cycle course performed better than students who did not take the accounting cycle course. Results indicate a higher likelihood of earning a better grade for students who took the accounting cycle course even…

  10. The Impact of a Participant-Based Accounting Cycle Course on Student Performance in Intermediate Financial Accounting I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Ferdinand T.; Khan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated whether students in an Intermediate Financial Accounting I course who took a 1-credit, participant-based accounting cycle course performed better than students who did not take the accounting cycle course. Results indicate a higher likelihood of earning a better grade for students who took the accounting cycle course even…

  11. Creating a system for performance improvement in cancer care: Cancer Care Ontario's clinical governance framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvalko, Katya M; Sherar, Michael; Sawka, Carol

    2009-10-01

    Good governance, clinician engagement, and clear accountabilities for achieving specific outcomes are crucial components for improving the quality of care at both an organizational and health system level. This article describes the benefits and results reported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) in transforming from a direct provider of cancer services to an organization whose responsibilities include improving the quality of care across the province's cancer system. The significant challenges in establishing accountability in the absence of direct operational authority are discussed. Case examples illustrate how the structures and processes created through CCO's clinical governance framework achieved measurable improvements in cancer care outcomes. Challenges in establishing accountability were addressed through the creation of a clinical governance framework that integrated clinical accountability with administrative accountability in an ongoing performance improvement cycle. The performance improvement cycle includes four key steps: (1) the collection of system-level performance data and the development of quality indicators, (2) the synthesis of data, evidence, and expert opinion into clear clinical and organizational guidance, (3) knowledge transfer through a coordinated program of clinician engagement, and (4) a comprehensive system of performance management through the use of contractual agreements, financial incentives, and public reporting. CCO has succeeded in developing a clinical governance and performance improvement system that measures and improves access to care in the treatment phase of the care continuum. Future efforts will need to focus on expanding quality improvement initiatives to all phases of cancer care, measuring the appropriateness of care, and improving the measurement and management of the patient cancer care experience.

  12. Performance measurement of the upgraded Microcab-H4 with academic drive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Rais

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The original Microcab-H4, a hybrid fuel cell car, was tested with Academic drive cycle. After several years, the car was upgraded and tested with the ECE 15 drive cycle. The result showed the car has higher energy efficiency. However, the result could not be compared to the original car due to different drive cycle test. This research was done to measure the performance and energy efficiency of the Upgraded Microcab-H4 with Academic drive cycle. The measure of car energy efficiency was done through four tests: Run on battery, run on battery and Ballard fuel cell, and run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cell. The energy efficiency was calculated based on the hydrogen consumption after 5 cycles. The lowest energy efficiency was run on battery and Ballard fuel cell with (1.01 km/MJ. The highest energy efficiency was run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cells (1.10 km/MJ, which is higher than previous tests.

  13. Measuring submaximal performance parameters to monitor fatigue and predict cycling performance: a case study of a world-class cyclo-cross cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Rietjens, Gerard J; Tijdink, Hendrik H; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    Recently a novel submaximal test, known as the Lamberts and Lambert submaximal cycle test (LSCT), has been developed with the purpose of monitoring and predicting changes in cycling performance. Although this test has been shown to be reliable and able to predict cycling performance, it is not known whether it can measure changes in training status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the LSCT is able to track changes in performance parameters, and objective and subjective markers of well-being. A world class cyclo-cross athlete (31 years) volunteered to participate in a 10-week observational study. Before and after the study, a peak power output (PPO) test with respiratory gas analysis (VO(2max)) and a 40-km time trial (40-km TT) test were performed. Training data were recorded in a training logbook with a daily assessment of well-being, while a weekly LSCT was performed. After the training period all performance parameters had improved by a meaningful amount (PPO +5.2%; 40-km TT time -2.5%; VO(2max) +1.4%). Increased training loads during weeks 2 and 6 and the subsequent training-induced fatigue was reflected in the increased well-being scores. Changes during the LSCT were most clearly notable in (1) increased power during the first minute of third stage, (2) increased rating of perceived exertion during second and third stages, and (3) a faster heart rate recovery after the third stage. In conclusion, these data suggest that the LSCT is able to track changes in training status and detect the consequences of sharp increases in training loads which seem to be associated with accumulating fatigue.

  14. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...

  15. Cycling performance of the iron-chromium redox energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  16. Differences in motor variability among individuals performing a standardized short-cycle manual task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Jonas; Srinivasan, Divya; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2017-01-01

    Motor variability (MV) has been suggested to be a determinant of the risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work. In this study we examined whether individuals consistently differed in the extent of motor variability when performing a standardized short-cycle manual task. On three separate days, arm kinematics was recorded in 14 healthy subjects performing a pipetting task, transferring liquid from a pick-up tube to eight target tubes with a cycle time of 2.8s. Cycle-to-cycle standard deviations (SD) of a large selection of shoulder and elbow kinematic variables, were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). Thereafter, between-subjects and between-days (within-subject) variance components were calculated using a random effects model for each of four extracted principal components. The results showed that MV differed consistently between subjects (95% confidence intervals of the between-subjects variances did not include zero) and that subjects differed consistently in MV between days. Thus, our results support the notion that MV may be a consistent personal trait, even though further research is needed to verify whether individuals rank consistently in MV even across tasks. If so, MV may be a candidate determinant of the risk of developing fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational work.

  17. Assessment of the reproducibility of performance testing on an air-braked cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, G S; Dennis, S C; Noakes, T D; Hawley, J A

    1996-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (I) to assess the reproducibility of endurance performance testing on an air-braked cycle ergometer, and (II) to compare laboratory performances to performances in road races. Ten well-trained, competitive cyclists (peak power output [PPO] 443 +/- 37 W, [values are mean +/- SD]) undertook either: (I) three 20 km and three 40 km time trials (TT) on an air braked ergometry system (Kingcycle) (n = 6), and/or (II) three 40 km laboratory TT and two 40 km road TT competitions (n = 8). The time taken for the laboratory simulated 20 km and 40 km TT rides were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation 1.1 +/- 0.9% and 1.0 +/- 0.5%, respectively). However, the mean power output and heart rate were significantly different (p cycling time and the average sustained power output. A significant correlation (r = 0.98, p road race times, although road race times were, on average, some 8% slower. These findings indicate that the Kingcycle ergometry system can be used as a reliable method of assessing short term endurance cycling performance.

  18. Work performed by a Classical-"reversible"-Carnot cycle Raising's distribution for the small "driving weights"

    CERN Document Server

    Liberto, F

    2000-01-01

    The expansions or the compressions of the ideal gas in the quasi-static Carnot cycle, can be performed (on adiabatic or isothermal way) by slowly increasing or decreasing the external pressure by means of small weights acting on the piston of the vessel containing the gas. We call them shortly the ``driving weights'' (dw). Let N be their number, a large one. To determine the work performed by the ideal gas in the cycle the ``driving weights'' must be handled carefully. If we let them move on-off the piston only horizontally, their vertical motions will be due only to the gas. Here we show that, at the end, while some of them will have moved down (will have negative raising) the remaining ones (the majority) will have moved up (will have positive raising) so that the total work performed by the ideal gas equals the total variation of the gravitational potential energy of the ``driving weghts''. The cycle is performed in 2N time-steps. For each step t_i, with i in 1,..,2N, we give H(t_i), and DH(t_{i-1},t_i), r...

  19. Low cycle fatigue improvement of powder metallurgy titanium alloy through thermomechanical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; LIU Yong; HE Xiao-yu; TANG Hui-ping; CHEN Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    A low-cost β type Ti-1.5Fe-6.8Mo-4.8Al-1.2Nd (mass fraction, %)(T12LCC) alloy was produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy(P/M) method and subsequent thermomechanical treatment. Low cycle fatigue(LCF) behavior of P/M T12LCC alloy before and after thermomechanical treatment was studied. The results show that the LCF resistance of P/M titanium alloy is significantly enhanced through the thermomechanical treatment. The mechanisms for the improvement of LCF behavior are attributed to the elimination of residual pores, the microstructure refining and homogenization.

  20. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-03-01

    Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on β”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175°C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.

  1. Enhanced high temperature cycling performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells with methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) as electrolyte additive and its acting mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengju Bian; Zhongru Zhang; Yong Yang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) on the high-temperature (∼50◦C) cycle performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells are investigated. By addition of 2 wt%MMDS into a routine electrolyte, the high-temperature cycling performance of LiMn2O4/graphite cells can be significantly improved. The analysis of differential capacity curves and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) indicates that MMDS decomposed on both cathode and anode. The three-electrode system of pouch cell is used to reveal the capacity loss mechanism in the cells. It is shown that the capacity fading of cells without MMDS in the electrolytes is due to irreversible lithium consumption during cycling and irreversible damage of LiMn2O4 material, while the capacity fading of cell with 2 wt%MMDS in electrolytes mainly originated from irreversible lithium consumption during cycling.

  2. Performance Analysis of a Double-effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with a Silica Gel/Water Working Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle is examined in this manuscript. The proposed cycle is based on the cascading adsorption cycle, where condensation heat that is produced in the top cycle is utilized as the driving heat source for the bottom cycle. The results show that the double-effect cycle produces a higher coefficient of performance (COP as compared to that of the conventional single-stage cycle for driving temperatures between 100 °C and 150 °C in which the average cycle chilled water temperature is fixed at 9 °C. Moreover, the COP of the double-effect cycle is more than twice that of the single-stage cycle when the temperature reaches 130 °C. It is also observed that the adsorbent mass ratio of the high temperature cycle (HTC to the low temperature cycle (LTC affects the performance of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle.

  3. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2016-11-28

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  4. An optimization approach to cycle quality network chain based on improved SCOR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renbin Xiao; Zhengying Cai; Xinhui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the improved supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model, a network-topology structure of cycle quality chain oper-ations reference (CQCOR) model is built up, which realizes the cycle operation by an added quality process of reverse manufacturing. The concept of cycle quality chain management is defined, and its cost structure is analyzed according to positive and reverse quality processes. If the quality level is controlled by the positive quality cost, then the reverse quality cost is a nonlinear function of quality level. All the quality processes are connected by acceptable probability, so the optimized objective function is described as a fuzzy multi-objective function comprising maximum of the total profit of quality chain, maximum of the recycling efficiency and maximum of environment protection and source saving. The effects of different quality policies on fuzzy rules are compared by a simplified example. When the policy of recycling efficiency dominates, the total quality profit will be less than that of maximum profit policy.

  5. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    ... (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI...

  6. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  7. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel organic Rankine cycle layout, named the organic split-cycle, designed for utilization of low grade heat. The cycle is developed by implementing a simplified version of the split evaporation concept from the Kalina split-cycle in the organic Rankine cycle in order...

  8. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Boyett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1 were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7 and ‘untrained’ (n = 7. Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT. The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’ and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’. Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively, but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’. Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  9. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyett, James C.; Giersch, Gabrielle E. W.; Womack, Christopher J.; Saunders, Michael J.; Hughey, Christine A.; Daley, Hannah M.; Luden, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7) and ‘untrained’ (n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’) and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts. PMID:27754419

  10. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyett, James C; Giersch, Gabrielle E W; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J; Hughey, Christine A; Daley, Hannah M; Luden, Nicholas D

    2016-10-14

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' (n = 7) and 'untrained' (n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, 'very likely') and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, 'likely'). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, 'likely'; 1.0% ± 1.7%, 'likely', respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, 'likely'). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  11. Effects of the administration of feedback on performance of the bmx cycling gate start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Mikel; Sánchez-Muñoz, Cristóbal; Mateo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the administration of external feedback (FB) on the time used to execute the gate start skill in BMX cycling discipline. The sample used was n = 6 riders from the Spanish national team (19.3 ± 2.1 years). An intragroup experimental design with repeated measures was used to compare the evolution of the skill developed by the participants before and after treatment, as well as the degree of retention of the possible learning. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the 2 first pre-test sessions (PRE), nor between any of the other treatment, post-test or re-test sessions (TREAT, POS and RET, respectively). Nevertheless, significant differences were observed between either of the PRE sessions and any of the TREAT, POS or RET sessions (p ≤ 0.028), showing a significant reduction of the time needed to perform this skill after TREAT (1.264 ± 0.045 ms in PRE, 1.047 ± 0.019 ms in POS, and 1.041 ± 0.021 ms in RET). In conclusion, the use of audiovisual FB and cognitive training of the skill can result in a significant improvement in the execution of the gate start in BMX reducing the time to develop the task. Key pointsThis work provides a practical application of many studies developed around teaching-learning technique in sport. In those studies this kind of applications were suggested as necessary.All the recent theories are applied in the real sport context, and using elite athletes.A successful program is proposed to be used by coaches and athletes just following a few simple guidelines, and this can be a really useful tool to follow.

  12. Performance improvement of BOTDR system using wavelength diversity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalam, Nageswara; Ng, Wai Pang; Dai, Xuewu; Wu, Qiang; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a novel technique was proposed to improve the sensing performance by employing wavelength diversity in Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). This technique enables to maximize the launch pump power to achieve a higher measurement accuracy, without activating the nonlinear effects, which limit the conventional BOTDR performance. Experimentally, we have demonstrated the proposed technique, that provides measurement accuracy improvement of 3.6 times at far end of the sensing fibre compared to the conventional BOTDR system.

  13. Performance of V-type Stirling-cycle refrigerator for different working fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Yusuf; Ataer, Omer Ercan [Erciyes University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Melikgazi, 38 039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    The thermodynamic analysis of a V-type Stirling-cycle Refrigerator (VSR) is performed for air, hydrogen and helium as the working fluid and the performance of the VSR is investigated. The V-type Stirling-cycle refrigerator consists of expansion and compression spaces, cooler, heater and regenerator, and it is assumed that the control volumes are subjected to a periodic mass flow. The basic equations of the VSR are derived for per unit crank angle, so time does not appear in the equations. A computer program is prepared in FORTRAN, and the basic equations are solved iteratively. The mass, temperature and density of working fluid in each control volume are calculated for different charge pressures, engine speeds, and for fixed heater and cooler surface temperatures. The work, instantaneous pressure and the COP of the VSR are calculated. The results are obtained for different working fluids, and given by diagrams. (author)

  14. Performance characteristics of low-dissipative generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan-Kun; Guo, Jun-Cheng; Chen, Jin-Can

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption of low-dissipation, a unified model of generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses is established. Analytical expressions for the power output and efficiency are derived. The general performance characteristics between the power output and the efficiency are revealed. The maximum power output and efficiency are calculated. The lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are determined. The results obtained here are universal and can be directly used to reveal the performance characteristics of different Carnot cycles, such as Carnot heat engines, Carnot-like heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, chemical engines, two-level quantum engines, etc. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405032).

  15. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...... demonstrated that the resulting residual stresses barely influences the quasi-static mechanical properties of reinforced glass-fiber composites. It is found that the fatigue performance in the 0° direction is significantly influenced by the internal stresses, whereas the fatigue performance in the off axes......During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...

  16. Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damisch, Lysann; Stoberock, Barbara; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Superstitions are typically seen as inconsequential creations of irrational minds. Nevertheless, many people rely on superstitious thoughts and practices in their daily routines in order to gain good luck. To date, little is known about the consequences and potential benefits of such superstitions. The present research closes this gap by demonstrating performance benefits of superstitions and identifying their underlying psychological mechanisms. Specifically, Experiments 1 through 4 show that activating good-luck-related superstitions via a common saying or action (e.g., "break a leg," keeping one's fingers crossed) or a lucky charm improves subsequent performance in golfing, motor dexterity, memory, and anagram games. Furthermore, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that these performance benefits are produced by changes in perceived self-efficacy. Activating a superstition boosts participants' confidence in mastering upcoming tasks, which in turn improves performance. Finally, Experiment 4 shows that increased task persistence constitutes one means by which self-efficacy, enhanced by superstition, improves performance.

  17. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  18. Improving Examination Performance through the Clenched Fist Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Harry E.

    1988-01-01

    The literature on the use of hypnosis in an educational setting is briefly reviewed, and a hypnotic approach involving the use of the clenched fist as a conditioned trigger to improve examination performance is described. A study of 60 high school students indicates that the approach can improve test outcomes. (TJH)

  19. Performance-based hospital contracting for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennett, C; Legorreta, A P; Zatz, S L

    1993-09-01

    A carefully negotiated process that ties improvements in performance to additional compensation can align incentives and support efforts to improve care. Such a process needs to be objective, data-driven, and focused on issues that are important both to the purchaser and to the provider.

  20. Using Audio Books to Improve Reading and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights significant research about what below grade-level reading means in middle school classrooms and suggests a tested approach to improve reading comprehension levels significantly by using audio books. The use of these audio books can improve reading and academic performance for both English language learners (ELLs) and for…

  1. Life cycle assessment as a tool for the environmental improvement of the tannery industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, B; Moreira, M T; Bornhardt, C; Méndez, R; Feijoo, G

    2004-03-15

    A representative leather tannery industry in a Latin American developing country has been studied from an environmental point of view, including both technical and economic analysis. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology has been used for the quantification and evaluation of the impacts of the chromium tanning process as a basis to propose further improvement actions. Four main subsystems were considered: beamhouse, tanyard, retanning, and wood furnace. Damages to human health, ecosystem quality, and resources are mainly produced by the tanyard subsystem. The control and reduction of chromium and ammonia emissions are the critical points to be considered to improve the environmental performance of the process. Technologies available for improved management of chromium tanning were profoundly studied, and improvement actions related to optimized operational conditions and a high exhaustion chrome-tanning process were selected. These actions related to the implementation of internal procedures affected the economy of the process with savings ranging from US dollars 8.63 to US dollars 22.5 for the processing of 1 ton of wet salt hides, meanwhile the global environmental impact was reduced to 44-50%. Moreover, the treatment of wastewaters was considered in two scenarios. Primary treatment presented the largest reduction of the environmental impact of the tanning process, while no significant improvement for the evaluated impact categories was achieved when combining primary and secondary treatments.

  2. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in r

  3. Factors Affecting Sustainable Performance of Construction Projects during Project Life Cycle Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development (SD is one of the main challenges faced by the construction industry, which has acquired global attention. Sustainable performance (SP of a construction project during its life cycle (LC is considered crucial to achieve the SD. The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases in the Gaza Strip. A total of 53 sustainable factors (economic, social, and environmental sustainable factors were identified through extensive literature review and confirmed by experts’ interviews and a pilot study. These factors are classified in relation to the project life cycle phases; inception phase, design phase, construction phase, operation phase, and demolition phase. A structured questionnaire survey is employed in this study for primary data collection. A total of 119 questionnaires were distributed randomly to engineers working in construction projects in the Gaza Strip to solicit their views regarding the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases. The results revealed that five factors among the top ten factors that impacting the sustainable performance of construction projects are classified under the construction phase, which confirmed that the construction process has the most effect on the projects SP. Three factors are classified under the inception phase, which assured that the inception of a potential project has a considerable effect projects. In addition, one factor was classified under operation phase and one factor was classified under demolition phase. The most common factors affecting the SP of construction project through the overall sustainability elements: reusable/recyclable element, provision of services, energy consumption, water cost, and water pollution assessment. Further studies are recommended to explore how to integrated sustainability concepts into

  4. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated 1-km cycling performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short cold water immersion (CWI) intervention on rectal and muscle temperature, isokinetic strength and 1-km cycling time trial performance in the heat. Ten male cyclists performed a 1-km time trial at 35.0+/-0.3 degrees C and 40.0+/-3.0% relative humidity, followed by 20 min recovery sitting in either cold water (14 degrees C) for 5 min or in 35 degrees C air (control); a second 1-km time trial immediately followed. Peak and mean cycling power output were recorded for both time trials. Rectal and muscle temperature, and maximal isokinetic concentric torque of the knee extensors were measured before and immediately after the first and second time trials. Rectal temperature was not different between cold water immersion and control conditions at any time points. After the second time trial, however, muscle temperature was significantly lower (-1.3+/-0.7 degrees C) in cold water immersion compared with the control trial. While peak and mean power decreased from the first to second time trial in both conditions (-86+/-54 W and -24+/-16 W, respectively), maximal isokinetic concentric torque was similar between conditions at all time points. The 5 min cold water immersion intervention lowered muscle temperature but did not affect isokinetic strength or 1-km cycling performance. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Ownership Structure Influences Firm Performance in Relation to Its Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Firdaus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ownership structure is considered to be the most influential component in corporate govern-ance; it is also closely related to firm performance. The current research analyzes the effect of ownership structure (both insider ownership—board and managerial ownership, blockholder ownership—and institutional ownership concentration—pressure-insensitive and pres-sure-sensitive on firm performance (industry adjusted return on asset/IAROA based on its life cycle. Life cycle is incorporated into the research to examine whether the effect of own-ership structure on firm performance differs at each stage of the life cycle. The current re-search uses imbalanced panel data consisting of 695 observations of sample firms from the manufacturing, IT, and multimedia firms during the 2005-2010 period. The results show that: (1 insider ownership has a significantly non-linear influence on IAROA, indicated by a U-shaped curve (2 blockholders have a significantly positive effect on IAROA in firms at the mature stage; on the contrary, the effect is significantly negative in firms at the growth stage (3 institutional ownership concentration has a significantly negative effect on IAROA across the samples and a significantly positive effect on firms at the mature stage, and (4 pressure-insensitive and pressure-sensitive institutional ownerships have a positive and sig-nificant effect on IAROA in firms at the mature stage; on the contrary, the effect is negative and significant in firms at the growth stage.

  6. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-03-01

    Operation of sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures lower than 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves the cyclability. One of the main technical issues in terms of operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on β”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) causing reduced active area and limited charging . In order to overcome the problem related to poor wettability of Na melt on BASE at 175°C, Pt grid was applied on the anode side of BASE using a screen printing technique. Deeper charging and improved cycling behavior was observed on the cells with metalized BASEs due to extended active area.

  7. A synthesis of research needs for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis identifies future research needs in atmospheric mercury science, based on a series of review papers, as well as recent developments in field data collection, modeling analysis, and emission assessments of speciated atmospheric mercury. Research activities are proposed that focus on areas that we consider important. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation. Knowledge gained in these research areas will significantly improve our understanding of atmospheric cycling from local to global scales.

  8. Improvements in exercise performance: effects of carbohydrate feedings and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P D; Costill, D L; Flynn, M G; Kirwan, J P; Mitchell, J B; Houmard, J

    1987-03-01

    In an effort to determine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings immediately before exercise in both the fasted and fed state, 10 well-trained male cyclists [maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max), 4.35 +/- 0.11 l/min)] performed 45 min of cycling at 77% VO2 max followed by a 15-min performance ride on an isokinetic cycle ergometer. After a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 45 g of liquid carbohydrate (LCHO), solid carbohydrate confectionery bar (SCHO), or placebo (P) 5 min before exercise. An additional trial was performed in which a high-CHO meal (200 g) taken 4 h before exercise was combined with a confectionery bar feeding (M + SCHO) immediately before the activity. At 10 min of exercise, serum glucose values were elevated by 18 and 24% during SCHO and LCHO, respectively, compared with P. At 0 and 45 min no significant differences were observed in muscle glycogen concentration or total use between the four trials. Total work produced during the final 15 min of exercise was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) during M + SCHO (194,735 +/- 9,448 N X m), compared with all other trials and significantly greater (P less than 0.05) during LCHO and SCHO (175,204 +/- 11,780 and 176,013 +/- 10,465 N X m, respectively) than trial P (159,143 +/- 11,407 N X m). These results suggest that, under conditions when CHO stores are less than optimal, exercise performance is enhanced with the ingestion of 45 g of CHO 5 min before 1 h of intense cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Marmoset: A programming project assignment framework to improve the feedback cycle for students, faculty and researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacco, Jaime W.

    We developed Marmoset, a system that improves the feedback cycle on programming assignments for students, faculty and researchers alike. Using automation, Marmoset substantially lowers the burden on faculty for grading programming assignments, allowing faculty to give students more rapid feedback on their assignments. To further improve the feedback cycle, Marmoset provides students with limited access to the results of the instructor's private test cases before the submission deadline using a novel token-based incentive system. This both encourages students to start their work early and to think critically about their work. Because students submit early, instructors can monitor all students' progress on test cases and identify where in projects students are having problems in order to update the project requirements in a timely fashion and make the best use of time in lectures, discussion sections, and office hours. To study in more detail the development process of students, Marmoset can be configured to transparently capture snapshots to a central repository every-time students save their files. These detailed development histories offer a unique, detailed perspective of each student's progress on a programming assignment, from the first line of code written and saved all the way through the final edit before the final submission. This type of data has proved extremely valuable for many uses, such as mining new bug patterns and evaluating existing bug-finding tools.

  10. A novel biofeedback cycling training to improve gait symmetry in stroke patients: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Molteni, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The restoration of walking ability is crucial for maximizing independent mobility among patients with stroke. Leg cycling is becoming an established intervention to supplement ambulation training for stroke patients with problems of unbalance and weakness. The aim of the study was to explore the feasibility of a biofeedback pedaling treatment and its effects on cycling and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. Three patients were included in the study. The training consisted of a 2-week treatment of 6 sessions, during which a visual biofeedback helped the participants in maintaining a symmetrical pedaling. Participants were assessed before, after training and at follow-up, by means of a pedaling test and gait analysis. Outcome measurements were the unbalance during pedaling, the temporal, spatial and symmetry parameters during walking. An intra-subject statistical analysis (ANOVA, p<;0.05) showed that all patients significantly decreased pedaling unbalance after treatment and maintained the improvements at follow-up. The training induced some gait pattern modifications in two patients: one significantly improved mean velocity and gait symmetry, while the other one reduced the compensation strategy of the healthy leg. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the treatment. If further trials on a larger and controlled scale confirmed the same results, this treatment, thanks to its safety and low price, could have a significant impact as a home-rehabilitation treatment.

  11. Lifetime Impact Identification for Continuous Improvement of Wind Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian R.; Ruitenburg, Richard J.; Madsen, Erik Skov;

    2015-01-01

    To become profitable, the cost of offshore windfarms must be reduced. Optimization of the Operations & Maintenance process offers a great potential for cost reductions, especially for existing windfarm. As Continuous Improvement may deliver these cost reductions, this paper aims at fostering CI...... in the offshore wind industry. In order to identify where to focus CI efforts, we turn to the theory of Asset Life Cycle Management which shows that a shared multidisciplinary understanding of the complete lifetime of a windfarm is critical. Based on a case study at a leading offshore wind farm company...

  12. Designing a Large-Scale Multilevel Improvement Initiative: The Improving Performance in Practice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Peter A.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Simon, Janet E.; Horowitz, Sheldon; Scoville, Richard; Kahn, Norman; Perelman, Robert; Bagley, Bruce; Miles, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) is a large system intervention designed to align efforts and motivate the creation of a tiered system of improvement at the national, state, practice, and patient levels, assisting primary-care physicians and their practice teams to assess and measurably improve the quality of care for chronic illness and…

  13. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Keith; Czetty, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) TCP over mobile satellite links; 2) ways of breaking the control loop at the groundstation; 3) ACK implementation; and 4) ACK performance.

  14. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  15. Behavioural dynamics in high-performing continuous improvement teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, Desirée Hermina; van Eck, Tim; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have explored from an Organisational-Behavioural perspective, why a Continuous Improvement (CI) team performs well. We report on the first part of a longitudinal study on intra-team behaviour of five, carefully selected, high-performing CI teams in five major Dutch organizations. Not only did we

  16. Linear Motion Systems. A Modular Approach for Improved Straightness Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, G.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with straight motion systems. A modular approach has been applied in order to find ways to improve the performance. The main performance parameters that are considered are position accuracy, repeatability and, to a lesser extent, cost. Because of the increasing requirements to

  17. Maintenance performance improvement with System Dynamics: A Corrective Maintenance showcase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, R.E.M.; Van Daalen, C.E.; Koene, E.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an analysis of a Corrective Maintenance process to realize performance improvement. The Corrective Maintenance process is supported by SAP, which has indicated the performance realisation problem. System Dynamics is used in a Group Model Building process to

  18. Maintenance of hyperglycaemia does not improve performance in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to improve performance during prolonged exercise (> 90 min duration) 12, 15 ... suggests that there is a muscle glycogen-sparing effect.1, 9,16. However ... Department of Human Biology. University ... Subjects were requested to perform the same type of training for .... The mean time, power output and heart rate for ETT and.

  19. The design and performance of an improved target for MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C N; Langlands, J; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P J; Barber, G; Long, K R; Shepherd, B; Capocci, E; MacWaters, C; Tarrant, J

    2016-01-01

    The linear motor driving the target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment has been redesigned to improve its reliability and performance. A new coil-winding technique is described which produces better magnetic alignment and improves heat transport out of the windings. Improved field-mapping has allowed the more precise construction to be demonstrated, and an enhanced controller exploits the full features of the hardware, enabling increased acceleration and precision. The new user interface is described and analysis of performance data to monitor friction is shown to allow quality control of bearings and a measure of the ageing of targets during use.

  20. Study on effective parameter of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Thamir K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic analyses of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle gas turbines with duct burner are presented and discussed in this paper. The overall performance of a combined cycle gas turbine power plant is influenced by the ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature. These parameters affect the overall thermal efficiency, power output and the heat-rate. In this study a thermodynamic model was development on an existing actual combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT (In this case study, an effort has been made to enhance the performance of the CCGT through a parametric study using a thermodynamic analysis. The effect of ambient temperature and operation parameter, including compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature, on the overall performance of CCGT are investigated. The code of the performance model for CCGT power plant was developed utilizing the THERMOFLEX software. The simulating results show that the total power output and overall efficiency of a CCGT decrease with increase the ambient temperature because increase the consumption power in the air compressor of a GT. The totals power of a CCGT decreases with increase the compression rate, while the overall efficiency of a CCGT increases with increase the compression ratio to 21, after that the overall efficiency will go down. Far there more the turbine inlet temperature increases the both total power and overall efficiency increase, so the turbine inlet temperature has a strong effect on the overall performance of CCGT power plant. Also the simulation model give a good result compared with MARAFIQ CCGT power plant. With these variables, the turbine inlet temperature causes the greatest overall performance variation.

  1. Improving Employee Satisfaction Priority through Performance Control Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hsing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses Performance Control Matrix (PCM to determine service quality items of priority for improvement. Most businesses focus on customer satisfaction when undertaking surveys of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, while generally neglecting employee satisfaction. Therefore, this study develops an integrated model to improve service quality in Taiwanese finance industry employees. A questionnaire is designed to determine the priority of improvement objectives derived from certain questionnaire items that fall into the improvement zone of the PCM. Ten items are found to fall into the improvement zone of the PCM. The present results show that the finance industry employees surveyed in Taiwan were dissatisfied with their job security, salaries, annual bonus, and fair distribution of operational profits. The ten improvement items mostly belong to two dimensions - ‘Pay and Benefits’ and ‘Motivation’. The managers of the financial institutions should seek to improve these quality attributes by devoting more resources to these items, thus promoting employee satisfaction.

  2. Micro-/nanoscaled irreversible Otto engine cycle with friction loss and boundary effects and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Wenjie; Zhang, ChunQiang [School of Computer, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004 (China); Liao, Qinghong [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); He, Jizhou [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2010-12-15

    An irreversible cycle model of the micro-/nanoscaled Otto engine cycle with internal friction loss is established. The general expressions of the work output and efficiency of the cycle are calculated based on the finite system thermodynamic theory, in which the quantum boundary effect of gas particles as working substance and the mechanical Casimir effect of gas system are considered. It is found that, for a micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle devices, the work output W and efficiency {eta} of the cycle can be expressed as the functions of the temperature ratio {tau} of the two heat reservoirs, the volume ratio r{sub V} and the surface area ratio r{sub A} of the two isochoric processes, the dimensionless thermal wavelength {lambda} and other parameters of cycle, while for a macroscaled Otto cycle devices, the work output W{sub 0} and efficiency {eta}{sub 0} of the cycle are independent of the surface area ratio r{sub A} and the dimensionless thermal wavelength {lambda}. Further, the influence of boundary of cycle on the performance characteristics of the micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle are analyzed in detail by introducing the output ratio W/W{sub 0} and efficiency ratio {eta}/{eta}{sub 0}. The results present the general performance characteristics of a micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle and may serve as the basis for the design of a realistic Otto cycle device in micro-/nanoscale. (author)

  3. A comprehensive approach for diagnosing opportunities for improving the performance of a WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Matos, J Saldanha; Rosa, M J

    2016-12-01

    High quality services of wastewater treatment require a continuous assessment and improvement of the technical, environmental and economic performance. This paper demonstrates a comprehensive approach for benchmarking wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs), in a 'plan-do-check-act' cycle routine driven by objectives. The performance objectives herein illustrated were to diagnose the effectiveness and energy performance of an oxidation ditch WWTP. The PI and PX results demonstrated an effective and reliable oxidation ditch (good-excellent performance), and a non-reliable UV disinfection (unsatisfactory-excellent performance) related with influent transmittance and total suspended solids. The energy performance increased with the treated wastewater volume and was unsatisfactory below 50% of plant capacity utilization. The oxidation ditch aeration performed unsatisfactorily and represented 38% of the plant energy consumption. The results allowed diagnosing opportunities for improving the energy and economic performance considering the influent flows, temperature and concentrations, and for levering the WWTP performance to acceptable-good effectiveness, reliability and energy efficiency. Regarding the plant reliability for fecal coliforms, improvement of UV lamp maintenance and optimization of the UV dose applied and microscreen recommissioning were suggested.

  4. Optimal thermoeconomic performance of an irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhichao; Guo, Juncheng; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of the Langevin theory of classical statistical mechanics, the magnetization, entropy, and iso-field heat capacity of ferromagnetic materials are analyzed and their mathematical expressions are derived. An irreversible regenerative Ericsson refrigeration cycle by using a ferromagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which finite heat capacity rates of low and high temperature reservoirs, non-perfect regenerative heat of the refrigeration cycle, additional regenerative heat loss, etc. are taken into account. Based on the regenerative refrigeration cycle model, a thermoeconomic function is introduced as one objective function and optimized with respect to the temperatures of the working substance in the two iso-thermal processes. By means of numerical calculation, the effects of the effective factor of the heat exchangers in high/low temperature reservoir sides, efficiency of the regenerator, heat capacity rate of the low temperature reservoir, and applied magnetic field on the optimal thermoeconomic function as well as the corresponding cooling rate and coefficient of performance are revealed. The results obtained in this paper can provide some theoretical guidance for the optimal design of actual regenerative magnetic refrigerator cycle.

  5. Performance Analysis of CO2 Transcritical Compression Cycle and Freon Refrigeration Cycle%CO2跨临界循环和氟利昂制冷剂循环性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪阳; 王洪利; 马一太

    2011-01-01

    Based on refrigerants R134a, R290 and CO2, the performance comparison of three kinds of single stage compression cycle and two stage cycle were employed.The results shows that the performances COP of all cycles are gradually increased with the evaporation temperature and compressor efficiency increasing, and the single stage CO2 transcritical cycle has an optimal discharge pressure.Replace the throttle with an expander can significantly improve the system coefficient of performance of CO2 transcritical cycle.The low stage compressor efficiency has an important effect on the performance of two stage compression cycle than the high stage compressor efficiency and the CO2 transcritical cycle has a higher optimal intermediate pressure than other cycles.Some fundamental data were obtained for improving cycle performance and developing the CO2 refrigeration air-conditioning and heat pump water heater products.%本文以R134a、R290和CO2制冷剂为研究对象,分别对三种单、双级循环的性能进行对比.结果表明,随蒸发温度增加、压缩机效率升高和冷凝器出口温度降低,所有循环性能均提高,单级CO2循环存在最优排气压力;用膨胀机代替节流阀可以显著提高CO2跨临界循环COP;低压级压缩机的效率比高压级压缩机对系统性能影响明显.双级循环中,CO2循环最优中间压力远高于其它两种循环.本研究为高效、节能的空调和热泵产品开发提供基础资料.

  6. (Too) optimistic about optimism: the belief that optimism improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Elizabeth R; Logg, Jennifer M; Moore, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A series of experiments investigated why people value optimism and whether they are right to do so. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants prescribed more optimism for someone implementing decisions than for someone deliberating, indicating that people prescribe optimism selectively, when it can affect performance. Furthermore, participants believed optimism improved outcomes when a person's actions had considerable, rather than little, influence over the outcome (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 tested the accuracy of this belief; optimism improved persistence, but it did not improve performance as much as participants expected. Experiments 5A and 5B found that participants overestimated the relationship between optimism and performance even when their focus was not on optimism exclusively. In summary, people prescribe optimism when they believe it has the opportunity to improve the chance of success-unfortunately, people may be overly optimistic about just how much optimism can do. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lichu

    2007-01-01

    The idea of life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges is introduced.Based on the key components and non-key components of a bridge and the consideration of the inspectability,replaceability,reparability,controllability and retrofitability of the bridge components,different seismic design levels and expected performance objectives are suggested for the major bridges in China.The vulnerability analysis and progressive collapse analysis,as well as risk assessment,are also proposed to be the important issues to study in order to guide the seismic design of major bridges in the future.

  8. Implementing a Nurse Manager Profile to Improve Unit Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary E; Sanders, Carolyn L

    2016-06-01

    Nurse managers face significant pressures in the rapidly changing healthcare environment. Staying current with multiple sources of data, including reports that detail institutional and unit performance outcomes, is particularly challenging. A Nurse Manager Customized Profile was developed at a western academic hospital to provide a 1-page visual of pertinent data to help managers and director supervisors focus coaching to improve unit performance. Use of the Decisional Involvement Scale provided new insights into measuring manager performance.

  9. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  10. Single and combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephen C; Hawley, John A; Desbrow, Ben; Jones, Andrew M; Blackwell, James R; Ross, Megan L; Zemski, Adam J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    Both caffeine and beetroot juice have ergogenic effects on endurance cycling performance. We investigated whether there is an additive effect of these supplements on the performance of a cycling time trial (TT) simulating the 2012 London Olympic Games course. Twelve male and 12 female competitive cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials in a double-blind Latin square design. Trials were undertaken with a caffeinated gum (CAFF) (3 mg·kg(-1) body mass (BM), 40 min prior to the TT), concentrated beetroot juice supplementation (BJ) (8.4 mmol of nitrate (NO3(-)), 2 h prior to the TT), caffeine plus beetroot juice (CAFF+BJ), or a control (CONT). Subjects completed the TT (females: 29.35 km; males: 43.83 km) on a laboratory cycle ergometer under conditions of best practice nutrition: following a carbohydrate-rich pre-event meal, with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and regular oral carbohydrate contact during the TT. Compared with CONT, power output was significantly enhanced after CAFF+BJ and CAFF (3.0% and 3.9%, respectively, p supplementation when used alone (-0.4%, p = 0.6 compared with CONT) or when combined with caffeine (-0.9%, p = 0.4 compared with CAFF). We conclude that caffeine (3 mg·kg(-1) BM) administered in the form of a caffeinated gum increased cycling TT performance lasting ∼50-60 min by ∼3%-4% in both males and females. Beetroot juice supplementation was not ergogenic under the conditions of this study.

  11. Improvement of Wind Farm Performance by Means of Spinner Anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Demurtas, Giorgio; Gottschall, Julia

    powerful microprocessor and heating was added to the sonic sensor arms plus a range of smaller redesigns. Software was revised with an improved internal calibration procedure. The improved system was tested on a 2MW wind turbine at Tjæreborg wind farm. Measurements on this turbine includes calibration of K......This report is a project report on the EUDP research project SpinnerFarm. The objectives of the project were to improve software and hardware on the spinner anemometer concept and to demonstrate improvement of wind farm performance by opitmized yaw control. The hardware was improved by a more...... in the Vedersø Kær wind farm on nine wind turbines. Finally, estimates of potential power performance gain on the wind farm and the test wind turbine by optimized yaw error measurements was made....

  12. Logistics Indicators Could Improve Logistics Performance of Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajong Andre M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are institutions in which numerous transactions take place. A significant amount of those transactions happen in the realm of logistics. Logistifics is one of the concern of the hospital’s managing entities. Hospitals must provide a variety of logistics within a limited amount of time. The implementation of hospital logistics indicators were expected to assist the management in improving performance in the logistics units of hospitals in the Province of Jakarta. It was expected that by attending to a number of variables, namely information technology support, logistics management, logistics business intelligence, and logistics performance, such improvement could be achieved. The result of this study provided a description of major indicators that could improve the logistics performance in hospital industry located within the Province of Jakarta. Index Terms: hospital logistics indicator, information technology support, logistics business intelligence, logistic management, logistics performance.

  13. The control algorithm improving performance of electric load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenxia; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Mengyao

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve dynamic performance and signal tracking accuracy of electric load simulator, the influence of the moment of inertia, stiffness, friction, gaps and other factors on the system performance were analyzed on the basis of researching the working principle of load simulator in this paper. The PID controller based on Wavelet Neural Network was used to achieve the friction nonlinear compensation, while the gap inverse model was used to compensate the gap nonlinear. The compensation results were simulated by MATLAB software. It was shown that the follow-up performance of sine response curve of the system became better after compensating, the track error was significantly reduced, the accuracy was improved greatly and the system dynamic performance was improved.

  14. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  15. Do clinical safety charts improve paramedic key performance indicator results? (A clinical improvement programme evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Phillip; Middleton, Paul M; Bonner, Ann; Loudfoot, Allan; Elliott, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Is the Clinical Safety Chart clinical improvement programme (CIP) effective at improving paramedic key performance indicator (KPI) results within the Ambulance Service of New South Wales? The CIP intervention area was compared with the non-intervention area in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant improvement in KPI results. The CIP was associated with a statistically significant improvement in paramedic KPI results within the intervention area. The strategies used within this CIP are recommended for further consideration.

  16. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats.

  17. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  18. An audit cycle of consent form completion: A useful tool to improve junior doctor training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consent for surgical procedures is an essential part of the patient's pathway. Junior doctors are often expected to do this, especially in the emergency setting. As a result, the aim of our audit was to assess our practice in consenting and institute changes within our department to maintain best medical practice. Methods: An audit of consent form completion was conducted in March 2013. Standards were taken from Good Surgical Practice (2008 and General Medical Council guidelines. Inclusion of consent teaching at a formal consultant delivered orientation programme was then instituted. A re-audit was completed to reassess compliance. Results: Thirty-seven consent forms were analysed. The re-audit demonstrated an improvement in documentation of benefits (91–100% and additional procedures (0–7.5%. Additional areas for improvement such as offering a copy of the consent form to the patient and confirmation of consent if a delay occurred between consenting and the procedure were identified. Conclusion: The re-audit demonstrated an improvement in the consent process. It also identified new areas of emphasis that were addressed in formal teaching sessions. The audit cycle can be a useful tool in monitoring, assessing and improving clinical practice to ensure the provision of best patient care.

  19. Improving the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of biomass burning aerosol sources

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    S. Generoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a method for improving current inventories of aerosol emissions from biomass burning. The method is based on the hypothesis that, although the total estimates within large regions are correct, the exact spatial and temporal description can be improved. It makes use of open fire detection from the ATSR instrument that is available since 1996. The emissions inventories are re-distributed in space and time according to the occurrence of open fires. Although the method is based on the night-time hot-spot product of the ATSR, other satellite biomass burning proxies (AVHRR, TRMM, GLOBSCAR and GBA2000 show similar distributions. The impact of the method on the emission inventories is assessed using an aerosol transport model, the results of which are compared to sunphotometer and satellite data. The seasonal cycle of aerosol load in the atmosphere is significantly improved in several regions, in particular South America and Australia. Besides, the use of ATSR fire detection may be used to account for interannual events, as is demonstrated on the large Indonesian fires of 1997, a consequence of the 1997-1998 El Niño. Despite these improvements, there are still some large discrepancies between the simulated and observed aerosol optical thicknesses resulting from biomass burning emissions.

  20. Improving the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2011-11-22

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for next-generation high-performance energy storage systems because of their high theoretical specific energy, low materials cost, and environmental safety. One of the major obstacles for its commercialization is the rapid capacity fading due to polysulfide dissolution and uncontrolled redeposition. Various porous carbon structures have been used to improve the performance of Li-S batteries, as polysulfides could be trapped inside the carbon matrix. However, polysulfides still diffuse out for a prolonged time if there is no effective capping layer surrounding the carbon/sulfur particles. Here we explore the application of conducting polymer to minimize the diffusion of polysulfides out of the mesoporous carbon matrix by coating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto mesoporous carbon/sulfur particles. After surface coating, coulomb efficiency of the sulfur electrode was improved from 93% to 97%, and capacity decay was reduced from 40%/100 cycles to 15%/100 cycles. Moreover, the discharge capacity with the polymer coating was ∼10% higher than the bare counterpart, with an initial discharge capacity of 1140 mAh/g and a stable discharge capacity of >600 mAh/g after 150 cycles at C/5 rate. We believe that this conductive polymer coating method represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of Li-S batteries and can be applicable to other electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. © 2011 American Chemical Society.