Sample records for improved sulphide silver

  1. Dynamic protein coronas revealed as a modulator of silver nanoparticle sulphidation in vitro (United States)

    Miclăuş, Teodora; Beer, Christiane; Chevallier, Jacques; Scavenius, Carsten; Bochenkov, Vladimir E.; Enghild, Jan J.; Sutherland, Duncan S.


    Proteins adsorbing at nanoparticles have been proposed as critical toxicity mediators and are included in ongoing efforts to develop predictive tools for safety assessment. Strongly attached proteins can be isolated, identified and correlated to changes in nanoparticle state, cellular association or toxicity. Weakly attached, rapidly exchanging proteins are also present at nanoparticles, but are difficult to isolate and have hardly been examined. Here we study rapidly exchanging proteins and show for the first time that they have a strong modulatory effect on the biotransformation of silver nanoparticles. Released silver ions, known for their role in particle toxicity, are found to be trapped as silver sulphide nanocrystals within the protein corona at silver nanoparticles in serum-containing cell culture media. The strongly attached corona acts as a site for sulphidation, while the weakly attached proteins reduce nanocrystal formation in a serum-concentration-dependent manner. Sulphidation results in decreased toxicity of Ag NPs.

  2. Histochemical demonstration of zinc in rat epididymis using a sulphide-silver method. (United States)

    Fujimori, O; Tsukise, A; Yamada, K


    We studied the histochemical distribution of zinc in rat epididymis using a sulphide-silver method. In the supranuclear cytoplasm of the principal cells that line the epididymis of rats, varying amounts of sulphide-silver-reactive zinc were visualized. In adult mating rats, significant amounts of zinc were found in the proximal portion of the epididymis, whereas in non-mating, mature and immature young rats, this heavy metal was most prominent in the distal portion of this organ. In all of the rats studied, zinc was sparsely distributed in the intermediate portion of the epididymis. From these results, it can be assumed that the zinc present in the epithelial lining of rat epididymis plays an important role in the maturation of spermatozoa. The present results represent a useful contribution to our understanding of the functional morphology of rat epididymis.

  3. Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

  4. Silver-catalyzed bioleaching for raw low-grade copper sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianlong DENG; Yafei GUO; Mengxia LIAO; Dongchan LI


    This research was conducted to investigate the biooxidation and copper dissolution from raw low-grade refractory copper sulphide ores located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China using adapted Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. In order to accelerate the bioleach-ing rate, the adapted mixed bacteria and silver ion catalyst were tested in the leach columns at laboratory scale. The overall acid consumption was 4.3 kg sulphuric acid per kg of dissolved copper and was linearly related to the percent copper dissolution. The calculated copper dissolution rates obey the Shrinking Core Model. The relative activation energy of the whole biooxidative leaching stages was calculated to be 48.58 kJ/mol.

  5. Optical properties of silver sulphide thin films formed on evaporated Ag by a simple sulphurization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Calva, E., E-mail: ebc@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Purisima Esq. Michoacan, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Ortega-Lopez, M.; Avila-Garcia, A.; Matsumoto-Kwabara, Y. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF 07360 (Mexico)


    Silver sulphide (Ag{sub 2}S) thin films were grown on the surface of silver films (Ag) deposited on glass substrate by using a simple chemical sulphurization method. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ag{sub 2}S thin films display low intensity peaks at 34.48{sup o}, 36.56{sup o}, and 44.28{sup o}, corresponding to diffraction from (100), (112) and (103) planes of the acanthite phase (monoclinic). A model of the type Ag{sub 2}S/Ag/glass was deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements. Also, the optical constants (n, k) of the system were determined. Furthermore, the optical properties as solar selective absorber for collector applications were assessed. The optical reflectance of the Ag{sub 2}S/Ag thin film systems exhibits the expected behavior for an ideal selective absorber, showing a low reflectance in the wavelength range below 2 {mu}m and a high reflectance for wavelengths higher than that value. An absorptance about 70% and an emittance about 3% or less were calculated for several samples.

  6. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA


    Full Text Available on the sulphate reduction rates. The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction. In all...

  7. Formation of Self-assembled Monolayers of Silver Sulphide Nanoparticles%纳米半导体硫化银单层膜的自组装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑昌戈; 邰子厚


    本文使用Triton X-100作为模板剂制备半导体硫化银纳米颗粒,并研究了其吸收光谱的兰移特性.在金属铝或金基底上自组装有机双功能分子单层膜后,将其浸入所制备的纳米硫化银颗粒的微乳液中,自组装得到硫化银纳米颗粒单层膜并研究了其表面形貌特征.%Nanosize silver sulphide semiconductor particles were synthesized using the nonionic surfactant,Triton X-1O0.A blue shift is obtained as compared with the optical band edge of bulk silver sulphide.Onto the glass or mica slides,self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of bifunctional organic molecule were prepared on the gold or aluminum layers.By immersing them into the microemulsion of silver sulphide,the SAMs of nanosize silver sulphide particles were acquired.Further,The surface characterization about SAMs of nanoparticles was studied.

  8. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.


    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  9. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)


    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  10. Silver sulphide growth on Ag(111): A medium energy ion scattering study (United States)

    Window, A. J.; Hentz, A.; Sheppard, D. C.; Parkinson, G. S.; Woodruff, D. P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Bailey, P.


    The interaction of S 2 with Ag(111) under ultra-high vacuum conditions has been investigated by medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). 100 keV He + MEIS measurements provide a direct confirmation of a previous report, based on thermal desorption, that the growth of multilayer films of Ag 2S occurs through a continuous corrosion process. These films show a commensurate (√7 × √7)R19° unit mesh in low energy electron diffraction, consistent with the epitaxial growth of (111) layers of the high-temperature F-cubic phase of Ag 2S. The substantial range of co-existing film thicknesses found indicates that the growth must be in the form of variable-thickness islands. The use of 100 keV H + incident ions leads to a very rapid decrease in the sulphide film thickness with increasing exposure that we attribute to an unusual chemical leaching, with implanted H atoms interacting with S atoms and desorption of H 2S from the surface.

  11. Hydrogen sulphide. (United States)

    Guidotti, T L


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is the primary chemical hazard in natural gas production in 'sour' gas fields. It is also a hazard in sewage treatment and manure-containment operations, construction in wetlands, pelt processing, certain types of pulp and paper production, and any situation in which organic material decays or inorganic sulphides exist under reducing conditions. H2S dissociates into free sulphide in the circulation. Sulphide binds to many macromolecules, among them cytochrome oxidase. Although this is undoubtedly an important mechanism of toxicity due to H2S, there may be others H2S provides little opportunity for escape at high concentrations because of the olfactory paralysis it causes, the steep exposure-response relationships, and the characteristically sudden loss of consciousness it can cause which is colloquially termed 'knockdown.' Other effects may include mucosal irritation, which is associated at lower concentrations with a keratoconjunctivitis called 'gas eye' and at higher concentrations with risk of pulmonary oedema. Chronic central nervous system sequelae may possibly follow repeated knockdowns: this is controversial and the primary effects of H2S may be confounded by anoxia or head trauma. Treatment is currently empirical, with a combination of nitrite and hyperbaric oxygen preferred. The treatment regimen is not ideal and carries some risk.

  12. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency. (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants.

  13. Improving the Stability of Fluorescent Silver Nanoclusters (United States)

    Swanson, Nicholas; Stanko, Danielle; Campbell, Ian; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    The quantum mechanical nature of noble metal nanoparticles results in them having optical properties much different from the bulk metal. Silver nanoclusters (AgNC), groups of 4 to 20 atoms, are characterized by strong optical transitions in the visible part of the spectrum giving them an appearance like fluorescent organic dyes. These nanoclusters can also have fluorescence quantum yields over 90%. Following the analysis of published results of DNA templated nanoclusters, we created a procedure for synthesizing AgNC. The AgNC have a high fluorescence quantum yield but degrade with a lifetime of only a few days when in solution at room temperature. Our goal in this study was to increase the stability of the AgNC towards improving their value as a fluorescent material in various applications, such as luminescent solar concentrators. To increase their stability, we've chosen to modify our procedure by removing oxygen from the solution after the sample has reacted. Oxygen removal caused a significant increase in the stability of the clusters over a given period of time. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  14. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; de Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology


    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

  15. Zinc Pyrithione Improves the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Sulfadiazine Ointment (United States)

    Blanchard, Catlyn; Brooks, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; Didione, Louis; Wucher, Benjamin; Dewhurst, Stephen; Krysan, Damian


    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with biofilm-associated wound infections that are recalcitrant to conventional antibiotics. As an initial means to identify agents that may have a greater propensity to improve clearance of wound-associated bacterial pathogens, we screened a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library for members that display bactericidal activity toward 72-h-established P. aeruginosa biofilms using an adenylate kinase reporter assay for bacterial cell death. A total of 34 compounds displayed antibiofilm activity. Among these, zinc pyrithione was also shown to reduce levels of A. baumannii and S. aureus biofilm-associated bacteria and exhibited an additive effect in combination with silver sulfadiazine, a leading topical therapeutic for wound site infections. The improved antimicrobial activity of zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine was maintained in an ointment formulation and led to improved clearance of P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. aureus in a murine model of wound infection. Taken together, these results suggest that topical zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine combination formulations may mitigate wound-associated bacterial infections and disease progression. IMPORTANCE Topical antimicrobial ointments ostensibly mitigate bacterial wound disease and reliance on systemic antibiotics. Yet studies have called into question the therapeutic benefits of several traditional topical antibacterials, accentuating the need for improved next-generation antimicrobial ointments. Yet the development of such agents consisting of a new chemical entity is a time-consuming and expensive proposition. Considering that drug combinations are a mainstay therapeutic strategy for the treatment of other therapeutic indications, one alternative approach is to improve the performance of conventional antimicrobial ointments by the addition of a well-characterized and FDA

  16. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.


    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide di

  17. Precipitation of metal sulphides using gaseous hydrogen sulphide : mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarazi, Mousa Al-; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.


    A mathematical model has been developed that describes the precipitation of metal sulphides in an aqueous solution containing two different heavy metal ions. The solution is assumed to consist of a well-mixed bulk and a boundary layer that is contacted with hydrogen sulphide gas. The model makes use

  18. Effect of silver contents in cellulose nanocrystal/silver nanohybrids on PHBV crystallization and property improvements. (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Yu, Hou-Yong; Wang, Chuang; Yao, Juming


    Ternary nanocomposites including cellulose nanocrystals/silver nanohybrids (CNC-Ag) and biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were prepared by using solution casting. The effect of different AgNPs contents in the nanohybrids on crystallization ability and properties of PHBV was comprehensively investigated. Compared to binary PHBV/CNC nanocomposite, the ternary nanocomposites with high AgNPs contents showed larger improvements in the thermal stability, mechanical, barrier, overall migration and antibacterial properties. The property transitions at various AgNPs contents were due to transition of the nanohybrids induced PHBV crystallization ability (from single CNC nucleation to synergistic nucleation of CNC and AgNPs), and increased crystallinity without compromising the amounts of hydrogen bonds. Especially, the PHBV/CNC-Ag-1.7 showed the good barrier property and lower migration levels in food simulants, high antibacterial ratio of 99.9% and biocompatibility to human MG-63 cells, suggesting its potential application in food packaging related materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Silver yoga exercises improved physical fitness of transitional frail elders. (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Fan, Jue-Ting; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Wu, Shu-Ju; Li, Chun-Huw; Lin, Huey-Shyan


    Promoting the health of transitional frail elders (e.g., through therapeutic-based yoga exercises) is essential to reduce healthcare expenditures caused by chronic health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of 24 weeks of the senior-tailored silver yoga (SY) exercise program for transitional frail elders. A convenience sample of 69 elders in assisted living facilities were assigned randomly to the SY group (n = 38) or to the control group (n = 31) on the basis of the facilities where they resided, and 55 of them completed this quasi-experimental pretest and posttest study. Intervention was conducted three times per week, 70 minutes per session, for 24 weeks. Physical fitness (body composition, cardiovascular-respiratory functions, body flexibility, muscle power and endurance, balance, and agility) were examined at baseline, at 12 weeks, and at the end of the 24th week of the study. At the end of the study, the physical fitness indicators of participants in the SY group had improved significantly, and they had better physical fitness than participants in the control group (all p values < .05). It was recommended that the SY exercises be incorporated as an activity program in assisted living facilities to promote the physical fitness of transitional frail elders.

  20. Silver Ring Splints Improve Dexterity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Theo R.; Heijnsdijk-Rouwenhorst, Linda; Rasker, Hans J.


    Objective: To study the effect of Silver Ring Splints (SRSs) on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). - Methods: RA patients with stable disease and finger deformities eligible for splinting received 1 or more SRSs. Primary outcome was dexterity, which was measured with the Seque

  1. Effect of nitrocarburizing on sulphide layer during nitrocarburizing-sulphurating treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MA Shi-ning; LIU Ji-yan


    Compared with the single sulphurating treatment, the duplex treatment of nitrocarburizing-sulphurating can more effectively improve the properties of steel such as friction-reducing, wear resistance and anti-scuffing. Under the same processing parameters, the sulphide layers were fabricated on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron by single ion-sulphurating treatment and nitrocarburizing-sulphurating duplex treatment, respectively. Through the analysis of the sulphide, the effect of the nitrocarburizing on the fabrication of the sulphide layer was investigated. And the result shows that the fabrication of sulphide layer is promoted by the nitrocarburizing treatment.

  2. Metal sulphides from wastewater: assessing the impact of supersaturation control strategies. (United States)

    Mokone, T P; van Hille, R P; Lewis, A E


    Metal sulphide precipitation forms an important component of acid mine drainage remediation systems based on bacterial sulphate reduction. However, the precipitation reaction is inherently driven by very high levels of supersaturation with the generation of small particles with poor solid-liquid separation characteristics. In this study, the effect of strategies used to manage supersaturation was investigated during copper and zinc sulphide precipitation reactions. Initial batch studies showed the origin of sulphide (biological or chemical) had no significant effect on the efficiency of zinc sulphide precipitation. For copper, low metal removal efficiency was obtained at metal to sulphide molar ratios below 1.6 in the synthetic sulphide system. This was improved in the biogenic sulphide system, due to the presence of residual volatile fatty acids, but the presence or absence of particulate organic matter had no effect on recovery. Subsequent studies, conducted using synthetic sulphide solutions in a seeded fluidised bed reactor with multiple reagent feed points (2FP and 6FP) and different recirculation flow rates (300 and 120 mL min(-1)) showed efficient zinc sulphide precipitation, but limited (supersaturation to the extent of altering particle characteristics. The copper sulphide fines could not be recovered by settling, remaining in a stable colloidal suspension due to their highly charged surfaces (zeta potential -50 mV). The change in recirculation flow rate had a limited effect (ca 5% improvement) on process efficiency. The results show that the extremely high supersaturation prevalent during metal sulphide precipitation is difficult to control using conventional approaches and suggest that the seeded fluidised bed reactor is not suitable for this application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dry sliding friction and wear characteristics of Fe-C-Cu alloy containing molybdenum di sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanasekaran, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Gnanamoorthy, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)]. E-mail:


    Sintered steels find increasing application as bearings and gears due to economical and technical reasons. Materials used for making these machine elements need to have high strength, good wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. An attempt is made to develop molybdenum di sulphide added iron-copper-carbon sintered steels using simple single stage compaction and sintering elemental powders. Friction and wear characteristics of the developed materials were evaluated using cylindrical specimens in a pin-on-disc sliding apparatus. Addition of molybdenum di sulphide increases the compressibility and increases the part density. Strength and hardness of the molybdenum di sulphide added compositions are better than the base composition. Addition of the 3% molybdenum di sulphide is found to be beneficial in improving friction and wear characteristics. Higher amount of brittle phases in the 5% molybdenum di sulphide added sample contributes to the reduction in the wear resistance.

  4. Sulphide melt evolution in upper mantle to upper crust magmas, Tongling, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Du


    Full Text Available Sulphide inclusions, which represent melts trapped in the minerals of magmatic rocks and xenoliths, provide important clues to the behaviour of immiscible sulphide liquids during the evolution of magmas and the formation of Ni–Cu–Fe deposits. We describe sulphide inclusions from unique ultramafic clots within mafic xenoliths, from the mafic xenoliths themselves, and from the three silica-rich host plutons in Tongling, China. For the first time, we are able to propose a general framework model for the evolution of sulphide melts during the evolution of mafic to felsic magmas from the upper mantle to the upper crust. The model improves our understanding of the sulphide melt evolution in upper mantle to upper crust magmas, and provides insight into the formation of stratabound skarn-type Fe–Cu polymetallic deposits associated with felsic magmatism, thus promising to play an important role during prospecting for such deposits.

  5. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (United States)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou


    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  6. A nanofilter composed of carbon nanotube-silver composites for virus removal and antibacterial activity improvement. (United States)

    Kim, Jun Pyo; Kim, Jae Ha; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Soo No; Park, Han-Oh


    We have developed a new nanofilter using a carbon nanotube-silver composite material that is capable of efficiently removing waterborne viruses and bacteria. The nanofilter was subjected to plasma surface treatment to enhance its flow rate, which was improved by approximately 62%. Nanoscale pores were obtained by fabricating a carbon nanotube network and using nanoparticle fixation technology for the removal of viruses. The pore size of the nanofilter was approximately 38 nm and the measured flow rate ranged from 21.0 to 97.2L/(min·m(2)) under a pressure of 1-6 kgf/cm(2) when the amount of loaded carbon nanotube-silver composite was 1.0 mg/cm(2). The nanofilter was tested against Polio-, Noro-, and Coxsackie viruses using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the presence of viral particles within the outflow. No trace of viruses was found to flow through the nanofilter with carbon nanotube-silver composite loaded above 0.8 mg/cm(2). Moreover, the surface of the filter has antibacterial properties to prevent bacterial clogging due to the presence of 20-nm silver nanoparticles, which were synthesized on the carbon nanotube surface.

  7. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)


    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  8. UV Treatment of the Stabilizing Shell for Improving the Photostability of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rinaldi


    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles or nanoclusters are quite sensitive to light exposure. In particular, irradiation in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR region brings about a drastic modification of their optical properties due to growth and reshaping of the nanoparticles. In order to obtain luminescent colloids, small silver colloidal nanoparticles were prepared in chloroform using vinylpyrrolidone oligomers as capping agent and their luminescence properties were used to control their stability upon prolonged exposure to visible light. The polymeric shell around the metal clusters was hardened through photo-cross-linking by UV light. This process did not alter the morphology and the optical properties of the nanoparticles but greatly improved the particle photostability as confirmed also by confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements. The data clearly show that UV curing of the stabilizing layer could be a simple postsynthetic procedure to obtain materials with stable properties.

  9. Improvement of transmission properties for a rugged polymer-coated silver hollow fiber (United States)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji


    An extremely rugged hollow fiber is fabricated by liquid-phase coating technique. A silica glass capillary is used as the substrate and vitreous film is firstly coated on the inner surface of the capillary to protect the glass tube from moisture. This protective coating keeps the thin-wall glass tube away from damage due to the following silver plating process. The additional transmission loss caused by the roughness of the protective film is decreased by limiting the length of the protective film. The whole length of 0.7-mm-bore hollow fiber was 1.2 m and the length of the rugged part which formed the protective film was only 30 cm. Transmission properties of the rugged polymer-coated silver hollow fibers for the Er:YAG laser and red pilot beam delivery have been improved. The loss for the 0.7-μm-bore size, 1.2-m-length rugged polymer-coated silver hollow fiber was 1 dB and 6.9 dB under straight condition, and 1.9 dB and 9.4 dB under the condition of a 270 degree bend with a 15-mm bending radius at the wavelength of 2.94 μm and 650 nm, respectively.

  10. Improved antimicrobial property and controlled drug release kinetics of silver sulfadiazine loaded ordered mesoporous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Jangra


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the loading of silver sulfadiazine into ordered mesoporous silica material by post-impregnation method and its effect on the in vitro release kinetics and antimicrobial property of the drug. The formulated SBA-15 silica material with rope-like morphology and SBA-15-silver sulfadiazine (SBA-AgSD were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometer, small and wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of SBA-AgSD revealed a high loading amount of 52.87%. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis confirmed the drug entrapment into host material by revealing a reduced surface area (214 m2/g and pore diameter (6.7 nm of the SBA-AgSD. The controlled release of silver sulfadiazine drug from the mesoporous silica to simulated gastric, intestinal and body fluids was evaluated. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model fits the drug release data with the non-Fickian diffusion model and zero order kinetics of SBA-AgSD. The antibacterial performance of the SBA-AgSD was evaluated with respect to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The controlled drug delivery of the SBA-AgSD revealed improved antibacterial activity, thus endorsing its applicability in effective wound dressing.

  11. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.


    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  12. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xinhui; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhanguo


    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths.

  13. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E


    In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit...... silver enhancement kit (IntenSE, Janssen Pharmaceutica). It was found that the kit performs adequately to the silver lactate gum arabic developer and to the photographic emulsion technique. The kit can be used as a silver enhancement medium for the demonstration of zinc by the Neo-Timm and selenium...

  14. Evaluation of autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in biofilm reactors used for removal of sulphide, nitrate and COD. (United States)

    Tang, Kimberley; An, Shijie; Nemati, Mehdi


    Microbial cultures originated from an oil reservoir were used in three biofilm reactors and effects of sulphide and nitrate loading rates and molar loading ratio on the removal of sulphide, nitrate and acetate, and composition of end products were investigated. Application of biofilms improved sulphide and nitrate removal rates significantly when compared with freely suspended cells. Maximum sulphide and nitrate removal rates under autotrophic conditions were 30.0 and 24.4 mM h(-1), respectively (residence time: 0.5h). Oxidation of acetate occurred only at nitrate to sulphide molar loading ratios around 0.7 or higher when nitrate was present at levels higher than that required for oxidation of sulphide to sulphur. Conversion of sulphide to sulphate increased from 0% to 66% as nitrate to sulphide molar loading ratio was increased from 0.34 to 3.98. The highest nitrate and acetate removal rates in the bioreactor operated under heterotrophic conditions were 183.2 and 88.0 mM h(-1), respectively (residence time: 0.8h).

  15. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density (United States)

    Serenyi, Roberto; James, Stanley D.


    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was tested as an additive to the negative electrodes and P2291-40/20, a radiation-grafted polyethylene film, as a separator used in conjunction with silver-treated cellophane. EPM's used as negative electrode additives and also as coatings for Celgard 2500 microporous polypropylene greatly improved cells. Cells with EPM's used as coatings for the negative electrodes failed rapidly because of an error in formulation. Cells with 10 percent bismuth oxide in the negative electrodes exhibited substantially lower capacity than the standard cells and were removed from the test. Cells with radiation-grafted polyethylene separators provided fewer cycles than the standard cells, with 5 percent higher capacity and 6 percent lower utilization of active materials by cycle 60. However, the slightly better capacity of these cells, realized due to the additional space available for active materials, does not compensate for their generally unimpressive performance.

  16. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E


    In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit......, primarily intended for the amplification of colloidal gold particles, has been used to demonstrate these catalytic tissue metals. Sections from animals exposed intravitally to aurothiomalatate, silver lactate, mercury chloride, sodium selenite or perfused with sodium sulphide were subjected to a commercial...... methods and for demonstration of gold, silver, and mercury in tissues from animals intravitally exposed to these metals. It can also be used for counterstaining silver treated osmium fixed tissues embedded in plastic. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  17. Mesophilic leaching of copper sulphide sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Copper was precipitated using a sodium sulphide solution as the precipitation agent from an acid solution containing 17 g/l copper and 350 g/l sulphuric acid. The particle size of nearly 1 µm in the sulphide sludge sample was detected by optical microscopy. Based on chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, covellite was detected as the major sulphide mineral. The batch bioleach amenability test was performed at 32 °C on the Tk31 mine mesophilic mixed culture using a residence time of 28 days. The dissolution of copper sulphide by direct catalytic leaching of the sulphides with bacteria attached to the particles was found to be worthy, although a small quantity of ferrous ions had to be added to raise the activity of the bacteria and the redox potential of the culture medium. Throughout the 22-day period of the bioleach test, copper recovery based on residue analysis indicated a copper extraction of 95 %, with copper concentration in the bioleach solution of 15 g/l. The slope of the straight line tangential to the exponential part of the extraction curve gave a copper solubilisation rate of 1.1 g/l per day. This suggests that a copper extraction of 95 % for the period of bioleach test of 13.6 days may be attained in a three-stage bioreactor system.

  18. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Graphene-silver Sulphide Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-yi; WEI Zhi-yong; LIANG Ce; WANG De-jin; LIANG Ji-cai; ZHANG Wan-xi


    A facile and efficient strategy was reported for the preparation of graphene nanosheets-Ag2S hybrid by a simple hydrothermal process.First,Ag2S particles deposited on the surface of graphene oxide(GO) sheet.GO was then reduced by hydrazine hydrate to graphcne.The results of X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) demonstrated the efficient reduction of GO to graphene.Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) image of the sample reveals the morphology of the architecture of graphene-Ag2S hybrid.Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV-Vis) and photoluminescence(PL) measurement were further employed to study the optical properties of the obtained nanocomposite.This work can be extended to design other graphene-based hybrid nanomaterials,and the as-grown architectures may hold promise for many applications.

  19. Improved optical sintering efficiency at the contacts of silver nanowires encapsulated by a graphene layer. (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Bok; Choi, HongKyw; Lee, Da Som; Choi, Choon-Gi; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Il-Doo


    Graphene/silver nanowire (AgNWs) stacked electrodes, i.e., graphene/AgNWs, are fabricated on a glass substrate by air-spray coating of AgNWs followed by subsequent encapsulation via a wet transfer of single-layer graphene (SLG) and multilayer graphene (MLG, reference specimen) sheets. Here, graphene is introduced to improve the optical sintering efficiency of a xenon flash lamp by controlling optical transparency and light absorbing yield in stacked graphene/AgNW electrodes, facilitating the fusion at contacts of AgNWs. Intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering induced ultrafast (sintering is an efficient way to provide fast welding of Ag wire-to-wire junctions in stacked electrodes of graphene/AgNWs, leading to enhanced conductivity as well as superior long-term stability under oxygen and sulfur atmospheres. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Improved electroporation parameters of delivering silver nanoparticles into living C666 cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yun; Lin Juqiang; Huang Zufang; Xi Gangqin; Lin Duo; Chen Yongjian; Chen Rong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Zeng Haishan, E-mail: [Cancer Imaging Department, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, B.C., V5Z 1L3 (Canada)


    Electroporation assisted metallic nanoparticle delivery has been shown by our previous work to significantly reduce the time of sample preparation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements of biological cells. In this research note, we report our experimental work to optimize the electroporation parameters, including adjustment of the pulse pattern and operation temperature, for fastest delivery of silver nanoparticles into living C666 cells (a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line). The delivery efficiency was evaluated by the integrated intensity of whole cell SERS spectrum. Our work concluded that the silver nanoparticle delivery rate is best under the electroporation condition of using 4 consecutive 350 V (875 V/cm) rectangular electric pulses of 1 ms, 10 ms, 10 ms, and 1 ms durations respectively. Low temperature (0{approx}4 deg. C) is necessary for improving the delivery efficiency of silver nanoparticles.

  1. Fungal-Transformation of Surrogate Sulphides and Carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Refractory gold ores contain metal sulphides that encapsulate gold and prevent its dissolution by cyanide, and carbonaceous ... Several bacteria are known to oxidize sulphides but ..... Baako, A. B. (1972), Mining geology of Prestea gold.

  2. Improvement of photocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles by radio frequency oxygen plasma irradiation (United States)

    Fang, Yingcui; Zhang, Bing; Hong, Liu; Yao, Damao; Xie, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Yang


    Photocatalytic activity (PA) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced by radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma irradiation (OPI) is investigated in this paper. An improvement in PA by 365% and 181% has been achieved when 15 nm AgNPs irradiated by oxygen plasma for 2 s were used to degrade 10-5 M Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) under ultraviolet (UV) and visible lights, respectively. The PA caused by OPI is better than that induced by the localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) of AgNPs. The mechanism for the improvement was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectra. The OPI-induced formation of AgO/AgNP and Ag2O/AgNP-heterogeneous photocatalysts and electrophilic oxygen are considered to be responsible for the PA improvement. This investigation deepens our understanding of oxygen-assisted photocatalysis of AgNPs and provides a practical approach using solar light for broad spectra photocatalysis with high efficiency.

  3. Determination of sulphides in cements by using potentiometry with a selective electrode of sulphides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal, José Luis


    Full Text Available A procedure for the determination of sulphides attackable by HCI (1 :3 in cements by means of a potentiometric determination with a selective electrodo of sulphides, is proposed.

    Se propone un método para la determinación de sulfuros, basado en el ataque con HCI (1:3, destilación y posterior medida potenciométrica con un electrodo selectivo de sulfuros.

  4. Colloidal silver nanoparticles improve anti-leukemic drug efficacy via amplification of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Junren; Huang, Zhihai; Jiang, Shanxiang; Gu, Ning


    Recently, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and altered redox status in cancer cells have become a novel therapeutic strategy to improve cancer selectivity over normal cells. It has been known that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) display anti-leukemic activity via ROS overproduction. Hence, we hypothesized that AgNPs could improve therapeutic efficacy of ROS-generating agents against leukemia cells. In the current study, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), a synthetic retinoid, was used as a drug model of ROS induction to investigate its synergistic effect with AgNPs. The data exhibited that AgNPs with uniform size prepared by an electrochemical method could localize in the lysosomes, mitochondria and cytoplasm of SHI-1 cells. More importantly, AgNPs together with 4-HPR could exhibit more cytotoxicity and apoptosis via overproduction of ROS in comparison with that alone. Taken together, these results reveal that AgNPs combined with ROS-generating drugs could potentially enhance therapeutic efficacy against leukemia cells, thereby providing a novel strategy for AgNPs in leukemia therapy.

  5. Electrochemically prepared surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active silver substrates with improved stabilities (United States)

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Yu, Chung-Chin; Chen, Bo-Chuen


    In this work, SiO 2 nanoparticles-modified surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active silver substrates were prepared by electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) methods in 0.1 N HCl aqueous solutions containing 1 mM SiO 2 nanoparticles to improve their thermal stabilities and anti-aging abilities in SERS performances. Then these SERS-active substrates were further modified with different contents of SiO 2 nanoparticles to improve their corresponding SERS performances. Experimental results indicate that the operation temperature can be significantly raised from 125 to 175 °C based on this modified SERS-active Ag substrate. Also, the aging in SERS intensity is also depressed on this modified Ag substrate due to the contribution of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Moreover, the SERS enhancement capability on this modified Ag substrate is gradually raised from 25 °C to a maximum at 55 °C and monotonically decreased from 55 to 60 °C. This is a 10 °C delay as compared with the similar phenomenon observed on the unmodified Ag substrate.

  6. Improving SERS activity of inositol hexaphosphate capped silver nanoparticles: Fe3+ as a switcher. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yichen; Fu, Shuyue; Wang, Hui; Yang, Tianxi; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) capped silver nanoparticles (IP6@AgNPs) were fabricated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates. SERS activity of IP6@AgNPs could be further improved via adding due amounts of Fe(3+) to form Fe(3+)-IP6@AgNPs. The mechanism of Fe(3+)-induced SERS improvement of IP6@AgNPs can be attributed to the strong interaction of IP6 and Fe(3+), which leads to controllable adjustment of the gap among neighboring nanoparticles to produce "hot spots". The above mechanism was confirmed with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Such Fe(3+)-IP6@AgNPs-based SERS system was used to detect Rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to the trace level of 10(-10) mol L(-1). Besides, New Fuchsin (NF) was also used as a Raman probe to calculate the enhancement factor (EF) of IP6@AgNPs without and with Fe(3+). The SERS activity of IP6@AgNPs happened extreme decrease after one-year storage and could be recovered to great extent aided by the addition of Fe(3+). The Fe(3+) optimized IP6@AgNPs system could be applied to detect thymine at trace level by SERS.

  7. Comparison of adhesion of the food spoilage bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens to stainless steel and silver surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Mette; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Møller, Per;


    (new silver, tarnished silver and sulphide treated silver) was compared to adhesion to stainless steel (AISI 316). Numbers of attached bacteria (cfu cm-2) were estimated using the Malthus indirect conductance method. A lower number of attached bacteria were measured on new silver surfaces compared...... to stainless steel for samples taken after 24 hours. However this was not significant (P > 0.05). The numbers of attached bacteria were consistently lower when tarnished silver surfaces were compared to stainless steel and some, but not all, experiments showed statistically significant. A difference of more...... than one log unit in bacterial numbers on the two types of materials was observed, but for most samples the difference was within one log unit. Treating new silver with sulphide to try to reproduce a tarnished silver surface did not result in a similar lowering of adhering cells when compared to steel...

  8. A novel 3D sandwich structure of hybrid graphite nanosheets and silver nanowires as fillers for improved thermal conductivity (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao; Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng


    We explored a novel 3D sandwich structure of fillers in the polymer matrix to enhance thermal conductivity. A variety of fillers in the polymer matrix play a significant role in the physical properties of the composite. Fillers containing particle and line structures are popular, and enhance the thermal and electrical conductivities. Therefore, filler-based matrix network improves conductivity. We propose a sandwich structure consisting of hybrid graphite nanosheets (two dimensions), and silver nanowires (AgNWs) (one dimension), to create a 3D sandwich structure of polyimide matrix with improved thermal conductivity. Surface treatment of graphite and silver nanowires were conducted to reduce the dielectric constant of the composite. We designed the filler of 20 wt% resulting in a high thermal conductivity of 3.21 W m‑1 K‑1 with 15% C@SiO2 and 5% AgNWs@SiO2 filler loading. The novel combination and structure markedly enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composite.

  9. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach (United States)

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing


    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications. PMID:28169343

  10. Improving properties of Hanji by coating chitosan-silver nanoparticle solution. (United States)

    Jung, Jeyoung; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul


    A chitosan-silver nanoparticle solution (CSNS) was applied as a coating material to Hanji (Korean traditional paper), and the properties of the coated paper were investigated as a function of the dilution ratio. The required CSNS was first prepared from AgNO3 (30mmol) by utilizing chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent via ultrasonication. The as-prepared CSNS was diluted to various ratios (undiluted, 1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000) and applied to Hanji by a dip-coating method. The tensile, burst, oil resistance, and antibacterial properties of the coated Hanji against Escherichia coli were evaluated. Among the various dilution ratios, the maximum level of dilution that can positively influence the tensile, burst, oil resistance, and antibacterial properties of Hanji was identified as 1/10, 1/100, 1/10 and 1/1000 of the pure CSNS, respectively. These findings are significant because a specific property of Hanji can be economically improved by changing the dilution ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved silver staining procedure for schizodeme analysis in polyacrylamide gradient gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available A simple protocol is described for the silver staining of polyacrylamide gradient gels used for the separation of restriction fragments of kinetoplast DNA [schizodeme analysis of trypanosomatids (Morel et al., 1980]. The method overcomes the problems of non-uniform staining and strong background color which are frequently encountered when conventional protocols for silver staining of linear gels. The method described has proven to be of general applicability for DNA, RNA and protein separations in gradient gels.

  12. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway


    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  13. Performance improvement in flexible polymer solar cells based on modified silver nanowire electrode (United States)

    Wang, Danbei; Zhou, Weixin; Liu, Huan; Ma, Yanwen; Zhang, Hongmei


    In this work, an efficient flexible polymer solar cell was achieved by controlling the UV-ozone treatment time of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) used in the electrode and combined with other modification materials. Through optimizing the time of UV-ozone treatment, it is shown that Ag NWs electrode treated by UV-ozone for 10 s improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) from 0.76% to 1.34%. After treatment by UV-ozone, Ag NWs electrodes exhibit several promising characteristics, including high optical transparency, low sheet resistance and superior surface work function. As a consequence, the performance of devices utilizing 10 s UV-ozone-treated Ag NWs with PEDOT:PSS or MoO3 as composite anode showed higher PCEs of 2.77% (2.73%) compared with that for Ag NW electrodes without UV-ozone treatment. In addition, a PCE of 5.97% in flexible polymer solar cells based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl](PBDTTT-EFT):[6, 6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as a photoactive layer was obtained.

  14. Stabilisation of MSWI bottom ash with sulphide-rich anaerobic effluent. (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Väisänen, Ari; Rintala, Jukka


    Effluent of an anaerobic sulphate-reducing wastewater treatment process was used to stabilise bottom ash. The effect of stabilisation on the concentration and binding of Ca, P, S, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cr, and Mo were studied by comparing results of sequential extraction from fresh and stabilised bottom ash. The stabilisation treatment improved the retention of Ca, Cu, Pb, S, and Zn in bottom ash compared to a treatment with ion-exchanged water. In addition to retention, Cu, S, and Zn were accumulated from the anaerobic effluent in the bottom ash. Concentrations of As, Cr, and Mo remained on the same level, whereas leaching of P increased compared to control treatment with ion-exchanged water. Improved retention and accumulation were the result of increased binding to less soluble fractions. The highest increases were in the sulphide and organic carbon bound fraction and in the carbonate fraction. Enhanced carbonation was probably due to CO2 deriving from the degradation of organic carbon. Flushing of stabilised bottom ash with ion-exchanged water ensured that the observed changes were not easily reversed. Most of the sulphide in the anaerobic effluent was removed when it was passed through bottom ash. The objective was to study the feasibility of sulphide-rich anaerobic effluent in bottom ash stabilisation and changes in the binding of the elements during stabilisation. In addition, the ability of the process to remove sulphide from the effluent was observed.

  15. A review of non-oxidative dissolution of iron sulphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsland, S.D.; Dawe, R.A.; Kelsall, G.H.


    This paper reviews the non-oxidative dissolution of mineral sulphides as a possible source of reservoir souring. It investigates the factors affecting the rate of dissolution/H/sub 2/S evolution and the mechanisms by which the process takes to place. From the information presented it is apparent that no exhaustive kinetic or thermodynamic studies have been carried out in this area. The paper indicates that the non-oxidative dissolution of mineral sulphides, and in particular iron sulphides, is a probable source of hydrogen sulphide generation under reservoir conditions.

  16. Efficient intracellular delivery and improved biocompatibility of colloidal silver nanoparticles towards intracellular SERS immuno-sensing. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vinay; Srinivasan, Supriya; McGoron, Anthony J


    High throughput intracellular delivery strategies, electroporation, passive and TATHA2 facilitated diffusion of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are investigated for cellular toxicity and uptake using state-of-art analytical techniques. The TATHA2 facilitated approach efficiently delivered high payload with no toxicity, pre-requisites for intracellular applications of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (PMNPs) in sensing and therapeutics.

  17. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide in intrauterine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen sulphide is a gas signalling molecule which is produced endogenously from L-cysteine via the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE. The possible role of hydrogen sulphide in reproduction has not yet been fully investigated. It has been previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulphide relaxes uterine smooth muscle in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide in rat and human intrauterine tissues in vitro. Methods The production of hydrogen sulphide in rat and human intrauterine tissues was measured in vitro using a standard technique. The expression of CBS and CSE was also investigated in rat and human intrauterine tissues via Western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of nitric oxide (NO and low oxygen conditions on the production rates of hydrogen sulphide were investigated. Results The order of hydrogen sulphide production rates (mean +/- SD, n = 4 for rat tissues were: liver (777 +/- 163 nM/min/g > uterus (168 +/- 100 nM/min/g > fetal membranes (22.3 +/- 15.0 nM/min/g > placenta (11.1 +/- 4.7 nM/min/g, compared to human placenta (200 +/- 102 nM/min/g. NO significantly increased hydrogen sulphide production in rat fetal membranes (P Conclusion Rat and human intrauterine tissues produce hydrogen sulphide in vitro possibly via CBS and CSE enzymes. NO increased the production of hydrogen sulphide in rat fetal membranes. The augmentation of hydrogen sulphide production in human intrauterine tissues in a low oxygen environment could have a role in pathophysiology of pregnancy.

  18. Relationship between microstructures and grain-scale trace element distribution in komatiite-hosted magmatic sulphide ores (United States)

    Vukmanovic, Zoja; Reddy, Steven M.; Godel, Bélinda; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Kilburn, Matthew R.


    Komatiite-hosted nickel sulphides from the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) consist of two main sulphide phases: pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and pentlandite ((Fe,Ni)9S8); two minor sulphide phases: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and pyrite (FeS2) and trace arsenides. Samples of massive sulphides from three deposits with diverse deformation and metamorphic histories (the Silver Swan, Perseverance and Flying Fox deposits) have been studied by electron backscatter diffraction and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. These ore bodies were selected to investigate the relationship between microstructures and mineral trace element chemistry in three dominant sulphide species in each deposit. In all three samples, pyrrhotite preserves a strong evidence of crystal plasticity relative to both pentlandite and pyrite. The trace element composition of pyrrhotite shows significant variation in specific elements (Pb, Bi and Ag). This variation correlates spatially with intragrain pyrrhotite microstructures, such as low angle and twin boundaries. Minor signatures of crystal plasticity in pyrite and pentlandite occur in the form of rare low angle boundaries (pentlandite) and mild lattice misorientation (pyrite). Trace element compositions of pentlandite and pyrite show no correlation with microstructures. Variations in pyrrhotite are interpreted as a result of intragrain diffusion during the syn- and post-deformation history of the deposit. Intragrain diffusion can occur either due to bulk diffusion, dislocation-impurity pair diffusion, or by "pipe diffusion", i.e. along fast diffusion pathways at high and low angle, and twin boundaries. This contribution examines three different diffusion models and suggests that dislocation-impurity pair diffusion and pipe diffusion are the most likely processes behind increased trace element concentration along the microstructures in pyrrhotite. The same phenomenon is observed in samples from three

  19. Single session of integrated "Silver Yoga" program improves cardiovascular parameters in senior citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani


    Conclusion: There is a healthy reduction in HR, BP and derived cardiovascular indices following a single yoga session in geriatric subjects. These changes may be attributed to enhanced harmony of cardiac autonomic function as a result of coordinated breath-body work and mind-body relaxation due to an integrated and #8220;Silver Yoga and #8221; program. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 134-137

  20. Improved antibacterial activity of nanofiltration polysulfone membranes modified with silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Andrade, Patricia Fernanda; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Oliveira, Silvana Ruella; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo


    Polysulfone membranes (PSf) containing silver nanoparticles were prepared by the wet phase-inversion process. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were dispersed into the polymer matrix using two different methodologies. In the first one, the AgNP were synthesized and further dispersed into the polymer solution (ex situ process). In the second method, the formation of the AgNP was performed in situ. The AgNP crystalline structure in the PSf membranes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the addition of AgNP in PSf membranes caused no significant changes to the finger-like morphology. When the ex situ methodology was applied, 45 nm average size AgNP were uniformly distributed in the internal pores of the membranes. However, when the AgNP were formed through the in situ process, the AgNP were uniformly and preferentially distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of the membrane. In the last case, the AgNP showed cubic morphology when present in the bottom and top surfaces, however, when inside the membrane their morphology was spherical. The cubic-like nanoparticles displayed a 38 nm average edge length. The silver ion released from the membrane during water filtration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which showed a silver leaching of approximately 2 μg L(-1). The nanocomposite membranes prepared by the in situ method exhibited a better antibacterial activity, in comparison to those prepared by ex situ, and also a decrease in 90% Escherichia coli adhered cells compared to the pristine PSf membranes. In conclusion, the in situ procedure can be considered a feasible, simple, and reproducible methodology to prepare anti-biofouling polysulfone membranes containing AgNP.

  1. Electrochemical mechanism of thioglycolic acid depressing sulphide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of thioglycolic acid (TGA) on the rest potential and zeta potential of sulphide minerals were studied and the electrochemical mechanism of TGA depressing sulphide minerals was put forward. Results of flotation test show that galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite can be well depressed by TGA, but sphalerite and arsenopyrite can not be depressed. Tests also show that TGA has a little influence on zeta potential of sulfide minerals covered by xanthate coatings and TGA can lower the rest potential of sulphide minerals. The electrochemical mechanism of TGA depressing sulphide minerals is that the dixanthogen adsorbing on the mineral surface will be unstable and reduced when rest potential value of sulphide mineral (φMS) is less than the reversible potential of reduction of dixanthogen to xanthate φX-|X2 in the presence of TGA, flotability of sulphide mineral becomes weak; inversely, the coatings of dixanthogen on mineral surface will keep stable when φMS>φX-|X2, sulphide mineral keeps flotability. In the system of mixed minerals, the electrochemical condition of separation of two sulphide minerals by TGA is φMS1<φX-|X2(φX-|PbX2)<φMS2.

  2. Hydrogen sulphide removal by activated sludge diffusion. (United States)

    Barbosa, V L; Dufol, D; Callan, J L; Sneath, R; Stuetz, R M


    Odours from wastewater treatment plants comprise a mixture of various gases, of which hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is the main constituent. Microorganisms commonly found in wastewater can degrade sulphurous compounds. Therefore, the use of activated sludge (AS) for odour control offers an alternative to traditional waste gas treatment processes, such as biofilters, bioscrubbers and biotrickling filters, both in practical terms (use of existing facilities) and economically (minimal capital cost). The performance of AS diffusion as a bioscrubber for removing H2S at concentrations at 25, 75 and 150 ppmv was evaluated. Pilot-scale trials were undertaken using parallel 60-L aeration tanks and 20-L clarifier reactors at the Bedford Sewage Treatment Works, Carington, UK. Olfactometry measurements were also carried out to determine whether there was any increase in odour concentration owing to H2S diffusion. Hydrogen sulphide removal rates of 100% were obtained, with no noticeable increase in odour concentration throughout the trials as measured by olfactometry. Odour concentration was highest at the beginning of the trials and lowest during the high H2S dosing period, with similar values being obtained for test and control. It was concluded that AS diffusion is an effective bioscrubber for the removal of H2S odour.

  3. Silver Sulfadiazine (United States)

    Silver sulfadiazine, a sulfa drug, is used to prevent and treat infections of second- and third-degree ... Silver sulfadiazine comes in a cream. Silver sulfadiazine usually is applied once or twice a day. Follow ...

  4. Improving performance and cyclability of zinc-silver oxide batteries by using graphene as a two dimensional conductive additive. (United States)

    Ozgit, Dilek; Hiralal, Pritesh; Amaratunga, Gehan A J


    In this article, the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a high-surface-area conductive additive for enhancing zinc-silver oxide (Zn-Ag2O) batteries is reported for the first time. Specific capacity, rate capability and cyclability are all improved with the addition of 5% thermally reduced graphene oxide to the electrode. It is shown that the rGO morphology becomes more beneficial as the active materials tend toward the nanoscale. The combination results in a better utilization of the active material, which in turn improves the specific capacity of the zinc-silver oxide batteries by ca. 50%, as a result of the more intimate contact with the nano (∼50 nm) electrode particles. The resulting rGO network also creates a high-surface-area conducting template for ZnO electrodeposition upon discharge, significantly reducing the overall particle size of the ZnO deposit, thus inhibiting the formation of dendrites, and increasing the number of achievable cycles from 4 to >160 with a basic cellulose separator. The morphology of the electrodes and its electrochemical parameters are studied as a function of cycling.

  5. Improved electroless plating method through ultrasonic spray atomization for depositing silver nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Xie, Ming; Liu, Yichun; Yi, Jianhong


    A novel method was developed to deposit nanosized silver particles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electroless plating of silver on MWCNTs accomplished in small solution drops generated by ultrasonic spray atomization, which inhibited excessive growth of silver particles and led to much more uniform nanometer grain-sized coatings. The results showed that pretreatment was essential for silver particles to deposit on the MWCNTs, and the electrolyte concentration and reaction temperature were important parameters which had a great influence on the morphology and structure of the silver coatings. Possible mechanisms of this method are also discussed in the paper.

  6. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings? (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J


    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive.

  7. Gold-coated silver dendrites as SERS substrates with an improved lifetime. (United States)

    Gutés, Albert; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo


    Nanostructured silver is known to yield the highest signal-enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, but its low chemical stability toward oxidation presents a challenge in the realization of Ag-based SERS substrates with long operating lifetimes. Here, a study of the long-term stability of silver dendrites as SERS substrates is reported. SERS spectra of 1,2-benzenedithiol monolayers on Ag dendrites, acquired over a period of time in excess of 1 year, shows appreciable degradation with time. However, no degradation is observed in the spectra of monolayers deposited on Ag dendrites that were coated with a monolayer-thin Au film deposited by an immersion plating process. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirm the oxidation of the uncoated Ag dendrites whereas no chemical changes are detected in the Au-coated ones. These results suggest that the galvanic displacement of Au on preformed Ag nanostructures provides a suitable route to producing SERS-active substrates with long operating and/or shelf lifetimes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Machín


    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of procedures based on mathematical optimization methods to establish optimal active sulphide phases with higher HDS activity. This paper proposes a list of active phases as a guide for orienting the experimental work in the search of new catalysts that permit optimize the HDS process. Studies in this paper establish Co-S, Cr-S, Nb-S and Ni-S systems have the greatest potential to improve HDS activity.

  9. Single session of integrated “silver yoga” program improves cardiovascular parameters in senior citizens (United States)

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Ramanathan, Meena; Madanmohan


    Aim and Objective: This pilot study was carried out to determine cardiovascular effects of a single session of an integrated “silver yoga” program in senior citizens of Serene Pelican Township, Pondicherry. Materials and Methods: Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded in 124 senior citizens (75 female, 49 male) with mean age of 67.19 ± 10.61 year who attended an integrated “Silver Yoga” program at Centre for Yoga Therapy, Education and Research from August to October 2014. Participants practiced the protocol that was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations. This included simple warm-ups (jathis), breath body movement coordination practices (kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), relaxation and simple chanting. Non-invasive BP apparatus was used to record the HR, systolic (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) before and after the 60 min sessions. Pulse pressure (PP), mean pressure (MP), rate-pressure product (RPP) and double product (DoP) indices were derived from the recorded parameters. Student’s paired t-test was used to compare data that passed normality testing by Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test for those that did not. P < 0.05 were accepted as indicating significant differences for pre-post comparisons. Results: All parameters witnessed a reduction following the single session. This was statistically more significant (P < 0. 0001) in HR, RPP and DoP while it was also significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) in SP and PP, respectively. The decrease in MP just missed significance (P = 0.054) while it was not significant in DP. Conclusion: There is a healthy reduction in HR, BP and derived cardiovascular indices following a single yoga session in geriatric subjects. These changes may be attributed to enhanced harmony of cardiac autonomic function as a result of coordinated breath-body work and

  10. Improved efficiency of hybrid organic photovoltaics by pulsed laser sintering of silver nanowire network transparent electrode. (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua A; Nagamatsu, Ken A; Sturm, James C; Arnold, Craig B


    In this Research Article, we demonstrate pulsed laser processing of a silver nanowire network transparent conductor on top of an otherwise complete solar cell. The macroscopic pulsed laser irradiation serves to sinter nanowire-nanowire junctions on the nanoscale, leading to a much more conductive electrode. We fabricate hybrid silicon/organic heterojunction photovoltaic devices, which have ITO-free, solution processed, and laser processed transparent electrodes. Furthermore, devices which have high resistive losses show up to a 35% increase in power conversion efficiency after laser processing. We perform this study over a range of laser fluences, and a range of nanowire area coverage to investigate the sintering mechanism of nanowires inside of a device stack. The increase in device performance is modeled using a simple photovoltaic diode approach and compares favorably to the experimental data.

  11. Improved thermal oxidation stability of solution-processable silver nanowire transparent electrode by reduced graphene oxide. (United States)

    Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu


    Solution-processable silver nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (AgNW-rGO) hybrid transparent electrode was prepared in order to replace conventional ITO transparent electrode. AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, which is comparable to ITO transparent electrode. In addition, it was found that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities due to excellent gas-barrier property of rGO passivation layer onto AgNW film. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode showed good photovoltaic behavior as much as solar cells with AgNW transparent electrode. It is expected that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode can be used as a key component in various optoelectronic application such as display panels, touch screen panels, and solar cells.

  12. Tryptophan-Assisted Synthesis Reduces Bimetallic Gold/Silver Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity and Improves Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O. Shmarakov


    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the potential in vivo hepato-and nephrotoxicity of Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, an approach involving a simultaneous reduction of silver nitrate and tetrachlorauratic acid using tryptophan (Trp as a reducing/stabilizing agent was applied during NP synthesis. The obtained Ag/Au/Trp NPs (5–15 nm sized were able to form stable aggregates with an average size of 370–450 nm and were potentially less toxic than Ag/Au/SDS in relation to a mouse model system based on clinical biochemical parameters and oxidative damage product estimation. Ag/Au/Trp NPs were shown to exhibit anticancer activity in relation to a Lewis lung carcinoma model. The data generated from the present study support the fact that the use of tryptophan in NP synthesis is effective in attenuating the potential hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of NPs during their in vivo application.

  13. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.


    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  14. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones as markers for irradiated foodstuffs. III. Improvement of the field of application on the EN 1785 method by using silver ion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, B; Horvatovich, P; Miesch, M; Hasselmann, C; Marchioni, E


    The inclusion of a purification step by silver ion chromatography in the EN 1785 analytical protocol for 2-alkylcyclobutanones (validated by the European Committee for Standardization for the detection of ionizing radiation treatment) has considerably improved the quality of the chromatograms obtain

  15. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment ... effluents produced in wastewater treatment systems. This was ... Biological sulphur cycle in the treatment of high sulphate .... Treatment of Contaminated Mine and Industrial Effluents. Final.

  16. Chemical Bath Deposition of Nickel Sulphide (Ni4S3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren TEO


    Full Text Available Thin films of nickel sulphide were deposited from aqueous baths on indium tin oxide glass substrate. The chemical bath contained nickel sulphate, sodium thiosulfate and triethanolamine solutions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the different experimental conditions to prepare Ni4S3 thin films using chemical bath deposition technique. The structural, morphological and optical properties of nickel sulphide thin films were obtained by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer will be presented. The properties of the films varied with the variation in the deposition parameters. The films deposited at longer deposition time using lower concentration in more acidic medium showed improved crystallinity, good uniformity and better adhesion to the substrate. Films showed band gap of 0.35 eV and exhibited p-type semiconductor behaviour.

  17. Towards combined electrochemistry and surface-enhanced resonance Raman of heme proteins: Improvement of diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c at silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine. (United States)

    Millo, Diego; Ranieri, Antonio; Koot, Wynanda; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert


    To date, a successful combination of surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and electrochemistry to study heme proteins is inhibited by the problems raised by the prerequisite to use silver as electrode metal. This paper indicates an approach to overcome these problems. It describes a quick and reproducible procedure to prepare silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine suitable to perform diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt c). The method involves the employment of a mechanical and a chemical treatment and avoids the use of alumina slurries and any electrochemical pretreatment. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to test the electrochemical response of cyt c, and the CV signals were found identical with those obtained on gold electrodes under the same experimental conditions. Compared to previous literature, a significant improvement of the CV signal of cyt c at silver electrodes was achieved. Preliminary results show that this treatment can be also successfully employed for the preparation of SERRS-active electrodes.

  18. Magnetic sorbents biomineralization on the basis of iron sulphides. (United States)

    Jencarova, Jana; Luptakova, Alena; Vitkovska, Nikola; Matysek, Dalibor; Jandacka, Petr


    Biomineralization means mineral formation under the influence of organisms. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) constitute an essential role of iron sulphide minerals precipitation. Their composition involves amorphous, non-stoichiometric or crystalline iron sulphides, weakly or strongly magnetic. Variation in environmental conditions can alter the reactive iron species within the mineral, potentially modifying their magnetic properties. Biogenic iron sulphide minerals can be used as heavy metals and toxic ions adsorbents in soil or water remediation. For these reasons, a series of laboratory-scale iron sulphide synthesis experiments with the aim to study the chemical composition, mineralogy and magnetic properties of iron sulphide precipitates were carried out using SRB under various cultivation mode and nutrient medium composition. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed formation of iron sulphides in all biogenic samples and iron phosphates in abiotic controls. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in biomineralized samples confirmed nanocrystalline greigite, mackinawite and sulphur alpha. Magnetic measurements showed that sample prepared by static cultivation without addition of fresh nutrient medium was the most magnetic, magnetic hysteresis of sample formed under semicontinuous mode without any nutrient supply was the lowest. Abiotic samples contained only vivianite and they did not prove any significant response to magnetic field.

  19. Palladium sulphide (PdS) films as a new thermoelectric sulphide compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Macia, M.D.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables


    Palladium sulphide (PdS) films have been prepared by direct sulphuration of 20 nm thick palladium films at different temperatures (200 C < T < 450 C). Sulphurated films exhibit an unique crystalline phase: PdS. Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of these films are between -110 and -150 {mu}V/K and {proportional_to} 0.08 to 0.8 {omega}cm depending on the sulphuration temperature. Negative sign of Seebeck coefficient indicates an n type conduction in all films. Discussion is focused on the influence of atomic ratio between sulphur and palladium as well as impurities arising from the substrate on transport properties. (orig.)

  20. Surface Phenomena at Silver Nanoparticles in the Context of Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miclaus, Teodora


    of nanotoxicology. The main aim of this PhD research is to investigate these phenomena at the surface of silver nanoparticles under conditions that are relevant for in vitro studies in order to understand their implications for nano-silver toxicity. Upon contact with biological fluids, particles get coated...... sulphide particles in close proximity to the silver nanoparticle surface, as shown in the second study. The identification of spontaneous sulfidation under in vitro settings is a novel finding with important implications for toxicity, as Ag2S traps toxic silver ions into an insoluble compound. Increased...... intracellular biomolecule functions and causing toxicity. Overall, the research in this PhD thesis highlights the importance of each discussed surface phenomenon in regards to assessing the toxicity of silver nanoparticles and interpreting data from in vitro toxicology studies, while at the same time providing...

  1. Silver/Carbon Codoped Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst for Improved Dye Degradation under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nyamukamba


    Full Text Available Herein, we report the synthesis of quartz supported TiO2 photocatalysts codoped with carbon and silver through the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride followed by calcination at 500°C. The prepared samples were characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Codoping of TiO2 with Ag and carbon resulted in an increase in the surface area of the photocatalyst and altered the ratio of the anatase to rutile phase. The absorption edge of all the doped TiO2 photocatalysts redshifted and the band gap was reduced. The lowest band gap of 1.95 eV was achieved by doping with 0.5% Ag. Doping TiO2 using carbon as the only dopant resulted in a quartz supported photocatalyst that showed greater photocatalytic activity towards methyl orange than undoped TiO2 and also all codoped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

  2. Tryptophan-Assisted Synthesis Reduces Bimetallic Gold/Silver Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity and Improves Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O. Shmarakov


    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the potential in vivo hepato-and neph‐ rotoxicity of Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs stabi‐ lized by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, an approach involving a simultaneous reduction of silver nitrate and tetrachlorauratic acid using tryptophan (Trp as a reduc‐ ing/stabilizing agent was applied during NP synthesis. The obtained Ag/Au/Trp NPs (5-15 nm sized were able to form stable aggregates with an average size of 370-450 nm and were potentially less toxic than Ag/Au/SDS in relation to a mouse model system based on clinical biochemical param‐ eters and oxidative damage product estimation. Ag/Au/Trp NPs were shown to exhibit anticancer activity in relation to a Lewis lung carcinoma model. The data generated from the present study support the fact that the use of tryptophan in NP synthesis is effective in attenuating the potential hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of NPs during their in vivo application.

  3. Silver nanowire/polyaniline composite transparent electrode with improved surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Jiang, Jianwei; Bae, Chang Wan; Seo, Dong Min; Piao, Longhai, E-mail:; Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail:


    Highlights: • AgNWs/PANI transparent electrode was prepared by layer-by-layer coating method. • The surface roughness of the electrode reached to 6.5 nm (root mean square). • The electrode had reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%). - Abstract: Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are as potential candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in transparent electrodes because of their preferred conducting and optical properties. However, their rough surface properties are not favorable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as displays and thin-film solar cells. In the present investigation, AgNWs/polyaniline composite transparent electrodes with better surface properties were successfully prepared. AgNWs were incorporated into polyaniline:polystyrene sulfonate (PANI:PSS) by layer-by-layer coating and mechanical pressing. PANI:PSS decreased the surface roughness of the AgNWs electrode by filling the gap of the random AgNWs network. The transparent composite electrode had decreased surface roughness (root mean square 6.5 nm) with reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%)

  4. Bioleaching of low-grade copper sulphides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; QIU Guan-zhou


    The bioleaching behavior of low-grade copper sulphides under the condition of preferential solution flow was investigated through experiments.The experiment of bioleaching was conducted within the multifunction autocontrol bioleaching apparatus.The results show that the concentrations of Cu2+ and total Fe increase slowly at the beginning.The recovery rate decreases with the increase of depth of dump.The preferential solution happens within the fine region when the application rate is low,and the recovery rate of the fine region is higher than that of the coarse region.The content of fine ore particles within both fine and coarse regions increases during the leaching period,and the preferential solution flow shifts from fine region to coarse region.The surface of the ores at the top of dump is attacked seriously,and the ores in the middle is attacked slightly.There are plenty of crackles on the surface of bottom ores because of the precipitation layer on the surface.

  5. Deposition of carbonyl sulphide to soils (United States)

    Kluczewski, S. M.; Brown, K. A.; Bel, J. N. B.

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a trace constituent of the atmosphere and is also the main form in which 35S is released from CO 2-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of its deposition velocity ( Vg) are therefore important for validating radiological dose models and for interpreting the role of COS in the global S cycle. The Vg of [ 35S]COS to thin layers of several contrasting soils was measured in a through-flow fumigation system. Deposition velocity was not significantly affected by soil type, although deposition to moist soil was significantly greater ( P dried soils, mean values being 5.71 × 10 -6 ms -1 and 3.06 × 10 -6 ms -1, respectively. The results obtained are about three orders of magnitude smaller than published Vg values for SO 2 to similar soils, which suggests that uptake by soils is not a major sink for atmospheric COS. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that deposition to soil of [ 35S]COS from nuclear reactors is unlikely to contribute significantly to radiation dose from the food chain pathway. The reduction in Vg observed in heat-treated soils indicates a microbial involvement in uptake. However, it seems unlikely that microbial metabolism is the rate-controlling step, since stimulation of the microflora by the addition of nutrients did not increase COS deposition.

  6. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))


    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured

  7. Antimicrobial effect of diallyl sulphide on Campylobacter jejuni biofilms (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Rasco, Barbara A.; Konkel, Michael E.


    Objectives Bacterial biofilms pose significant food safety risks because of their attachment to fomites and food surfaces, including fresh produce surfaces. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate the activity of selected antimicrobials on Campylobacter jejuni biofilms. Methods C. jejuni biofilms and planktonic cells were treated with ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and diallyl sulphide and examined using infrared and Raman spectroscopies coupled with imaging analysis. Results Diallyl sulphide eliminated planktonic cells and sessile cells in biofilms at a concentration that was at least 100-fold less than used for either ciprofloxacin or erythromycin on the basis of molarity. Distinct cell lysis was observed in diallyl sulphide-treated planktonic cells using immunoblot analysis and was confirmed by a rapid decrease in cellular ATP. Two phases of C. jejuni biofilm recalcitrance modes against ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were validated using vibrational spectroscopies: (i) an initial hindered adsorption into biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and delivery of antibiotics to sessile cells within biofilms; and (ii) a different interaction between sessile cells in a biofilm compared with their planktonic counterparts. Diallyl sulphide destroyed the EPS structure of the C. jejuni biofilm, after which the sessile cells were killed in a similar manner as planktonic cells. Spectroscopic models can predict the survival of sessile cells within biofilms. Conclusions Diallyl sulphide elicits strong antimicrobial activity against planktonic and sessile C. jejuni and may have applications for reducing the prevalence of this microbe in foods, biofilm reduction and, potentially, as an alternative chemotherapeutic agent for multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. PMID:22550133

  8. Practice on Improving Gold and Silver Recovery Rateat Guixi Smelter%提高贵冶金银回收率生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    江西铜业集团贵溪冶炼厂(简称贵冶)是以铜冶炼为主,兼顾金银等稀贵金属提取的现代化大型炼铜企业。文章对铜冶炼生产工艺过程中影响金银回收率的因素以及各环节中金、银的损失情况进行了分析,详细介绍了贵冶在提高金银回收率方面从原料取样、制样以及配料管理、生产工艺过程优化等方面采取的措施。%Guixi Smelter of Jiangxi Copper Corporation is a modernized copper smelting factory in China. The main productsare copper, gold, silver and some other precious metals. The article has analyzed the elements which affect the gold and silver recovery rate and the loss situation of the gold and silver during the processing links. It introduces the measures on raw material sampling, sample preparation, dosing management and production process optimization to improve the gold and silver recovery rateat Guixi Smelter in detail.

  9. High-performance cadmium sulphide-based planar perovskite solar cell and the cadmium sulphide/perovskite interfaces (United States)

    Peng, Haitao; Sun, Weihai; Li, Yunlong; Yan, Weibo; Yu, Pingrong; Zhou, Huanping; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui


    Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is one of the most competitive photovoltaic technologies, while charge transport materials play a crucial role. We successfully demonstrated an effective electron transport material, namely chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) film under low temperature, in perovskite-based solar cells. Power conversion efficiency of 16.1% has been achieved, which is comparable to that of devices based on TiO2 film prepared via low-temperature processes. Electronic impedance spectra reveal that the CdS-based device presents a higher recombination resistance than TiO2-based devices, which reduces carrier recombination and increases the open circuit voltage. The interface between CdS and perovskite was characterized with improved characteristics when compared to TiO2, e.g., efficient carrier extraction and reduced surface defect-associated degradation in the devices, which help to alleviate anomalous hysteresis and long-term instability. Furthermore, the entire device was fabricated via solution process with a processing temperature below 100°C, suggesting a promising method of further development of perovskite solar cells and commercial manufacturing.

  10. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin


    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  11. Laboratory testing results of kinetics and processing technology of the polymetallic sulphide concentrate Blagojev Kamen – Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Ćirković


    Full Text Available This work presents the laboratory testing results of kinetics the oxidation process and sample processing of the sulphide polymetallic concentrate Blagojev Kamen. The aim of investigation is recovery of these types of raw material, present in large quantities in the peripheral parts of already used primary mineral deposits of copper, because of their high economic potential due to the content of a large number of metals and especially precious metals. Characterization of this raw material is based on the chemical analyses, XRD results, DTA analysis, etc. For these investigations, the sulphide concentrate with the following content was used in %: Cu – 2.3; Fe – 19.8; S – 27.19; Zn – 9.13; As – 0.167; Pb – 15.63; SiO2 – 17.93; CaO – 0.97; Al2O3 – 1.43; Ag – 480 g/t; Au – 659 g/t. Kinetic investigations of oxidation processes were carried out under the isothermal conditions within the temperature range of 400 to 625 oC. The Sharp's model was used for determination the kinetics parameters, and determined values of activation energy are 67 kJ/mole for the first period, and 47 kJ/mole for the second period. Pyrometallurgical treatment of this type of polymetallic concentrate, in the laboratory conditions, was carried out using the oxidative roasting and, then the reduction smelting was done in the Taman's furnace. Gold from 90.5 to 97.95% and silver from 77.28 to 93.37% are moved into the raw lead (smelting product. Gold from 1.1 to 3.92% and silver from 4.35 to 8.42% are moved into the polymetallic copper matte. Gold from 0.58 to 1.6% and silver from 2.45 to 6.82% are moved into the slag.

  12. Silver Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalysis


    Seery, Michael; George, Reena; Pillai, Suresh; Floris, Patrick


    This paper presents a systematic study on two different preparation methods for titanium dioxide with silver. The silver can be incorporated by irradiating the reaction mixture during preparation to reduce silver ion to silver metal or by direct calcination of the sol–gel material to decompose silver nitrate to silver. Of the two methods, we found the latter produces a more effective photocatalytic material (6–50% improvement in catalytic efficiency), which is attributed to the fact that the ...

  13. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel


    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test...... was carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months...

  14. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, J. (Conterra, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Wallin, B. (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden)); Bruechert, V. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)); Molinero, J. (Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain))


    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with

  15. Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice?


    Meharg,Caroline; Andrew A Meharg


    Adequate silicon fertilization greatly boosts rice yield and mitigates biotic and abiotic stress, and improves grain quality through lowering the content of cadmium and inorganic arsenic. This review on silicon dynamics in rice considers recent advances in our understanding of the role of silicon in rice, and the challenges of maintaining adequate silicon fertility within rice paddy systems. Silicon is increasingly considered as an element required for optimal plant performance, particularly ...

  16. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera (Protista : Sarcodina) to hydrogen sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Schaub, B.; Van der Zwaan, G.J.; Herman, P.M.J.


    Benthic foraminifera are dominant members of tb meiofauna, commonly occurring below the anoxic-oxic interface in marine sediments. The absence of oxygen in marine coastal sediments is often correlated with the formation of hydrogen sulphide. In this study the tolerance of benthic foraminifera (from

  17. Tolerance of benthic foraminifera (Protista : Sarcodina) to hydrogen sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Schaub, B.; Van der Zwaan, G.J.; Herman, P.M.J.


    Benthic foraminifera are dominant members of tb meiofauna, commonly occurring below the anoxic-oxic interface in marine sediments. The absence of oxygen in marine coastal sediments is often correlated with the formation of hydrogen sulphide. In this study the tolerance of benthic foraminifera (from

  18. Improved electric energy production of solar cell using small silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Li, H. F.; Shi, S.; Wang, J. L.


    The influence of small Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the all-day electric energy production of solar cells has been investigated. The small Ag NPs were deposited on the cell surface by the magnetron sputtering system. The cell without NPs is used as a reference cell. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) curves indicate that the performance of cell with 8% nanoparticle coverage is better than that of other cells in the long wavelength band. The maximum power-angle curves indicate that the small Ag NPs can effectively improve the all-day electric energy production of solar cell. Comparing with the values of reference cell, the half peak height of maximum power for cell optimized increases by 65%, and the half peak breadth of maximum power for cell optimized broadens by 3%. The enhancements of optimum operating current and optimum operating voltage lead directly to the enhancement of maximum power.

  19. Some approaches to handling hydrogen sulphide in coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Kizil, M.S.; Wu, H.W.; Harvey, T. [University of Queensland, Qld. (Australia). Department of Mining, Minerals and Materials Engineering


    The study addresses Hydrogen Sulphide (H{sub 2}S) in coal seams. The objectives of the project were to undertake a comprehensive series of interrelated studies to gain a full understanding of this complex mine production problem. The goal was to understand how, where and why high concentration zones of H{sub 2}S occur, how does gas release from the coal mass occur, can concentrations be diluted or neutralised through improved ventilation, water, chemical or microbiological infusion, chemical solution sprays and can mining approaches be modified to contain the problem. A multidisciplined approach has been used for related investigations. Systems and the output streams available for H{sub 2}S detection and monitoring have been examined. The large variations in H{sub 2}S concentration measurements from different face sources and the physical differences in the longwall face, ventilation plan, and operating procedures make the interpretation of gas concentration data difficult. Respiratory filters represent a cost-effective and short-term safe way to protect miners from potentially lethal environment. A selection of cartridge and Racal airstream helmet filters has been described and some tests into filter life and efficiency undertaken. The mine ventilation system can be modified to allow safe production through H{sub 2}S affected zones. Designs for maximising safe production through affected mine panel or development headings have been tested. Mining options to reduce H{sub 2}S emissions have also been examined. A major program of in-seam chemical neutralisation infusion trials was undertaken. The basic aim of the chemical infusion process is to prestrip a significant proportion of H{sub 2}S to allow coal mining to proceed in a safe working environment at an economic production rate. Some approaches to analysis of results and evaluating the efficiency of the approach have been given. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Gold-silver-tellurium mineral assemblages in different ore styles of the Southern Urals VHMS deposits (United States)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Zaykov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Tesalina, S. G.; Herrington, R. J.; Buschmann, B.; Becker, K.; Petersen, S.; Orgeval, J. J.; Leistel, M.


    VMS deposits of the South Urals generally show a continuum in degradation and reworking ranging from pristine steep-sided hydrothermal sulphide mounds to deposits dominated by layered strata of clastic sulphides. Four different deposits with varying degrees of degradation in order of increased reworking: (Yaman-Kasy longrightarrow Molodezhnoe longrightarrow Alexandrinskoe longrightarrow Balta-Tau) have been ranged. The influence of sulphide mound destruction and of sea-floor alteration on mineral assemblages was investigated In the pristine Yaman-Kasy sulphide mound gold and silver occur as altaite+tellurium+hessite-stuetzite+sylvanite and later galena+native gold+pyrite assemblages in chalcopyrite+isocubanite-rich linings of former chimney conduits. Chalcopyrite-dominated conduit fragments in clastic ore facies contain native tellurium+gold intergrowths. In the weakly reworked Molodezhnoe deposit gold-silver assemblages only occur in sea-floor altered clastic sulphides on the slope of massive sulphide mounds in bornite- and tennantite-rich ores in association with Cu-Ag sulfides such as jalpaite, mckinstryite, and stromeyerite and rare Au-Ag-tellurides (petzite). The Alexandrinskoe deposit is dominated by clastic ores and here native gold and rare hessite occur together with galena in tennantite-sphalerite-dominated veins of the footwall as well as in drusy sphalerite forming conduits of vent chimneys. An assemblage of electrum+galena+tennantite was observed in secondary chalcopyrite in the outer walls of chimneys. Native gold+stromeyerite are common in bornite-rich clastic sulphides while an assemblage of Ag-sulphosalts+electrum is common in barite-rich ores. In the reworked Balta-Tau deposit Ag-sulphosalts+electrum-kustelite occur often together with tennantite+galena+barite banded ores. Gold-silver-telluride mineralisation in these VMS deposits changes with degree of reworking from Au-tellurides, and native gold+galena+pyrite in pristine sulphide mounds to

  1. Extraction of antimony and arsenic from sulphidic concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The efficiency of both mineral processing and extractive metallurgy of minerals depends on the separation of individual mineral components and on the exposure of their surface. The production of flotation concentrates, with particle sizes of tens of microns, is not sufficient for many hydrometallurgical processes to operate at their optimum. As a consequence, metallurgical plants require for the effective processing high temperatures and pressures and some sort of concentrate pretreatment. Mechanical activation is an innovative procedure where an improvement in hydrometallurgical processes can be attained via a combination of new surface area and formation of crystalline defects in minerals. The lowering of reaction temperatures, the increase of rate and amount of solubility, preparation of water soluble compounds, the necessity for simpler and less expensive reactors and shorter reaction times are some of the advantages of mechanical activation. The environmental aspects of these processes are particularly attractive.This paper is devoted to the examples of application of mechanochemical treatment in the processing of sulfidic concentrates. The sulphide concentrates of various origin (Peru, Chile, Slovakia were succesfully tested for antimony and arsenic extraction. The mechanochemical treatment improve the degree of recovery and the rate of leaching of both metals. Two modes of mechanochemical treatment were tested: the mechanical activation before leaching and the mechanochemical leaching which integrates mechanical activation and leaching into a common step. The flowsheet consisted of mechanochemical leaching in an attritor and further operations as filtration, cementation, antimony precipitation, crystallization and arsenic precipitation. The pilot plant unit was designed for 500 kg per day feed of tetrahedrite concentrate. For the antimony extraction, electrowinning has also been considered. The residue which is a CuAgAu concentrate was

  2. A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. G. Lansdown


    Full Text Available Silver is used widely in wound dressings and medical devices as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Metallic silver and most inorganic silver compounds ionise in moisture, body fluids, and secretions to release biologically active Ag+. The ion is absorbed into the systemic circulation from the diet and drinking water, by inhalation and through intraparenteral administration. Percutaneous absorption of Ag+ through intact or damaged skin is low. Ag+ binds strongly to metallothionein, albumins, and macroglobulins and is metabolised to all tissues other than the brain and the central nervous system. Silver sulphide or silver selenide precipitates, bound lysosomally in soft tissues, are inert and not associated with an irreversible toxic change. Argyria and argyrosis are the principle effects associated with heavy deposition of insoluble silver precipitates in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. Whilst these changes may be profoundly disfiguring and persistent, they are not associated with pathological damage in any tissue. The present paper discusses the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism of silver in the human body, presumed mechanisms of argyria and argyrosis, and the elimination of silver-protein complexes in the bile and urine. Minimum blood silver levels consistent with early signs of argyria or argyrosis are not known. Silver allergy does occur but the extent of the problem is not known. Reference values for silver exposure are discussed.

  3. Geological and geophysical characteristics of massive sulphide deposits: A case study of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit of Western Kenya (United States)

    Dindi, E.; Maneno, J. B. J.


    An integrated geophysical ground survey was conducted on an airborne electromagnetic (EM) anomaly located in Kakamega forest of Western Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence of massive sulphides and identify suitable optimal geophysical method(s) for the investigation of similar anomalies. The study was also expected to provide information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the deposit. Field work involved electromagnetic methods: Vertical Loop (VLEM), Horizontal Loop (HLEM), TURAM EM and potential field methods: gravity and magnetics. Geochemical sampling was carried out concurrently with the geophysical survey. All the geophysical methods used yielded good responses. Several conductors conforming to the strike of the geology were identified. TURAM EM provided a higher resolution of the conductors compared to VLEM and HLEM. The conductors were found to be associated with positive gravity anomalies supporting the presence of bodies of higher density than the horst rock. Only the western section (west of 625W) of the grid is associated with strong magnetic anomalies. East of 625W strong EM and gravity anomalies persist but magnetic anomalies are weak. This may reflect variation in the mineral composition of the conductors from magnetic to non-magnetic. Geochemical data indicates strong copper anomalies (upto 300 ppm) over sections of the grid and relatively strong zinc (upto 200 ppm) and lead (upto 100 ppm) anomalies. There is a positive correlation between the location of the conductors as predicted by TURAM EM and the copper and zinc anomalies. A test drill hole proposed on the basis of the geophysical results of this study struck massive sulphides at a depth of 30m still within the weathered rock zone. Unfortunately, the drilling was stopped before the sulphides could be penetrated. The drill core revealed massive sulphide rich in pyrite and pyrrhotite. An attempt has been made to compare characteristics of the Lirhanda

  4. Adsorption of hydrogen sulphide on Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Sevillano, J.J.; Martin-Calvo, A.; Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S.; Hamad, S.


    Three new sets of interatomic potentials to model hydrogen sulphide (H2S) have been fitted. One of them is a 3-sites potential (which we named 3S) and the other two are 5-sites potentials (which we named 5S and 5Sd). The molecular dipole of the 3S and 5S potentials is 1.43 D, which is the value

  5. Sulphide oxidation in ornamental slates: protective treatment with siloxanes


    Rivas, T.; Iglesias, J.; Taboada, J.; Vilán, J.A.


    In this work, we present the results of the measurement of the effectiveness of two silanes-siloxanes based products applied on roofing slates with the aim of slowing down the oxidation of the iron sulphide inclusions. The products were applied by immersion and spraying and also at different dilutions. The effectiveness of the treatments were evaluated by means of static contact angle measurements and water absorption coefficient variations; also, the durability under thermal cycles and the c...

  6. Fusion bonding of carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide


    Degrieck J.; Van Paepegem W.; De Baere I.


    In recent years, there is a growing interest in joining techniques for thermoplastic composites as an alternative to adhesive bonding. In this manuscript, a fusion bonding process called hot-tool welding is investigated for this purpose and the used material is a carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. The quality of the welds is experimentally assessed using a short three-point bending setup, which has an interesting distribution of interlaminar shear stresses. It can be conc...

  7. Leaching of complex sulphide concentrate in acidic cupric chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The chemical analysis of a complex sulphide concentrate by emission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction shows that it contains essentially copper, lead, zinc and iron in the form of chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. A small amount of pyrite is also present in the ore but does not be detected with X-ray diffraction. The cupric chloride leaching of the sulphide concentrate at various durations and solid/liquid ratios at 100 ℃ shows that the rate of dissolution of the ore is the fastest in the first several hours, and after 12 h it does not evolve significantly. If oxygen is excluded from the aqueous cupric chloride solution during the leaching experiment at 100 ℃, the pyrite in the ore will not be leached. The determination of principal dissolved metals in the leaching liquor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical analysis of solid residues by emission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction allow to conclude that the rate of dissolution of the minerals contained in the complex sulphide concentrate are in the order of galena>sphalerite>chalcopyrite.

  8. Semiconducting properties of layered cadmium sulphide-based hybrid nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor Torres Clivia


    Full Text Available Abstract A series of hybrid cadmium salt/cationic surfactant layered nanocomposites containing different concentrations of cadmium sulphide was prepared by exchanging chloride by sulphide ions in the layered precursor CdX x (OH y (CnTA z in a solid phase/gas reaction, resulting in a series of layered species exhibiting stoichiometries corresponding to CdS v X x (OH y (CnTA z , constituted by two-dimensional CdCl2/CdS ultra-thin sheets sandwiched between two self-assembled surfactant layers. The electronic structure of CdS in the nanocomposite is similar to that of bulk, but showing the expected features of two-dimensional confinement of the semiconductor. The nanocomposite band gap is found to depend in a non-linear manner on both the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant and the concentration of the sulphide in the inorganic sheet. The products show photocatalytic activity at least similar and usually better than that of "bulk" CdS in a factor of two.

  9. Hydrogen sulphide removal from corroding concrete: comparison between surface removal rates and biomass activity. (United States)

    Jensen, H S; Nielsen, A H; Lens, P N L; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J


    Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes caused by hydrogen sulphide is a problem in many sewer networks. The mechanisms of production and fate of hydrogen sulphide in the sewer biofilms and wastewater as well as its release to the sewer atmosphere are largely understood. In contrast, the mechanisms of the uptake of hydrogen sulphide on the concrete surfaces and subsequent concrete corrosion are basically unknown. To shed light on these mechanisms, the uptake of hydrogen sulphide from a sewer gas phase was compared to the biological hydrogen sulphide removal potential of the concrete corrosion products. The results showed that both microbial degradation at and sorption to the concrete surfaces were important for the uptake of hydrogen sulphide on the concrete surfaces.

  10. Self-reduction and size controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles on carbon nanospheres by grafting triazine-based molecular layer for conductivity improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Jing [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Aisawa, Sumio, E-mail: [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Hirahara, Hidetoshi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro [Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan); Mori, Kunio [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogenous Ag NPs were fabricated on CNs at 25 °C without using predeposition and reducing agent. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between Ag NPs and CNs was studied. • The Ag NPs substantially improve the CNs conductivity. • UV irradiation was used to make silver crystal grow up and control the Ag NPs’ size. - Abstract: A facile, self-reduction and size controlled synthesis method has been explored to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on carbon nanosphere (CNs) under mild conditions. Without using predeposition of seed metals and reducing agent, a uniform and complete layer of Ag NPs was formed through grafting a molecular layer on CNs surfaces under UV irradiation. The size and thickness of Ag NPs were effectively tuned by adjusting the UV irradiation time. This direct formation of Ag NPs was attributed to self seed in aqueous Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} complex solution through a triazine-based silane coupling agent molecular layer, even at 25 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the Ag NPs’ properties. A substantial conductivity improvement of prepared Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere was demonstrated. The presented method is simple and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere in conduct electricity paint and coating applications.

  11. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy). (United States)

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca


    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  12. Surface Morphology Dependent Copper Sulphide Ammonia Gas Sensor Working at Room Temperature: Effect of SHI Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramphal Sharma


    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of copper sulphide (CuS nano-pillars on copper sulphide thin film surface by using swift heavy ion (SHI irradiation. Thin films of CuS are irradiated with 100 MeV gold ions at fluence varying from 1011 to 5 ´ 1012 ions/cm2. These nanostructures grown on the surface of copper sulphide has been used for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. The time dependent surface conductance measurements show the utility of copper sulphide for the detection of ammonia. It is observed that the response of the material is highly influenced by the irradiation fluence.

  13. Surface Morphology Dependent Copper Sulphide Ammonia Gas Sensor Working at Room Temperature: Effect of SHI Irradiation


    Ramphal Sharma; Sagade, Abhay A.; J. C. Vyas; P. K. Nema; Anil Ghule; Sung-Hwan Han


    We report the synthesis of copper sulphide (CuS) nano-pillars on copper sulphide thin film surface by using swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Thin films of CuS are irradiated with 100 MeV gold ions at fluence varying from 1011 to 5 ´ 1012 ions/cm2. These nanostructures grown on the surface of copper sulphide has been used for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. The time dependent surface conductance measurements show the utility of copper sulphide for the detection of ammonia. ...

  14. Improvement of optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmon in silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chu-Young [Applied Device and Material Department, Korea Advanced Nano fab Center, Suwon 443–270 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang-Hyun [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500–712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500–712 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report on the effect of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conducting layer deposited on p-GaN layer of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The sheet resistance of ITO and the series resistance of LEDs were decreased due to the increased electrical conductivity of ITO by Ag nanoparticles, compared with those of the LEDs with a bare ITO only. The ITO transmittance was also improved by localized surface plasmon resonance between the incident light and the randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles on ITO. The optical output power of LEDs with Ag nanoparticles on ITO was increased by 16% at 20 mA of injection current. - Highlights: • We studied the effect of Ag nanoparticles deposited on ITO on the properties of LED. • The optical power of LED and transmittance of ITO were improved by Ag surface plasmon. • The electrical conductivity of ITO was increased by Ag nanoparticles.

  15. Prediction and optimisation of Pb/Zn/Fe sulphide scales in gas production fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Sarah; Orski, Karine; Menezes, Carlos; Heath, Steve; MacPherson, Calum; Simpson, Caroline; Graham, Gordon


    Lead, zinc and iron sulphide scales are known to be a particular issue with gas production fields, particularly those producing from HP/HT reservoirs. However the prediction of sulphide scale and the methodologies available for their laboratory assessment are not as well developed as those for the more conventional sulphate and carbonate scales. This work examines a particular sulphide scaling regime from a North Sea high temperature gas condensate production field containing only 0.8ppm of sulphide ions. Sulphide scales were identified in the production system which was shown to be a mixture of lead and zinc sulphide, primarily lead sulphide. This formed as a result of cooling during production resulting in the over saturation of these minerals. This paper describes scale prediction and modified laboratory test protocols used to re-create the scales formed in the field prior to chemical performance testing. From the brine composition, scale prediction identified that the major scales that could be formed were calcium carbonate, iron carbonate, iron sulphide, lead sulphide and zinc sulphide. In addition, modification of the brine compositions led to prediction of primarily one scale or the other. Given the predicted over saturation of various minerals, preliminary laboratory tests were therefore conducted in order to ensure that the scale formed under laboratory conditions was representative of the field scale. Laboratory protocols were therefore developed to ensure that the scales formed in fully anaerobic dynamic performance tests and static performance tests were similar to those encountered in the field. The paper compares results from field analysis, scale predictions and laboratory scale formation tests using newly developed test protocols and shows differences between prediction and laboratory data. The paper therefore demonstrates the importance of ensuring that the correct scale is formed under laboratory test conditions and also indicates some potential

  16. Spectroscopy of vanadium (III) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide chalcogenide glass

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, M; Rutt, H; Hewak, D


    Vanadium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (V:GLS) displays three absorption bands at 580, 730 and 1155 nm identified by photoluminescence excitation measurements. Broad photoluminescence, with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 500 nm, is observed peaking at 1500 nm when exciting at 514, 808 and 1064 nm. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum efficiency at 300 K were measured to be 33.4 us and 4 % respectively. From the available spectroscopic data we propose the vanadium ions valence to be 3+ and be in tetrahedral coordination The results indicate potential for development of a laser or optical amplifier based on V:GLS.

  17. Fusion bonding of carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide (United States)

    de Baere, I.; van Paepegem, W.; Degrieck, J.


    In recent years, there is a growing interest in joining techniques for thermoplastic composites as an alternative to adhesive bonding. In this manuscript, a fusion bonding process called hot-tool welding is investigated for this purpose and the used material is a carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. The quality of the welds is experimentally assessed using a short three-point bending setup, which has an interesting distribution of interlaminar shear stresses. It can be concluded that although the hot-tool welding process shows high short-beam strengths, it has some drawbacks. Therefore, a design of an infrared welding setup is presented.

  18. Fusion bonding of carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degrieck J.


    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing interest in joining techniques for thermoplastic composites as an alternative to adhesive bonding. In this manuscript, a fusion bonding process called hot-tool welding is investigated for this purpose and the used material is a carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. The quality of the welds is experimentally assessed using a short three-point bending setup, which has an interesting distribution of interlaminar shear stresses. It can be concluded that although the hot-tool welding process shows high short-beam strengths, it has some drawbacks. Therefore, a design of an infrared welding setup is presented.

  19. Polymer glazing for silver mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlinger, H H; Schissel, P


    This paper reports on an evaluation and modification of polymeric glazings to protect silver mirrors. The mirrors were made using Corning 7809 glass as a substrate onto which a thin silver film is deposited. The modified polymeric films are then cast from solution onto the silver. The mirrors were characterized by measuring the hemispherical reflectance and the specular reflectance at 660 nm and selected acceptance angles (7.5 mrad or 3.5 mrad). The mirrors were exposed to environmental degradation using accelerated weathering devices and outdoor exposure. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that polymethylmethacrylate is a stable polymer in a terrestrial environment, but the polymer does not provide adequate protection for the silver reflector. The crucial role in degradation played by ultraviolet (uv) light is shown by several experimental results. It has been demonstrated that uv stabilizers added to the polymer improve the weatherability of mirrors. The relative effectiveness of different stabilizers will be discussed in terms of the weathering modes, retention of optical properties, and effectiveness of the additives. The process for silver deposition influences the reflectance of silver mirrors, and the optical properties depend on subtle relationships between the metallization and the dielectric (polymeric) films that are in contact with the silver.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Wan Shamsuri, W. N.; Fu, Y. Q.


    Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs - one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  1. Bioleaching of metal ions from low grade sulphide ore: Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 10, 2010 ... copper, gold, silver, platinum, chromium, iron, lead and zinc in various ... metal compounds into their water-soluble forms and are biocatalysts of this .... whose column elements represent the low, medium and high levels.

  2. Allyl sulphides in olefin metathesis: catalyst considerations and traceless promotion of ring-closing metathesis. (United States)

    Edwards, Grant A; Culp, Phillip A; Chalker, Justin M


    Allyl sulphides are reactive substrates in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis reactions, provided each substrate is matched with a suitable catalyst. A profile of catalyst activity is described, along with the first demonstration of allyl sulphides as traceless promoters in relayed ring-closing metathesis reactions.

  3. Global warming enhances sulphide stress in a key seagrass species (NW Mediterranean). (United States)

    García, Rosa; Holmer, Marianne; Duarte, Carlos M; Marbà, Núria


    The build-up of sulphide concentrations in sediments, resulting from high inputs of organic matter and the mineralization through sulphate reduction, can be lethal to the benthos. Sulphate reduction is temperature dependent, thus global warming may contribute to even higher sulphide concentrations and benthos mortality. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to sulphide stress. Hence, if concentrations build up with global warming, this key Mediterranean species could be seriously endangered. An 8-year monitoring of daily seawater temperature, the sulphur isotopic signatures of water (δ(34)S(water)), sediment (δ(34)SCRS ) and P. oceanica leaf tissue (δ(34)S(leaves)), along with total sulphur in leaves (TS(leaves)) and annual net population growth along the coast of the Balearic archipelago (Western Mediterranean) allowed us to determine if warming triggers P. oceanica sulphide stress and constrains seagrass survival. From the isotopic S signatures, we estimated sulphide intrusion into the leaves (F(sulphide)) and sulphur incorporation into the leaves from sedimentary sulphides (SS(leaves)). We observed lower δ(34)S(leaves), higher F(sulphide) and SS(leaves) coinciding with a 6-year period when two heat waves were recorded. Warming triggered sulphide stress as evidenced by the negative temperature dependence of δ(34)S(leaves) and the positive one of F(sulphide), TS(leaves) and SS(leaves). Lower P. oceanica net population growth rates were directly related to higher contents of TS(leaves). At equivalent annual maximum sea surface water temperature (SST(max)), deep meadows were less affected by sulphide intrusion than shallow ones. Thus, water depth acts as a protecting mechanism against sulphide intrusion. However, water depth would be insufficient to buffer seagrass sulphide stress triggered by Mediterranean seawater summer temperatures projected for the end of the 21st century even under scenarios of moderate greenhouse gas emissions, A1B

  4. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD. The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1 During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reducing (water-saturated. Associated environmental problems include the presence of high sulphate concentrations due to dissolution of gypsum-anhydrite, and/or effluents enriched in elements such as Mo and As, which desorbed from primary ferric hydroxides during the alkaline flotation process. (2 Once mining-related operations of the tailings impoundment has ceased, sulphide oxidation starts, resulting in the formation of an acidic oxidation zone and a ferrous iron-rich plume below the oxidation front, that re-oxidises once it surfaces, producing the first visible sign of AMD, i.e., the precipitation of ferrihydrite and concomitant acidification. (3 Consumption of the (reactive neutralization potential of the gangue minerals and subsequent outflow of acidic, heavy metal-rich leachates from the tailings is the final step in the evolution of an AMD system. The formation of multi-colour efflorescent salts can be a visible sign of this stage.

  5. Direct molecular hydrogen sulphide scrubbing with hollowfibre membranes. (United States)

    Boucif, N; Jefferson, B; Parsons-, S A; Judd, S J; Stuetz, R M


    The emission of hydrogen sulphide is a major problem associated with anaerobic treatment of sulphate and sulphite containing wastewaters. Conventional absorbing processes, such as packed towers, spray towers or bubble columns, are all constrained by factors such as flooding and foaming. Membrane systems, on the other hand, enable independent control of the liquid and gas flow rate and a step change order of magnitude increase in the specific surface area of the contact process. The membrane acts as a gas absorber with a design similar to a shell and tube heat exchanger. On the other hand, they are limited by facets of the membrane such as its resistance to mass transfer and permselectivity, as well as its cost. The work presented in this paper refers to an absorption process based on a non-wetted hollow fibre membrane for the scrubbing of hydrogen sulphide from air, with water as the contact solvent. Results presented describe the performance of the unit in terms of overall transfer and outlet liquid concentration as a function of circulation regime, gas flow rate, liquid flow rate and specific surface area. In particular, results are presented using traditional plots of Sherwood number (Sh) against Graetz (Gr) number for the liquid flowing in the lumens, such that experimental and available empirical descriptions of the process performance are directly compared. Results suggest that, as expected, very efficient mass transfer is obtained. However, the mass transfer was found to reach a maximum value against Gr, contrary to available empirical models.

  6. Porous silicon-based direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cells. (United States)

    Dzhafarov, T D; Yuksel, S Aydin


    In this paper, the use of Au/porous silicon/Silicon Schottky type structure, as a direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell is demonstrated. The porous silicon filled with hydrochlorid acid was developed as a proton conduction membrane. The Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon cells were fabricated by first creating the porous silicon layer in single-crystalline Si using the anodic etching under illumination and then deposition Au catalyst layer onto the porous silicon. Using 80 mM H2S solution as fuel the open circuit voltage of 0.4 V was obtained and maximum power density of 30 W/m2 at room temperature was achieved. These results demonstrate that the Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell which uses H2S:dH2O solution as fuel and operates at room temperature can be considered as the most promising type of low cost fuel cell for small power-supply units.

  7. Oxygen plasma functionalization of poly(p-phenilene sulphide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvelbar, Uros [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail:; Mozetic, Miran [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Junkar, Ita [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovac, Janez [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drenik, Aleksander [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vrlinic, Tjasa [Department F4, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, Nina [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Klanjsek-Gunde, Marta [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Markoli, Bostjan [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askrceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krstulovic, Niksa [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 56, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Milosevic, Slobodan [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 56, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Gaboriau, Freddy [Laplace, University Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Belmonte, Thierry [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Surfaces, Ecole de Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy (France)


    Surface effects during plasma activation of poly(p-phenilene sulphide)-PPS have been studied. Samples that were exposed to weakly ionized highly dissociated oxygen plasma created an inductively coupled radiofrequency discharge with the power of 100 W. The electron density and temperature were measured with a double Langmuir probe and were 4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3} and 3 eV, respectively, while the neutral atom density was measured with a fiber optics catalytic probe and was 4 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3}. The surface tension was determined by measuring the contact angle of deionized water, while the appearance of surface functional groups was detected by XPS. The surface tension of untreated PPS was 7 x 10{sup -3} N/m or/and increased to 7 x 10{sup -2} N/m in few seconds of plasma treatment. It remained fairly constant for longer plasma treatments. The XPS survey spectrum showed little oxygen on untreated samples, but its concentration increased to about 20 at.% in few seconds. Detailed high resolution XPS C 1s peak showed that the carbon was left fairly stable during plasma treatment. The main functional groups formed were rather sulphate in sulphite groups, as determined from high resolution S 2p peak. Namely, a strong transition from sulphide to sulphate state of sulfur was observed. The spontaneous deactivation of the polymer surface was measured as well. The deactivation was fairly logarithmic with the characteristic decay time of several hours.

  8. Arsenic removal from water by iron-sulphide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In bench-scaled experiments, iron-sulphide minerals, pyrite and pyrrhotite are used as adsorbents for arsenic removal from As-spiked water of As5+ and As3+ species. The adsorption rate, efficiency, As-adsorption stability and the associated pH conditions have been examined. Observations indicate that these iron-sulphide minerals are very efficient to adsorb arsenic from water for both As5+ and As3+ species. Similar to other studies, As3+-adsorption shows a slower rate than As3+. The stability of the adsorbed arsenic seems closely related to the pH values of the solution. A lower pH level commonly less than 4.0 is required to protect the adsorbed arsenic from serious oxidation and backward release. Fining of the mineral powders and shaking of the solution during adsorption enhance the adsorption efficiency and adsorption rate. For practical use of the method presented in this study, the waste produced should be managed with great care to keep it from redistribution over water system. A further study of the protection for the waste from oxidation on real water systems will greatly enhance the application of the strong ability of arsenic adsorption by these minerals, which is observed from this study.

  9. Cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the regulation of metabolism: insights from genetics and pharmacology. (United States)

    Carter, Roderick N; Morton, Nicholas M


    Obesity and diabetes represent a significant and escalating worldwide health burden. These conditions are characterized by abnormal nutrient homeostasis. One such perturbation is altered metabolism of the sulphur-containing amino acid cysteine. Obesity is associated with elevated plasma cysteine, whereas diabetes is associated with reduced cysteine levels. One mechanism by which cysteine may act is through its enzymatic breakdown to produce hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a gasotransmitter that regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis. Here we review evidence from both pharmacological studies and transgenic models suggesting that cysteine and hydrogen sulphide play a role in the metabolic dysregulation underpinning obesity and diabetes. We then outline the growing evidence that regulation of hydrogen sulphide levels through its catabolism can impact metabolic health. By integrating hydrogen sulphide production and breakdown pathways, we re-assess current hypothetical models of cysteine and hydrogen sulphide metabolism, offering new insight into their roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes.

  10. Leaching of a gold bearing partially roasted sulphide. Laboratory scale studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Almeida


    Full Text Available This research aimed at defining a route for recovering precious metals from a very heterogeneous gold bearing sulphide and arsenide concentrate that was partially roasted and dumped by the 1960s when Santo António mine closed. Gold occurs in this concentrate as free particles in the range of 10-100 mum, most of them still enclosed in the pyrite and arsenopyrite matrix. Its content varies from 20 to 150 g of Au/ton, being higher at the dump upper levels and in the finer concentrate fractions. Preliminary tests demonstrated the refractoriness of this product, since the leaching with conventional cyanide solutions and with other leaching solutions gave very low recoveries. However, high concentrated cyanide solutions recover more than 60% of Au, although with high NaCN and lime consumptions and poor settling characteristics. Iron was shown to be highly dissolved in these solutions. Some prior treatments clearly favoured the cyanidation process, in particular a roasting step. Thus, a large number of roasting experiments was carried out to define the most favourable conditions for recovering gold. However, no clear relationship between roasting conditions and gold dissolution was found due to the heterogeneity of the product and high variance of gold experimental recoveries. These recoveries were calculated considering gold contained in both the leaching residues and leachates, and uncertainties of these results are relatively high. Roasting the product at 450-700 °C for 1 h guarantees a high probability to dissolve at least 74% Au in a highly concentrated NaCN solution stirred for 24 h. The 600-700 °C roasting range is clearly preferable for consuming less cyanide and lime. Pre-washing the roasted product seems not to reduce the cyanide consumption. Regarding the silver recovery, the NaCN and lime consumption are higher while using the products roasted at the lowest tested temperatures. Products roasted at higher temperatures have better settling

  11. Improving cytotoxicity against cancer cells by chemo-photodynamic combined modalities using silver-graphene quantum dots nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba K


    Full Text Available Khaled Habiba,1,2 Joel Encarnacion-Rosado,2,3 Kenny Garcia-Pabon,2,4 Juan C Villalobos-Santos,2,5 Vladimir I Makarov,1 Javier A Avalos,2,6 Brad R Weiner,2,7,8 Gerardo Morell1,2,7 1Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, 2Molecular Sciences Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, 3Department of Biology, 4Faculty of Education, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, 5Department of Biology, 6Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico – Bayamon Campus, Bayamon, 7Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, 8Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR, USA Abstract: The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy due to its synergistic effects. In this work, PEGylated silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs were tested as a platform to deliver a chemotherapy drug and a photosensitizer, simultaneously, in chemo-photodynamic therapy against HeLa and DU145 cancer cells in vitro. Ag-GQDs have displayed high efficiency in delivering doxorubicin as a model chemotherapy drug to both cancer cells. The Ag-GQDs exhibited a strong antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting the viability of normal cells. Moreover, the Ag-GQDs exhibited a cytotoxic effect due to the generation of the reactive singlet oxygen upon 425 nm irradiation, indicating their applicability in photodynamic therapy. In comparison with chemo or photodynamic treatment alone, the combined treatment of Ag-GQDs conjugated with doxorubicin under irradiation with a 425 nm lamp significantly increased the death in DU145 and HeLa. This study suggests Ag-GQDs as a multifunctional and efficient therapeutic system for chemo-photodynamic modalities in cancer therapy. Keywords: multifunctional nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, cancer therapy, drug

  12. Improving SERS Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis Using Silver Nanoparticles Reduced with Hydroxylamine and with Citrate Capped Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsamar Félix-Rivera


    Full Text Available The development of techniques that could be useful in fields other than biological warfare agents countermeasures such as medical diagnostics, industrial microbiology, and environmental applications have become a very important subject of research. Raman spectroscopy can be used in near field or at long distances from the sample to obtain fingerprinting information of chemical composition of microorganisms. In this research, biochemical components of the cell wall and endospores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were identified by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS spectroscopy using silver (Ag nanoparticles (NPs reduced by hydroxylamine and borohydride capped with sodium citrate. Activation of “hot spots”, aggregation and surface charge modification of the NPs, was studied and optimized to obtain signal enhancements from Bt by SERS. Slight aggregation of the NPs as well as surface charge modification to a more acidic ambient was induced using small-size borohydride-reduced NPs in the form of metallic suspensions aimed at increasing the Ag NP-Bt interactions. Hydroxylamine-reduced NPs required slight aggregation and no pH modifications in order to obtain high spectral quality results in bringing out SERS signatures of Bt.

  13. Carbon nanotubes with silver nanoparticle decoration and conductive polymer coating for improving the electrical conductivity of polycarbonate composites

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Archana S.


    We proposed a strategy to enhance the conductivity of polycarbonate by using three-phase hybrid metallic/non-metallic fillers. Ethylene diamine (EDA) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-EDA) are first decorated with silver nanoparticles. These Ag/ MWCNT-EDA fillers are then coated with a conductive layer of ethylene glycol treated PEDOT: PSS (poly [3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]: poly [styrenesulfonate]) (EP). In such an approach, the MWCNT backbone is covered by a highly conductive coating made of Ag nanoparticles surrounded by EP. To understand how Ag and EP form a highly conductive coating, the effect of different wt% of Ag nanoparticles on EP was studied. Ag nanoparticles around the size of 128 ± 28 nmeffectively lowered the volume resistivity of bulk EP, resulting in a highly conducting Ag/EP blend. We found that in the final Ag/MWCNT-EDA/EP assembly, the EP coating enhances the electrical conductivity in two ways: (1) it is an efficient dispersing agent that helps in achieving a uniform dispersion of the Ag/MWCNT-EDA and (2) it acts as a conductive bridge between particles (Ag and MWCNT-EDA), reducing the particle to particle resistivity. When inserted into polycarbonate, this three-phase blend successfully reduced the volume resistivity of the polymer by two orders of magnitude compared with previous approaches.

  14. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen


    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  15. Towards high quality triangular silver nanoprisms: improved synthesis, six-tip based hot spots and ultra-high local surface plasmon resonance sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, B.; Wang, D.; Zuo, J.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, X.; Tu, L.; Chang, Y.; Li, C.; Wu, F.; Zeng, Q.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.


    The great application potential of triangular silver nanoprisms (TSNPRs, also referred to as triangular silver nanoplates) is hampered by the lack of methods to produce well-defined tips with high monodispersity, with easily removable ligands. In this work, a simple one-step plasmon-mediated method

  16. Evaluation of sulcular sulphide level monitoring using a portable sensor system. (United States)

    Gleissner, C; Springborn, I; Willershausen, B


    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) such as hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan are toxic bacterial metabolites considered to contribute to the progression of periodontitis. However, the quantitative determination of sulcular VSC concentration requires costly time-consuming laboratory methods limiting its evaluation in large clinical trials. Recently, a portable monitor with a sulphide microsensor has been developed to measure sulcular VSC levels (SU). This cross-sectional study evaluated 1) the clinical usage of the sulphide sensor system, 2) the reproducibility of SU-measurements, 3) the distribution of SU-values in periodontal health and disease and 4) the relationship between SU and clinical parameters documenting periodontal disease severity. The specificity, the measuring range and the reproducibility of the sensor system were tested with reference solutions in vitro. 10 probands with healthy gingiva, 23 patients with gingivitis and 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were examined recording periodontal parameters (clinical attachment loss, CAL, probing depth, PD, bleeding on probing intensity BI, plaque and gingival index PI, GI) and sulcular sulphide level (SU) measured by the portable monitor as a digital score ranging from 0.0 (data. The portable sulphide monitor is a reliable method for the chairside determination of sulcular sulphide level in periodontal disease and in spite of its limitations a valuable supplementation of traditional clinical examination methods. It offers the possibility of relating in vitro results on the toxicity of VSC to clinical findings and might provide new insight into the impact of sulcular sulphide on the pathophysiology of periodontitis.

  17. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling


    Full Text Available In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC, such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  18. Complex sulphide-barite ore leaching in ferric chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sokić


    Full Text Available The results of research on the leaching process of complex sulphide-barite ore were presented in this paper. The leaching process was carried out in a laboratory autoclave by ferric chloride solution. Considering that those minerals are represented in complex structural-textural relationships, it is not possible to extract lead, zinc and copper minerals from ore by flotation methods. The obtained results confirmed possibility of the ore processing directly, by chemical methods. The effect of temperature, time and oxygen partial pressure on the lead, zinc and copper dissolution was studied. The maximal leaching degree was achieved at 100 °C and amount of 91.5 % for Pb, 96.1 % for Zn and 60.7 % for Cu. Leaching at temperatures above 100 °C is impractical.

  19. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane (United States)

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.


    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In2S3) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In2S3 nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In2S3, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530-600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar+ laser as the excitation source.

  20. Bioleaching of pollymetallic sulphide concentrate using thermophilic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milovan


    Full Text Available An extreme thermophilic, iron-sulphur oxidising bacterial culture was isolated and adapted to tolerate high metal and solids concentrations at 70°C. Following isolation and adaptation, the culture was used in a batch bioleach test employing a 5-l glass standard magnetic agitated and aerated reactor, for the bioleaching of a copper-lead-zinc collective concentrate. The culture exhibited stable leach performance over the period of leach operation and overall copper and zinc extractions higher than 97%. Lead sulphide is transformed into lead sulphate remaining in the bioleach residue due to the low solubility in sulphate media. Brine leaching of bioleach residue yields 95% lead extraction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34023

  1. Who farted? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, Håkan; Brännström, Niklas


    On September 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on September 10 in the interior parts of county V\\"asterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO_2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO_2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO_2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  2. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)


    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods.

  3. Infrared emission from holmium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Samson, B. N.; Hector, J. R.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Hewak, D. W.; Payne, D. N.


    Infrared emission at 1.2, 1.25, 1.67, 2.0, 2.2, 2.9, 3.9, and 4.9 μm is measured in holmium (Ho 3+) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass. Branching ratios, radiative quantum efficiencies, and emission cross-sections are calculated from lifetime, absorption, and emission measurements using Judd-Ofelt analysis and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. The fluorescence band at 3.9 μm coincides with an atmospheric transmission window and the fluorescence band at 4.9 μm overlaps with the fundamental absorption of carbon monoxide, making the glass a potential fibre laser source for remote sensing and gas sensing applications. This is the first time this latter transition has been reported in any holmium doped host.

  4. Effect of aluminum and yttrium doping on zinc sulphide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Swati, E-mail:; Kashyap, Jyoti; Kapoor, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Gupta, Shubhra [Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110021 (India); Natasha [Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi-110053 (India)


    In this work, pristine and doped Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles have been synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. ZnS nanoparticles have been doped with Aluminium (Al) and Yttrium (Y) with doping concentration of 5wt% each. The structural and optical properties of the as prepared nanoparticles have been studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Average grain size of 2-3nm is observed through the XRD analysis. Effect of doping on stress, strain and lattice constant of the nanoparticles has also been analyzed. Photoluminescence spectra of the as prepared nanoparticles is enhanced due to Al doping and quenched due to Y doping. EDAX studies confirm the relative doping percentage to be 3.47 % and 3.94% by wt. for Al and Y doped nanoparticles respectively. Morphology of the nanoparticles studied using TEM and SEM indicates uniform distribution of spherical nanoparticles.

  5. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingfen, E-mail:; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  6. Concentration-time interactions in hydrogen sulphide toxicity in rats. (United States)

    Prior, M G; Sharma, A K; Yong, S; Lopez, A


    Concentration-time interactions were investigated in young male and female Sprague-Dawley, Long Evans and Fischer-344 rats exposed to hydrogen sulphide for two, four or six hours. Higher concentrations caused more deaths, with no significant difference for duration of exposure. A significant sex effect was noted with 30% mortality in males and 20% in females, with no significant difference among strains. Changes in weight were significant: increasing with concentration, higher in males than in females, different among strains (Fischer-344 less than Sprague Dawley less than Long Evans), and affected by duration of exposure. Lethal concentration values (LC50 and LC10) were estimated, for the pooled data set (n = 456); the probit equation was Y = -5.74749 + 3.8259X where X is log10 dose of hydrogen sulphide in parts per million. The LC50/LC10 values were 644/298 parts per million (902/417 mg m-3) respectively. Individual probit analyses were also performed for strain, hours of exposure and sex. The LC50 and LC10 values for male, female and strain were not different. Significant differences were observed among LC50/LC10 values for hours of exposure (2 h = 587/549 parts per million, 822/769 mg m-3; 4 h = 501/422 parts per million, 701/591 mg m-3; 6 h = 335/299 parts per million, 469/491 mg m-3). There was no effect of spatial position in the exposure chamber on the distribution of mortality. All rats of all strains dying had severe pulmonary edema. PMID:3167719

  7. Sulphide oxidation in ornamental slates: protective treatment with siloxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, T.


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of the measurement of the effectiveness of two silanes-siloxanes based products applied on roofing slates with the aim of slowing down the oxidation of the iron sulphide inclusions. The products were applied by immersion and spraying and also at different dilutions. The effectiveness of the treatments were evaluated by means of static contact angle measurements and water absorption coefficient variations; also, the durability under thermal cycles and the colour variations before treatment and before UVA exposition were tested. In all the cases, a very low product consumptions were obtained, due to the particular porous system of these rocks; also, any of the treatments increased the static angle. Nevertheless, the products tested remarkably increased the resistance of sulphides to the oxidation during thermal cycles without producing important changes in rock colour and also they have shown a good durability under UVA exposition

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la medida de la eficacia de dos silanos-siloxanos aplicados en pizarras de techar con el objetivo de reducir la oxidación de las inclusiones de sulfuros de hierro. Los productos fueron aplicados por inmersión y spray a diferentes concentraciones. La efectividad de los tratamientos fue evaluada mediante la medida del ángulo de contacto estático y las variaciones del coeficiente de absorción de agua y su durabilidad mediante ciclos térmicos y de exposición a luz ultravioleta. A pesar del bajo consumo de ambos productos, debido al particular sistema poroso de estas rocas, y del bajo incremento del ángulo de contacto, ambos silanos-siloxanos incrementan notablemente la resistencia de los sulfuros a la oxidación durante los ciclos térmicos sin producir cambios relevantes en el color de la roca y muestran una aceptable durabilidad bajo la luz ultravioleta.

  8. The Math Emporium: Higher Education's Silver Bullet (United States)

    Twigg, Carol A.


    Throughout the 1990's, many people saw information technology as a silver bullet that could solve many of higher education's problems, among them the need to improve learning outcomes and control the ever-upward trajectory of higher education costs. The term "silver bullet" connotes a direct and effortless solution to a problem.…

  9. Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiering, S., E-mail: [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Paetel, S.; Kessler, F. [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Igalson, M.; Abdel Maksoud, H. [Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)


    In the manufacturing of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells the application of a buffer layer on top of the absorber is essential to obtain high efficiency devices. Regarding the roll-to-roll production of CIGS cells and modules a vacuum deposition process for the buffer is preferable to the conventional cadmium sulphide buffer deposited in a chemical bath. Promising results have already been achieved for the deposition of indium sulphide buffer by different vacuum techniques. The solar device performance is very sensitive to the conditions at the absorber-buffer heterojunction. In view of optimization we investigated the influence of the Cu content in the absorber on the current-voltage characteristics. In this work the integral copper content was varied between 19 and 23 at.% in CIGS on glass substrates. An improvement of the cell performance by enhanced open circuit voltage was observed for a reduction to ~ 21 at.% when thermally evaporated indium sulphide was applied as the buffer layer. The influence of stoichiometry deviations on the transport mechanism and secondary barriers in the device was studied using detailed dark and light current-voltage analysis and admittance spectroscopy and compared to the reference CdS-buffered cells. We conclude that the composition of the absorber in the interface region affects current transport in In{sub x}S{sub y}-buffered and CdS-buffered cells in different ways hence optimal Cu content in those two types of devices is different. - Highlights: • Influence of Cu-variation in CIGS cells with In{sub x}S{sub y} buffer layer on cell performance • Enhanced efficiency by slight reduction of Cu-content to 21 at.% • Contribution of tunnelling-enhanced interface recombination for higher Cu-content.

  10. Site-Selective Controlled Dealloying Process of Gold-Silver Nanowire Array: a Simple Approach towards Long-Term Stability and Sensitivity Improvement of SERS Substrate (United States)

    Wiriyakun, Natta; Pankhlueab, Karuna; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan


    Limitations of achieving highly sensitive and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate greatly concern the suitable method for fabrication of large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Herein we report a simple approach using template-based synthesis to create a highly ordered two-dimensional array of gold-silver alloy nanowires, followed by the controlled dealloying process. This particular step of mild acid etching (15%v/v nitric acid for 5 min) allowed the formation of Raman hot spots on the nanowire tips while maintaining the integrity of highly active alloy composition and rigid nanowire array structure. Full consideration of SERS substrate performance was accomplished using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as a probe molecule. Exceedingly higher SERS signal (150-fold) can be achieved with respect to typical gold film substrate. Moreover, an excellent stability of SERS substrate was also determined for over 3 months storage time. In contrast to the previous studies which stability improvement was accomplished at a cost of sensitivity reduction, the simultaneous improvement of sensitivity and stability makes the controlled dealloying process an excellent choice of SERS substrate fabrication. In addition, uniformity and reproducibility studies indicated satisfactory results with the acceptable values of relative standard deviation.

  11. Sulphide melt evolution in upper mantle to upper crust magmas, Tongling, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yilun Du Xinlong Qin Calvin G. Barnes Yi Cao Qian Dong Yangsong Du


    ... of magmas and the formation of NieCueFe deposits. We describe sulphide inclusions from unique ultramafic clots within mafic xenoliths, from the mafic xenoliths themselves, and from the three silica-rich host plutons in Tongling, China...

  12. Trace Element Composition of Metal and Sulphides in Iron Meteorites Determined Using ICP-MS (United States)

    Giscard, M. D.; Hammond, S. J.; Bland, P. A.; Benedix, G. K.; Rogers, N. W.; Russell, S. S.; Genge, M. J.; Rehkamper, M.


    We measured trace element concentrations in Nantan, Toluca, Cape York, Carthage, Gibeon and Dronino. Poikiloblastic daubreelite in Gibeon indicates shock metamorphism. There is a volatile depletion in metal and sulphides.

  13. The influence of salinity on the solubility of Zn and Cd sulphides in the Scheldt estuary


    Gerringa, L.J.A.; H. J. W. de Baar; Nolting, R.F.; Paucot, H.


    In the estuary of the river Scheldt, where an oxygen gradient exists in addition to the salinity gradient, redox processes will be of major importance for trace metal mobilisation. In this study, the influence of salinity and pH on the redox processes of dissolved Zn and Cd sulphides is investigated together with the effects on the ratio of the dissolved Zn and Cd concentrations. The speciation of these metals is calculated with the chemical equilibrium programme MINEQL + .Zn sulphides are ox...

  14. Minimising hydrogen sulphide generation during steam assisted production of heavy oil


    Wren Montgomery; Sephton, Mark A.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Huang Zeng; Andrew C. Rees


    The majority of global petroleum is in the form of highly viscous heavy oil. Traditionally heavy oil in sands at shallow depths is accessed by large scale mining activities. Recently steam has been used to allow heavy oil extraction with greatly reduced surface disturbance. However, in situ thermal recovery processes can generate hydrogen sulphide, high levels of which are toxic to humans and corrosive to equipment. Avoiding hydrogen sulphide production is the best possible mitigation strateg...

  15. Self-reduction and size controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles on carbon nanospheres by grafting triazine-based molecular layer for conductivity improvement (United States)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio


    A facile, self-reduction and size controlled synthesis method has been explored to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on carbon nanosphere (CNs) under mild conditions. Without using predeposition of seed metals and reducing agent, a uniform and complete layer of Ag NPs was formed through grafting a molecular layer on CNs surfaces under UV irradiation. The size and thickness of Ag NPs were effectively tuned by adjusting the UV irradiation time. This direct formation of Ag NPs was attributed to self seed in aqueous Ag(NH3)2+ complex solution through a triazine-based silane coupling agent molecular layer, even at 25 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the Ag NPs' properties. A substantial conductivity improvement of prepared Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere was demonstrated. The presented method is simple and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of Ag NPs on carbon nanosphere in conduct electricity paint and coating applications.

  16. Bio-assisted synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraj, Sathish Kumar; Venkatachalam, Ganesh; Arumugam, Palaniappan; Berchmans, Sheela, E-mail:


    Nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide is synthesized at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely Clostridium acetobutylicum. On contrary to chemical routes involving both the high and room temperature methods, the present experimental procedure involves a bio-assisted approach. This method is free from the usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals making it an environment friendly route. The synthesized bismuth sulphide is characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). From our experiments we find that bismuth sulphide produced using this bio-assisted approach exhibits a hexagonal shaped plate-like structures and is stabilized by the extracellular proteins present in the culture medium. - Graphical abstract: A green chemistry approach towards the synthesis of bismuth (III) sulphide nanostructures at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely, Clostridium acetobutylicum is demonstrated. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign (greener) route towards synthesis of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures. • Bio-assisted synthesis of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} at room temperature using Clostridium acetobutylicum. • Extracellular proteins in H{sub 2}S producing microorganism as stabilizer for Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs. • Hexagonal platelets of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} possessing an orthorhombic crystalline structure.

  17. Advances in research of sulphide ore textures and their implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Lianxing; ZHENG Yuanchuan; TANG Xiaoqian; WU Changzhi; HU Wenxuan


    Important advances in research of sulphide ore textures in recent years have deepened our understanding of ore genesis of related mineral deposits. Pressure solution of sulphide minerals has been suggested as a mechanism for remobilization of ore materials,whereas pressure solution of the gangues is believed to raise the grade of the primary ores. We have known that precipitation of base metal sulphides from fluids prefers crystal and crack surfaces of pyrite to form overgrowth. Therefore, pyrite-bearing embryo beds in a sedimentary sequence can be acted as effective crystal seed beds and are favorable for fluid overprinting to form huge statabound deposits. Texture studies of various sulphides can be used to interpret the entire history of sedimentation, diagenesis, deformation and metamorphism of the ores. The study of chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite has brought about the idea of zone refining, and given a new explanation to metal zonation in massive sulphide deposits. Ductile shearing of sulphide ores may form ore mylonites, which will become oreshoots enriched in Cu, Au and Ag during late-stage fluid overprinting. Despite that various modern analytical techniques are being rapidly developed, ore microscopy remains to be an unreplaceable tool for ore geologists. Combined with these modern techniques, this tool will help accelerate the development of theories on ore genesis.

  18. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustatea, Gabriel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Vidal, Loïc [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France); Calinescu, Ioan [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana [National Research and Development Institute for Food Bioresources – IBA Bucharest (Romania); Balan, Lavinia, E-mail: [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France)


    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO{sub 3} solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  19. The determination of the content of gold and silver in geological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. NESIC


    Full Text Available A method has been elaborated for the determination of the content of gold and silver in geological samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS in combination with the fire assay method. The weight of sample used for analysis was 10 g. Sulphur present as sulphide, which is an undesirable element in smelting, was removed by the addition of iron to the charge. The sample was smelted with fluxes and lead oxide to replace the silver and gold by lead and to transfer non-precious elements to slag. Lead was separated from precious metals by cupellation. The separated silver and gold alloy was dissolved with aqua regia with addition of hydrochloric acid in excess. Silver and gold were determined from the same solution. For determination of the silver content, the AAS method with an air-acetylene flame was used. Gold was determined in a graphite furnace with the addition of a matrix modifier in an argon current, at an atomization temperature of t = 2200°C. The lower determination limit for silver was 0.05 g/t and for gold 0.005 g/t. The results of the analysis for silver and gold obtained with the proposed method showed good agreement with the results of the analysis of the same samples with the fire assay method.

  20. Inorganic Nanoparticle-Modified Poly(Phenylene Sulphide/ Carbon Fiber Laminates: Thermomechanical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Díez-Pascual


    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF-reinforced high-temperature thermoplastics such as poly(phenylene sulphide (PPS are widely used in structural composites for aerospace and automotive applications. The porosity of CF-reinforced polymers is a very important topic for practical applications since there is a direct correlation between void content and mechanical properties. In this study, inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulphide (IF-WS2 lubricant nanoparticles were used to manufacture PPS/IF-WS2/CF laminates via melt-blending and hot-press processing, and the effect of IF-WS2 loading on the quality, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the hybrid composites was investigated. The addition of IF-WS2 improved fiber impregnation, resulting in lower degree of porosity and increased delamination resistance, compression and flexural properties; their reinforcement effect was greater at temperatures above the glass transition (Tg. IF-WS2 contents higher than 0.5 wt % increased Tg and the heat deflection temperature while reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion. The multiscale laminates exhibited higher ignition point and notably reduced peak heat release rate compared to PPS/CF. The coexistence of micro- and nano-scale fillers resulted in synergistic effects that enhanced the stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity and flame retardancy of the matrix. The results presented herein demonstrate that the IF-WS2 are very promising nanofillers to improve the thermomechanical properties of conventional thermoplastic/CF composites.

  1. Mass-spectrometric REE analysis in sulphide minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina R. Elizarova


    Full Text Available The standard samples of diorite, granite and anorthosite (National Centre for Petrographic and Geochemical Research (CRPG CNRS, Nancy, France were analyzed to measure rare-earth element (REE concentrations by the ICP MS method (quadrupole ELAN 9000 DRC-e without preliminary dilution and concentration procedures. The certified values of REE concentrations measured on ELEMENT-2 mass-spectrometer by ICP MS method in Nancy are also well reproduced on ELAN 9000. The mass-spectrometer analytical environment and modes of operation were adjusted to detect REE in sulphide minerals by the example of the pyrite from the PGE Penikat layered intrusion (Finland and chalcopyrite from the Talnakh deposit (Kazakhstan. The total REE content in the pyrite is ca. 3.5 ppm, that is enough to establish Sm-Nd age of pyrite. By the example of State Standard Sample 2463 (Apatite, Russia it is shown how to apply the mineral/chondrite spectra to evaluate the accuracy of the REE analytical results.

  2. Dolomite limits acidification of a biofilter degrading dimethyl sulphide (United States)

    Smet; Van Langenhove H; Philips


    The applicability of dolomite particles to control acidification in a Hyphomicrobium MS3 inoculated biofilter removing dimethyl sulphide (Me2S) was studied. While direct inoculation of the dolomite particles with the liquid microbial culture was not successful, start-up of Me2S-degradation in the biofilter was observed when the dolomite particles were mixed with 33% (wt/wt) of Hyphomicrobium MS3-inoculated compost or wood bark material. Under optimal conditions, an elimination capacity (EC) of 1680 g Me2S m(-3) d(-1) was obtained for the compost/dolomite biofilter. Contrary to a wood bark or compost biofilter, no reduction in activity due to acidification was observed in these biofilters over a 235 day period because of the micro environment neutralisation of the microbial metabolite H2SO4 with the carbonate in the dolomite material. However, performance of the biofilter decreased when the moisture content of the mixed compost/dolomite material dropped below 15%. Next to this, nutrient limitation resulted in a gradual decrease of the EC and supplementation of a nitrogen source was a prerequisite to obtain a long-term high EC (> 250 g Me2S m(-3) d(-1)) for Me2S. In relation to this nitrogen supplementation, it was observed that stable ECs for Me2S were obtained when this nutrient was dosed to the biofilter at a Me2S-C/NH4Cl-N ratio of about 10.

  3. Hydrogen sulphide, a novel gasotransmitter involved in guard cell signalling. (United States)

    García-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo


    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) has been proposed as the third gasotransmitter. In animal cells, H(2) S has been implicated in several physiological processes. H(2) S is endogenously synthesized in both animals and plants by enzymes with l-Cys desulphydrase activity in the conversion of l-Cys to H(2) S, pyruvate and ammonia. The participation of H(2) S in both stomatal movement regulation and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent induction of stomatal closure was studied in epidermal strips of three plant species (Vicia faba, Arabidopsis thaliana and Impatiens walleriana). The effect of H(2) S on stomatal movement was contrasted with leaf relative water content (RWC) measurements of whole plants subjected to water stress. In this work we report that exogenous H(2) S induces stomatal closure and this effect is impaired by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter inhibitor glibenclamide; scavenging H(2) S or inhibition of the enzyme responsible for endogenous H(2) S synthesis partially blocks ABA-dependent stomatal closure; and H(2) S treatment increases RWC and protects plants against drought stress. Our results indicate that H(2) S induces stomatal closure and participates in ABA-dependent signalling, possibly through the regulation of ABC transporters in guard cells.

  4. Biological removal of dimethyl sulphide from sea water (United States)

    Kiene, Ronald P.; Bates, Timothy S.


    DIMETHYL sulphide (DMS) is an important sulphur-containing trace gas in the atmosphere. It is present in oceanic surface waters at concentrations sufficient to sustain a considerable net flux of DMS from the oceans to the atmosphere, estimated to comprise nearly half of the global biogenic input of sulphur to the atmosphere1. DMS emitted from the oceans may be a precursor of tropospheric aerosols and of cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine atmosphere, thereby affecting the Earth's radiative balance and thus its climate2-4. Relatively little is known, however, about the biogeochemical and physical processes that control the concentration of DMS in sea water. Here we present data from incubation experiments, carried out at sea, which show that DMS is removed by microbial activity. In the eastern, tropical Pacific Ocean, DMS turnover is dominated by biological processes, with turnover times for biological DMS removal generally more than ten (3-430) times faster than turnover by ventilation to the atmosphere. Thus biological consumption of DMS seems to be a more important factor than atmospheric exchange in controlling DMS concentrations in the ocean, and hence its flux to the atmosphere. These results have significant implications for climate feedback models involving DMS emissions3, and highlight the importance of the microbial food web in oceanic DMS cycling.

  5. Sealed Cylindrical Silver/Zinc Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RBC Technologies has significanly improved the cycle life and wet life of silver/zinc battery technology through novel separator and anode formulations. This...

  6. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.


    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  7. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres (United States)

    Koski, R.A.


    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase sills. Mound-like massive sulphide deposits, as much as 30

  8. Does nanocrystalline silver have a transferable effect? (United States)

    Nadworny, Patricia L; Landry, Breanne K; Wang, JianFei; Tredget, Edward E; Burrell, Robert E


    This study examined the mechanism of nanocrystalline silver antiinflammatory activity, and tested nanocrystalline silver for systemic antiinflammatory effects. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy of skin treated directly with nanocrystalline silver for 24 hours showed that at skin surfaces there were significant deposits at weights corresponding to Ag, AgO, AgCl, AgNO(3), Ag(2)O, and silver clusters Ag(2-6), but silver penetration was minimal. To test for translocation of the effect, a porcine contact dermatitis model in which wounds were induced on one side of the back and then treated with nanocrystalline silver on the opposite side of the back was used. Visual and histological data showed improvement relative to animals treated with saline only. Significantly increased induction of apoptosis in the inflammatory cells present in the dermis was observed with remote nanocrystalline silver treatments. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8, and increased levels of antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-4, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor-2. Thus, the antiinflammatory effects of nanocrystalline silver appear to be induced by interactions with cells in the top layers of the skin, which then release biological signals resulting in widespread antiinflammatory activity.

  9. Improvement on electrical properties of screen-printed silicon solar cells by light-induced electroplating of silver (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Wenjing


    The total power losses are analyzed based on two-layer electrode of light-induced electroplating after screen printing. By the introduction of scale factor in the calculation, optical losses are closer to the actual condition. Optimized two-layer contact of front side could diminish power losses distinctly and improve the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of crystalline silicon solar cells. The relative increments of I-V parameters as a function of electroplating time are measured. The quantitative comparison of analytical results between half-ellipse shape model and half-circled shape model is performed. The numerical simulation results and experimental data show good agreement. Due to the successful verification, the simulation results could be used to optimize the two-layer electrode structure and light-induced electroplating process.

  10. From lithotroph- to organotroph-dominant: directional shift of microbial community in sulphidic tailings during phytostabilization (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Bond, Philip L.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Longbin


    Engineering microbial diversity to enhance soil functions may improve the success of direct revegetation in sulphidic mine tailings. Therefore, it is essential to explore how remediation and initial plant establishment can alter microbial communities, and, which edaphic factors control these changes under field conditions. A long-term revegetation trial was established at a Pb-Zn-Cu tailings impoundment in northwest Queensland. The control and amended and/or revegetated treatments were sampled from the 3-year-old trial. In total, 24 samples were examined using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and various chemical properties. The results showed that the microbial diversity was positively controlled by soil soluble Si and negatively controlled by soluble S, total Fe and total As, implying that pyrite weathering posed a substantial stress on microbial development in the tailings. All treatments were dominated by typical extremophiles and lithotrophs, typically Truepera, Thiobacillus, Rubrobacter; significant increases in microbial diversity, biomass and frequency of organotrophic genera (typically Nocardioides and Altererythrobacter) were detected in the revegetated and amended treatment. We concluded that appropriate phytostabilization options have the potential to drive the microbial diversity and community structure in the tailings toward those of natural soils, however, inherent environmental stressors may limit such changes. PMID:26268667

  11. Laser Quenching and Ion Sulphidizing Complex Surface Treat Technology for Diesel Engine Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhaoqian; ZENG Qingqiang; HUANG Huayuan; Cai Zhihai; ZHAO Yuqiang


    In order to solve the problem of wear-out-failure of diesel engine cylinder,the laser-quenching and low temperature ion sulfurizing complex surface treatment technology was operated on the surface of 42MnCr52 steel.And the tribological properties of the complex layer were investigated.The experimental results indicated that the complex layer was composed of soft surface sulphide layer and sub-surface laserquenching harden layer,and showed excellent friction-reduction and wear-resistance performance at high temperature.The synergistic effect of the complex layer resulted in 20% increase in hardness,10% reduction in friction coefficient and 50% reduction in wear weight loss,respectively,compared with those of the standard samples.The bench-test further demonstrated that this technology can improve the lubricating condition between cylinder and piston ring,and reduce both abnormity wear when the lubricating oil is deficiency at the time of start-up and sticking wear at high temperature during the operating period,and then prolong the service life of engine.

  12. Process Mineralogy of a Low Grade Ag-Pb-Zn-CaF2 Sulphide Ore and Its Implications for Mineral Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yalong Guo


    Based on process mineralogical study of a low-grade Ag-Pb-Zn-CaF2 sulphide ore in SW China, the occurrence of Pb and Zn, the distribution of silver minerals and their relationships with other minerals are determined in details, which provides scientific reference for the forthcoming flotation process. The mineralogical results show that four silver minerals are determined, which aftonite occupies the most. Unlike other siliver minerals which are included in lead minerals and could be enriched in lead concentrates, aftonite could be liberated as an independent mineral after grinding and may be lost in the tailings, so key factors influencing the flotation of aftonite, such as pH value of pulp, effective col ectors, etc., should be handled reasonably to get it better recovered. Besides, note that 2.1% calcite, 6.85% dolomite, which have close flotabilities to fluorite, wil also be enriched affecting the quality of the fluorite concentrates. Thus, how to depress the quartz and the calcic gangue minerals during fluorite flotation is also the key factor of the whole process.

  13. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles (United States)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.


    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  14. Characteristics of hydrogen sulphide released from coal and biomass blends during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Lin-lin; Cheng Shi-qing; Zhang Hai-qing; Yin Bing-yi [Shandong University, Jinan (China). College of Energy and Power Engineering


    Thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy were used to study the characteristics of hydrogen sulphide released from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal blends. The effects of biomass on the hydrogen sulphide gas released from coal pyrolysis were studied. Results show that when the coal is blended with biomass the quantity of hydrogen sulphide released is affected. During the process of coal pyrolysis hydrogen sulphide is released in the temperature range 100-490{sup o}C but in the process of co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass it is released earlier, during the temperature range 200-490{sup o}C. This is because biomass is pyrolyzed earlier than coal. Abundant active methyl radicals and hydrogen are released providing hydrogen to combine with sulphur. The quantity of hydrogen sulphide is decreased with small proportions of biomass and increased with larger proportions. This is due to the accelerated effect of hydrogenation and the desulphurization effect of alkali metals in biomass. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Minimising hydrogen sulphide generation during steam assisted production of heavy oil (United States)

    Montgomery, Wren; Sephton, Mark A.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Zeng, Huang; Rees, Andrew C.


    The majority of global petroleum is in the form of highly viscous heavy oil. Traditionally heavy oil in sands at shallow depths is accessed by large scale mining activities. Recently steam has been used to allow heavy oil extraction with greatly reduced surface disturbance. However, in situ thermal recovery processes can generate hydrogen sulphide, high levels of which are toxic to humans and corrosive to equipment. Avoiding hydrogen sulphide production is the best possible mitigation strategy. Here we use laboratory aquathermolysis to reproduce conditions that may be experienced during thermal extraction. The results indicate that hydrogen sulphide generation occurs within a specific temperature and pressure window and corresponds to chemical and physical changes in the oil. Asphaltenes are identified as the major source of sulphur. Our findings reveal that for high sulphur heavy oils, the generation of hydrogen sulphide during steam assisted thermal recovery is minimal if temperature and pressure are maintained within specific criteria. This strict pressure and temperature dependence of hydrogen sulphide release can allow access to the world's most voluminous oil deposits without generating excessive amounts of this unwanted gas product.

  16. Improvement in the photocurrent collection due to enhanced absorption of light by synthesizing staggered layers of silver nanoclusters in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Rout, Bibhudutta; McDaniel, Floyd D., E-mail: [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Lightbourne, Sherard; D’Souza, Francis [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)


    The quest for increased efficiency of solar cells has driven the research in synthesizing photovoltaic cells involving Si based materials. The efficiency of solar cells involving crystalline Si is stalled around 25% for the last decade. Recently Shi et al. had shown that light trapping can be enhanced by fabricating double layers of Ag nanoparticles in silicon based materials. The light trapping is critically important in a photo devices such as solar cells in order to increase light absorption and efficiency. In the present work, we report enhancement in the absorption of light in Ag ion implanted Si substrates. Multiple low energies Ag ions, ranging from ∼80 keV to ∼30 keV, with different fluences ranging from ∼1 × 10{sup 16} to ∼1 × 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2} were sequentially implanted into commercially available Si (100) substrates followed by post-thermal annealing to create different sizes of Ag nanoclusters (NC) at different depths in the top 100 nm of the Si. The absorbance of light is increased in Ag implanted Si with a significant increase in the current collection in I-V (current-voltage) photo switching measurements. The experimental photovoltaic cells fabricated with the Ag-implanted Si samples were optically characterized under AM (air mass) 1.5 solar radiation conditions (∼1.0 kW/m{sup 2}). An enhancement in the charge collection were measured in the annealed samples, where prominent Ag NCs were formed in the Si matrix compared to the as-implanted samples with amorphous layers. We believe the enhancement of the photo-current density from the samples with Ag NC is due to the improvement of efficiency of charge collection of e{sup −}-h{sup +} pairs produced by the incident light.

  17. Antimicrobial silver: uses, toxicity and potential for resistance. (United States)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie; Mahillon, Jacques; Silver, Simon; Van Houdt, Rob


    This review gives a comprehensive overview of the widespread use and toxicity of silver compounds in many biological applications. Moreover, the bacterial silver resistance mechanisms and their spread in the environment are discussed. This study shows that it is important to understand in detail how silver and silver nanoparticles exert their toxicity and to understand how bacteria acquire silver resistance. Silver ions have shown to possess strong antimicrobial properties but cause no immediate and serious risk for human health, which led to an extensive use of silver-based products in many applications. However, the risk of silver nanoparticles is not yet clarified and their widespread use could increase silver release in the environment, which can have negative impacts on ecosystems. Moreover, it is shown that silver resistance determinants are widely spread among environmental and clinically relevant bacteria. These resistance determinants are often located on mobile genetic elements, facilitating their spread. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the silver toxicity and resistance mechanisms can improve its applications and lead to a better understanding of the impact on human health and ecosystems.

  18. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications (United States)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam


    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  19. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah 67144-15111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  20. Preparation of cu/fes nanoparticles by mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide by elemental iron. Platelets of Cu/FeS nanoparticles are formed as aggregates, tenths of micrometers in diameter. However, the average grain size of the freshly formed copper is between 10 and 25 nanometers depending on the milling conditions.......The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide with elemental iron was studied. The methods of XPS, SEM, EDX, and low temperature nitrogen sorption were used to analyse the surface composition and the composite particles formed from elemental copper and hexagonal 2C-troilite. The study...... of the mechanism and kinetics of the mechanochemical reaction by magnetic measurements, XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy has revealed the details of the process.The transformations of copper sulphide, the synthesis of cubic FeS and its transformation to the hexagonal form are associated with the primary...

  1. Comparative study of ketoconazole versus selenium sulphide shampoo in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal K


    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated with either 2% ketoconazole shampoo (20 patients or 2.5% selenium sulphide shampoo (20 patients, once a week for three weeks. On global assessment after one month of start of therapy, 19 (95% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole shampoo were cured while one case had mild residual disease. In selenium sulphide shampoo group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured, one had mild residual disease and two had considerable residual disease. No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in one patient of ketoconazole group and two patients of selenium sulphide group during the follow - up period of three months.

  2. Potential Field, Geoelectrical and Reflection Seismic Investigations for Massive Sulphide Exploration in the Skellefte Mining District, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Saman


    Full Text Available Multi-scale geophysical studies were conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD in order to delineate the geometry of the upper crust (down to maximum ~ 4.5 km depth for prospecting volcanic massive sulphide (VMS mineralization. These geophysical investigations include potential field, resistivity/induced polarization (IP, reflection seismic and magnetotelluric (MT data which were collected between 2009 and 2010. The interpretations were divided in two scales: (i shallow (~ 1.5 km and (ii deep (~ 4.5 km. Physical properties of the rocks, including density, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and chargeability, were also used to improve interpretations. The study result delineates the geometry of the upper crust in the CSD and new models were suggested based on new and joint geophysical interpretation which can benefit VMS prospecting in the area. The result also indicates that a strongly conductive zone detected by resistivity/IP data may have been missed using other geophysical data.

  3. Potential Field, Geoelectrical and Reflection Seismic Investigations for Massive Sulphide Exploration in the Skellefte Mining District, Northern Sweden (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; García Juanatey, María de los Ángeles; Bauer, Tobias E.; Weihed, Pär; Elming, Sten-Åke


    Multi-scale geophysical studies were conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD) in order to delineate the geometry of the upper crust (down to maximum 4.5 km depth) for prospecting volcanic massive sulphide (VMS) mineralization. These geophysical investigations include potential field, resistivity/induced polarization (IP), reflection seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data which were collected between 2009 and 2010. The interpretations were divided in two scales: (i) shallow ( 1.5 km) and (ii) deep ( 4.5 km). Physical properties of the rocks, including density, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and chargeability, were also used to improve interpretations. The study result delineates the geometry of the upper crust in the CSD and new models were suggested based on new and joint geophysical interpretation which can benefit VMS prospecting in the area. The result also indicates that a strongly conductive zone detected by resistivity/IP data may have been missed using other geophysical data.

  4. CALBC silver standard corpus. (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo


    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents.

  5. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.


    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  6. Determination of iron sulphides in roofing slates from the north west of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.


    Full Text Available The most important production of roofing slates in the world is quarried from the Ordovician formations of the Truchas Syncline, which have the largest amount of working quarries. Roofing slates, sometimes, have crystallized iron sulphides such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and other minerals. These iron sulphides oxidise and stain the tiles when are exposed to atmospheric conditions, so much oxidized how much more inclined is the roof. Galician quarrymen distinguish between harmless pyrite (i.e., resistant cubes of pyrite and damaging pyrite (i.e., other alterable metallic minerals such as pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyirite. An improved identification method is proposed using both methods (a chemical element ratios of samples under electron microprobes and (b quantitative determination of the iron sulphides in the slate measuring the oxidized areas by digital camera. The analysed Fe/S ratios, in an XY plot, of seventy metallic samples, define three separated zones: pyrite, pyrrhotite and iron oxi-hydroxides. Quantitative determination of iron sulphides in the slate tile were performed by sinking the tile horizontally for six hours in oxygen peroxide (3% diluted and capturing the oxidation areas with a magnetic camera and analysing the bitmap images with Sigma-Scan 5 software. The proposed method is faster than the Spanish UNE norm (UNE-EN- 12326-2 Sept.2000, which requires thermal strike cycles for a month. The necessary use of heavy analytical equipment such as electron microprobes can be facilitated by installing it in the Slate Technological Centre of Sobradelo de Valdeorras (Orense or by using a simple optical stereoscopic zoom microscope to classify the iron minerals.

    Las formaciones ordovícicas del Sinclinal de Duchas concentran la mayor producción mundial de pizarra para cubiertas y el mayor número de canteras en producción. Las pizarras para cubiertas muchas veces contienen sulfuros de hierro cristalizados en forma

  7. Spray pyrolysis deposition of indium sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, K.; Katerski, A.; Mere, A.; Volobujeva, O.; Krunks, M., E-mail: malle@staff.ttu.e


    In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were grown by the chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method using the pneumatic spray set-up and compressed air as a carrier gas. Aqueous solutions containing InCl{sub 3} and SC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} at a molar ratio of In/S = 1/3 and 1/6 were deposited onto preheated glass sheets at substrate temperatures T{sub s} = 205-410 {sup o}C. The obtained films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM,) optical transmission spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). According to XRD, thin films deposited at T{sub s} = 205-365 {sup o}C were composed of the (0 0 12) orientated tetragonal {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase independent of the In/S ratio in the spray solution. Depositions performed at T{sub s} = 410 {sup o}C led to the formation of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, preferably when the 1/3 solution was sprayed. Post-deposition annealing in air indicated that oxidation of the sulphide phase has a minor role in the formation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} at temperatures up to 450 {sup o}C. In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films grown at T{sub s} below 365 {sup o}C exhibited transparency over 70% in the visible spectral region and E{sub g} of 2.90-2.96 eV for direct and 2.15-2.30 eV for indirect transitions, respectively. Film thickness and chlorine content decreased with increasing deposition temperatures. The XPS study revealed that the In/S ratio in the spray solution had a significant influence on the content of oxygen (Me-O, BE = 530.0 eV) in the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films deposited in the temperature range of 205-365 {sup o}C. Both XPS and EDS studies confirmed that oxygen content in the films deposited using the solution with the In/S ratio of 1/6 was substantially lower than in the films deposited with the In/S ratio of 1/3.

  8. Microbial control of silver mineralization at a sea-floor hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Schiffman, P.


    THE Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, on the northern Gorda Ridge, contains mounds and chimneys of hydrothermally precipitated sulphide and sulphate minerals typical of sea-floor hydrothermal vent sites1. In addition, large areas of the sea floor are covered by subhorizontal hydrothermal crusts. Samples of the crust recovered by submersible are composed of intensely altered fragments of basalt and basaltic hyaloclastite cemented by amorphous silica and chalcedony with less abundant barite, and minor amounts of base-metal sulphide minerals2. Some surfaces of the crust were formerly colonized by bacterial mats, which are locally preserved by replacement and overgrowth of the bacterial filaments by metal sulphide minerals and amorphous silica. The bacterial filaments are selectively replaced by prousite (Ag3AsS3), pearceite3 (Ag14.7-XCu1.3+xAs2S11), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and rarely by galena (PbS). Our observations suggest that bacterially mediated processes selectively precipitate silver, arsenic and copper, and that biological processes may contribute to precious-metal enrichment in some sea-floor hydrothermal base-metal sulphide deposits.

  9. The formation of copper sulphide semiconductors inside Langmuir–Blodgett films of Cu(II) ion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, P.J.; Wieringa, R.H.; Schouten, A.J.


    The fabrication of layers of copper sulphide within multilayers of copper complexes of the amphiphile 4-(10,12-pentacosadiynamido methyl pyridine, by diffusion of H2S into the multilayers, was studied by UV–VIS spectroscopy. XPS measurements revealed that copper sulphides can be synthesised which di

  10. Nanostructured Antibacterial Silver Deposited on Polypropylene Nonwovens (United States)

    Hong-Bo, Wang; Jin-Yan, Wang; Qu-Fu, Wei; Jian-Han, Hong; Xiao-Yan, Zhao

    Nanostructured silver films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) nonwovens by RF magnetron sputter coating to obtain the antibacterial properties. Shake flask test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the materials. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was utilized to observe the surface morphology. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) was also employed to analyze the surface elemental compositions. The antibacterial results indicated that the prolonged deposition time led to a significant improvement in antibacterial effect, and sputtering power and argon pressure did not show obvious effect on antibacterial performance. It is believed that the total amount of silver ions released from the silver coating was increased as the deposition time increased. AFM images and quantitative analysis of EDX, respectively revealed that increase in deposition time led to the increased coverage of silver film and the increased silver weight percentage per unit surface, which provided evidences for the increased release rate of silver ions from the coating. Moreover, it was found that the optimum silver coating thickness was about 3 nm, taking antibacterial effect and cost of production into account.

  11. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics. (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L


    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (10(4) were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  12. Massive deep-sea sulphide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Francheteau, Jean; Needham, H.D.; Choukroune, P.; Juteau, Tierre; Seguret, M.; Ballard, Richard D.; Fox, P.J.; Normark, William; Carranza, A.; Cordoba, D.; Guerrero, J.; Rangin, C.; Bougault, H.; Cambon, P.; Hekinian, R.


    Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no supporting observational evidence. The East Pacific Rise deposits represent a modern analogue of Cyprus-type sulphide ores associated with ophiolitic rocks on land. They contain at least 29% zinc metal and 6% metallic copper. Their discovery will provide a new focus for deep-sea exploration, leading to new assessments of the concentration of metals in the upper layers of the oceanic crust. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Silver Recovery and Power Generation from Ammonia Chelated Silver Solution in a Bio-Electrochemical Reactor (United States)

    Ho, N. A. D.; Babel, S.


    Silver has valuable features and limited availability, and thus recovery from wastewater or aqueous solutions plays an important role in environmental protection and economic profits. In this study, silver recovery along with power generation and COD removal were investigated in a bio-electrochemical system (BES). The BES comprised of an anode and a cathode chamber which were separated by a cation exchange membrane to prevent the cross-over of electrolytes. During the biological oxidation of acetate as an electron donor in the anode chamber, the reduction of ammonia chelated silver ions as electron acceptors in the cathode side occurred spontaneously. Results showed that a silver recovery of 99% and COD removal efficiency of 60% were achieved at the initial silver concentration of 1,000 mg/L after 48 hours of operation. The power generation improved 4.66%, from 3,618 to 3,795 mW/m3, by adding NaNO3 of 850 mg/L to the catholyte containing 2,000 mg/L of silver ions. Deposits on the cathode surface were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Metallic silver with dendritic structures and high purity were detected. This study demonstrated that BES technology can be employed to recover silver from complex chelating solution, produce electricity, and treat wastewater.

  14. Improved method for the determination of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon in natural water by silver filter filtration, wet chemical oxidation, and infrared spectrometry (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Brenton, R.W.; Kammer, J.A.; Jha, V.K.; O'Mara-Lopez, P. G.; Woodworth, M.T.


    Precision and accuracy are reported for the first time for the analysis of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by silver membrane filtration followed by wet chemical oxidation. A water sample is pressure filtered through a 0.45-??m-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter silver membrane filter. The silver membrane filter then is cut into ribbons and placed in a flame-sealable glass ampule. The organic material trapped on the membrane filter strips is acidified, purged with oxygen to remove inorganic carbonates and volatile organic compounds, and oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in the sealed glass ampule. The resulting CO2 is measured by a nondispersive infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO2 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the environmental water sample. The quantitation and method detection limit for routine analysis is 0.2 mg/L. The average percent recovery in five representative matrices was 97 ?? 11%. The errors associated with sampling and sample preparation of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon are also described.Precision and accuracy are reported for the first time for the analysis of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by silver membrane filtration followed by wet chemical oxidation. A water sample is pressure filtered through a 0.45-??m-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter silver membrane filter. The silver membrane filter then is cut into ribbons and placed in a flame-sealable glass ampule. The organic material trapped on the membrane filter strips is acidified, purged with oxygen to remove inorganic carbonates and volatile organic compounds, and oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in the sealed glass ampule. The resulting CO2 is measured by a nondispersive infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO2 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the environmental water sample

  15. The corrosion and electrochemistry of copper in aqueous, anoxic sulphide solutions (United States)

    Smith, Jared M.

    A proposed method of disposal of Swedish/Finnish/Canadian high-level nuclear waste is to place it in corrosion resistant containers and bury it approximately 500--1000 m deep in granite environments. The chosen material for the fabrication of these containers is copper, selected primarily because of its thermodynamic stability in the aqueous anoxic environments anticipated in such repositories. The present design consists of an outer copper shell (˜5 cm thick) and an inner liner of nodular cast iron. The presence of sulphide films shifts the corrosion potential for copper dissolution to more negative values, this could render copper susceptible to corrosion via the reduction of water. Possible components of the immediate vault environment, as well as the bentonite clay, include pyrite (FeS 2) and sulphate (SO42-) both of which are potential sources of sulphide, and it is well known that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) exist which can convert sulphates to sulphides. A number of factors, such as the mechanical pressure from the swelling bentonite, the low water activity in the bentonite, gamma-radiation and the heat from radionuclide decay processes will ensure that there is no microbial activity in the vicinity of the container. Remotely produced sulphide could, however, be transported slowly through the compacted buffer to the container surface. The mechanism and kinetics of Cu corrosion in anoxic aqueous chloride solutions containing sulphide have been investigated electrochemically and under natural corrosion conditions. Under these conditions, the anodic growth of a chalcocite (Cu2S)/digenite (Cu1.8S) films on Cu is supported by the cathodic reduction of water. Electrochemical experiments at rotating disc electrodes and impedance spectroscopy show that the film growth occurs under SH- transport control as stagnant conditions are approached. Film growth can follow two distinct pathways. The initially formed film grows rapidly via an ion (or associated defect

  16. Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics (United States)

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A.


    Silver remains the preferred conductor for optical and near-infrared plasmonics. Many high-profile studies focus exclusively on performance simulation in such applications. Almost invariably, these use silver optical data either from Palik’s 1985 handbook or, more frequently, an earlier Johnson and Christy (J&C) tabulation. These data are inconsistent, making it difficult to ascertain the reliability of the simulations. The inconsistency stems from challenges in measuring representative properties of pristine silver, due to tarnishing on air exposure. We demonstrate techniques, including use of silicon-nitride membranes, to access the full capabilities of multiple-angle, spectrometric-ellipsometry to generate an improved data set, representative of overlayer-protected, freshly-deposited silver films on silicon-nitride and glass.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of gridded Pt/SiO{sub 2}/Si MOS structure for hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod, E-mail: [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sunny [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Rawal, Ishpal [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Mishra, V.N.; Dwivedi, R.; Das, R.R. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)


    A gridded gate Pt/SiO{sub 2}/Si MOS capacitor has been fabricated for detection of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H{sub 2}S) gases. The MOS device was fabricated on P-type Si <100> (1–6 Ω cm) wafer with thermal oxide layer of thickness about 100 Å, whereas, Platinum (Pt) gate of ∼350 Å was deposited by thermal evaporation technique. The C–V (capacitance vs voltage) and G–V (conductance vs voltage) measurements have been performed for the evaluation of gas sensing behavior of fabricated MOS capacitor structure in H{sub 2} (250–4000 ppm) and H{sub 2}S (1000–6000 ppm) gases at both room and 120 °C temperatures, in a closed chamber in air atmosphere. It has been observed that the value of capacitance decreases with increase in gas concentration. The fabricated MOS capacitor sensor has shown better sensitivity towards H{sub 2} (88.6%) at room temperature (∼25 °C) as compared to (∼45%) at 120 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have revealed the porous nature of the deposited metal film. The side wall diffusion, spillover of Hydrogen into oxide layer, increase in fixed oxide charge density, increase in surface area caused by gridded structure, the formation of dipole layer and change in interface state density on gas exposure, may be the mechanisms of gas sensing for improved sensitivity of the fabricated MOS device. - Highlights: • Pt gate gridded MOS structure (Pt/SiO{sub 2}/Si) has been fabricated first time. • The fabricated MOS sensor was first time tested for hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide gases. • The sensitivity of the gridded structure is found greater than conventional structures.

  18. Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D (United States)

    Patten, C. G. C.; Pitcairn, I. K.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.


    Fluxes of metals during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust have far reaching effects including buffering of the compositions of the ocean and lithosphere, supporting microbial life and the formation of sulphide ore deposits. The mechanisms responsible for metal mobilisation during the evolution of the oceanic crust are complex and are neither fully constrained nor quantified. Investigations into the mineral reactions that release metals, such as sulphide leaching, would generate better understanding of the controls on metal mobility in the oceanic crust. We investigate the sulphide and oxide mineral paragenesis and the extent to which these minerals control the metal budget in samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D. The ODP Hole 1256D drill core provides a unique sample suite representative of a complete section of a fast-spreading oceanic crust from the volcanic section down to the plutonic complex. The sulphide population at Hole 1256D is divided into five groups based on mineralogical assemblage, lithological location and texture: the magmatic, metasomatised, high temperature hydrothermal, low temperature and patchy sulphides. The initiation of hydrothermal alteration by downward flow of moderate temperature (250-350 °C) hydrothermal fluids under oxidising conditions leads to metasomatism of the magmatic sulphides in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes. Subsequent increase in the degree of hydrothermal alteration at temperatures >350 °C under reducing conditions then leads to the leaching of the metasomatised sulphides by rising hydrothermal fluids. Mass balance calculations show that the mobility of Cu, Se and Au occurs through sulphide leaching during high temperature hydrothermal alteration and that the mobility of Zn, As, Sb and Pb is controlled by silicate rather than sulphide alteration. Sulphide leaching is not complete at Hole 1256D and more advanced alteration would mobilise greater masses of metals. Alteration of oxide

  19. Preservation of atmospheric dimethyl sulphide samples on Tenax in sea-to-air flux measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemmelink, H.J.; Gieskes, W.W C; Holland, P.M.; Dacey, J.W


    The low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the atmosphere makes it necessary to concentrate the gas before gas-chromatographic analysis. One of the preferred methods has been to use a cold Tenax adsorbent in this concentration step. DMS concentration onto Tenax-TA traps is shown to be sensi

  20. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: High sulphide Concentrations tolerated by sulphate reducing bacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H


    Full Text Available (SRB) and organic matter such as ethanol. During this process hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is formed, which can have toxic effects on the methanogenic activity (Koster et al.,1986) as well as on the sulphidogenic bacteria (Okabe et al., 1995). Lens...

  1. Study of linear optical parameters of sodium sulphide nano-particles added ADP crystals (United States)

    Kochuparampil, A. P.; Joshi, J. H.; Dixit, K. P.; Jethva, H. O.; Joshi, M. J.


    Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) is one of the nonlinear optical crystals. It is having various applications like optical mixing, electro-optical modulator, harmonic generators, etc. Chalcogenide compounds are poorly soluble in water and difficult to add in the water soluble ADP crystals. The solubility of Chalcogenide compounds can be increased by synthesizing the nano-structured samples with suitable capping agent. In the present study sodium sulphide was added in to ADP to modify its linear optical parameters. Sodium sulphide nano particles were synthesized by co-precipitation technique using Ethylene diamine as capping agent followed by microwave irradiation. The powder XRD confirmed the nano-structured nature of sodium sulphide nano particles. The solubility of nanoparticles of sodium sulphide increased significantly in water compared to the bulk. Pure and Na2S added ADP crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. The presence of sodium in ADP was confirmed by AAS. The UV-Vis spectra were recorded for all crystals. Various optical parameters like, transmittance, energy band gap, extinction coefficient, refractive index, optical conductivity, etc. were evaluated. The electronic polarizibility of pure and doped crystals calculated from energy band gap. The effect of doping concentration was found on various parameters.

  2. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis. (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew


    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  3. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics. (United States)

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana


    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12 h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24 h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6 mg L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24 h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater.

  4. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian


    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of p

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of organic sulphides by 2,2'-bipyridinium chlorochromate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashi Vyas; Pradeep K Sharma


    The oxidation of 34 organic sulphides by 2,2'-bipyridinium chlorochromate (BPCC) resulted in the formation of the corresponding sulphoxides. The reaction is first order with respect to both BPCC and the sulphide, and is catalysed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen-ion dependence has the form: obs = a+b [H+]. The oxidation was studied in 19 different organic solvents. An analysis of the solvent effect by Swain’s equation showed that the both cation- and anion-solvating powers of the solvents play important roles. The rates of oxidation meta- and -substituted phenyl methyl sulphides were correlated with Charton’s LDR equation. The rates of the -compounds showed excellent correlation with the LDRS equation. Oxidation of the -compounds is more susceptible to the delocalization effect. Oxidation of the -compounds exhibited a greater dependence on the field effect. In the oxidation of the -compounds, the contribution of delocalized effect is slightly more than that of the field effect. The oxidation of alkyl phenyl sulphides is subject to both polar and steric effects of the alkyl groups. Polar reaction constants are negative, indicating an electron-deficient sulphur centre in the rate-determining step. A mechanism involving formation of a sulphurane intermediate in the slow step has been proposed.

  6. Triphenylphosphine Stabilized Silver Carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lin HAN; Ying Zhong SHEN; Yi PAN


    A series of novel triphenylphosphine stabilized silver carboxylates, potential precursors for CVD growth of ultrafast interconnection link in microelectronic devices, have been prepared and characterized.

  7. Study on Chlorination Leaching New Technology for Lead Sulphide Concentrate%硫化铅精矿氯化浸出新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑梅; 张福生; 丛自范


    研究了硫化铅精矿在盐酸-氧气体系中的氯化浸出过程.重点考察了各种参数对硫化铅精矿中铅和银浸出效果和硫在浸出渣中富集率的影响.结果表明,硫化铅精矿在氯化镁溶液中的浸出效果优于氯化钠溶液,在催化剂铜离子浓度为1.45 g/L、盐酸用量为理论量1.5倍、氧气流量40 mL/min、氯化镁浓度5.5 mol/L、浸出温度90℃、浸出时间7h、液固比6∶1的条件下,铅和银的浸出率分别达到99.11%和90.57%,硫富集率为90.12%.%Chlorination leaching process of lead sulphide concentrate in hydrochloric acid-oxygen system was studied. A variety of parameters on the effect of lead and silver leaching rate and enriching rate of sulfur in leaching residue were investigated. The results indicate that the leaching effect of lead sulphide concentrate in magnesium chloride solution is superior to that in sodium chloride solution. Lead and silver leaching rate achieved 99. 11%, 90. 57% respectively, and enriching rate of sulphur is 90. 12% under the optimum parameters that catalyst copper ion concentration is 1. 45 g/L, hydrochloric acid dosage is 1. 5 times to theoretical quantity, oxygen flow is 40 mL/min, magnesium chloride concentration is 5. 5 mol/L, leaching temperature is 90 ℃ , leaching time is 7 hours, ratio of liquid to solid is 6 : 1.

  8. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Ghosh; M N Praveen


    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an inner high Mg-Ca core and an outer wider envelop of Al-Fe rich mineral assemblage.Most of the prospects have strata bound,moderately to steeply dipping, multiple,sub-parallel sheet like ore bodies composed of disseminated and semi-massive to massive ores.Zn-bearing spinel,staurolite,biotite and ilmenite typically occur within the foot-wall altera- tion zones in close proximity to the sulphide mineralization.Zincian spinel is ubiquitous irrespective of the nature of alteration zone.Zincian staurolite is nearly absent in Mg-Ca alteration zones but commonly present in Al-Fe alteration zone along with zincian ilmenite.Zn-bearing biotite in intimate association with zincian spinel is generally found in Mg-Ca alteration zone and in the transition to Al-Fe alteration zone.Most of these indicator minerals can be considered as products of desulphidation of sphalerite during metamorphism.Mechanisms other than desulphidation like formation of gahnite by overstepping of the zinc saturation limit of biotite during retrogression to chlorite and formation of zincian staurolite at the expense of gahnite is also recorded.Field presence of these minerals has immense significance in exploration in Betul Belt as they occur in close spatial relationship with the sulphide rich zones and therefore act as direct vectors to ore.

  9. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells (United States)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan


    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  10. The silver ions contribution into the cytotoxic activity of silver and silver halides nanoparticles (United States)

    Klimov, A. I.; Zherebin, P. M.; Gusev, A. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Krutyakov, Y. A.


    The biocidal action of silver nanoparticles capped with sodium citrate and silver halides nanoparticles capped with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80®) against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux from the cells. The cytotoxicity of the obtained colloids was strongly correlated with silver ion content in the dispersions. The results clearly indicated that silver and silver halides nanoparticles destroyed yeast cells through the intermediate producing of silver ions either by dissolving of salts or by oxidation of silver.

  11. Analysis of Au-Ag Mineralization in the Caribou Base-Metal VMS Deposit, New Brunswick; Examination of Micro-Scale Inter- and Intra-Sulphide Distribution and Its Relation to Geometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wright


    Full Text Available The Caribou Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit located in northeast New Brunswick represents a significant base-metal resource in the Bathurst Mining Camp. Zinc, Pb and Cu are the primary resources that are being extracted from this deposit; however, Au and Ag are important by-products that could help offset costs. This study used mineral liberation analysis supported further by in situ laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods to document variations in Au and Ag distribution between and within sulphide minerals. The variations in Ag and Au distribution provide critical inputs to the optimization of mineral processing design. The greatest influence on Au recovery at Caribou is the proportion of Au hosted in arsenopyrite and pyrite; consequently, considerable Au will report to the tailings. Silver recovery at Caribou is highly affected by the proportion of Ag hosted in galena and tetrahedrite-tennantite. Proximal to the vent complex, Ag values are primarily hosted in galena, whereas further from the vent complex, Ag values are likely primarily hosted in tetrahedrite-tennantite. Galena Ag values will report mostly to the Pb concentrate, while tetrahedrite-tennantite Ag values will report to the Cu concentrate.

  12. Interfacial Design of Ternary Mixed Matrix Membranes Containing Pebax 1657/Silver-Nanopowder/[BMIM][BF4] for Improved CO2 Separation Performance. (United States)

    Ghasemi Estahbanati, Ehsan; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Ebadi Amooghin, Abtin


    In this research, Pebax1657 as an organic phase and silver nanoparticles as an inorganic phase were used for preparation of binary mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). Silver nanoparticles as a filler could enter the polymer chains and enhance the gas permeability by increasing the fractional free volume of membranes. Afterward, ternary MMMs were fabricated by addition of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) ionic liquid, in order to have better polymer/filler adhesion and eliminate interfacial defects and nonselective voids. In addition, positively polarized silver nanoparticles in the presence of the IL could interact with PEO segment of the polymer and increase the CO2 affinity of membranes, which results in increasing the CO2/light gases permselectivity of MMMs. Gas permeation properties of MMMs were studied at a temperature of 35 °C and operating pressures from 2 to 10 bar. Moreover, fabricated membranes were characterized by fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The analysis revealed that there is a proper adhesion between positively charged surface of nanoparticles and the polymer, and both filler and IL decrease the crystallinity of the membranes, which could enhance the polar gas transport properties. Gas permeation results showed significant enhancement in CO2 permeability (325 Barrer) for binary membrane (Pebax 1657/1%Ag) at 35 °C and 10 bar. Moreover, ternary MMM (Pebax 1657/0.5%Ag/50%IL) encountered significant increase in both permeability and selectivity in comparison with neat membrane. Indeed, the CO2 permeability increased from 110 Barrer to 180 (about 64%). Moreover, the related CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities were increased from 20.8 to 61.0 (more than 193%) and from 78.6 to 187.5 (about 139%), respectively.

  13. Mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube-based silver and silver-palladium alloy composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemant Pal; Vimal Sharma


    The mechanical, electrical, and thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based silver and silver–palladium (10:1, w/w) alloy nanocomposites are reported. To tailor the properties of silver, CNTs were incorporated into a silver matrix by a modified mo-lecular level-mixing process. CNTs interact weakly with silver because of their non-reactive nature and lack of mutual solubility. Therefore, palladium was utilized as an alloying element to improve interfacial adhesion. Comparative microstructural characterizations and property evaluations of the nanocomposites were performed. The structural characterizations revealed that decorated type-CNTs were dispersed, em-bedded, and anchored into the silver matrix. The experimental results indicated that the modification of the silver and silver–palladium nanocomposite with CNT resulted in increases in the hardness and Young’s modulus along with concomitant decreases in the electrical con-ductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The hardness and Young’s modulus of the nanocomposites were increased by 30%-40% whereas the CTE was decreased to 50%-60% of the CTE of silver. The significantly improved CTE and the mechanical proper-ties of the CNT-reinforced silver and silver–palladium nanocomposites are correlated with the intriguing properties of CNTs and with good interfacial adhesion between the CNTs and silver as a result of the fabrication process and the contact action of palladium as an alloying ele-ment.

  14. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure (United States)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji


    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  15. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate (United States)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří


    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  16. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M


    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  17. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water. (United States)

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno


    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  18. Silver(II) Oxide or Silver(I,III) Oxide? (United States)

    Tudela, David


    The often called silver peroxide and silver(II) oxide, AgO or Ag[subscript 2]O[subscript 2], is actually a mixed oxidation state silver(I,III) oxide. A thermochemical cycle, with lattice energies calculated within the "volume-based" thermodynamic approach, explain why the silver(I,III) oxide is more stable than the hypothetical silver(II) oxide.…

  19. How to detect gold, silver and mercury in human brain and other tissues by autometallographic silver amplification. (United States)

    Danscher, G; Stoltenberg, M; Juhl, S


    Gold, silver, mercury and zinc bind chemically to sulphide or selenide ions and create crystal lattices that can be detected in histological sections by a silver amplification technique called autometallography (AMG). The technique specifically magnifies such nanometer-sized catalytic crystals. For each metal, a detailed protocol has been worked out. If several different AMG metals/metal molecules are present in the same tissue, it is possible to distinguish one from another. The AMG technique is based on the capability of small crystal lattices of the aforementioned metals and metal molecules to initiate AMG silver amplification. Electrons released from adhering hydroquinone molecules reduce silver ions that are integrally connected with the crystal lattices. In this manner, particles consisting of only a few atoms of, say, gold, or molecules of mercury selenide (Figure 1), can be silver amplified to a size at which they can be detected in the electron microscope, or even further to dimensions that can be observed in the light microscope. Thus the AMG technique opens up the possibility of visualizing gold, e.g. in the nervous system of rheumatic patients who have been treated with aurothiomalate. Mercury can similarly be visualized in tissues from individuals who have been exposed to mercury, either through leaching from amalgam dental fillings, through eating fish, or by occupational exposure, and silver in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) and other tissues from individuals exposed to silver in one form or another. In the future, the possibility of demonstrating vesicular zinc, a particular pool of endogenous zinc that is found in terminals of zinc-enriched neurons (ZEN neurons), might prove valuable for pathological interpretation of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The vesicular zinc, present in some of the synaptic vesicles of ZEN neuron terminals, is most impressively demonstrated by AMG in telencephalic structures. It is becoming

  20. Development of Technology for Enrichment of Silver Containing Ores (United States)

    Shekiladze, Asmati; Kavtelashvili, Otari; Bagnashvili, Mamuka


    The progress of Georgian economics is substantially associated with a development of new deposits of mineral resources. Among them is the David-Gareji deposit where at present the intensive searching geological works are performed. The work goal involves the elaboration of the technology for processing of silver-containing quartz-barite ores. Without its development the mining of more valuable gold-polymetallic ores is impossible. Because of ore complexity silver and barite are considered in a common technological aspect. The investigations were carried out on the representative samples of quartz-barite ores containing 78-88 g/ton of silver and 27-29 % of silver is a nugget in the form of the simple sulphides and chlorides. The ore is characterized by fine coalescence of barite and ore-generating minerals. Non-ferrous metals haven't any industrial value because of their very low content. Therefore, for the processing of the ores under study the direct selective scheme of flotation enrichment was chosen and the formula of optimal reagent regime was elaborated. Potassium xanthogenate is used as a collector for flotation of silver minerals and pine oil- as a foaming agent. The effect of the pulp - pH and medium temperature on silver flotation was studied. It was established that the silver is actively floats in neutral medium. For barite flotation the various collectors were tested: sulfidezid cotton oil-soap stock, soaps of fatty acids and alkyl sulphates of C12 - C16 row, among the “Baritol” is the most efficient one. Depression of the barren rock was carried out by liquid glass in alkaline medium. The effect of pulp pH on barite flotation has been investigated. The best results were obtained at pH=8.5. The increase of the pulp alkalinity has no essential effect on the indexes of the barite enrichment. Conditional concentrate of the barite is obtained by two fold purification of the main flotation concentrate by the addition of the liquid glass to the re

  1. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.


    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  2. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.


    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  3. Multilevel modeling of retention and disinfection efficacy of silver nanoparticles on ceramic water filters. (United States)

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Lawler, Desmond F; Passalacqua, Paola


    This research examined how variations in synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles affect both the release of silver from ceramic water filters (CWFs) and disinfection efficacy. The silver nanoparticles used were stabilized by four different molecules: citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, branched polyethylenimine, and casein. A multilevel statistical model was built to quantify if there was a significant difference in: a) extent of silver lost, b) initial amount of silver lost, c) silver lost for water of different quality, and d) total coliform removal. Experiments were performed on location at Pure Home Water, a CWF factory in Tamale, Ghana using stored rainwater and dugout water (a local surface water). The results indicated that using dugout vs. rainwater significantly affects the initial (p-value 0.0015) and sustained (p-value 0.0124) loss of silver, but that silver type does not have a significant effect. On average, dugout water removed 37.5μg/L more initial silver and had 1.1μg/L more silver in the filtrate than rainwater. Initially, filters achieved 1.9 log reduction values (LRVs) on average, but among different silver and water types this varied by as much as 2.5 LRV units. Overall, bacterial removal effectiveness was more challenging to evaluate, but some data suggest that the branched polyethylenimine silver nanoparticles provided improved initial bacterial removal over filters which were not painted with silver nanoparticles (p-value 0.038).

  4. Influence of zinc precursor concentration on properties zinc sulphide thin films using spray pyrolysis technique (United States)

    Veena, E.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.


    Stoichiometric high transparent n-zinc sulphide thin films were prepared using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The concentration of the cationic precursor played a major role to obtain stoichiometry, regardless of various deposition parameters. Zinc sulphide films deposited at 450˚C for the ratio 0.33:1 (Zn:S) resulted in well oriented, stoichiometric polycrystalline cubic structure. The variation in crystallite size associated with the cationic precursor concentration provides significant control over the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The optical band gap and activation energy of stoichiometric ZnS films were found to be 3.54 ± 0.02eV and 0.82 ± 0.05eV, respectively. The absorption coefficient of the films was found to be 102 cm-1.

  5. Geology, Mineral Deposit Model and Potential of the Suwar Cu-Ni Sulphide Prospect, Northwest Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulkarim M.; Al-Nagashi; Li Xujun


    The Suwar Cu-Ni sulphide prospect is very highly regarded for its potential to host a major nickel-copper sulphide deposit in Republic of Yemen, a mineral resource lacking country. The ore-hosting intrusion is a lopolith about 6km long and lkm wide and more than 300m deep. There are two types of Cu-Ni mineralizations in the prospect: primary massive chalcopyrite+ pyrrhotite+ pentlandite controlled by gravitational and structural traps while the secondary Cu-Ni mineralization is coarse grained and occur as veins, veinlets, fracture fill, blebs or associated with coarse, re-crystallized carbonate in shear zones and faults. The deposit type of the prospect is believed to be the one associated with the ultramafic component of a large, broadly differentiated noritic, gabbroid intrusive. It is suggested that the prospect and adjacent area possibly contain a similar world class Ni-Cu deposits as that in Jinchuan, China.

  6. Biotic conversion of sulphate to sulphide and abiotic conversion of sulphide to sulphur in a microbial fuel cell using cobalt oxide octahedrons as cathode catalyst. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli; Kumar, Senthil


    Varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate concentrations in substrate were used to determine reaction kinetics and mass balance of organic matter and sulphate transformation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC with anodic chamber volume of 1 L, fed with wastewater having COD of 500 mg/L and sulphate of 200 mg/L, could harvest power of 54.4 mW/m(2), at a Coulombic efficiency of 14%, with respective COD and sulphate removals of 90 and 95%. Sulphide concentration, even up to 1500 mg/L, did not inhibit anodic biochemical reactions, due to instantaneous abiotic oxidation to sulphur, at high inlet sulphate. Experiments on abiotic oxidation of sulphide to sulphur revealed maximum oxidation taking place at an anodic potential of -200 mV. More than 99% sulphate removal could be achieved in a MFC with inlet COD/sulphate of 0.75, giving around 1.33 kg/m(3) day COD removal. Bioelectrochemical conversion of sulphate facilitating sulphur recovery in a MFC makes it an interesting pollution abatement technique.

  7. Synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles from thermal decomposition of zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Silong, Sidik [UiTM Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, Pekan Parit Tinggi, 72000 Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Sook-Keng [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Synthesis of nanostructured semiconductor materials from various single source precursors has been massively explored for potential applications in modern technology. Thermal decomposition method has been employed to prepare nanoparticles zinc sulphide from zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate precursor. Effect of heat treatment at different calcination duration on the structural, morphological, compositional and band gap properties of zinc sulphide were investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. XRD showed the precursor was decomposed to hexagonal zinc sulphide after 2–6 h of calcination duration at 400 °C. The sizes of zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles obtained from TEM analysis were about 6–11 nm. The existence of the hexagonal ZnS phase is not affected by the calcination duration, while only a slight difference in the crystallinity and crystallite size of ZnS is observed from XRD analysis. EDX analyses reveal that the as-prepared ZnS nanoparticles have an approximate composition of Zn and S close to 1:1, giving a possible composition of ZnS. Besides, direct band gap energy of ZnS was found to be around 3.78–3.95 eV. - Highlights: • Zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of ZnS nanoparticles. • Pure phase nanostructured ZnS is obtained. • A good stoichiometric sample with an average atomic ratio of Zn:S close to 1:1.

  8. The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago. (United States)

    Poulton, Simon W; Fralick, Philip W; Canfield, Donald E


    The Proterozoic aeon (2.5 to 0.54 billion years (Gyr) ago) marks the time between the largely anoxic world of the Archean (> 2.5 Gyr ago) and the dominantly oxic world of the Phanerozoic (Proterozoic has traditionally been explained by progressive oxygenation of the deep ocean in response to an increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2.3 Gyr ago. This postulated rise in the oxygen content of the ocean is in turn thought to have led to the oxidation of dissolved iron, Fe(II), thus ending the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) around 1.8 Gyr ago. An alternative interpretation suggests that the increasing atmospheric oxygen levels enhanced sulphide weathering on land and the flux of sulphate to the oceans. This increased rates of sulphate reduction, resulting in Fe(II) removal in the form of pyrite as the oceans became sulphidic. Here we investigate sediments from the approximately 1.8-Gyr-old Animikie group, Canada, which were deposited during the final stages of the main global period of BIF deposition. This allows us to evaluate the two competing hypotheses for the termination of BIF deposition. We use iron-sulphur-carbon (Fe-S-C) systematics to demonstrate continued ocean anoxia after the final global deposition of BIF and show that a transition to sulphidic bottom waters was ultimately responsible for the termination of BIF deposition. Sulphidic conditions may have persisted until a second major rise in oxygen between 0.8 to 0.58 Gyr ago, possibly reducing global rates of primary production and arresting the pace of algal evolution.

  9. Recent Advance in the Electrochemical Detection of Sulphide and Sulphhydryl Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This article aims at providing a critical review of some most recent developments in the electrochemical detection and measurement of hydrogen sulphide and the related species, which are of great significance to a variety of industries and in environmental moitoring. The molecular recognition processes are initiated by using either an organic precursor or a catalytic complex, leading to extensive ranges of detection. A series of advanced chemical and simulation techniques are used to probe the mechanistic details of the analytical chemistry involved.

  10. A Study of Optical Parameters of Tin Sulphide Thin Films Using the Swanepoel Method (United States)

    Ragina, A. J.; Murali, K. V.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.


    The knowledge of the optical parameters of thin films is important for optics and optoelectronics. In the present work, tin sulphide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method. The as grown films were brown in color and highly adherent to the substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometric measurements. XRD patterns showed that the films developed were orthorhombic structure. SEM images of tin sulphide thin films confirmed the formation of nanowires. Absorption spectra revealed medium absorption in the visible region and a gradual decrease with higher wavelength. The transmittance of the as-synthesized films is about 50% in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm. The methodological framework of the Swanepoel's method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical parameters of tin sulphide thin films using transmittance data was discussed. The Swanepoel's method is found to be applicable for thin films when measured transmittance spectra have at least one minimum and one maximum. By analyzing the transmission curve, the refractive index and the thickness of the film were evaluated. The energy band gaps are also reported. The optical band gap is direct with a value of 1.79 eV. The values of the optical band gap energy and thickness of the film calculated by Swanepoel's method were compared with that obtained from absorption spectra and cross sectional SEM photographs respectively. These properties demonstrated that tin sulphide thin films could be used as an absorber layer in the fabrication of heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Emerging Photovoltaics: Organic, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide, and Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraavya Rao


    Full Text Available As the photovoltaics industry continues to grow rapidly, materials other than silicon are being explored. The aim is to develop technologies that use environmentally friendly, abundant materials, low-cost manufacturing processes without compromising on efficiencies and lifetimes. This paper discusses three of the emerging technologies, organic, copper zinc tin sulphide (CZTS, and perovskite-based solar cells, their advantages, and the possible challenges in making these technologies commercially available.

  12. Simultaneous Hydrogen Sulphide and Carbon Dioxide Removal from Biogas by Water-Swollen Reverse Osmosis Membrane


    Dolejš, P. (Petr); Poštulka, V. (Václav); Sedláková, Z. (Zuzana); Jandová, V. (Věra); Vejražka, J. (Jiří); Esposito, E.; Jansen, J.C.; Izák, P. (Pavel)


    Biogas is a suitable alternative fuel if unwanted impurities are removed to avoid corrosion of the inner parts of an engine. A recent breakthrough in biogas purification showed that a thin hydrophilic composite membrane can create the selective water swollen barrier able to remove unwanted sour gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide owing to significantly higher water solubility of the latter in comparison to methane. This work presents the use of water–swollen membranes for the...

  13. Feasibility study of fusion bonding for carbon fabric reinforced Polyphenylene Sulphide by hot-tool welding


    De Baere, Ives; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris


    In recent years, there is a growing interest in joining techniques for thermoplastic composites as an alternative to adhesive bonding. In this article, a fusion bonding process called hot-tool welding is investigated for this purpose and the used material is a carbon fabric reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. The welds are first observed through a microscope, after which the quality is experimentally assessed using a short three-point bending setup. A comparison is made between the welded spec...

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of rose Bengal by semiconducting zinc sulphide used as a photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shweta


    Full Text Available Various semiconductors have been used as photocatalysts for removal of different dyes from their aqueous solutions. Zinc sulphide semiconductor is used in the present investigation as a photocatalyst for the removal of rose Bengal dye. Effect of different parameters, which affect the rate of reaction; like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity have been studied. A mechanism has also been proposed in which hydroxyl radicals are shown as an active oxidizing species.

  15. A comparative DFT study of the catalytic activity of the 3d transition metal sulphides surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Balderas, R. (Depto de F& amp; #237; s. y Qu& amp; #237; m. Te& amp; #243; rica. Edif. B, Fac. de Qu& amp; #237; mica, UNAM ); Oviedo-Roa, R (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo); Martinez-Magadan, J M.(Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo); Amador, C. (Depto de F& amp; #237; s. y Qu& amp; #237; m. Te& amp; #243; rica. Edif. B, Fac. de Qu& amp; #237; mica, UNAM ); Dixon, David A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    The catalytic activity of the first transition metal series sulphides for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions exhibits a particular behaviour when analysed as a function of the metal position in the Periodic Table. This work reports a comparative study of the electronic structure of the bulk and of the (0 0 1) metal surface (assumed to be the reactive surface) for the Sc-Zn monosulphides. The systems were modeled using the NiAs prototype crystal structure for the bulk and by applying the supercell model with seven atomic layers for (0 0 1) surfaces. The electronic structure of closed-packed solids code based on the density-functional theory and adopting the muffin-tin approximation to the potential was employed in the calculations of the electronic properties. For the Co and Ni sulphides, the density of states (DOS) variations between the metal atom present in the bulk and the ones exposed at the surface show that at the surface, there exists a higher DOS in the occupied states region just below the Fermi level. This feature might indicate a good performance of these two metal sulphides substrates in the HDS reactions favouring a donation, back-donation mechanism. In contrast, the DOS at the surface of Mn is increased in the unoccupied states region, just above the Fermi level. This suggests the possibility of a strong interaction with charge dontating sulphur adsorbate atoms poisoning the active substrate surface.

  16. Dimethylsulphidemia: the significance of dimethyl sulphide in extra-oral, blood borne halitosis. (United States)

    Harvey-Woodworth, C N


    Halitosis is a symptom and not a diagnosis. Rather, the topic represents a spectrum of disorders, including intra-oral, otorhinolaryngological, metabolic, systemic, pulmonary, psychological and neurological conditions. Halitosis may be the third most common trigger for patients to seek dental care and can cause significant impact on patient quality of life. About 10% of all genuine halitosis cases are attributed to extra-oral processes. Some authorities have reported that the nasal cavity and the oropharynx are the most common sites of origin of extra-oral halitosis. However, recent evidence appears to suggest that blood borne halitosis may be the most common subtype of extra-oral halitosis. Tangerman and Winkel report that dimethyl sulphide was the main volatile implicated in extra-oral blood borne halitosis. They proposed a hitherto unknown metabolic condition by way of explanation for this finding, resulting in systemic presence of dimethyl sulphide in blood and alveolar breath. This paper reviews the knowledge base regarding the behaviour of dimethyl sulphide in physiological systems and those disorders in which blood borne halitosis secondary to dimethylsulphidemia is thought to have an aetiopathological role.

  17. The Influnece of Peat Layer on Hidrogen and Aluminium Concentration Originating from the Substratum Sulphidic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto


    Full Text Available Much of peatland in Indonesia has sulphidic materials as substratum. Soil acidity and metal elements in peatland may originate from the sulphidic materials which occur underneath of the peat layer. Peat soil buffering capacity and chelating ability of the peat materials regulate the soil acidity and metal solubility in the peatland. The study was aimed to examine the influence of peat thickness and land hydrological conditions on the concentrations of exchangeable aluminium (Al and hidrogen (H in the peatland. The study was carried out on peaty acid sulphate soil, deep peat, moderate peat and shallow peat. Exchangeable Al and H were observed in the wet season, transition from wet to dry season and dry season. The results showed that exchangeables of Al and H were mainly originated from sulphidic material which were occured underneath of the peat layer. Peat layer had an important role on the solubility of Al and H in the peatland. Peat thickness had influence on exchangeable-Al and H, 50 cm of the peat thickness (shallow peat was the critical for peat function to reduce the Al and H solubility in the peatland. Hydrological condition factor did not influence on the solubility of Al and H.

  18. Effect of Ammonium Molybdate Inhibition on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel in Chloride and Sulphide Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo S. Afolabi


    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 3.0 M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulphide using various concentrations of ammonium molybdate was investigated in this work. The inhibition effect of this reagent in these media was monitored by weight loss and pH measurements. The analyses of the weight loss results showed that the corrosion susceptibility of mild steel in 3.0 M sodium chloride was more pronounced than in 0.5 M of sodium sulphide due to the aggressive chloride ions in the former and the weak nature of the latter. Ammonium molybdate produced a better inhibition performance of mild steel in 0.5 M sodium suphide than in 3.0 M sodium chloride medium and the higher the concentration of ammonium molybdate the more the inhibition performance on mild steel in the media studied. Optimum inhibition was obtained at 2.5 M ammonium molybdate in both media. The pH values in chloride medium remained acidic throughout the exposure period while those of sulphide medium shifted to alkaline region with exposure time; an effect that was traceable to higher inhibition obtained in the latter medium.

  19. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters. (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep


    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  20. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)


    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  1. Sulphidation behaviour of. beta. -NiAl-. cap alpha. -Cr pseudobinary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska, E.; Godlewski, K.; Mrowec, S.


    The sulphidation behaviour of alloys belonging to the ..beta..-NiAl-..cap alpha..-Cr pseudobinary system was studied at S/sub 2/ pressures P/sub S2/ of 5-2 x 10/sup 3/ Pa and temperatures of 1173 and 1273 K. The alloys contained 0, 4, 10 and 20 at.% Cr and the atomic ratio of nickel to aluminium was always 1 to 1. Kinetic measurements were carried out in a thermogravimetric set-up. The sulphidation rate increased with temperature, S/sub 2/ pressure and chromium concentration in the alloy. The scale morphology and composition for each alloy studied were influenced by the sulphidation parameters. The scales were usually of a multiphase and multilayer nature with varying proportions of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ and Cr/sub x/S. The innermost part of the scale was always rich in aluminium or aluminium and chromium, the amount of nickel being the highest on the surface. At 1273 K and P/sub S2/ = 5 Pa the scales on chromium-rich alloys consisted of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and Cr/sub x/S only.

  2. Sulphidization flotation for recovery of lead and zinc from oxide-sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA Keqing; Jan D.Miller; JIANG Tao; LI Guang-hui


    A new flowsheet was developed to recover the valuable minerals from oxide or oxide-sulfide ores of lead and zinc. The flowsheet consisted of flotation of sulfide minerals, desliming and sulphidization-flotation of oxide minerals. The corresponding reagent system and techniques to the flowsheet were investigated. Batch and continuous tests show that the dosage of sodium sulfide, temperature, and collector type are main affecting factors on the recovery of smithsonite and cerussite. For the flotation of cerussite, there is an appropriate dosage of sodium sulfide at which the recovery reaches its maximum value. The required sodium sulfide for smithsonite flotation is higher than that for cerussite and the recovery of smithsonite flotation increases with the dosage of sodium sulfide at low level and becomes insensitive at high dosage. The appropriate temperature for smithsonite and cerussite flotation is found to be 25 - 40 ℃. Amines are found to be the effective collectors for the flotation of smithsonite after sulphidization. Investigation also shows that desliming prior to sulphidization-flotation is essential to the effective recovery of smithsonite and cerussite, and the desliming process of two-stage hydrocyclon is well feasible and effective for the treatment of lead-zinc oxide ores. A further treatment on the cerussite flotation concentrate by shaking table is proposed to obtain higher lead grade.

  3. Cleaner processing: a sulphide-free approach for depilation of skins. (United States)

    Ranjithkumar, Ammasi; Durga, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Ramakrishnan; Rose, Chellan; Muralidharan, Chellappa


    The conventional unhairing process in leather making utilises large amount of lime and sodium sulphide which is hazardous and poses serious waste disposal concerns. Under acidic conditions, sodium sulphide liberates significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide which causes frequent fatal accidents. Further, the conventional unhairing process involves destruction of the hair leading to increased levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. A safe approach is needed to overcome such environmental and health problems through an eco-benign process. The present study deals with a clean technology in which the keratinous body is detached from the dermis using enzymes produced from Bacillus crolab MTCC 5468 by solid state fermentation (SSF) as an alternative to noxious chemicals. Complete unhairing of skin could be achieved with an enzyme concentration of 1.2 % (w/w). The bio-chemical parameters of the spent liquor of the enzymatic process were environmentally favourable when compared with conventional method. The study indicates that the enzymatic unhairing is a safe process which could be used effectively in leather processing to alleviate pollution and health problems.

  4. Synthesis of cadmium sulphide in pure and mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films of -octadecylsuccinic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Hemakanthi; Balachandran Unni Nair; Aruna Dhathathreyan


    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were grown by the reaction of sodium sulphide (Na2S) with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of cadmium salts of -octadecylsuccinic acid (ODSU) and with LB films of ODSU in mixtures of octadecylamine and octadecyl alcohol. The results indicate that heterogeneous nucleation and aggregation in the pure ODSU LB films due to processes like Ostwald ripening are destabilized by the presence of the long-chain amine and alcohol in mixed systems. CdS nanoparticles in the LB films were monitored by UV-visible absorption spectra, which allow an estimation of the size of the particles. The morphology, size and nature of the nanocrystallites formed depend on whether the sulphidation was done on the pure film or in the mixed films. It is seen that particles of size around 1.6 nm were formed in ODSU/octadecylalcohol and ODSU/octadecylamine mixed LB films while in pure ODSU films the size was about 2.7 nm. These films showed typical needle-shaped structures, as observed by the optical microscopic technique. Mean size and morphology were confirmed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, while selective area electron diffraction patterns showed six-fold symmetry and indicated that the CdS crystals grow epitaxially with respect to the monolayer. Further, the crystallisation enhanced in the mixed LB films showed a characteristic zinc oxide (Wurtzite) structure compared with the pure ODSU matrix.

  5. Sintering Behavior and Effect of Silver Nanowires on the Electrical Conductivity of Electrically Conductive Adhesives. (United States)

    Xie, H; Xiong, N N; Wang, Y H; Zhao, Y Z; Li, J Z


    In this paper, two kinds of silver nanowires with a 160 nm average diameter ranging from 30 to 90 µm length and a 450 nm average diameter up to 100 µm length were successfully synthesized by a polyol process with FeCl3 and Na₂S as reaction inhibitor, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the morphologies and sintering behaviors of both of silver nanowires are impacted by glutaric acid and sintering temperature. The isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs) filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires as hybrid fillers were fabricated and the electrical properties were investigated based on the fraction of the silver nanowires of the total of silver fillers and the curing temperature, etc. The in situ monitoring the variation in electrical resistance of the ICAs explores that silver nanowires have influence on the curing behavior of the ICAs. Silver nanowires synthesized with Na2S as reaction inhibitor and treated with glutaric acid can significantly improve the electrical conductivity of the ICAs in the case of the low loading of silver fillers in the appropriate proportion range of the weight ratio of micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires, primarily as a result of connecting effect. When the loading of silver fillers in the ICAs is high, the electrical conductivity is also enhanced slightly in the case of the proper fraction of silver nanowires of the total of silver fillers. The effect of the curing temperature on the electrical conductivity relates to the fraction of silver nanowires and the total loading of silver fillers. The electrical conductivity of the ICAs filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires synthesized with FeCl₃ as reaction inhibitor is greatly damaged, indicating that the size of silver nanowires also is one of main factor to impact the electrical conductivity of the ICAs doped with silver nanowires. The electrical property of the ICAs filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver

  6. A field measurement perspective on the current and future use of carbonyl sulphide as a carbon cycle tracer (United States)

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Sun, Wu; Lett, Celine; Juarez, Sabrina; Seibt, Ulli


    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is gaining increasing traction as a tracer to constrain gross terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, due to the close coupling between photosynthesis and COS uptake by plants. Results from laboratory, field and atmospheric measurements, combined with modeling analyses, have all confirmed the potential of COS, but as with any new approach, many details still remain to be resolved. Drawing on results from our field campaigns that include component (branch and soil) and ecosystem COS flux measurements in a range of environments, I will provide a view on what we have learned about using COS as a carbon cycle tracer. These measurements support the view that ecosystem COS fluxes are typically dominated by canopy uptake, and have provided insight into carbon cycle processes not available from CO2 measurements alone. They have also provided some interesting surprises that suggest COS data may also provide information on other biogeochemical and plant processes such as phenology. Our results support the addition of COS to our measurement arsenal to improve our understanding and monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere, but moving forward will require addressing some key uncertainties. These include the role of the soil and the variation in the leaf-level COS to CO2 uptake ratio in different environments. Combining COS with stable isotope tracers, particularly CO2, can provide a powerful way with which to both improve our understanding of COS biogeochemistry and constrain our estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes.

  7. Effect of cadmium sulphide quantum dot processing and post thermal annealing on P3HT/PCBM photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Taukeer [Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Bhargav, Ranoo [Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kaur, Amarjeet [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Dhawan, S.K., E-mail: skdhawan@mail.nplindia.erne [Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chand, S., E-mail: schand@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)


    The present study demonstrates the effect on photovoltaic performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on doping of cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The P3HT/CdS nanocomposite shows a 10 nm blue shift in the UV-vis absorption relative to the pristine P3HT. The blue shift in the absorption of the P3HT/CdS nanocomposite can be assigned to the quantum confinement effect from the CdS nanoparticles. Significant PL quenching was observed for the nanocomposite films, attributed to additional decaying paths of the excited electrons through the CdS. Solar cell performance of pure P3HT and dispersed with CdS QDs have been studied in the device configuration viz indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/P3HT:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT:CdS:PCBM/Al, respectively. Incorporation of CdS QDs in the P3HT matrix results in the enhancement in the device efficiency ({eta}) of the solar cell from 0.45 to 0.87%. Postproduction thermal annealing at 150 {sup o}C for 30 min improves device performance due to enhancement in the device parameters like FF, V{sub OC} and improvement in contact between active layer and Al.

  8. Russell-Silver syndrome (United States)

    ... other conditions that may mimic Russell-Silver syndrome) Treatment Growth hormone replacement may help if this hormone is lacking. Other treatments include: Making sure the person gets enough calories, ...

  9. Silver recovery system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulineau, B.


    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  10. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Silver Doped Hollow Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fu


    Full Text Available Silver doped PAN-based hollow carbon nanofibers were prepared combining co-electrospinning with in situ reduction technique subsequently heat treatment to improve the electrochemical performances of carbon based supercapacitor electrodes. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performances of the resulted nanofiber were studied. The results show that the silver nanoparticles can be doped on the surface of hollow carbon nanofibers and the addition of silver favors the improvement of the electrochemical performances, exhibiting the enhanced reversibility of electrode reaction and the capacitance and the reduced charge transfer impedance.

  11. Kinetics and Hydrodynamics of Silver Ion Flotation



    This paper studies and determines the dispersion properties (Jg, Eg and Db), kinetics parameters and hydrodynamics of the process and its effect on the recovery of silver contained in spent diluted fixers by techniques of ion flotation in columns. The experimental results show silver recoveries of 97 % using sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIX) 0.06 g·L-1 and 0.04 g·L-1 of frother, at a Jg of 1.0 cm·s-1 and Jl of 0.72 cm·s-1. Xanthate-promoter combinations do not improve the separation; however, r...

  12. Experimental study of Ni solubility in sulphidic groundwater and cement water under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U.; Kekki, T.; Aalto, H. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The nickel solubility was studied during a 177-day period under anoxic conditions in three types of waters: a synthetic reference groundwater (OL-SR), a natural Olkiluoto groundwater (PVA2), and a cement-conditioned groundwater (C-PVA2). To each water, nickel, ferrous iron and sulphide were added yielding eight combinations of, approximately, the following initial concentrations: nickel: 1.0x10{sup -6} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L, ferrous iron: 1.8 10{sup -6} and 1.8x10{sup -5} mol/L, and sulphide: 3.1x10{sup -6} and 9.4x10{sup -5} mol/L. The concentrations of these elements in the natural groundwater PVA2 as well as in the cement-conditioned water C-PVA2 was insignificant. In the synthetic water, the nickel concentration was unchanged in all samples having a high initial nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L. In the samples with an initial low nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, the sulphide content determined the final nickel concentration. Where the initial sulphide concentration was low, the nickel concentration remained at the level of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, but the higher sulphide concentration caused the nickel concentration to drop to below 10{sup -8} mol/L. In the natural groundwater PVA2, the nickel concentration dropped to below 10{sup -4} mol/L in all samples with an initially high nickel concentration, and to values of roughly 10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with an initially low nickel content. In the cement-conditioned water, the nickel concentration reached a value of 3x10{sup -6} mol/L in samples with initial high nickel concentrations, and to a value of 1x10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with a low initial nickel content. The added amounts of iron and sulphide did not have any significant effect on the observed nickel solubility. The solid phases formed in the natural and synthetic groundwater were analyzed by XRD but could not be identified. In the case of cement-conditioned water the XRD analyses showed the presence of Ni(OH){sub 2} as well

  13. Silver nanoparticles decorated lipase-sensitive polyurethane micelles for on-demand release of silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Su, Yuling; Zhao, Lili; Meng, Fancui; Wang, Quanxin; Yao, Yongchao; Luo, Jianbin


    In order to improve the antibacterial activities while decrease the cytotoxity of silver nanoparticles, we prepared a novel nanocomposites composed of silver nanoparticles decorated lipase-sensitive polyurethane micelles (PUM-Ag) with MPEG brush on the surface. The nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis, TEM and DLS. UV-vis and TEM demonstrated the formation of silver nanoparticles on PU micelles and the nanoassembly remained intact without the presence of lipase. The silver nanoparticles were protected by the polymer matrix and PEG brush which show good cytocompatibility to HUVEC cells and low hemolysis. Moreover, at the presence of lipase, the polymer matrix of nanocomposites is subject to degradation and the small silver nanoparticles were released as is shown by DLS and TEM. The MIC and MBC studies showed an enhanced toxicity of the nanocomposites to both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, i.e. E. coli and S. aureus, as the result of the degradation of polymer matrix by bacterial lipase. Therefore, the nanocomposites are biocompatible to mammalian cells cells which can also lead to activated smaller silver nanoparticles release at the presence of bacteria and subsequently enhanced inhibition of bacteria growth. The satisfactory selectivity for bacteria compared to HUVEC and RBCs make PUM-Ag a promising antibacterial nanomedicine in biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass. (United States)

    Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M


    A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation.

  15. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo


    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  16. Modifications to the silver physical developer. (United States)

    Burow, David; Seifert, Donald; Cantu, Antonio A


    The silver physical developer is currently the most successful reagent used for visualizing the water-insoluble components (e.g., lipids) of latent prints on porous surfaces. It is normally used after the amino acid visualizing reagents (e.g., ninhydrin and DFO) are used. This work found that the performance of the current formulation of silver physical developer is strongly reduced when the water used is changed from the usual distilled water to the more purified reverse osmosis/deionized (RO/DI) water. Based on numerous experiments involving the systematic variation of the component concentrations, the performance was restored and even improved by reducing the concentration of all the components (except that of the ferric salt) and by including malic acid in the formulation. These modifications resulted in a new silver physical developer formulation that performs as well as or better than the current formulation and is less expensive to make.

  17. Using surface plasmon resonances to test the durability of silver copper films (United States)

    Bussjager, Rebecca J.; MacLeod, H. Angus


    Silver has high reflectivity in the visible and infrared but cannot be used fully because of its distressing lack of durability. A technique that uses the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon offers a sensitive method for studying the corrosion of silver and assessing improvements. It has been used in the investigation of the effects of flashing a thin layer, approximately 1 nm thick, of copper over silver in an attempt at cathodic protection. Tests include exposing silver and silver-copper films to air, 94% relative humidity, water, and hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Thidiazuron-enhanced biosynthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles via improving phytochemical reducing potential in callus culture of Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum S


    Full Text Available Sumaira Anjum, Bilal Haider AbbasiDepartment of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, PakistanAbstract: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by using plants is an emerging class of nanobiotechnology. It revolutionizes all domains of medical sciences by synthesizing chemical-free AgNPs for various biomedical applications. In this report, AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using whole plant extract (WPE and thidiazuron-induced callus extract (CE of Linum usitatissimum. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in CE than that in WPE. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed a characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 410–426 nm. Bioreduction of CE-mediated AgNPs was completed in a shorter time than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both types of synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, but CE-mediated AgNPs were smaller in size (19–24 nm and more scattered in distribution than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs (49–54 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed crystalline nature (face-centered cubic of both types of AgNPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols and flavonoids were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further confirmed the successful synthesis of AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs were found to be stable over months with no change in the surface plasmon bands. More importantly, CE-mediated AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens than WPE-mediated AgNPs. The present work highlighted the potent role of thidiazuron in in vitro-derived cultures for enhanced biosynthesis of chemical-free AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., in vitro

  19. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, Gholamabbas, E-mail:; Ranjbar, Morteza [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Aliasghar [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant's productions for human consumptions.

  20. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)


    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  1. Preparation and characterization of silver colloids with different morphologies under ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jingquan; Yao Suwei; Zhang Weiguo; Zou Yi


    In the ultrasonic field,stable silver colloids were produced by the reduction of AgNO3 with the protection of PVP using KBH4 or N2H4.H2O as reductant.The main factors affecting the morphology of silver nanoparticles,such as distribution of the ultrasonic field,ultrasonic time,ultrasonic power,and the species of reductant,were studied.The silver colloids were identified by TEM and spectrophotometry.The results indicate that the factors such as distribution of the ultrasonic field,ultrasonic time,ultrasonic power,and the species of reductant have a great impact on the morphology of the silver nanoparticles.The size of the silver nanoparticles decreases with the ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time increasing.Ag nanoparticles prepared in standing wave field preferentially grow in a certain direction,which is propitious for forming hexagonal- and spherical-like silver nanoparticles.Monodispersed spherical silver nanoparticles are easily synthesized in the diffusion field.The stability of silver colloid becomes improved by ultrasonic treatment.For example,precipitate is not found after several weeks for the silver colloid prepared with an ultrasonic treatment time of 180 min.The silver nanoparticles prepared without ultrasonic treatment are large spherical-like and hexagonal.Well-dispersed spherical silver particles with a mean size of about 20 nm have been prepared under ultrasonic treatment.Spherical,spherical-like,and hexagonal silver nanoparticles can be obtained by changing the reductants..

  2. Silver Nanoparticles from Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis of Aqueous Silver Nitrate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pingali, Kalyana C; Rockstraw, David A; Deng, Shuguang


    ...°C and below the melting point of silver. Feed solution concentration and ultrasound power applied to the atomizer were found to have a significant impact on the particle size of the silver nanoparticle...

  3. Improved nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties in non-covalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticle (NF-RGO/Ag-NPs) hybrid (United States)

    Sakho, El hadji Mamour; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S.; Sreekanth, P.; Philip, Reji; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar


    Nonlinear optical (NLO) response under near infrared (800 nm) and visible (532 nm) laser excitations, of 100 fs (fs) and 5 ns (ns) pulse durations respectively, of reduced graphene oxide (RGO), non-covalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide (NF-RGO) and NF-RGO decorated with various concentration of silver nanoparticles (NF-RGO/Ag-NPs) have been investigated using the Open-aperture Z-Scan technique. For both femtosecond and nanosecond laser excitations, the studied graphene-based materials exhibit good nonlinear optical power limiting properties (OL), with NF-RGO/Ag-NPs sample prepared with 0.1 M AgNO3 showing the best nonlinear optical properties. For the ns regime, the optical limiting threshold decreased from 8.3 J/cm2 in NF-RGO to 4.3 J/cm2 in NF-RGO/Ag-NPs, while at fs regime, the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) was found to increase with decrease in concentration of Ag-NPs in the hybrid. Two-photon absorption (2 PA) in combination with saturable absorption (SA) in femtosecond regime, and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) along with saturable absorption (SA) in the nanosecond regime, are responsible for the observed nonlinear optical absorption (NLA) behavior in these materials. These findings show that the as-synthesized NF-RGO/Ag-NPs hybrid is a relatively better material for nonlinear optical limiting applications.

  4. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.


    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  5. Printing Silver Nanogrids on Glass (United States)

    Sanders, Wesley C.; Valcarce, Ron; Iles, Peter; Smith, James S.; Glass, Gabe; Gomez, Jesus; Johnson, Glen; Johnston, Dan; Morham, Maclaine; Befus, Elliot; Oz, Aimee; Tomaraei, Mohammad


    This manuscript describes a laboratory experiment that provides students with an opportunity to create conductive silver nanogrids using polymeric templates. A microcontact-printed polyvinylpyrrolidone grid directs the citrate-induced reduction of silver ions for the fabrication of silver nanogrids on glass substrates. In addition to…

  6. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics (United States)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  7. Fabrication, Conductive Properties and Photocatalytic Application of Silver Nanorods (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsun; Liu, Pai-Chung; Lin, C. B.


    This study proposes a process for fabricating silver nanorods used in conductive circuits and photocatalytic applications. In this process, UV-irradiated silver chloride nanoparticles are added to ethylene glycol solution containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nitrate at 120 °C. With the seed crystal synthesis method, this process yielded a solution containing silver nanowires with an aspect ratio (AR) of approximately 1055 after 12 h. Aluminum foam was then placed in this solution, and the solution was stirred using a magnetic stirrer at 400 rpm. After 4 days, this process yielded a solution of silver nanorods with an AR of approximately 130. After completely washing away any PVP on the surface of the silver nanorods, a conductive ethanol ink containing 25 wt.% silver nanorods was prepared, and a conductive layer approximately 3 μm thick was applied on a glass slide. Measurements obtained using a four-point probe indicated that this layer had a sheet resistance of approximately 0.012 Ω/sq. Furthermore, a conductive ethanol ink containing 26 wt.% silver nanorods was used in a pen to draw conductive circuits on Bristol board and matte paper; the resulting sheet resistances were 132 and 0.018 Ω/sq, respectively. Finally, a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst consisting of silver nanorods dispersed over the Ag@AgCl film (Ag@AgCl/Ag nanorods; AR = 25) was synthesized through heterogeneous precipitation. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl film can be further improved by the addition of silver nanorods.

  8. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of solid hydrogen sulphide under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kume, T; Sasaki, S; Shimizu, H


    Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of solid hydrogen sulphide (H sub 2 S) were measured at various pressures from 0.3 to 29 GPa. The absorption edge observed around 4.8 eV at 0.3 GPa indicated a red-shift with increasing pressure, and positioned below 3 eV at 29 GPa. On the basis of the spectra obtained, the energy gap was determined as a function of pressure. The transition to phase IV at 11 GPa was found to lead to a small jump in its pressure dependence and to yield an Urbach tail in the absorption edge.

  9. Characterization of recycled rubber media for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) control. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Park, Jaeyoung; Evans, Eric A; Ellis, Timothy G


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) adsorption capacities on recycled rubber media, tyre-derived rubber particle (TDRP), and other rubber material (ORM) have been evaluated. As part of the research, densities, moisture contents, and surface properties of TDRP and ORM have been determined. The research team findings show that TDRP and ORM are more particulate in nature and not highly porous-like activated carbon. The characteristics of surface area, pore size, and moisture content support chemisorption on the macrosurface rather than physical adsorption in micropores. For example, moisture content is essential for H2S adsorption on ORM, and an increase in moisture content results in an increase in adsorption capacity.

  10. Modification of Luminescent Properties of Red Sulphide Phosphors for White LED Lighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A kind of sulphide, CaS:Eu2+, activated by europium ion for white LED lighting was synthesized via solid-state reaction route in reducing atmospheres. The phosphors were then encapsulated with silicone resin. Moreover, chemical structure of the phosphors was characterized by XRD. Microstructure of the powders was observed by SEM. Spectra of excitation and emission for the phosphors were also obtained by a spectrophotometer. Effect of processing parameters on the luminescent properties of the powders was systematically studied to result in the phosphors with good chemical stability and maximal relative luminescent intensity.

  11. Tandem base-free synthesis of -hydroxy sulphides under ultrasound irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guang-Shu Lv; Fu-Junduan; Jin-Chang Ding; Tian-Xing Cheng; Wen-Xia Gao; Jiu-Xi Chen; Hua-Yue Wu


    Rongalite® promotes cleavage of diaryl disulphides generating the corresponding thiolate species in situ which then undergo facile ring-opening of epoxides in a regioselective manner under ultrasound irradiation, affording -hydroxy sulphides in good to excellent yields. The important features of this methodology are base-free, odourless, high yield, reasonably rapid reaction rate, simple workup, high regioselectivity, costeffective and no requirement of transition metal catalysts. It is noteworthy that ring-opening reaction of 1,2-diphenyldiselane with 2-(phenoxymethyl)oxirane are also conducted smoothly to afford -hydroxy selenide in excellent yield under the standard conditions.

  12. Deposition of Cadmium Sulphide Thin Films by Photochemical Deposition and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Pushpalatha


    Full Text Available Deposition of cadmium sulphide (CdS thin films on glass substrates in acidic medium by photochemical deposition (PCD and studies by several characterizations are presented. The structural characterization of the thin films was carried out by XRD. The elemental composition of the thin films was carried out by EDAX. The optical properties have been studied in the wavelength range 200-900 nm and the optical transition has been found to be direct and allowed. The morphological properties are studied by AFM and electrical properties are studied by four probe technique.

  13. Studies on chemical bath deposited zinc sulphide thin films with special optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladar, Maria [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); ' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail:; Baldea, Ioan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grecu, Rodica [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Indrea, Emil [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Donath 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    Adherent and uniform zinc sulphide thin films were deposited on optical glass platelets from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, ammonia and sodium citrate. The samples, as they were prepared were investigated by UV-vis absorption/reflection spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of growth conditions such as reagent concentration and deposition technique (mono- and multi-layer) on optical and structural properties of the ZnS thin films have been studied. The ability of ZnS films to exhibit luminescent properties has also been investigated.

  14. A Study of Substituted Aliphatic Sulphides on the Corrosion Behaviour of Zinc in Ammonium Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venckatesh


    Full Text Available Sulphur containing organic compounds decreases the corrosion rate by increasing the hydrogen over potential on zinc metal due to their electron donating groups. Their inhibiting effect was found to be associated with their adsorption on the active centers of the metal. The inhibition efficiencies of some aliphatic sulphides in ammonium chloride solution have been studied by weight loss studies, polarization and impedance measurements. The effect of substituent groups is correlated with their inhibition performance. These studies due to their relevance in Zn-Manganese dry batteries assume their importance.

  15. Effects of microbially produced hydrogen sulphide on the corrosion fatigue of offshore structural steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.J.; Edyvean, R.G.J.; Brook, R.; Austen, I.M.


    The effect of microbially produced hydrogen sulphide (H/sub 2/S) in concentrations up to 450 ppm in natural sea-water on the corrosion fatigue of two high strength micro-alloyed steels has been determined. The crack growth rate increases with increasing H/sub 2/S content but comparisons with environments containing synthetic, added, H/sub 2/S show that the higher levels of biologically generated H/sub 2/S appear less potent than a biological H/sub 2/S. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effects of marine fouling on offshore structures.

  16. Pressure-induced phase transition of nanocrystalline iron sulphide coated by polyvinyl alcohol

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Wei; Kan-Shihai; Pan Yue Wu; Wang Xin; Zou Guang Tian; LiuJing


    Nanocrystalline iron sulphide (FeS) coated with polyvinyl alcohol, with particle size ranging from several to several tens of nanometres, has been prepared by the chemical precipitation synthesis method. The phase transition of FeS has been investigated by using in situ high-pressure diffraction with synchrotron radiation at pressures up to 42.5 GPa. Most of the diffraction lines are broadened and weakened. At the pressure of 11.8 GPa, a new phase transition was observed. However, only eleven x-ray reflections were recorded under high pressure; the crystal structure is unknown.

  17. Polycarboxylate derivative of -amino acid as growth modifier of sulphide minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harjyoti Thakuria; Gopal Das


    Construction of modified inorganic mineral with controlled mineralization analogues of those produced by nature is now of current interest for understanding the mechanism of the in vivo biomineralization processes, as well as looking for fresh industrial and technological applications. Low-molecular-weight chiral polycarboxylate ligands derived fromnaturally occurring -\\alpha-amino acids have been used asmodel systems to study the effect of small organic matrix on crystal growth modification. The sulphide minerals are characterized by PXRD, FT–IR and SEM. Furthermore, the optical properties of these minerals have been characterized by UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  18. Re-evaluation of literature values of silver optical constants. (United States)

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A


    Silver has unique optical properties for topical applications such as plasmonics. The two most widely used silver optical data sets are the Palik handbook compilation and that determined by Johnson and Christy. Unfortunately these are inconsistent making realistic modelling of the likely performance of silver in optical applications difficult, with modelling producing either highly optimistic or very pessimistic results, depending on application. By critical examination and duplication of the original experiments leading to the widely accepted literature values, we show that both data sets have drawbacks and conclude that there is a need for an improved data set for realistic simulation of experimentally obtainable properties.

  19. Silver-palladium cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poizot, Philippe [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Simonet, Jacques, E-mail: jacques.simonet@univ-rennes1.f [Laboratoire MaCSE, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)


    The formation of silver-palladium electrodes is described. It mainly corresponds to the palladization of silver by means of treatment with palladium salts (nitrate and sulphate) in acidic media. Other ways may exist such as the modification of solid conductors like carbons by deposition of a silver-palladium alloy. By using those electrodes in polar aprotic solvents, the one-electron cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds of most alkyl iodides and bromides may yield free alkyl radicals. Coupling and cross-coupling reactions can easily be carried out at such electrodes. The present review aims at discussing the electro-catalytic process as well as providing an update on the state of the art on this new mode of scission regarding carbon-heteroatom bonds.

  20. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell (United States)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam


    Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and resonance light scattering (RLS) based on quasi-static theory are investigated. When the silver core radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength red shifts and light scattering cross-section decreases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength blue shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases. The effect of middle dielectric thickness on the light scattering cross-section of nanoshell is different from those of the silver core radius changes. As middle dielectric radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength first blue shifts and then red shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength always red shifts and the light scattering cross-section decreases. The sensitivity of RLS to the refractive index of embedding medium is also reported. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness leads to increase the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell verify the biosensing potential of this nanostructure.

  1. 采用银纳米圆盘阵列提高LED发光特性的研究%Study on Improving Light Emitting Efficiency of LED by Using Silver Nanodisk Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振明; 李康; 孔凡敏; 高晖


    In order to improve the light emitting efficiency of GaN-based blue LED, a novel LED model, which has a layer of silver nanodisk array embedded above the quantum well, is designed. The rates of spontaneous emission change and light extraction efficiencies of the models with various geometric parameters are calculated by using finite-difference time-domain method. With the analysis for near field distribution of active region (AR) and far field directivity of LED, we theoretically explain the influence of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) formed on silver nanodisks on the improvement of LED performance. This model could contribute to the coupling between SPP and AR, leading to the enhancement of spontaneous emission of AR. Besides, due to the compensation for wave vector of SPP by lattice vector of silver nanodisk array, the localized SPP could radiate to space and light extraction efficiency of LED could be improved. Optimization results show that on the condition that the diameter of nanodisk is set to 120 nm and its thickness is chosen as 30 nm, the spontaneous emission is enhanced by 3.6 times compared to that of the conventional LED. Furthermore, as the nanodisks are arranged to the array with triangular lattice and the lattice constant is 220 nm, light extraction efficiency gets 2. 5 times enhancement. These results provide a theoretical reference on the practical design and optimization of highly efficient GaN-based LED.%为了提高GaN基蓝光LED的发光效率,设计了在LED有源层上方引入银纳米圆盘阵列的模型.利用时域有限差分方法计算了银纳米圆盘阵列不同结构参数情况下LED有源层自发辐射率的变化情况及光提取效率值.通过对有源区的近场分布和LED远场方向性的分析,理论上解释了利用该金属纳米结构生成的表面等离激元对LED性能增强的影响,利用该模型可使得表面等离激元与有源层有效耦合,从而增强有源层的自发辐射率.此外,银纳米

  2. Application of lithogeochemistry in the assessment of nickel-sulphide potential in komatiite belts from northern Finland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Heggie


    Full Text Available This study tests the application of chalcophile elements such as nickel, copper and the platinum-group elements as indicators of nickel-sulphide prospectivity in komatiites from terranes of the Karelian Craton in northern Finland and Norway. Major element abundances reflect volcanic processes associated with the emplacement dynamics of ultramafic lavas, whereas the variable chalcophile element concentrations record the ore-forming process, mainly as an anomalous metal depletion and enrichment relative to the calculated background. Geochemical data from this study indicate that Paleoproterozoic komatiites in the Pulju Greenstone Belts and Archean komatiites in the Enontekiö area are prospective for nickel-sulphide mineralisation. Conversely, on the basis of the present dataset, ultramafic rocks from the Palaeoproterozoic Karasjok Greenstone Belt display lower prospectivity for nickel-sulphides, although potential exists if high-volume flow conduits and channels within the large volcanic flow field could be identified.

  3. Adhesives, silver amalgam. (United States)


    The most recent advancement in silver amalgam is use of resin formulations to bond metal to tooth both chemically &/or physically, Since, historically, amalgam has been used successfully without adhesion to tooth, obvious clinical question is: Why is bonding now desirable? Two major clinical reasons to bond are: (1) Adhesive can increase fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth & decrease cusp fractures; & (2) Seal provided by adhesive can greatly decrease, & often eliminate post-operative sensitivity. Following report summarizes CRA laboratory study of shear bond strength & sealing capability of 23 commercial adhesives used to bond 2 types of silver amalgam to tooth structure.

  4. Characterization of a silica-PVA hybrid for high density and stable silver dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorin, Bryce, E-mail: [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhu, Guangyu, E-mail: [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Parkinson, Patrick, E-mail: [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Perrie, Walter, E-mail: [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Benyezzar, Med, E-mail: [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Scully, Patricia, E-mail: [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    A silica and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid material mixed with a high density of silver ions is synthesised and characterized in this work. The hybrid material can be cast into thick films, which we determined to be homogeneous using Raman spectroscopy. We observed that the silver ions remain stable in the material over time and at temperatures of 100 °C, which represents a marked improvement over previous solid solutions of silver. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicate the rapid activation of silver at 173 °C, resulting in a dense formation of silver nanoparticles within the hybrid. The activation of silver was also demonstrated in 3-dimensional geometries using femtosecond duration laser pulses. These results illustrate the silica-PVA hybrid is an attractive material for developing silver-insulator composites. - Highlights: • A novel PVA-silica hybrid is developed for silver ion dissolution. • The hybrid exhibits a high silver saturation point and good silver stability. • Heating and laser irradiation are capable of converting the silver ions to metal. • The hybrid material enables the fabrication of 3D metal-insulator composites.

  5. Silver nanoparticles reduce brain inflammation and related neurotoxicity through induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel A.; Leo, Bey Fen; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNFα production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity.

  6. Silver nanoparticles reduce brain inflammation and related neurotoxicity through induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel A.; Leo, Bey Fen; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNFα production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity. PMID:28251989

  7. Refractive index and dispersion control of ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulphide for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Giorgos; Berube, Jean-Philippe; Vallee, Real


    The powerful ultrafast laser inscription technique is used to fabricate optical waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulphide substrates. For the first time the refractive index profile and the dispersion of such ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides are experimentally measured. In addition the Zero Di...... in gallium lanthanum sulphide glasses for near and mid-IR applications. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  8. Multiple sulphur and lead sources recorded in hydrothermal exhalites associated with the Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, central Newfoundland, Canada (United States)

    Lode, Stefanie; Piercey, Stephen J.; Layne, Graham D.; Piercey, Glenn; Cloutier, Jonathan


    Metalliferous sedimentary rocks (mudstones, exhalites) associated with the Cambrian precious metal-bearing Lemarchant Zn-Pb-Cu-Au-Ag-Ba volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit, Tally Pond volcanic belt, precipitated both before and after VMS mineralization. Sulphur and Pb isotopic studies of sulphides within the Lemarchant exhalites provide insight into the sources of S and Pb in the exhalites as a function of paragenesis and evolution of the deposit and subsequent post-depositional modification. In situ S isotope microanalyses of polymetallic sulphides (euhedral and framboidal pyrite, anhedral chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and euhedral arsenopyrite) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yielded δ34S values ranging from -38.8 to +14.4 ‰, with an average of ˜ -12.8 ‰. The δ34S systematics indicate sulphur was predominantly biogenically derived via microbial/biogenic sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, microbial sulphide oxidation and microbial disproportionation of intermediate S compounds. These biogenic processes are coupled and occur within layers of microbial mats consisting of different bacterial/archaeal species, i.e., sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and those that disproportionate sulphur compounds. Inorganic processes or sources (i.e., thermochemical sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, leached or direct igneous sulphur) also contributed to the S budget in the hydrothermal exhalites and are more pronounced in exhalites that are immediately associated with massive sulphides. Galena Pb isotopic compositions by SIMS microanalysis suggest derivation of Pb from underlying crustal basement (felsic volcanic rocks of Sandy Brook Group), whereas less radiogenic Pb derived from juvenile sources leached from mafic volcanic rocks of the Sandy Brook Group and/or Tally Pond group. This requires that the hydrothermal fluids interacted with juvenile and evolved crust during hydrothermal circulation, which is consistent with the existing

  9. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati......The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies...

  10. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.


    Silver has been recognized for its antimicrobial properties for centuries. Most studies on the antibacterial efficacy of silver, with particular emphasis on wound healing, have been performed on planktonic bacteria. Our recent studies, however, strongly suggest that colonization of wounds involves...... bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...

  11. Specific biofilter process design using bacteria capable of removing hydrogen sulphide from air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.N. [Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB (Canada)


    The design and development of a biofilter unit which can remove hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) from air emissions, such as those found in the oil and gas industry and the Kraft wood pulping process, was discussed. Biofilters which contain species of bacteria which are able to oxidize H{sub 2}S have been very successful in removing high concentrations of H{sub 2}S from contaminated air streams. The biofilters could control noxious or offensive odours through aerobic metabolism of contaminants by microorganisms attached to such surfaces as peat or wood bark. Microbial oxidation of low molecular weight inorganic and volatile organic compounds were shown to result in their degradation to end products such as carbon dioxide, sulphate, water and new cell biomass. Research was directed toward the treatment of sulphur containing emissions generated during the sulphide recovery cycle in the Kraft wood pulping process, but since emissions are similar to those present in oil and gas industry, this technology was said to be equally applicable in the petroleum industry. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. In-situ fabrication of cobalt oxide / sulphide mixed phase nanoparticles in Polyphenylenesulphide matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Rumale


    Full Text Available A novel approach for the in-situ fabrication of combined cobalt oxide / sulphide nanoparticles in sulphur containing polymer polyphenylenesulphide (PPS by polymer inorganic solid-solid reaction technique is reported here. At present, there is considerable interest in polymer-metal chalcogenides / oxides based nano-composites on account of their optical, magnetic, electronic and catalytic properties. We have demonstrated the suitability of solid-solid reaction methodology by reacting commonly available cobalt precursors with engineering thermoplastic PPS. The cobalt precursor was reacted with PPS in 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 molar ratios, respectively, by heating the mixture at the melting temperature of the polymer (285 ºC for six hours. The resultant products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS techniques and High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. The shift in melting temperature of PPS was observed. Increase in absorption peak is observed in the range of 320 to 370 nm with the increase in PPS concentration. Resultant nanoparticles of cobalt sulphide and cobalt oxide embedded in the PPS matrix showed spherical and distorted rod like morphology.

  13. Hydrogen sulphide release to surface waters at the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. (United States)

    Wille, Martin; Nägler, Thomas F; Lehmann, Bernd; Schröder, Stefan; Kramers, Jan D


    Animal-like multicellular fossils appeared towards the end of the Precambrian, followed by a rapid increase in the abundance and diversity of fossils during the Early Cambrian period, an event also known as the 'Cambrian explosion'. Changes in the environmental conditions at the Precambrian/Cambrian transition (about 542 Myr ago) have been suggested as a possible explanation for this event, but are still a matter of debate. Here we report molybdenum isotope signatures of black shales from two stratigraphically correlated sample sets with a depositional age of around 542 Myr. We find a transient molybdenum isotope signal immediately after the Precambrian/Cambrian transition. Using a box model of the oceanic molybdenum cycle, we find that intense upwelling of hydrogen sulphide-rich deep ocean water best explains the observed Early Cambrian molybdenum isotope signal. Our findings suggest that the Early Cambrian animal radiation may have been triggered by a major change in ocean circulation, terminating a long period during which the Proterozoic ocean was stratified, with sulphidic deep water.

  14. Magnetic mineralogy of the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit:Implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyrrhotite is one of the common ore minerals in Cu-Ni sulphide deposits, but only monoclinic pyrrhotite is ferromagnetic at room temperature. X-ray and EPA analyses reveal that most pyrrhotite forming sideronitic texture in the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit is monoclinic, but that in the massive ore is a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites. Differential thermal and magneticthermogravimetric analyses of massive ore indicate a magnetic transition and heat absorption at 323℃, suggesting that this temperature is the thermomagnetic and phase transition point of pyrrhotite. For massive pyrrhotite ores heated at 400℃ for 30 h and then quenched by cool water, the monoclinic pyrrhotite (mpo) transforms completely into the hexagonal pyrrhotite (hpo). However, all the pyrrhotites resulting from slow cooling of the sample in air are mpo. These results indicate that transformation between hpo and mpo depends upon the cooling rate. Therefore, massive ores in this deposit might have been formed via rapid cooling of ore melts. On the other hand, it is significant to study the effect of the ratio of the magnetite in total ores on the genesis of magmatic Cu-Ni suphide deposits.

  15. Chemical behaviors of different arsenic-bearing sulphides bio-oxidated by thermophilic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-ying; GONG En-pu; YANG Li-li; WANG Da-wen


    The study on arsenopyrite and realgar of bacterial oxidation shows that the chemical behaviors of different arsenic-bearing sulphides oxidated by thermophilic bacteria are quite distinct. Arsenopyrite is active and quickly eroded in bacteria-bearing solution. With a high leaching rate over 95%, the arsenopyrite phase cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction(XRD). Arsenopyrite is highly toxic to bacteria that at the initial stage of bio-oxidation, bacterial growth is inhibited and the number of bacterium cell drops from 2.26 × 108/mL to the lowest 2.01 × 105/mL. At the later stages of bio-oxidation, bacteria grow fast and reach 2.23 × 108/mL. Comparably, realgar is inertial and resistive to bacterial corrosion and oxidation. Arsenic in realgar crystal is hard to be leached and the residue is still realgar phase, as indicated by XRD. The cell number of bacteria varies a little, decreasing from 2.26 × 108/mL to 2.01 × 107/mL, during the bacterial oxidation. The results show that the crystal structure and arsenic valency of arsenic-bearing sulphides play a vital role during the leaching process of bacterial oxidation.

  16. Endosymbiotic sulphate-reducing and sulphide-oxidizing bacteria in an oligochaete worm. (United States)

    Dubilier, N; Mülders, C; Ferdelman, T; de Beer, D; Pernthaler, A; Klein, M; Wagner, M; Erséus, C; Thiermann, F; Krieger, J; Giere, O; Amann, R


    Stable associations of more than one species of symbiont within a single host cell or tissue are assumed to be rare in metazoans because competition for space and resources between symbionts can be detrimental to the host. In animals with multiple endosymbionts, such as mussels from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and reef-building corals, the costs of competition between the symbionts are outweighed by the ecological and physiological flexibility gained by the hosts. A further option for the coexistence of multiple symbionts within a host is if these benefit directly from one another, but such symbioses have not been previously described. Here we show that in the gutless marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, endosymbiotic sulphate-reducing bacteria produce sulphide that can serve as an energy source for sulphide-oxidizing symbionts of the host. Thus, these symbionts do not compete for resources but rather share a mutalistic relationship with each other in an endosymbiotic sulphur cycle, in addition to their symbiotic relationship with the oligochaete host.

  17. Half-cell potentials of semiconductive simple binary sulphides in aqueous solution (United States)

    Sato, M.


    Theoretical consideration of the charge-transfer mechanism operative in cells with an electrode of a semiconductive binary compound leads to the conclusion that the half-cell potential of such a compound is not only a function of ionic activities in the electrolytic solution, but also a function of the activities of the component elements in the compound phase. The most general form of the electrode equation derived for such a compound with a formula MiXj which dissociates into Mj+ and Xi- ions in aqueous solution is. EMiXj = EMiXj0 + R T 2 ij ln [ (sua Mj+)aqi ?? (suaX)jMiXj/ (suaXi-)aqj ?? (suaM)iMiXj],. where. EMiXj0 = 1 2(EM,Mj+0 + EXi-,X). The equation can be modified to other forms. When applied to semiconductive simple binary sulphides, these equations appear to give better descriptions of the observed electrode potentials of such sulphides than any other proposed equations. ?? 1966.

  18. Flotation separation of arsenopyrite from several sulphide minerals with organic depressants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fuliang; Wang Ligang; Sun Chuanyao


    In this paper,the separation of arsenopyrite from chalcopyrite,pyrite,galena with organic depressants (guergum and sodium humic)was discussed,and the functioning mechanism of those organic depressants was dis-cussed.The experimental results of monomineral flotation indicated that both guergum and sodium humic have depress-ing effect on arsenopyrite in the presence of ethyl xanthate.Guergum and sodium humic showed different depressing a-bility to pyrite,chalcopyrite and galena,and the higher the pH value in pulp,the stronger the depressing ability.Ultra-violet-Visible Spectrophotometric study showed that the adsorption layer of xanthate on surface of minerals had been de-sorbed by the two organic depressants,and the selective desorption of the collector layer was found from different miner-als.The xanthate cover on minerals surface was set free when dosage of the organic depressants was high enough.For artificially-mixed minerals,the separation of arsenopyrite from other sulphides was successfully realized by controlling dosage of the organic depressants.And sodium humic had been used successfully to decrease arsenic content in sulphide concentr ates in a commercial Lead-Zinc concentrator.

  19. Re-Os dating of sulphide inclusions zonally distributed in single Yakutian diamonds: Evidence for multiple episodes of Proterozoic formation and protracted timescales of diamond growth (United States)

    Wiggers de Vries, D. F.; Pearson, D. G.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smelov, A. P.; Pavlushin, A. D.; Davies, G. R.


    The timing of diamond formation in the Siberian lithospheric mantle was investigated by Re-Os isotope dating of sulphide inclusions from eclogitic and lherzolitic diamonds from the Mir, 23rd Party Congress and Udachnaya kimberlite pipes in Yakutia. The diamonds contained multiple sulphide inclusions distributed over their core-to-rim zones. Cathodoluminescence, carbon isotope and nitrogen aggregation studies demonstrate that the diamonds are zoned and that the distinct zones are associated with different diamond growth episodes. There are coherent relationships between carbon isotope composition, nitrogen concentration and aggregation state of the diamond hosts, and major and trace element compositions, Re-Os compositions and initial Os isotope ratios of the included sulphides. This suggests that the different diamond and sulphide populations formed at different times from fluids/melts with different chemical compositions. Based on the Re-Os isochron ages and the nitrogen aggregation states we conclude that the sulphides are co-genetic with their diamond hosts.

  20. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitek, L; Panacek, A; Prucek, R; Soukupova, J; Vanickova, M; Zboril, R [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kolar, M, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, 77520 Olomouc (Czech Republic)


    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  1. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver (United States)

    Kvitek, L.; Panacek, A.; Prucek, R.; Soukupova, J.; Vanickova, M.; Kolar, M.; Zboril, R.


    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  2. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  3. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  4. Polyurethane biocompatible silver bionanocomposites for biomedical applications (United States)

    Filip, D.; Macocinschi, D.; Paslaru, E.; Munteanu, B. S.; Dumitriu, R. P.; Lungu, M.; Vasile, C.


    Bionanocomposite membranes based on polyurethane (PU), extracellular matrix (EM), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by applying both solvent casting method and electrospinning/electrospraying method. PU-EM-Ag compositions were electrospun/electrosprayed onto PU membrane to realize improved biocompatible biomaterials. Surface morphological characteristics and wettability properties were investigated by SEM and AFM techniques and water contact angle measurements. Water contact angle depends on surface chemistry and the two methods employed for preparation of biomembranes as well as roughness of the membrane surfaces. Rheological study brings information on electrospinability of the polymer solutions/dispersions. Silver nanoparticles greatly influence the electrospinability of the polymer dispersions because of the increase in dynamic viscosity with the increasing silver content. Native PU and PU incorporated with low contents of AgNPs less than 0.3 % show high cell proliferation and good biocompatibility. The electrospun PU-EM-Ag nanobiocomposite membranes bring the advantage of using of low amounts of bioactive and biocidal components. The obtained silver nanobiocomposite membranes possess good bioactivity and non-cytotoxicity necessary for biomedical device applications. The obtained nanobiocomposite membranes are expected to find application for medical devices such as urinary catheters, wound dressings, etc.

  5. 21 CFR 73.2500 - Silver. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silver. 73.2500 Section 73.2500 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2500 Silver. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive, silver, is a crystalline powder of high purity silver prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate with...

  6. Photochemical Synthesis of Silver Nanodecahedrons and Related Nanostructures for Plasmonic Field Enhancement Applications (United States)

    Lu, Haifei

    excitation. These silver NDs acting as seeds can be re-grown into larger silver NDs with LSPR ranging from 490 nm to 590 nm, upon receiving LED irradiation with emission close to the LSPR of silver ND seeds, which are suspended in a precursor solution containing small silver nanoparticles. With the aid of centrifugation, silver NDs with high purity can be obtained. Furthermore, silver ND with a broad tuning range (LSPR 490 ~ 660 nm) can be synthesized from these seeds using irradiation from a 500 nm LED. Second, the optical properties of silver NDs and their SERS application for sensitive molecular detection are presented. Raman signal obtained from silver NDs show remarkable advantage over noble nanoparticles of other shaped, thus revealing their strong localized field enhancement. Experimental results demonstrate that average enhancement factor from individual silver ND may be as high as 106. In order to explore their application for biosensing and bioimaging, stable silica coated SERS tags based on silver ND producing high Raman intensity have been studied. Our experiment results indicate that 10-8 M 4-MBA in solution can be detected by silver NDs modified silicon chip through SERS. Simulation result on the geometry of silver ND/silica spacer/gold film/substrate shows that the Raman sensitivity of the NDs modified chip can be further improved with the insertion of a dielectric/conductor film between them. Finally, we present a photochemical method for the preparation of silver nanostructures preparation with the use of 633 nm laser. Silver nanostructures composed of silver nanoplates could be grown from small silver nanoparticles deposited on a glass substrate. The periodicity of the silver nanostructures is several micrometers, revealing that this photochemical method has the potential for "writing" silver pattern on a solid substrate. Raman spectroscopy has also been explored for real-time monitoring of silver nanostructure growth and SERS hotspots formation.

  7. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris


    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  8. [Advances in the research of antibacterial function of silver nanoparticle and its application in burn treatment]. (United States)

    Liu, M Z; Liu, M X; Wang, X L; Guo, G H


    Silver has received much attention for its great anti-infection effect in wound. With the development of nanotechnology, the advantages of silver nanoparticles have gradually arisen in scientific practice and clinical application due to their large specific surface area etc. In this article, we conclude the antibacterial mechanisms of silver nanoparticles, the factors influencing their antibacterial effects, the methods of improving their performance and safety, and their application in burn treatment.

  9. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati...

  10. Conversion of calcium sulphide to calcium carbonate during the process of recovery of elemental sulphur from gypsum waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris


    Full Text Available of hydrogen sulphide (H(sub2)S) and CaCO(sub3). H(sub2)S can subsequently be converted to elemental sulphur via the commercially available chemical catalytic Claus process. This study investigated the carbonation of CaS by examining both the solution chemistry...

  11. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulphidic marine sediments. (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer B; Yu, Hang; Steele, Joshua A; Dawson, Katherine S; Sun, Shulei; Chourey, Karuna; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L; Orphan, Victoria J


    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyse important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulphide-rich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization because of decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulphide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold (≤ 10°C) and sulphidic (> 1 mM ΣH(2)S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5-270 nM), cobalt (0.5-6 nM), molybdenum (10-5600 nM) and tungsten (0.3-8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalysing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrophilic microorganisms. Overall, our data suggest that AOM consortia use specialized biochemical strategies to overcome the challenges of metal availability in sulphidic environments. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Magnetic iron-nickel sulphides in the Pliocene and Pleistocene marine marls from the Vrica section (Calabria, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, A.J. van; Dekkers, M.J.; Zijderveld, J.D.A.


    The rock magnetic properties of the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene open-marine marls from the Vrica section in Calabria (Italy) point to magnetic sulphide as the main magnetic mineral and remanence carrier. The maximum blocking temperatures, however, are between 340 and 360°C, which is too high

  13. Geothermal power plants at Mt. Amiata (Tuscany-Italy): mercury and hydrogen sulphide deposition revealed by vegetation. (United States)

    Bacci, E; Gaggi, C; Lanzillotti, E; Ferrozzi, S; Valli, L


    At Mt. Amiata (Italy) geothermal energy is used, since 1969, to generate electricity in five plants with a nominal capacity of 88 MW. Anomalous levels of mercury characterise geothermal fluids of Mt. Amiata, an area renowned for its vast cinnabar deposits and for the mercury production carried out in the past. Mercury emission rates range from 300 to 400 g/h, or 3-4 g/h per MW electrical installed capacity. These emissions are coupled with a release of 7-8 kg/(h MW) of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Mercury is discharged as Hg0 gaseous species and reaches the atmosphere with the non-condensable gas fraction. In this fraction, CO, is the major component (94-98%), H2S is around 1% and mercury concentration is as high as 1-10 mg/Nm3. Leaves of a spontaneous grass (Avena sterilis), at the end of the vegetative cycle, were used as mercury bioconcentrators to map deposition near geothermal power plants and to calculate the corresponding average levels of Hg0 in the air. Direct measurements of mercury and hydrogen sulphide vapours in the air reached by power plant emissions showed a ratio of about 1-2000. This ratio was applied to calculate average levels of hydrogen sulphide starting from mercury deposition mapping: typical concentrations of mercury and hydrogen sulphide were of the order of 10-20 ng/m3 and 20-40 microg/m3, respectively.

  14. The properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on alloy 800H in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulphidizing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, B.; Gellings, P.J.; Stroosnijder, M.F.


    The corrosion protection of oxide scales formed by electrophoretic deposition in a cerium-containing sol on Alloy 800H, a 32Ni-20Cr steel, followed by firing in air at 1123 K was studied in oxidizing and mixed oxidizing/sulphidizing environments at elevated temperatures. In particular, the influence

  15. Performance evaluation of oxygen, air and nitrate for the microaerobic removal of hydrogen sulphide in biogas from sludge digestion. (United States)

    Díaz, I; Lopes, A C; Pérez, S I; Fdz-Polanco, M


    The removal performance of hydrogen sulphide in severely polluted biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion of sludge was studied by employing pure oxygen, air and nitrate as oxidant reactives supplied to the biodigester. Research was performed in a 200-L digester with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ∼20 days under mesophilic conditions. The oxygen supply (0.25 N m³/m³ feed) to the bioreactor successfully reduced the hydrogen sulphide content from 15,811 mg/N m³ to less than 400 mg/N m³. The introduction of air (1.27 N m³/m³ feed) removed more than 99% of the hydrogen sulphide content, with a final concentration of ∼55 mg/N m³. COD removal, VS reduction and methane yield were not affected under microaerobic conditions; however, methane concentration in the biogas decreased when air was employed as a result of nitrogen dilution. The nitrate addition was not effective for hydrogen sulphide removal in the biogas.

  16. Effect of desliming of sulphide-rich mill tailings on the long-term strength of cemented paste backfill. (United States)

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Baki, Hakan; İzki, Muhammet


    This paper presents the effect of desliming on the short- and long-term strength, stability and rheological properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) produced from two different mill tailings. A 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of ≥1.0 MPa and the maintenance of stability over 224 days of curing were selected as the design criteria for the evaluation of paste backfill performance. Desliming induced some changes in the physical, chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the tailings. CPB mixture of the deslimed tailings achieved the required consistency at a lower water to cement ratio. The short-term UCSs of CPB samples of the deslimed tailings were found to be 30-100% higher than those samples of the reference tailings at all the binder dosages and curing times. CPB samples of the deslimed tailings achieved the long-term stability at relatively low binder dosages (e.g. 5 wt% c.f. ≥6.1% for the reference tailings). It was also estimated that desliming could allow a 13.4-23.1% reduction in the binder consumption depending apparently on the inherent characteristics of the tailings. Over the curing period, generation of sulphate and acid by the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings was also monitored to correlate with the strength losses observed in the long term. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) analyses provided an insight into the microstructure of CPB and the formation of secondary mineral phases (i.e. gypsum) confirming the beneficial effect of desliming. These findings suggest that desliming can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich mill tailings to improve the strength and stability particularly in the long term and to reduce binder consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrometallurgical recovery of silver from waste silver oxide button cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaiyan, N.; Nandakumar, V.; Ramachandran, P. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)


    In recent years, recycling of household batteries has attracted much attention mainly with respect to environmental aspects in addition to the savings. Small silver oxide primary cells used in electric watches become a waste after their life is over. Recycling procedures are needed to prevent any environmental impact from these wastes and to recover the value inherent in the scrap. Smelting and electrolytic methods are discussed for silver recovery from this battery waste. Acid leaching of waste batteries and precipitation of silver as silver chloride followed by smelting at 1000{sup o}C yields a silver recovery of about 83%. An electrolytic route is studied as an alternative to the smelting operation and involves the electrodeposition of silver with higher purity from a silver thiosulfate complex prepared from silver chloride. The electrolysis is potentiostatically controlled at a potential of -0.400 to -0.600V (SCE) for avoiding side-reactions such as the sulfiding of silver. Although recovery methods have been identified in principle, their suitability for mixed small battery waste and economic factors have yet to be demonstrated. (author)

  18. Nucleic acid nanomaterials: Silver-wired DNA (United States)

    Auffinger, Pascal; Ennifar, Eric


    DNA double helical structures are supramolecular assemblies that are typically held together by classical Watson-Crick pairing. Now, nucleotide chelation of silver ions supports an extended silver-DNA hybrid duplex featuring an uninterrupted silver array.

  19. Extraction of Silver by Glucose. (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil


    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) .

  20. Silver enhancement of nanogold and undecagold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainfield, J.F.; Furuya, F.R.


    A recent advance in immunogold technology has been the use of molecular gold instead of colloidal gold. A number of advantages are realized by this approach, such as stable covalent, site-specific attachment, small probe size and absence of aggregates for improved penetration. Silver enhancement has led to improved and unique results for electron and light microscopy, as well as their use with blots and gels. Most previous work with immunogold silver staining has been done with colloidal gold particles. More recently, large gold compounds (``clusters``) having a definite number of gold atoms and defined organic shell, have been used, frequently with improved results. These gold dusters, large compared to simple compounds, are, however, at the small end of the colloidal gold scale in size; undecagold is 0.8 nm and Nanogold is 1.4 nm. They may be used in practically all applications where colloidal gold is used (Light and electron microscopy, dot blots, etc.) and in some unique applications, where at least the larger colloidal golds don`t work, such as running gold labeled proteins on gels (which are later detected by silver enhancement). The main differences between gold clusters and colloidal golds are the small size of the dusters and their covalent attachment to antibodies or other molecules.

  1. Unique evolutionary trajectories in repeated adaptation to hydrogen sulphide-toxic habitats of a neotropical fish (Poecilia mexicana). (United States)

    Pfenninger, Markus; Patel, Simit; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin


    Replicated ecological gradients are prime systems to study processes of molecular evolution underlying ecological divergence. Here, we investigated the repeated adaptation of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and compared two population pairs of sulphide-adapted and ancestral fish by sequencing population pools of >200 individuals (Pool-Seq). We inferred the evolutionary processes shaping divergence and tested the hypothesis of increase of parallelism from SNPs to molecular pathways. Coalescence analyses showed that the divergence occurred in the face of substantial bidirectional gene flow. Population divergence involved many short, widely dispersed regions across the genome. Analyses of allele frequency spectra suggest that differentiation at most loci was driven by divergent selection, followed by a selection-mediated reduction of gene flow. Reconstructing allelic state changes suggested that selection acted mainly upon de novo mutations in the sulphide-adapted populations. Using a corrected Jaccard index to quantify parallel evolution, we found a negligible proportion of statistically significant parallel evolution of Jcorr  = 0.0032 at the level of SNPs, divergent genome regions (Jcorr  = 0.0061) and genes therein (Jcorr  = 0.0091). At the level of metabolic pathways, the overlap was Jcorr  = 0.2545, indicating increasing parallelism with increasing level of biological integration. The majority of pathways contained positively selected genes in both sulphide populations. Hence, adaptation to sulphidic habitats necessitated adjustments throughout the genome. The largely unique evolutionary trajectories may be explained by a high proportion of de novo mutations driving the divergence. Our findings favour Gould's view that evolution is often the unrepeatable result of stochastic events with highly contingent effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Cykowska


    Full Text Available The monitoring of the concentration of sulphide is very important from the environment point of view because of high toxicity of hydrogen sulphide. What is more hydrogen sulphide is an important pollution indicator. In many cases the determination of sulphide is very difficult due to complicated matrix of some environmental samples, which causes that most analytical methods cannot be used. Flow injection analysis allows to avoid matrix problem what makes it suitable for a wide range of applications in analytical laboratories. In this paper determination of dissolved sulphide in environmental samples by gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection was presented. Used gas-diffusion separation ensures the elimination of interferences caused by sample matrix and gives the ability of determination of sulphides in coloured and turbid samples. Studies to optimize the measurement conditions and to determine the value of the validation parameters (e.g. limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy were carried out. Obtained results confirm the usefulness of the method for monitoring the concentration of dissolved sulphides in water and waste water. Full automation and work in a closed system greatly reduces time of analysis, minimizes consumption of sample and reagents and increases safety of analyst’s work.

  3. Sulphidation of the Fe-40 at.% Al alloy in H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska, E.; Roszczynialska, E. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Solid State Chemistry


    Sulphidation of an ordered bcc alloy having the nominal composition Fe-40 at.% Al was studied at temperatures of 1073-1273 K in hydrogen/hydrogen sulphide mixtures at sulphur pressures of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -2} Pa. The sulphidation runs were followed thermogravimetrically. Phase and chemical composition of the sulphide scales and the scale morphologies were determined by means of XRD, EDX, EPMA and SEM. The sulphidation runs showed a relatively fast uptake of sulphur at the beginning followed by a gradual slowdown. The estimated parabolic rate constants for the second stage of the reaction were of the order of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -11} kg{sup 2}/m{sup 4}s, i.e. comparable to the oxidation rates of alumina formers in the same temperature range. The initial faster growth of the sulphide scale was attributed to the formation of iron-aluminum sulphospinel whereas the second stage to the development of aluminum sulphide at the alloy/scale interface. (orig.)

  4. Noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles precede mineral formation in magmatic sulphide melts. (United States)

    Helmy, Hassan M; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl O C; Wirth, Richard; Nagel, Thorsten; Tredoux, Marian


    In low temperature aqueous solutions, it has long been recognized by in situ experiments that many minerals are preceded by crystalline nanometre-sized particles and non-crystalline nanophases. For magmatic systems, nanometre-sized precursors have not yet been demonstrated to exist, although the suggestion has been around for some time. Here we demonstrate by high temperature quench experiments that platinum and arsenic self-organize to nanoparticles, well before the melt has reached a Pt-As concentration at which discrete Pt arsenide minerals become stable phases. If all highly siderophile elements associate to nanophases in undersaturated melts, the distribution of the noble metals between silicate, sulphide and metal melts will be controlled by the surface properties of nano-associations, more so than by the chemical properties of the elements.

  5. A novel process for sorting fine-sized sulphide minerals by biocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on a process design idea,investigations at Technical University of Berlin confirm that the biocoagulation of microorganisms and solid particles would be a new method to generate coarser particles suitable for sorting.The procedure of selective biocoagulation of microorganisms,e.g.yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica respectively,and micro-dispersed solids,e.g.minerals like galena and sphalerite,has been analyzed as a basis for a novel sorting process.Therefore,especially the characteristics of the cell surface of the microorganisms,e.g.the electrostatic charge and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances,as well as their influence on the selective biocoagulation were studied.Experimental investigations show that the microorganisms and the sulphide particles below 10 μm coagulate effectively.Furthermore,the flotation is suitable for the separation of the selectively formed biocoagulates.With the designed column flotation,satisfying recovery rates are reached.

  6. Growth and characterization of oriented cadmium sulphide nanocrystals under Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of arachidic acid (United States)

    Roy, U. N.; Ingale, A.; Kukreja, L. M.; Mishra, S.; Ganesan, V.; Rustagi, K. C.

    Cadmium sulphide nanocrystals were grown at room temperature (20 °C) under arachidic acid monolayers floating over an aqueous solution of CdCl2 inside an enclosed Langmuir-Blodgett set-up, through slow infusion of H2S gas. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest an oriented growth of the crystallites. The particle sizes were found to increase with duration of exposure to the H2S gas. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the particles were nearly circular pellets with uniform morphology throughout. In Raman spectra, the FWHM of the LO phonon was found to be large ( 20 cm-1) for all the films grown with different exposure times in H2S gas, and was found to reduce to 8 cm-1 after annealing a typical sample at 500 °C for 45 min.

  7. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie


    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  8. Effects of impeller speed and aeration rate on flotation performance of sulphide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of aeration rate and impeller speed on the concentrate sulfur grade and recovery for batch flotation of a complex sulphide ore were investigated. The relationships between the water recovery and solid entrainment were discussed. It is found that the solid entrainment is linearly related to the water recovery regardless of aeration rate and impeller speed, and the higher sulfur recovery at the aeration rate of 2 and 4 L/min for the impeller speed of 1 500 r/min is considered to be the contribution of true flotation. Finally, the sulfur recovery flux is correlated with the bubble surface area flux based on the froth image at the different aeration rates and impeller speeds.

  9. Relationship between solids flux and froth features in batch flotation of sulphide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-sheng; Aldrich Chris


    The froth features in the batch flotation of a sulphide ore were investigated by using the digital image parameters of the froth, the small number emphasis(Nsne), the average grey level(Dagl) and the instability number(Nins), under different conditions of impeller speeds and aeration rates. It is found that the value of Nsne is strongly dependent on the average bubble size of the froth and Dagl on the volume fraction of solid in the froth, and the froth features during the batch flotation are influenced by impeller speed and aeration rate. A kinetic model of the concentrate solid flux was developed which relates the flotation process to the image parameters, Nsne and Dagl of the froth and predictions are well consistent with the experimental data.

  10. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for efficient visible light driven hydrogen production from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Daya Mani; N Xanthopoulos; Daniele Laub; C H Subrahmanyam


    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of C and N in the CdS matrix. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 mol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping.

  11. Influence of sulphide precursor on crystal phase of ternary I-III-VI2 semiconductors (United States)

    Beloš, Milica V.; Abazović, Nadica D.; Jakovljević, Jadranka Kuljanin; Janković, Ivana; Ahrenkiel, Scott P.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Čomor, Mirjana I.


    Samples of AgInS2 and CuInS2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hot-injection method at 270 °C using 1-dodecanethiol (DT) and elemental sulphur (S) as sulphide precursors, and oleylamine as reaction medium and surfactant. Composition, crystal structure, and particle size of obtained materials were tracked by XRD and TEM/HRTEM measurements. It was shown that, due to its dual role as sulphur source and surfactant, DT drastically slows formation of desired material. Samples obtained with DT even after 4 h of reaction have traces of intermediary compound (β-In2S3), whereas in samples synthesized with elemental S these traces are less pronounced. The growth mechanism and influence of each reaction step are discussed in detail.

  12. SnO2: CuO based hydrogen sulphide sensor on LTCC substrates (United States)

    Kaur, Manmeet; Ganapathi, S. Kailasa; Chaware, Varsha; Rane, Vivek; Ramgir, Niranjan; Datta, Niyanta; Giramkar, Vijaya; Phatak, Girish; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.


    Dependence of the resistance of metal-oxides thin films on environment is generally used to detect toxic gases at ppm levels. In order to obtain a fast response and recovery, sensing films are heated to high temperatures (upto 300°C). The heater assembly used to raise the film temperature not only makes the sensor bulky but also consumes high power. In our efforts to reduce the size of sensors, we have deposited SnO2: CuO thin film directly onto low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates with integrated heater and temperature sensor. Sensor films were investigated for their compatibility with LTCC substrate and results show a stable response towards hydrogen sulphide gas for over a year. The stability of heater and thermistor embedded in LTCC substrate has also been monitored. The results of our study show films on LTCC substrate can be successfully applied in sensor technology.

  13. Experimental Oxidation of Iron Sulphides from Intertidal Surface Sediments: Stable Isotope Effects (S, O, C) (United States)

    Ebersbach, F.; Böttcher, M. E.; Al-Raei, A. M.; Segl, M.


    Top intertidal sediments show a pronounced zone of activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Iron sulfides may be formed, but a substantial part is reoxidized to sulfate. Microbial or chemical reoxidation can be further enhanced by a resuspension of surface sediments by tidal currents or storms. The rates of the different processes depend on the site-secific sedimentological properties (e.g., grain size, iron and sulphur contents etc.). In the present study 3 different areas of the German Wadden Sea were studied: a mud flat in the Jade Bay, and sandy sediments in the intertidals of Spiekeroog and Sylt islands. The latter site is part of an in-situ lugworm-exclusion experiment. The goal was the experimental and field investigation of the fate of iron sulfides and the formation of sulphate upon resuspension of intertidal surface sediments in oxygenated seawater. All sites were geochemically analyzed for dissolved and solid phase iron, manganese, sulphur and carbon phases/species, and sulphate reduction rates were measured using radiotracers. Dissolved chloride and grain sizes analysis where additionally carried out. TOC, S and metal phase contents were higher in mud compared to sandy sediments. Field results demonstrate gross but only minor net sulphide production and a downcore increases in FeS contents, due to intense sulphide oxidation at the surface. Pyrite, on the other hand, was abundant through the sediments due to continuous sediment reworking. The fate of iron-sulphides and accumulation of sulphate as a function of time was followed in batch experiments using dark suspensions of surface sediments in site-bottom waters at room temperature. During the experiments, each sample was shaken continuously under exposition to oxygen, and sub-samples were taken at the beginning and after discrete time intervalls. A very fast oxidation rate of AVS led to a complete exhaustion within a day, whereas Cr(II)-reducible sulfur was inititially built up and then decreased

  14. Effect of microstructure on the sulphide stress cracking susceptibility of a high strength pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)], E-mail:; Torres-Islas, A.; Serna, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Campillo, B. [Intituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Facultad de Quimicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Dominguez-Patino, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Juarez-Islas, J.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    The sulphide stress cracking (SSC) susceptibility of a newly developed high strength microalloyed steel with three different microstructures has been evaluated using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. Studies were complemented with potentiodynamic polarization curves and hydrogen permeation measurements. Material included a C-Mn steel having Ni, Cu, and Mo as main microalloying elements with three microstructures: martensitic, ferritic and ferritic + bainitic. Testing temperatures included 25, 50, 70 and 90 deg. C. Detailed SEM observations of the microstructure and fracture surfaces were done to identify possible degradation mechanisms. The results showed that in all cases, the corrosion rate, number of hydrogen atoms at the surface and the percentage reduction in area increased with temperature. The steel with a martensitic microstructure had the highest SSC susceptibility at all temperatures, whereas the ferritic steels were susceptible only at 25 deg. C, and the most likely mechanism is hydrogen embrittlement assisted by anodic dissolution.

  15. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  16. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite. (United States)

    Romo, E; Weinacker, D F; Zepeda, A B; Figueroa, C A; Chavez-Crooker, P; Farias, J G


    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  17. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romo


    Full Text Available The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  18. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite (United States)

    Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.


    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251

  19. Algae mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles and their application in bioremediation (United States)

    Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Sekh, Sanoyaz; Sarkar, Neera Sen; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; De, Swati


    The present work is a study on the biological synthesis of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles using blue-green algae that is popularly used as a food supplement. This synthesis is unique in the sense that no external sulphur precursor is required, the CdS nanoparticles are synthesized in situ in the algal medium. The CdS nanoparticles thus synthesized are photoluminescent and can act as highly efficient photocatalysts for degradation of the dye pollutant malachite green. Thus the CdS nanoparticles synthesized in situ in the algae conform to the desired criteria of waste water treatment i.e. biosorption of the pollutant and its subsequent degradation. The novelty of this work also lies in its potential for use in bioremediation by conversion of the toxic Cd(II) ion to less toxic CdS nanoparticles within the algal framework.

  20. Synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles and its photodegradation ability towards organic pollutants (United States)

    Giribabu, K.; Suresh, R.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.


    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of zinc n-propyl dithiocarbonate (Xanthate). ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by XRD and FE-SEM. XRD peaks match well with the standard ZnS reflections (JCPDS No. 36-1450). It revealed that the synthesized ZnS has a hexagonal structure. The lattice constants are found to be a = 3.08 and c = 6.20 were nanostructures. From FE-SEM image plate like and agglomerated particles was observed. However particles are uniformly distributed in the image. The photodegradation ability of the ZnS nanoparticles was investigated using methylene blue as the model compound.

  1. Experimental and theoretical insights into the oxodiperoxomolybdenum-catalysed sulphide oxidation using hydrogen peroxide in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Carrasco, Carlos J; Montilla, Francisco; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Mealli, Carlo; Manca, Gabriele; Galindo, Agustín


    The oxidation of organic sulphides with aqueous hydrogen peroxide in ionic liquids (ILs) catalysed by oxodiperoxomolybdenum complexes was investigated. The selective formation of several sulfones was achieved using the 1 : 3 ratio of sulphide : H2O2 in [C4mim][PF6] (C4mim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) in a reaction catalysed by the [Mo(O)(O2)2(H2O)n] complex. Conversely, sulfoxides were produced with good selectivities using a 1 : 1 ratio in the same solvent in a 1 h reaction with [Mo(O)(O2)2(Mepz)2] (Mepz = methylpyrazol). The use of [C4mim][PF6] as the solvent was advantageous for two reasons: (i) the improved performance of the H2O2-IL combination; (ii) recycling of the catalyst/IL mixture without a significant diminution of conversion or selectivity. A DFT analysis using the [Mo(O)(O2)2(L)] catalysts (L = Mepz, a; 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, dmpz, b; and H2O, c) indicated that a Sharpless-type outer-sphere mechanism is more probable than a Thiel-type one. The highest barrier of the catalytic profile was the oxo-transfer step, in which the nucleophilic attack of sulphide onto the peroxide ligand occurred with formation of dioxoperoxo species. In order to yield the sulfoxide and the starting catalyst, the oxidation of the resulting dioxoperoxo species with H2O2 was found to be the most favourable pathway. Subsequently, the sulfoxide to sulfone oxidation was performed through a similar mechanism involving the [Mo(O)(O2)2(L)] catalyst. The comparable energies found for the successive two oxo-transfer steps were in agreement with the experimental formation of sulfone in both the reaction with an excess of the oxidant and the stoichiometric reaction in the absence of the oxidant. In the latter case, diphenylsulfone was isolated as the major product in the 1 : 1 combination of diphenylsulphide and [Mo(O)(O2)2(Mepz)2] in the ionic liquid [C4mim][PF6]. Also, the compounds [HMepz]4[Mo8O26(Mepz)2]·2H2O, 1, [Hdmpz]4[Mo8O26(dmpz)2]·2dmpz, , and [Hpz]4[Mo8O22(O2

  2. Russel-Silver syndrome


    Nogueiras, AM; Costeiras, MT; Moreira, HS; Antunes, AH


    Russel-Silver syndrome is a pattern of malformations whose most characteristic features are intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, a characteristic facial appearance and limb asymmetry. We report a 9-month-old male born at 37 weeks' gestation. Family history, pregnancy and delivery revealed no significant anomalies. The infant had no intrauterine growth retardation (birth weight and height ranging between the 25 th and 50 th percentile). The infant's head circumference was disproporti...

  3. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  4. Influence of methanethiol on biological sulphide oxidation in gas treatment system. (United States)

    Roman, Pawel; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Janssen, Albert J H


    Inorganic and organic sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and thiols (RSH) are unwanted components in sour gas streams (e.g. biogas and refinery gases) because of their toxicity, corrosivity and bad smell. Biological treatment processes are often used to remove H2S at small and medium scales (<50 tons per day of H2S). Preliminarily research by our group focused on achieving maximum sulphur production from biological H2S oxidation in the presence of methanethiol. In this paper the underlying principles have been further studied by assessing the effect of methanethiol on the biological conversion of H2S under a wide range of redox conditions covering not only sulphur but also sulphate-producing conditions. Furthermore, our experiments were performed in an integrated system consisting of a gas absorber and a bioreactor in order to assess the effect of methanethiol on the overall gas treatment efficiency. This study shows that methanethiol inhibits the biological oxidation of H2S to sulphate by way of direct suppression of the cytochrome c oxidase activity in biomass, whereas the oxidation of H2S to sulphur was hardly affected. We estimated the kinetic parameters of biological H2S oxidation that can be used to develop a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the biodesulphurization process. Finally, it was found that methanethiol acts as a competitive inhibitor; therefore, its negative effect can be minimized by increasing the enzyme (biomass) concentration and the substrate (sulphide) concentration, which in practice means operating the biodesulphurization systems under low redox conditions.

  5. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation. (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco


    This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2(2) full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H2O2 concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70°C and 3h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2(2) full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2-2.5% and 10-12%v/v of Na2S concentrated solution at 10%w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15-20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75-80%.

  6. Hydrogen sulphide in the RVLM and PVN has no effect on cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise eStreeter


    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S is now recognised as an important signalling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure. In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S producing enzyme, cystathionine  synthase (CBS in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA responses elicited by a H2S donor (NaHS, sodium hydrogen sulphide or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anaesthetised WKY rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2 – 2000 pmol/side into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA (0.1 – 1.0 nmol/side or hydroxylamine (HA (0.2 – 2.0 nmol/side, were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in SHR rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation.

  7. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri. (United States)

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško


    Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors. (United States)

    Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping


    Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance.

  9. The double effects of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane: Surface hydrophilicity and antifouling performance (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Shao, Xi-Sheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Mi-Zi; Zhang, Qi-Qing


    In this study, silver nanoparticles were used to endow poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane with excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance. Silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto PVDF membrane surface under the presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The double effects of silver nanoparticles on PVDF membrane, i.e., surface hydrophilicity and anti-fouling performance, were systematically investigated. Judging from result of water static contact measurement, silver nanoparticles had provided a significant improvement in PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity. And the possible explanation on the improvement of PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity with silver nanoparticles was firstly proposed in this study. Membrane permeation and anti-bacterial tests were carried out to characterize the antifouling performance of PVDF membrane. Flux recovery ratio (FRR) increased about 40% after the presence of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane surface, elucidating the anti-organic fouling performance of PVDF membrane was elevated by silver nanoparticles. Simultaneously, anti-bacterial test confirmed that PVDF membrane showed superior anti-biofouling activity because of silver nanoparticles. The above-mentioned results clarified that silver nanoparticles can endow PVDF membrane with both excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance in this study.

  10. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Lan, E-mail: [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Nantong Textile Institute of Soochow University, 58 Chong-chuan Road, Nantong 226018 (China)


    Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  11. PMAA`s Silver/Gold National Certification Program - update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, R. [Vincent R. Boltz, Inc., Lebanon, PA (United States)


    The Petroleum Marketers Association of America`s (PMAA) Silver/Gold National Certification Program is discussed. The oil heat technician certification is a process whose time has come. The information age has put us in an era of improved technology as well as improved equipment. The advantages of the oil heat certification program for oil heat dealers, technicians, and customers are listed.

  12. Laser-Direct Writing of Silver Metal Electrodes on Transparent Flexible Substrates with High-Bonding Strength. (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Bai, Shi; Ma, Ying; Ma, Delong; Hou, Tingxiu; Shi, Xiaomin; Hu, Anming


    We demonstrate a novel approach to rapidly fabricate conductive silver electrodes on transparent flexible substrates with high-bonding strength by laser-direct writing. A new type of silver ink composed of silver nitrate, sodium citrate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared in this work. The role of PVP was elucidated for improving the quality of silver electrodes. Silver nanoparticles and sintered microstructures were simultaneously synthesized and patterned on a substrate using a focused 405 nm continuous wave laser. The writing was completed through the transparent flexible substrate with a programmed 2D scanning sample stage. Silver electrodes fabricated by this approach exhibit a remarkable bonding strength, which can withstand an adhesive tape test at least 50 times. After a 1500 time bending test, the resistance only increased 5.2%. With laser-induced in-situ synthesis, sintering, and simultaneous patterning of silver nanoparticles, this technology is promising for the facile fabrication of conducting electronic devices on flexible substrates.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Silver syndrome (United States)

    ... of Silver syndrome is usually weakness in the muscles of the hands. These muscles waste away (amyotrophy), resulting in abnormal positioning of ... specific motor neurons are involved, resulting in the hand and leg muscles being solely affected. Some people with Silver syndrome ...

  14. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt) (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David


    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  15. Use of ESI-MS to determine reaction pathway for hydrogen sulphide scavenging with 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen


    To study the reaction between hydrogen sulphide and 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxyethyl)- hexahydro-s-triazine, which is an often used hydrogen sulphide scavenger, electro spray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used. The investigation was carried out in positive mode, and tandem mass spectrometry...... was used to investigate the nature of unknown peaks in the mass spectra. The reaction was found to proceed as expected from theory with the triazine reacting with hydrogen sulphide to form the corresponding thiadiazine. This species subsequently reacted with a second hydrogen sulphide molecule to form...... the dithiazine species, hereby confirming previously obtained results and showing the ability of the ESI-MS method for studying the scavenging reaction. The final theoretical product s-trithiane was not detected. Furthermore, fragmentation products of thiadiazine and dithiazine were detected in the solution...

  16. Rethinking Schools and the Power of Silver (United States)

    Sleeter, Christine


    This 25th anniversary of "Rethinking Schools" can be thought of as its silver anniversary. Silver itself must be considered through contrasting lenses. On the one hand, as lessons in "Rethinking Globalization" teach, silver and gold were the basis of Europe's horrendous exploitation of Latin America. On the other hand, silver is often associated…

  17. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik Rye


    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin...

  18. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization (United States)

    Peng, Linghui; Guo, Ronghui; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Lin, Shaojian


    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  19. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy


    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  20. Assessment of the flotability of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and pyrite using biosolids and their main components as collectors for greening the froth flotation of copper sulphide ores.


    Sobarzo, Francisco; Herrera Urbina, Ronaldo; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Sáez Navarrete, César; Godoy Faúndez, Alex; Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Vásquez Bestagno, Jorge


    Biosolids and representative compounds of their main components ? humic acids, sugars, and proteins ? have been tested as possible environment-friendly collectors and frothers for the flotation of copper sulphide ores. The floatability of chalcopyrite and molybdenite ? both valuable sulphide minerals present in these ores ? as well as non-valuable pyrite was assessed through Hallimond tube flotation tests. Humic acids exhibit similar collector ability for chalcopyrite and molybdenite as that ...

  1. Erosion and assimilation of substrate by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for sulphur degassing and the genesis of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Baumgartner, R. J.; Gaillard, F.; Fiorentini, M. L.


    Archean and Proterozoic komatiites and ferropicrites are mantle plume-related, low-viscosity, high-temperature, mafic to ultramafic lava flows. They are hosts to Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation, which generally formed due to the segregation of sulphides following thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks. We numerically simulated erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of iron-rich Martian lavas displaying chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial mafic to ultramafic lavas, on a variety of basaltic and sedimentary sulphate-rich substratum. With the adoption of the lava flow and erosion model of Williams et al. (JGR, 1998), thermodynamic simulations were implemented to (semi-) quantify the potential changes in melt parameter (i.e., chemistry, temperature, and oxygen fugacity) that dictate the sulphur capacity of silicate melts. Modelling was also performed to assess the role of volatile degassing (Gaillard et al., SSR, 2013) on the sulphur inventory of Martian lavas. Our modelling show that lavas emplacing over basaltic crust are governed by low cooling rates, as well as low erosion and assimilation capacities, thus resulting in calculated near-cotectic proportions of sulphides segregating relatively late upon lava emplacement (usually > 100 km flow distance). The rapid assimilation of highly erodible and sulphate-rich Martian regolith may trigger sulphide supersaturation and batch segregation of sulphides well above cotectic proportions relatively early during the establishment of magmatic flow (<100 km flow distance). However, the assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates. This process may limit or even counteract the overall positive effect of sulphate assimilation on achieving sulphide supersaturation, sulphide segregation and the genesis of Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation.

  2. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver--a review. (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik R


    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached.

  3. Conversion of calcium sulphide to calcium carbonate during the process of recovery of elemental sulphur from gypsum waste. (United States)

    de Beer, M; Maree, J P; Liebenberg, L; Doucet, F J


    The production of elemental sulphur and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from gypsum waste can be achieved by thermally reducing the waste into calcium sulphide (CaS), which is then subjected to a direct aqueous carbonation step for the generation of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and CaCO3. H2S can subsequently be converted to elemental sulphur via the commercially available chemical catalytic Claus process. This study investigated the carbonation of CaS by examining both the solution chemistry of the process and the properties of the formed carbonated product. CaS was successfully converted into CaCO3; however, the reaction yielded low-grade carbonate products (i.e. 99 mass% as CaCO3) or precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC).

  4. Sulphide bioxidation using native Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiooxidans, related acidophile strains from "El Zancudo" gold mine (Titiribí, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Ossa H


    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at a laboratory evaluation of the action of native Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans-and thiooxidans-related acidophile micro-organism (isolated from El Zancudo gold mine in Titiribí, Colombia on the oxidation of sulphides, mainly consisting of pyrite and arsenopyrite; sulphide concentration varied from 8% to 16% and particle size from 75 um to 106 um. pH and redox potential measurement revealed efficient oxidation for each culture over a 25-day period, reaching 1,4 pH and 600 mV redox potential. 20 g/L As and 60 g/L Fe levels were reached in solution. XRD, FTIR and SEM/EDX analysis revealed the presence of bacterial oxidation products such as jarosite and iron arsenates, as well as low and high corrosion in pyrites and arsenopyrites, respectively. Key words: chemolithotrophics, bioleaching, pyrite, arsenopyrite, applied mineralogy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz


    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  6. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.


    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  7. Silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pangpang, E-mail: [Education Center for Global Leaders in Molecular Systems for Devices, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Daisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Oita College, Oita 870-0152 (Japan); Ryuzaki, Sou; Araki, Shohei; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    To improve the efficiencies of electronic devices, materials with variable work functions are required to decrease the energy level differences at the interfaces between working layers. Here, we report a method to obtain silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions, which have the same silver core of 5 nm in diameter and are capped by myristates and 1-octanethoilates self-assembled monolayers, respectively. The silver nanoparticles capped by organic molecules can form a uniform two-dimensional sheet at air-water interface, and the sheet can be transferred on various hydrophobic substrates. The surface potential of the two-dimensional nanoparticle sheet was measured in terms of Kelvin probe force microscopy, and the work function of the sheet was then calculated from the surface potential value by comparing with a reference material. The exchange of the capping molecules results in a work function change of approximately 150–250 meV without affecting their hydrophobicity. We systematically discussed the origin of the work function difference and found it should come mainly from the anchor groups of the ligand molecules. The organic molecule capped nanoparticles with tunable work functions have a potential for the applications in organic electronic devices.

  8. Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meixner, Melanie; Sprafke, Alexander; Hallermann, Florian; Reismann, Maximilian; Wuttig, Matthias; Plessen, Gero von [Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)


    Photochromic materials change their color under irradiation with light. In previous work, we have studied the photochromic transformation of silver nanoparticles embedded in transition-metal oxides prepared by dc-sputter deposition, such as TiO{sub x}, ZrO{sub x} and HfO{sub x}. The silver nanoparticles are highly inhomogeneous in shape, size and spatial distribution. The photochromic effect is based on spectral hole burning in the inhomogeneously broadened particle-plasmon band. This hole burning is probably caused by photoemission of electrons from the resonantly excited particles. In the present work, we show that TiO{sub x}-embedded silver nanoparticles with improved photochromic properties can be fabricated through a combination of electron-beam evaporation and nanosphere lithography. Nanosphere lithography is a method to produce hexagonal arranged and equally shaped particles. The good reproducibility of this approach allows us to analyze the photochromic transformation in a more quantitative way than was possible with samples prepared by sputter deposition.

  9. Microstructure and Joint Properties of Nano-Silver Paste by Ultrasonic-Assisted Pressureless Sintering (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Xu, Lianyong; Lu, Guoquan


    In recent years, sintering nano-silver paste has become a popular worldwide technology. This paper presents the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pressureless sintered nano-silver joints. Ultrasonic waves have been introduced prior to sintering using a new type of nano-silver paste in order to improve bonding of large-area chips (≥10 × 10 mm2). The results show that ultrasonic vibration can not only reduce black pores, increase the size and the density of sintered silver, but also transfer the fracture mode of joints to cohesive failure. With increasing ultrasonic power or time, the shear strength of joints gradually increases linearly. The surface of the sintered silver, the fracture surface, and the cross section of joints were examined, and the microstructure has a transition zone at the edge of the joints that is insufficiently sintered. Ultrasonic vibration can reduce the transition zone and thus improve the reliability of joints.

  10. Influence of silver content on rifampicin adsorptivity for magnetite/Ag/rifampicin nanoparticles (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Coy, Emerson; Peplinska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Załęski, Karol; Warowicka, Alicja; Wozniak, Anna; Babutina, Tatiana; Jurga-Stopa, Justyna; Dolinsek, Janez; Jurga, Stefan


    Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with silver (magnetite/Ag) are intensively investigated due to their application in the biomedical field. We demonstrate that the increase of silver content on the surface of nanoparticles improves the adsorptivity of antibiotic rifampicin as well as antibacterial properties. The use of ginger extract allowed to improve the silver nucleation on the magnetite surface that resulted in an increase of silver content. Physicochemical and functional characterization of magnetite/Ag NPs was performed. Our results show that 5%-10% of silver content in magnetite/Ag NPs is already sufficient for antimicrobial properties against Streptococcus salivarius and Staphylococcus aureus. The rifampicin molecules on the magnetite/Ag NPs surface made the spectrum of antimicrobial activity wider. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the magnetite/Ag/rifampicin NPs showed no harmful action towards normal human fibroblasts, whereas the effect on human embryonic kidney cell viability was time and dose dependent.

  11. Determination of sulphide concentrates of ore copper by XRPD and chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira B.


    Full Text Available Roasting process of sulphide copper concentrates in fluo-solid reactor is an oxidation process, and presents the first stage of copper concentrate processing in Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor, RTB Bor. Therefore, the importance of accurate and up to date process control is an apparent precondition for the correct treatment in the following stages and also for of high grade cathode copper. As concentrate is fed into the roaster, it is heated by a stream of hot air to about 590°C. The process takes place between solid and gaseous phases without the appearance of a liquid phase. The heat generated by the exothermic oxidation reaction of sulphur from cooper and iron minerals (chalcopyrite and pyrite is sufficient to carry out the entire process autogenously at temperature from 620 to 670°C. The temperature of sulphur firing which defines the start of roasting depends on physical traits, particle size of sulfides and characteristic product of oxidation. The obtained products of the roasting process are: calcine, ready for smelting in the furnace and gas-rich sulphure dioxide (SO2, well suited for the production of sulfuric acid. The relationship between the quantitative mineral composition of the charge and of the calcine directly points out to the efficiency of the roasting process in fluo-solid reactor. The amount of bornite and magnetite, resulting from the sulfide oxidation is the most important parameter. Hence, quantitative determination of mineral composition is of great interest. In this work, the results of the determination of quantitative mineral composition of the copper sulphide concentrate (charge and products of their roasting (calcine and overflow in fluo-solid reactor in the RTB Bor are presented. The aim was to compare the results of the iron, copper, sulfur and oxygen contents determined by two independent techniques, the chemical (HA and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD that is based on the quantitative mineral

  12. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)


    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  13. Technological investigations of sulphide oxidation from flotation tailings in order to increase the degree of copper leaching


    Jonović, Radojka; Avramović, Ljiljana; Stevanović, Zoran; Jonović, Marko


    The off-balance resources present the environmental problem and potential resource for copper extraction. This paper presents the results obtained using different reagents for the process of sulphide form oxidation of copper from flotation tailings. For the investigation in this paper work, the samples of flotation tailings were taken from the Old Flotation Tailing Dump of the Mining and Smelting Complex Bor in Eastern Serbia. Experimental testing was carried out in order to increase the leac...

  14. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site (United States)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.


    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  15. Nitrite reductase activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria prevents their inhibition by nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. (United States)

    Greene, E A; Hubert, C; Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G


    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), despite the fact that these two groups are interdependent in many anaerobic environments. Practical applications of this inhibition include the reduction of sulphide concentrations in oil fields by nitrate injection. The NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was found to oxidize up to 15 mM sulphide, considerably more than three other NR-SOB strains that were tested. Sulphide oxidation increased the environmental redox potential (Eh) from -400 to +100 mV and gave 0.6 nitrite per nitrate reduced. Within the genus Desulfovibrio, strains Lac3 and Lac6 were inhibited by strain CVO and nitrate for the duration of the experiment, whereas inhibition of strains Lac15 and D. vulgaris Hildenborough was transient. The latter had very high nitrite reductase (Nrf) activity. Southern blotting with D. vulgaris nrf genes as a probe indicated the absence of homologous nrf genes from strains Lac3 and Lac6 and their presence in strain Lac15. With respect to SRB from other genera, inhibition of the known nitrite reducer Desulfobulbus propionicus by strain CVO and nitrate was transient, whereas inhibition of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter postgatei was long-lasting. The results indicate that inhibition of SRB by NR-SOB is caused by nitrite production. Nrf-containing SRB can overcome this inhibition by further reducing nitrite to ammonia, preventing a stalling of the favourable metabolic interactions between these two bacterial groups. Nrf, which is widely distributed in SRB, can thus be regarded as a resistance factor that prevents the inhibition of dissimilatory sulphate reduction by nitrite.

  16. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden. (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela


    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  17. The environmental context of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its potential role as an ecosystem engineer in sulphidic mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenaa, Gustav


    Microorganisms are the causative agent of the environmental problems since they catalyse the weathering of the (sulphidic) waste. The chemical oxidation alone is not fast enough to create any severe environmental problems. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is thought to be a key organism in weathering of sulphide minerals. A. ferrooxidans is affected by several more or less abiotic factors. The influence of temperature, pH and nutrient deficiency as potentially limiting factors for the activity of A. ferrooxidans has been investigated. It seems that temperature has less influence on its activity, but rather reflects the origin of the bacterial isolate. An alkaline pH seems enough to hinder growth and activity. The nutrients do not seem to be a limiting factor in the studied environment. The possible regulation of the activity of A. ferrooxidans is therefore a way to, at least partly, mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. Waste from the mining industry is the largest waste problem in Sweden. With amounts over 600 million tonnes one could easily imagine the tremendous cost involved in the abatement. The MiMi-programme, with researchers from several relevant fields, has as its aim to evaluate present and to find alternative techniques to mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. The understanding of A. ferrooxidans and its role as an ecosystem engineer is essential both in evaluating present techniques and even more so in finding alternative abatement techniques for sulphidic mine waste.

  18. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulphidic marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Yu, DR. Hang [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Steele, Joshua [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Dawson, Katherine [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Sun, S [University of California, San Diego; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Orphan, V [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena


    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyse important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulphiderich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization because of decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulphide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulphidic (> 1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5 270 nM), cobalt (0.5 6 nM), molybdenum (10 5600 nM) and tungsten (0.3 8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalysing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrophilic microorganisms. Overall, our data suggest that AOM consortia use specialized biochemical strategies to overcome the challenges of metal availability in sulphidic environments.

  19. 硫化钠生产工艺节能技术改造%Technical energy saving reconstruction of sodium sulphide production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟; 董大庭


    煤还原芒硝法生产硫化钠生产工艺存在高污染、高能耗问题.针对煤还原芒硝法生产硫化钠工艺存在的问题提出技术改造措施,主要从煅烧炉尾气余热阶梯利用、节约用电、烟道气除尘脱硫、煤高效燃烧等方面对传统工艺进行改造.结果表明,改造后工艺与原工艺相比,原煤节省了44%,每吨产品成本节约了200元,年产2万t硫化钠生产系统年节约成本可达400万元;同时,粉尘和二氧化硫排放符合国家排放标准,实现了减员增效、节能减排的目的.%The production of sodium sulphide by Glauber coal-reduction process has been considered as the high pollution and high energy consumption process. In allusion to the problems of Glauber-coal reduction process,some technical reconstruction measurements, including ladder use of calcining furnace exhaust heat, conservation of electricity, dust-removal and desulfurization of flue gas ,and high-efficient coal combustion etc., were put forward. Results showed comparing to the original process, the improved process made the coal save by 44% and product cost save by RMB 200 Yuan per ton.A sodium sulphide production system with annual output of 20 000 t could save up to RMB 4 million Yuan per year.At the same time, the dust and SO2 emissions accorded with the national discharge standard.Therefore, it realized the purpose of ' improve efficiency by downsizing staff' , and ' energy saving and emission reduction.

  20. Improving orthodontic bonding to silver amalgam. (United States)

    Zachrisson, B U; Büyükyilmaz, T; Zachrisson, Y O


    Flat rectangular tabs (n = 84) prepared from lathe-cut amalgam (ANA 2000) were subjected to aluminum oxide sandblasting or roughening with a diamond bur. Mandibular incisor edgewise brackets were bonded to these tabs using: Concise (Bis-GMA resin); one of three metal-bonding adhesives, viz., Superbond C&B (4-META resin), Panavia Ex (10-MDP Bis-GMA resin) or Geristore (composite base); and Concise after application of the intermediate resins All-Bond 2 Primers A+B, or the Scotch-Bond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before tensile bond strength testing. Alignment and uniform loading during testing were secured by engaging a hook in a circular ring soldered onto the bracket slot before bonding. Similar control brackets (n = 12) were bonded with Concise to extracted caries-free mandibular incisors. Bond failure sites were classified by a modified ARI system. Mean tensile bond strengths in the experimental group ranged from 3.4 to 6.4 MPa--significantly weaker than the control sample (13.2 MPa). Bond failure generally occurred at the amalgam/adhesive interface. Superbond C&B created the strongest bonds to amalgam; according to ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple-Range test, they were significantly stronger than the bonds with Panavia Ex and Concise, with Geristore in between. However, the bond strength of Concise to sandblasted amalgam was comparable to the Superbond C&B bonds when coupled with an intermediate application of All-Bond 2 Primers A+B. The SBMP, on the other hand, was less effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics (United States)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.


    The feasibility of utilizing metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver inks were investigated for front contact metallization of solar cells. Generic synthesis procedures were developed for all metallo-organic compounds investigated. Silver neodecanoate was found to be the most suitable silver metallo-organic compound for use in thick film inks, but the quality of the inks was found to be highly dependent on its purity. Although neither the process nor inks were completely optimized for solar cell front contact metallization, they show great promise for this application.

  2. Silver Complexes of Dihalogen Molecules. (United States)

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo


    The perfluorohexane-soluble and donor-free silver compound Ag(A) (A=Al(OR(F) )4 ; R(F) =C(CF3 )3 ) prepared using a facile novel route has unprecedented capabilities to form unusual and weakly bound complexes. Here, we report on the three dihalogen-silver complexes Ag(Cl2 )A, Ag(Br2 )A, and Ag(I2 )A derived from the soluble silver compound Ag(A) (characterized by single-crystal/powder XRD, Raman spectra, and quantum-mechanical calculations).

  3. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.; Bucur, R.V. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Chemistry


    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) and Bornite (Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick`s diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state `fast ion conductors`, used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  4. Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance (United States)

    Choi, Duk-Yong; Madden, Steve; Bulla, Douglas; Wang, Rongping; Rode, Andrei; Luther-Davies, Barry


    Arsenic tri-sulphide (As2S3) thin film waveguides have been used successfully as nonlinear optical devices for all-optical signal processors. For such devices, low propagation loss is vital if high performance is to be obtained. In this study, thermal annealing was employed not only to stabilize the physical properties of the films, but also to reduce the sources of light attenuation in the as-deposited material. Here we investigated heat-induced changes to the microstructure and optical properties of As2S3 thin films and, based on this information, determined the best annealing conditions. The refractive index of the films rises with annealing due to thermal densification and increased heteropolar bond density. The growth of surface roughness and thermal stress in the film, however, limits the annealing temperature to ˜130 °C. We fabricated and analyzed waveguides produced from as-deposited and annealed films and found that the propagation loss of the guides dropped by ˜0.2 dB/cm as a result of appropriate annealing. Rayleigh scattering and absorption from defects associated with phase separation, homopolar bonds, voids, and dangling bonds in the as-deposited film are shown to contribute to the higher light attenuation in unannealed films.

  5. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  6. [Performance of an innovative polyethylene carrier biotrickling filter treating hydrogen sulphide gas]. (United States)

    Wu, Yong-gang; Ren, Hong-qiang; Ding, Li-li


    Characteristics of double-layer biotrickling filter using high density polythene rasching rings carrier treating waste gas containing hydrogen sulphide was studied. Results showed that biotrickling filter had significant advantages of low pressure drop and even load distribution along the reactor height. When removal efficiency was greater than 90%, gas retention time was 12 s, maximum inlet load was 110 g/(m3 x h), elimination capacity was 84 g/(m3 x h). At steady state, about 37%-55% of hydrogen sulfide load was removed from the lower layer. During long-term operation, pressure drop kept to less than 280 Pa x m(-1), the backwashing period was longer than two months, no biomass accumulation happened in the lower layer, and abnormal increase in pressure drop can be used as a indicator of backwashing. Reactor recovery and restart experimental results showed that removal efficiency recovered to 95% in 1 day after 6 days without H2S, pH dramatic variation of spray liquid had significant adverse impact on biotrickling bed reactor.

  7. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Shenoy; M Dileep Kumar; V V S S Sarma


    The air-sea exchange is one of the main mechanisms maintaining the abundances of trace gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, such as carbon dioxide and dimethyl sulphide (DMS), will have a bearing on the atmospheric heat budget. While the former facilitates the trapping of radiation (greenhouse effect) the latter works in the opposite direction through reflectance of radiation back into space by sulphate aerosols that form from oxidation of DMS in atmosphere. Here we report on the first measurements made on DMS in the Bay of Bengal and the factors regulating its abundance in seawater. Phytoplankton alone does not seem to control the extent of DMS concentrations. We find that changes in salinity could effectively regulate the extent of DMSP production by marine phytoplankton. In addition, we provide the first ever evidence to the occurrence of DMS precursor, DMSP, in marine aerosols collected in the boundary layer. This suggests that the marine aerosol transport of DMSP will supplement DMS gaseous evasion in maintaining the atmospheric non-sea salt sulphur budget.

  8. A membrane bioreactor for the removal of dimethyl sulphide and toluene from waste air. (United States)

    Van Langenhove, H; De Bo, I; Jacobs, P; Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J


    In biotrickling filters, mass transfer of hydrophobic compounds is the limiting factor. Biofilters are static systems, and so control and regulation of operational parameters such as pH and nutrient supply can be a problem. In membrane bioreactors, these drawbacks can be avoided. The hydrophobic membrane separates the waste air from the aqueous phase, thus avoiding mass-transfer limitation, while pH and nutrient supply can be directly controlled. In this contribution, an overview will be given of results obtained during a four-year project. First, the physical chemical characteristics (solubility, permeability, diffusivity) and microbial adhesion of different membranes were tested. This led to the selection of a composite membrane consisting of a porous polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) support layer coated with a thin (1 or 2.5 microm) dense polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) top layer. This membrane was mounted into a module provided with four parallel rectangular channels for gas flow (in contact with the porous layer) and nutrient solution (in contact with the dense layer) respectively. After inoculation, a biofilm developed on the dense layer. Experiments were performed with dimethyl sulphide and toluene as target VOCs. Operational characteristics such as elimination capacity as a function of the volumetric load and residence time, effect of nutrient supply, long-term performance) were determined. Mass transfer was studied by measuring concentration profiles along the channels of the module in different conditions.

  9. Linking performance to microbiology in biofilters treating dimethyl sulphide in the presence and absence of methanol. (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander C; Zhang, Yuefeng; Liss, Steven N; Allen, D Grant


    The performance and microbiology of two inorganic biofilters treating dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the presence and absence of methanol was investigated. Addition of methanol was shown to result in an increase in DMS removal for methanol loadings below 90 g MeOH per cubic metre per hour with the optimal methanol loading around 10-15 g MeOH per cubic metre per hour for a DMS loading of 3.4 g DMS per cubic metre per hour, a fivefold increase in the DMS removal rate compared to the biofilter treating DMS alone. Microbial community analysis revealed that the addition of methanol led to a significant increase of up to an order of magnitude in the abundance of Hyphomicrobium spp. in the biofilter co-treating DMS and methanol compared to the biofilter treating DMS alone, whilst there was no significant difference in the abundance of Thiobacillus spp. between the two biofilters. Given the behaviour of the biofilter co-treating DMS and methanol, the magnitude of the increase in Hyphomicrobium spp. in the biofilter co-treating DMS and methanol and the ability of Hyphomicrobium spp. to use both methanol and DMS as growth substrates, it was concluded that Hyphomicrobium spp. were the microorganisms responsible for the bulk of the DMS degradation in the biofilter co-treating DMS and methanol.

  10. Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposited Copper Sulphide Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Firat


    Full Text Available Polycrystalline copper sulphide (CuxS thin films were grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thiourea without any complexing agent at various substrate temperatures of 240, 280, and 320°C. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, and electrical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle (CA, optical absorption, and current-voltage (I-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films had single or mixed phase polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal covellite and cubic digenite structure. The crystalline phase of the films changed depending on the substrate temperature. The optical band gaps (Eg of thin films were 2.07 eV (CuS, 2.50 eV (Cu1.765S, and 2.28 eV (Cu1.765S–Cu2S. AFM results indicated that the films had spherical nanosized particles well adhered to the substrate. Contact angle measurements showed that the thin films had hydrophobic nature. Hall effect measurements of all the deposited CuxS thin films demonstrated them to be of p-type conductivity, and the current-voltage (I-V dark curves exhibited linear variation.

  11. The manganese effect on the magnetism and optical properties especially interband transitions of zinc sulphide (United States)

    Aimouch, D. E.; Meskine, S.; Hayn, R.; Zaoui, A.; Boukortt, A.


    The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Mn doped zinc sulphide (ZnS:Mn) were calculated with the FP-LAPW method by using the LSDA and LSDA+U approximations. The latter one is shown to be necessary to account for the strong electron correlation in the Mn 3d shell. With the increase of Mn2+ concentration, the band gap is decreased for the spin-up channel and increased for the spin-down channel. Furthermore, to calculate the correct exchange couplings d-d and sp-d of Mn-doped ZnS, we have applied the Hubbard U parameter on Mn-d states. The influence of this Hubbard U parameter on the optical, electronic and magnetic properties of ZnS:Mn is investigated. We found that U=6 eV gives good results for exchange couplings and optical properties close to the experimental ones. The magnetic coupling between neighboring Mn impurities in ZnS is found to be antiferromagnetic.

  12. Role of ore mineralogy in optimizing conditions for bioleaching low-grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The role that ore mineralogy plays in understanding and optimizing the conditions favouring the bioleaching of complex sulphide ore containing high amounts of siderite was studied using mixed cultures of mesophilic bacteria, with emphasis on zinc,lead and copper recoveries. The influencing parameters investigated include particle size, stirring speed, volume of inoculum, pulp density, and pH. The results show that the mixed mesophilic cultures can extract about two and a half times the amount of zinc than copper over an equivalent period of time. The highest zinc and copper recoveries of 89.2% and 36.4% respectively are obtained at particle size of 75 μm, stirring speed of 150 r/min, pulp density of 10% (w/v), 12% (v/v) inoculum concentration, and a pH of 1.6. Variations in elemental composition within different particle sizes resulting from the mineralogy of the ore account for the bioleaching behaviour at varying particle sizes. The dissolution at varying pulp density, volume of inoculum, solution pH and the low solution potential observed are also influenced by ore mineralogy.

  13. Discovery of the Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide lens using downhole electromagnetics (United States)

    Paggi, Jacob; Macklin, Daniel


    The Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) lens forms part of the Stockman Project in north-east Victoria. Eureka was discovered in early 2013, heralding the first new VMS mineralised zone to be discovered at the project since 1979. Key drivers to the detection of Eureka included the combination of downhole electromagnetics (EM) and a robust geological model. The lens is located 350 m to the north-east of the Currawong deposit, at a vertical depth of 360 m. Surface EM methods played a significant role in the discovery of the nearby Currawong and Wilga deposits during the late 1970s. Despite this, modern day airborne and fixed-loop transient EM (FLTEM) surveys failed to detect Eureka, most likely due to its depth, moderate conductance and loop-edge effects masking anomalies. The key component in discovering the lens was the interpretation of two subtle downhole transient electromagnetics (DHTEM) responses from 2012 exploration drillholes. These responses were further strengthened by structural and short wave infrared modelling, presenting a compelling multi-component drill target. The lens was discovered soon thereafter, with a discovery intercept of 22.65 m at 1.2% Cu, 0.7% Pb, 3.9% Zn, 43 g/t Ag and 1.3 g/t Au.

  14. Environmental Benign Process for Production of Molybdenum Metal from Sulphide Based Minerals (United States)

    Rajput, Priyanka; Janakiram, Vangada; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Angadi, Shivakumar; Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi


    Molybdenum is a strategic and high temperature refractory metal which is not found in nature in free state, it is predominantly found in earth's crust in the form of MoO3/MoS2. The main disadvantage of the industrial treatment of Mo concentrate is that the process contains many stages and requires very high temperature. Almost in every step many gaseous, liquid, solid chemical substances are formed which require further treatment. To overcome the above drawback, a new alternative one step novel process is developed for the treatment of sulphide and trioxide molybdenum concentrates. This paper presents the results of the investigations on molybdenite dissociation (MoS2) using microwave assisted plasma unit as well as transferred arc thermal plasma torch. It is a single step process for the preparation of pure molybdenum metal from MoS2 by hydrogen reduction in thermal plasma. Process variable such as H2 gas, Ar gas, input current, voltage and time have been examined to prepare molybdenum metal. Molybdenum recovery of the order of 95% was achieved. The XRD results confirm the phases of molybdenum metal and the chemical analysis of the end product indicate the formation of metallic molybdenum (Mo 98%).

  15. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak Srikhirin; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Taweechai Amornsakchai; Surachai Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna Suddhasthira


    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candidaalbicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  16. Silver Nafion for Thermogalvanic Applications (United States)

    Chang, William; Popere, Bhooshan; Evans, Chris; Russ, Boris; Segalman, Rachel


    Thermogalvanics convert a temperature gradient, typically from waste heat, into electrical power using a reversible electrochemical reaction. The conversion efficiency in thermogalvanics, like with thermoelectrics, are governed by the Seebeck coefficient, the carrier conductivity and the thermal conductivity of the material. We demonstrate that the material systems silver Nafion and silver poly-styrenesulfonate are air-stable, water processable materials that demonstrate extremely high Seebeck coefficients and moderate carrier conductivities. These power factors, when coupled with the low thermal conductivities inherent in polymers, results in materials with excellent thermogalvanic figure of merits. We show the dependence of these three material properties to material composition and processing. In this talk, we show how the Seebeck coefficient in silver Nafion and silver polystyrene-sulfonate are opposite in sign, allowing construction of a thermogalvanic device. With these ion conductors, we hope to open up a flexible pathway to waste heat recovery using materials typically studied for electrochemical applications.

  17. Silver metallization stability and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Daniel; Mayer, James W


    Anyone involved in circuit technology will find this an absolute must-read. It's the first book to discuss the current understanding of silver metallization and its potential as a future interconnect material for integrated circuit technology.

  18. Electrodeposition of silver nanodendrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniyankandy, Sreejith [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Nuwad, J [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Thinaharan, C [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Dey, G K [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pillai, C G S [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Nanodendrites of silver were synthesized by electrodeposition using AgNO{sub 3} as the source in ammoniacal solution. The method was remarkably fast, simple and scalable. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the formation of a cubic phase of silver. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of well-shaped dendrites. The nanodendrites were hyperbranched with lengths of the order of a few micrometres. The concentration of NH{sub 3} in the electrolyte solution was found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size and formation of branched nanodendrites. The branchings were found to occur at regular intervals of {approx}50 nm along the main stem. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the SEM observation and revealed the 2D nature of the dendrites. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed that the dendrites were single crystalline in nature and the branching could have a crystalline origin. The direction of growth as inferred from SAED was <110>. UV-vis spectra showed a single broad band centred on {approx}380 nm indicating the spherical shape of the individual crystallites. The intrinsic size effect of the metal surface plasmon was used to explain the increase in the broadening on addition of NH{sub 3}. The asymmetry of the band was explained on the basis of agglomeration of crystallites. The nanodendrites prepared by this method showed extension of the plasmon band through the entire visible region, indicating potential use in detection of single molecules based on enhanced Raman scattering. The deposition mechanism is described using the diffusion-limited aggregation model.

  19. Silver nanoparticles in dentistry. (United States)

    Noronha, Victor T; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Gabriela; Galembeck, Andre; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Durán, Nelson


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively studied for their antimicrobial properties, which provide an extensive applicability in dentistry. Because of this increasing interest in AgNPs, the objective of this paper was to review their use in nanocomposites; implant coatings; pre-formulation with antimicrobial activity against cariogenic pathogens, periodontal biofilm, fungal pathogens and endodontic bacteria; and other applications such as treatment of oral cancer and local anesthesia. Recent achievements in the study of the mechanism of action and the most important toxicological aspects are also presented. Systematic searches were carried out in Web of Science (ISI), Google, PubMed, SciFinder and EspaceNet databases with the keywords "silver nano* or AgNP*" and "dentist* or dental* or odontol*". A total of 155 peer-reviewed articles were reviewed. Most of them were published in the period of 2012-2017, demonstrating that this topic currently represents an important trend in dentistry research. In vitro studies reveal the excellent antimicrobial activity of AgNPs when associated with dental materials such as nanocomposites, acrylic resins, resin co-monomers, adhesives, intracanal medication, and implant coatings. Moreover, AgNPs were demonstrated to be interesting tools in the treatment of oral cancers due to their antitumor properties. The literature indicates that AgNPs are a promising system with important features such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, and a potential carrier in sustained drug delivery. However, there are some aspects of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs, and some important toxicological aspects arising from the use of this system that must be completely elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of impurities on iodine removal efficiency of silver alumina adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, Yoshikazu [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)


    Silver impregnated alumina adsorbent (AgA), which was developed for iodine removal from off-gas of nuclear power and reprocessing plants has been tested laying emphasis on investigation of the influences gaseous impurities have on adsorbent chemical stability and iodine removal efficiency. The influences of the major impurities such as nitrogen oxides and water vapor were checked on the chemical state of impregnated silver compound (AgNO{sub 3}) and decontamination factor (DF) value. At 150{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen oxide (NO/NO{sub 2}=1/1) reduced silver nitrate to metallic silver, whereas pure air and air with 1.5% NO{sub 2} had no effect on the chemical state of silver. Metallic silver showed a lower DF value for methyl iodide in pure air (without impurities) than silver nitrate and the lower DF of metallic silver was improved when impurities were added. At 40{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) increased the AgA weight by about 20%, which was caused by the adsorption of nitric acid solution on the AgA surface. AgA with l0wt% silver showed higher weight increase than that with 24wt% silver which had lower porosity. Adsorption of acid solution lowered the DF value, which would be due to the hindrance of contact between methyl iodide and silver. The influences of other gaseous impurities were also investigated and AgA showed superior characteristics at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Addition of platinum and silver nanoparticles to toughen dental porcelain. (United States)

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka


    Several studies have investigated toughening porcelain that is layered over a frame or a core. The introduction of residual compressive stress to the surface of porcelain has been shown to be effective to strengthen it. In the present study, nanoparticles of precious metals of silver and platinum (rather than non-precious metals) were used to evaluate if they could increase the fracture resistance of porcelain. The addition of silver and platinum nanoparticles was found to improve the mechanical properties of porcelain since it increased both the Young's modulus and the fracture toughness of commercial porcelain.

  2. Thermodynamic model of sulphide capacity in CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 ironmaking slags%CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系硫化物容量的热力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盟; 郭汉杰; 丁汝才; 王效东; 史成斌; 杨学民


    基于炉渣离子-分子共存理论(IMCT)建立了CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系的硫化物容量预报模型,即IMCT-CS2-模型,比较了该渣系1773 K时实测的硫化物容量、IMCT-CS2-模型预报的硫化物容量及其他五种硫化物容量模型的计算结果.结果表明,由IMCT-CS2-模型预报的1773K时CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系的硫化物容量更精确.本文建立的IMCT-CS2-模型不仅可计算该渣系的总硫化物容量,而且可计算该渣系中自由CaO和MgO各自的硫化物容量.1 773 K时CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系中Al2O3质量分数由10%增加到17%,CaO质量分数由38%增加到44%,MgO质量分数由12%降低到4%可使自由CaO对该渣系的总硫化物容量贡献率由97%提高到99%,同时使自由MgO的贡献率由3%降低到1%.%A prediction model of sulphide capacity in CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slag systems was developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) of slags, i. e. , IMCT-Cs2- model. The predicted sulphide capacity by the IMCT-Cs2- model was compared with the measured one from experiments and the predicted one by other five prediction models of sulphide capacity. The predicted sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags at 1 773 K by the developed IMCT-Cs2- model has a higher accuracy than the measured one as well as the predicted one by other sulphide capacity models. The developed IMCT-Cs2- model can calculate not only the total sulphide capacity of the slags but also the respective sulphide capacity of free CaO and MgO in the slags. Increasing the A12 03 content from 10% to 17% , increasing the CaO content from 38 % to 44 % and decreasing the MgO content from 12% to 4% can improve the contribution ratio of free CaO from 97% to 99 % and decrease the contribution ratio of free MgO from 3% to about 1% to the total sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags.

  3. The corrosion process of sterling silver exposed to a Na2S solution: monitoring and characterizing the complex surface evolution using a multi-analytical approach (United States)

    Schalm, Olivier; Crabbé, Amandine; Storme, Patrick; Wiesinger, Rita; Gambirasi, Arianna; Grieten, Eva; Tack, Pieter; Bauters, Stephen; Kleber, Christoph; Favaro, Monica; Schryvers, Dominique; Vincze, Laszlo; Terryn, Herman; Patelli, Alessandro


    Many historical `silver' objects are composed of sterling silver, a silver alloy containing small amounts of copper. Besides the dramatic impact of copper on the corrosion process, the chemical composition of the corrosion layer evolves continuously. The evolution of the surface during the exposure to a Na2S solution was monitored by means of visual observation at macroscopic level, chemical analysis at microscopic level and analysis at the nanoscopic level. The corrosion process starts with the preferential oxidation of copper, forming mixtures of oxides and sulphides while voids are being created beneath the corrosion layer. Only at a later stage, the silver below the corrosion layer is consumed. This results in the formation of jalpaite and at a later stage of acanthite. The acanthite is found inside the corrosion layer at the boundaries of jalpaite grains and as individual grains between the jalpaite grains but also as a thin film on top of the corrosion layer. The corrosion process could be described as a sequence of 5 subsequent surface states with transitions between these states.

  4. Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy


    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study.

  5. New Guar Biopolymer Silver Nanocomposites for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Ghosh Auddy


    Full Text Available Wound healing is an innate physiological response that helps restore cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Selective biodegradable and biocompatible polymer materials have provided useful scaffolds for wound healing and assisted cellular messaging. In the present study, guar gum, a polymeric galactomannan, was intrinsically modified to a new cationic biopolymer guar gum alkylamine (GGAA for wound healing applications. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agnp were further impregnated in GGAA for extended evaluations in punch wound models in rodents. SEM studies showed silver nanoparticles well dispersed in the new guar matrix with a particle size of ~18 nm. In wound healing experiments, faster healing and improved cosmetic appearance were observed in the new nanobiomaterial treated group compared to commercially available silver alginate cream. The total protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline contents of the wound tissues were also significantly higher in the treated group as compared with the silver alginate cream (P<0.05. Silver nanoparticles exerted positive effects because of their antimicrobial properties. The nanobiomaterial was observed to promote wound closure by inducing proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes at the wound site. The derivatized guar gum matrix additionally provided a hydrated surface necessary for cell proliferation.

  6. Evidence for an impact-induced biosphere from the δ34S signature of sulphides in the Rochechouart impact structure, France (United States)

    Simpson, S. L.; Boyce, A. J.; Lambert, P.; Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.


    The highly eroded 23 km diameter Rochechouart impact structure, France, has extensive evidence for post-impact hydrothermal alteration and sulphide mineralisation. The sulphides can be divided into four types on the basis of their mineralogy and host rock. They range from pyrites and chalcopyrite in the underlying coherent crystalline basement to pyrites hosted in the impactites. Sulphur isotopic results show that δ34S values vary over a wide range, from -35.8‰ to +0.4‰. The highest values, δ34S -3.7‰ to +0.4‰, are recorded in the coherent basement, and likely represent a primary terrestrial sulphur reservoir. Sulphides with the lowest values, δ34S -35.8‰ to -5.2‰, are hosted within locally brecciated and displaced parautochthonous and autochthonous impactites. Intermediate δ34S values of -10.7‰ to -1.2‰ are recorded in the semi-continuous monomict lithic breccia unit, differing between carbonate-hosted sulphides and intraclastic and clastic matrix-hosted sulphides. Such variable isotope values are consistent with a biological origin, via bacterial sulphate reduction, for sulphides in the parautochthonous and autochthonous units; these minerals formed in the shallow subsurface and are probably related to the post impact hydrothermal system. The source of the sulphate is likely to have been seawater, penecontemporaneous to the impact, as inferred from the marginal marine paleogeography of the structure. In other eroded impact craters that show evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal circulation, indirect evidence for life may be sought isotopically within late-stage (≤120 °C) secondary sulphides and within the shocked and brecciated basement immediately beneath the transient crater floor.

  7. Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Lv, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Jingye; Yu, Ming; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai


    To improve the laundering durability of the silver functionalized antibacterial cotton fabrics, a radiation-induced coincident reduction and graft polymerization is reported herein where a pomegranate-shaped silver nanoparticle aggregations up to 500 nm can be formed due to the coordination forces between amino group and silver and the wrapping procedure originated from the coincident growth of the silver nanoparticles and polymer graft chains. This pomegranate-shaped silver NPAs functionalized cotton fabric exhibits outstanding antibacterial activities and also excellent laundering durability, where it can inactivate higher than 90% of both E. coli and S. aureus even after 50 accelerated laundering cycles, which is equivalent to 250 commercial or domestic laundering cycles.

  8. Consistent increase in dimethyl sulphide (DMS in response to high CO2 in five shipboard bioassays from contrasting NW European waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Hopkins


    Full Text Available The ubiquitous marine trace gas dimethyl sulphide (DMS comprises the greatest natural source of sulphur to the atmosphere and is a key player in atmospheric chemistry and climate. We explore the short term response of DMS and its algal precursor dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP production and cycling to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 and ocean acidification (OA in five highly replicated 96 h shipboard bioassay experiments from contrasting sites in NW European shelf waters. In general, the response to OA throughout this region showed little variation, despite encompassing a range of biological and biogeochemical conditions. We observed consistent and marked increases in DMS concentrations relative to ambient controls, and decreases in DMSP concentrations. Quantification of rates of specific DMSP synthesis by phytoplankton and bacterial DMS gross production/consumption suggest algal processes dominated the CO2 response, likely due to a physiological response manifested as increases in direct cellular exudation of DMS and/or DMSP lyase enzyme activities. The variables and rates we report increase our understanding of the processes behind the response to OA. This could provide the opportunity to improve upon mesocosm-derived empirical modelling relationships, and move towards a mechanistic approach for predicting future DMS concentrations.

  9. Sulphide and sulphosalt mineralogy and paragenesis from the Sierra Almagrera veins, Betic Cordillera (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Frías, J.


    Full Text Available The Sierra Almagrera vein-type mineralization contains base metal sulphides and Pb-Sb- Cu-Ag sulphosalts. The sulphides possess significant proportions of Ag, Sb (galena, Fe (sphalerite and Sb, Zn (chalcopyrite. Ore microscopy and electron microprobe have revealed a mineralogical and textural variation and confirmed the presence of bournonite, boulangerite and anomalous tetrahedrite. The average sulphosalt formulas are bournonite Cu0.98 Pb0. 96 Sb0.98 S3.04, boulangerite Pb4.8Sb3.8S11.34 and anomalous tetrahedrite Ag0.6Cu9.7 Zn3.6 Fe0. 44 Sb3.47 S13- The sequence of mineral deposition indicates the existance of four mineralizing stages and one supergene alteration: 1 Fe-(As; 2 Zn-Cu-Fe; 3 Pb-Sb-Cu-Ag; 4 Cu-Zn-Fe, and 5 carbonates, sulphates and supergene oxides. In broad terms, it is possible to establish the following conclusions: a there exist a mineralogical and textural variation with depth, the Pb-Sb-Cu-Ag stage reaching the maximum development; b a temperature decrease during the formation of sph. 1, linked to the progressive increase in Fe-content of the sphalerite has been detected; c the compositional homogeneity of the bournonite (and the fair lack of As in the tetrahedrite could indicate the existance of a possible tendancy to individually crystallise the Sb and As sulphosalts, according to the trend Bi → Sb → As.La mineralización filoniana de Sierra Almagrera presenta una interesante paragénesis caracterizada por la presencia de sulfuros de metales base y sulfosales de Pb-Sb-Cu-Ag. Se ha identificado una secuencialidad textural y química de las distintas fases minerales, según la cual los sulfuros poseen variaciones significativas de las proporciones de Ag, Sb (galena, Fe (esfalerita, y Sb, Zn (calcopirita, yen la que las sulfosales son fundamentalmente sulfoantimoniuros (bournonita: Cu0.98 Pb0. 96 Sb0.98 S3.04, boulangerita Pb4.8Sb3.8S11.34 y tetraedrita anómala Ag0.6Cu9.7 Zn3.6 Fe0. 44 Sb3.47 S13-. La secuencia de

  10. Modelling the physico-chemical effect of silver electrorefining as effect of temperature, free acid, silver, copper and lead concentrations (United States)

    Aji, Arif T.; Kalliomäki, Taina; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Aromaa, Jari; Lundström, Mari


    The study of electrolyte bath properties is essential for the improvement of silver electrolysis based processes. The paper outlines investigations into suitable models for the calculation of physico-chemical properties with the emphasis placed on conductivity, density and viscosity. Measurements were conducted within the industrial operation parameters used for silver electrolytes and the results indicate that these type of industrial electrolytes have an operating conductivity within the range of 60-140 mS/cm, density of 1.05-1.14 g/cm3 and a viscosity of 0.75-0.91 mm2/s. A representative model for each of these properties was proposed in order to calculate the conductivity, density and viscosity of silver electrolyte. From the evaluation of models, it was determined that all models have R2 (accuracy of fit) and Q2 (accuracy of prediction) values above 0.9 and thus can be regarded as excellent models.

  11. Trace elements contamination of agricultural soils affected by sulphide exploitation (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Sw Spain) (United States)

    López, María; González, Isabel; Romero, Antonio


    Agricultural soils of the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt) have been studied to assess the degree of pollution by trace elements as a consequence of the extraction and treatment of sulphides. Fifteen soil samples were collected and analysed by ICP-OES and INAA for 51 elements. Chemical analyses showed an As-Cu-Pb-Zn association related with the mineralisation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Concentrations were 19-994 mg kg-1 for As, 41-4,890 mg kg-1 for Pb, 95-897 mg kg-1 for Zn and of 27-1,160 mg kg-1 for Cu. Most of the samples displayed concentrations of these elements higher than the 90th percentile of the corresponding geological dominium, which suggests an anthropogenic input besides the bedrock influence. Samples collected from sediments were more contaminated than leptosols because they were polluted by leachates or by mining spills coming from the waste rock piles. The weathering of the bedrock is responsible for high concentrations in Co, Cr and Ni, but an anthropogenic input, such as wind-blown dust, seems to be indicative of the high content of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leptosols. The metal partitioning patterns show that most trace elements are associated with Fe amorphous oxy-hydroxides, or take part of the residual fraction. According to the results obtained, the following mobility sequence is proposed for major and minor elements: Mn, Pb, Cd, > Zn, Cu > Ni > As > Fe > Cr. The high mobility of Pb, Cu and Zn involve an environmental risk in this area, even in soils where the concentrations are not so high.

  12. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia (United States)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.


    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  13. Precipitation of arsenic sulphide from acidic water in a fixed-film bioreactor. (United States)

    Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Crouzet, Catherine; Burnol, André; Coulon, Stéphanie; Morin, Dominique; Joulian, Catherine


    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element frequently present in acid mine waters and effluents. Precipitation of trivalent arsenic sulphide in sulphate-reducing conditions at low pH has been studied with the aim of removing this hazardous element in a waste product with high As content. To achieve this, a 400m L fixed-film column bioreactor was fed continuously with a synthetic solution containing 100mg L(-1) As(V), glycerol and/or hydrogen, at pH values between 2.7 and 5. The highest global As removal rate obtained during these experiments was close to 2.5mg L(-1)h(-1). A switch from glycerol to hydrogen when the biofilm was mature induced an abrupt increase in the sulphate-reducing activity, resulting in a dramatic mobilisation of arsenic due to the formation of soluble thioarsenic complexes. A new analytical method, based on ionic chromatography, was used to evaluate the proportion of As present as thioarsenic complexes in the bioreactor. Profiles of pH, total As and sulphate concentrations suggest that As removal efficiency was linked to solubility of orpiment (As(2)S(3)) depending on pH conditions. Molecular fingerprints revealed fairly homogeneous bacterial colonisation throughout the reactor. The bacterial community was diverse and included fermenting bacteria and Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria. arrA genes, involved in dissimilatory reduction of As(V), were found and the retrieved sequences suggested that As(V) was reduced by a Desulfosporosinus-like organism. This study was the first to show that As can be removed by bioprecipitation of orpiment from acidic solution containing up to 100mg L(-1) As(V) in a bioreactor.

  14. Increasing silver leaching rate from leaching-resistant zinc residues by thiourea leaching method with pressurized preoxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天觉; 曾光明; 黄国和; 袁兴中; 李建兵


    As for the leaching-resistant zinc residues, the silver leaching rate can be over 98% through the processof pressurized preoxidation and thiourea leaching. Compared with the method of extracting the silver directly fromthe leaching-resistant zinc residues, the silver leaching rate is greatly improved. The optimum preoxidation condi-tions are: particle size range 40 - 60 μm, oxygen partial pressure 106 Pa, temperature 80 - 90 ℃, pH= 1.0, andleaching time 5 h. After pretreatment, the time of thiourea leaching silver is shortened to 1.5 h, and the thioureaconsumption is reduced greatly. The oxidation mechanism and the thiourea leaching kinetics were also explored.

  15. Synthesis of New Polyether Ether Ketone Derivatives with Silver Binding Site and Coordination Compounds of Their Monomers with Different Silver Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Girard


    Full Text Available Polyether ether ketone (PEEK is a well-known polymer used for implants and devices, especially spinal ones. To overcome the biomaterial related infection risks, 4-4′-difluorobenzophenone, the famous PEEK monomer, was modified in order to introduce binding sites for silver ions, which are well known for their antimicrobial activity. The complexation of these new monomers with different silver salts was studied. Crystal structures of different intermediates were obtained with a linear coordination between two pyridine groups and the silver ions in all cases. The mechanical and thermal properties of different new polymers were characterized. The synthesized PEEKN5 polymers showed similar properties than the PEEK ones whereas the PEEKN7 polymers showed similar thermal properties but the mechanical properties are not as good as the ones of PEEK. To improve these properties, these polymers were complexed with silver nitrate in order to “cross-link” with silver ions. The presence of ionic silver in the polymer was then confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Finally, a silver-based antimicrobial compound was successfully coated on the surface of PEEKN5.

  16. The nature and genesis of marginal Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation in Paleogene Macrodykes of the Kangerlussuaq region, East Greenland (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Abraham-James, Thomas; Keays, Reid R.; Boyce, Adrian J.


    The Kangerlussuaq region of East Greenland hosts a variety of early Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks related to continental break up and the passage of the ancestral Iceland plume. These intrusive bodies include a number of gabbroic macrodykes, two of which—the Miki Fjord Macrodyke, and the newly discovered Togeda Macrodyke—contain Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation along their margins. Sulphides occur as disseminated interstitial blebs and rounded globules of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite with some Fe-Ti oxides and platinum-group minerals, comprising largely Pd bismuthides and tellurides. The globules are interpreted to have formed from fractionation of trapped droplets of an immiscible Cu- and Pd-rich sulphide melt and show geopetal indicators. Sulphur isotopes imply a local crustal source of S in these from pyritic sediments of the Kangerlussuaq Basin. Thus, generation of these sulphide occurrences was controlled by local country rock type. Low Ni/Cu and Pt/Pd ratios, also present in the Platinova reefs in the Skaergaard Intrusion, indicate that early fractionation of olivine may have depleted the magma of Ni and suggest the likely presence of a large magma chamber at depth. Xenoliths of Ni-rich olivine cumulates in the Miki Fjord Macrodyke may have been sourced from such a body. The location of thus far unidentified conduit or feeder zones to the macrodykes beneath the present day surface may represent potential targets for more massive sulphide orebodies.

  17. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. Fundamental studies on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel exposed in sulphide and sulphate-reducing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischel Hilbert, Lisbeth


    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendations in regards to electrochemical monitoring of MIC. The work presented here and further studies are also planned to lead to a Ph.D. thesis on `MIC monitoring based on mechanisms on corrosion`. The results of laboratory experiments conducted in the period 1995 to 1997 are summarised. Conclusions will be based on results from the entire 3 year period, but only selected experimental data primarily from the latest experiments will be presented in detail here. Microbial corrosion of carbon steel under influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is characterised by the formation of both biofilm and corrosion products (ferrous sulphides) on the metal surface. Experiments have been conducted on carbon steel exposed in near neutral (pH 6 to 8.5) saline hydrogen sulphide environment (0 to 100 mg/l total dissolved sulphide) for a period of 14 days. Furthermore coupons have been exposed in a bioreactor for a period of up to 120 days in sulphide-producing environment controlled by biological activity of (SRB). (au)

  18. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari;


    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  19. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari


    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  20. Proterozoic Carbonate Lithofacies Control the Distribution of Sulphides at the Gayna River Zn-Pb Camp, Mackenzie Mountains, NWT (United States)

    Turner, E. C.


    Zn-Pb deposits at Gayna River, NWT are predominantly concentrated in the informal 'Grainstone formation', a dolostone of the early Neoproterozoic Little Dal Group (Mackenzie Mountains Supergroup). Previous work showed that the mineralisation (inferred 50 Mt combined from numerous zones; 5 percent combined Zn+Pb) is fracture-controlled and spatially associated with giant stromatolite reefs (500 m thick) of the underlying formation. The rheologically brittle, uncompactable and hydrologically tight reef masses are enclosed by coeval, compacted shale and deep-water limestone. A long and complex history of reef growth controlled by sea-level change resulted in a distinctive reef morphology that includes a sharp right-angle at all reef-top margins, where heterogeneous, off-reef limestone, shale and dolostone abut the rigid, lithologically homogeneous reefs. These zones of abrupt lateral facies change, between uncompactable reef and ductile, layered off-reef strata, represent the structurally weakest points in the system, where, during even subtle later tectonic events, stress would be preferentially accommodated. Brittle deformation of competent carbonate layers in this inflection zone in response to stress produced fracture haloes around reef-tops, which were then occluded by Zn-Pb sulphides. Abrupt competence contrasts appear to be necessary for the production of fractures that control the locations of sulphides at Gayna River. The dominant fractures in the Gayna River camp are those associated with reef- tops. The plan shape and location of buried reef-tops are probably the most critical controls on the distribution of hitherto undiscovered sulphide masses in the subsurface. Careful mapping of those depositional lithofacies that are characteristic of near-reef environments and of subtle, compaction-related dips in appropriate stratigraphic levels may provide vectors to as-yet unrecognised subsurface reef-margin zones favourable for Zn-Pb mineralisation. Structures and

  1. 改良W-S银染法与传统W-S银染法检测幽门螺杆菌的对比观察%Comparison between improved and traditional W-S silver staining to detect Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培宁; 邓有辉; 陆伟; 冯大益; 何永彪; 凌惠媛


    0bjective To com pare the clinical efficacy of in proved W -S silver staining w ith traditional W -S silver staining to detect Helicobacter pybri.M ethods 380 patients wiih gastrointestinal sym ptcm s received modified W-S silver staining, traditional W-S silver staining and rapid urease test detectHp,took too positive results as the standard Hp positive.Results 318 caseswere detected having Hp infection ,the infection rate was 83 .7% ,of which the peptic ulcer group had the highest infection rate of 98 .1% which was significantly higher than gastritis group and gastric cancer group ,the difference was statistically significant ( P 0 .05 ); the sensitivity, specificity and coincidence of in proved W -S m ethod w ere 98 .1% ,91.9% and 97 .1% respectively;while in traditionalW-S method they were 94 .7% ,85 .5% and 93 .2% respectively, there was no significant difference beteeen groups(P>0 .05) .Conclusion The too kinds ofW-S siVer staining have sin ilar efficacy to detectHp,can- pared the traditionalW -S silver staining ,m odified W -S silver staining have son e features like the convenience of reagents preparation, fastness and stability of tissues cobring and bw cost,so it is worthy of clinical application.%目的 对比观察改良W-S银染法与传统W-S银染法检测幽门螺杆菌的临床效果.方法 对380例因消化道症状在本院就诊的患者采用改良W-S银染法与传统W-S银染法检测Hp,同时进行快速尿素酶试验(RUT)检查,RUT法和改良W-S法或传统W-S法之一同时阳性时诊断为标准Hp阳性.结果 380例患者中共318例检测出Hp感染,感染率为83.7%,其中消化性溃疡组的感染率最高,为98.1%,显著高于胃炎组和胃癌组的Hp感染率,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);改良W-S法的敏感性为98.1%,特异性为91.9%,符合率为97.1%;传统W-S法的敏感性为94.7%,特异性为85.5%,符合率为93.2%,组间比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 两种W-S银染法检测幽门螺杆菌的效

  2. Acid leaching of oxide-sulphide copper ore prior the flotation: A way for an increased metal recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.


    Full Text Available Copper mine "Cerovo"- East Serbia as well as the other ore bodies in its vicinity contain a significant amount of oxide copper minerals in their uper layers (>40%. Processing of such mixed ores by the existing concentration technologies leads to a substantial copper losses (<60%. Reduction of "oxide copper", by acid leaching prior the flotation concentration, can increase the overall copper efficiency up to more than 70% in the single-stage leaching, achieving an efficiency in the flotation concentration stage higher than 75%. Based on the performed experimental results the flow sheet for processing of the mixed oxide-sulphide copper ore is proposed.

  3. Determination of gold in copper-bearing sulphide ores and metallurgical flotation products by atomic-absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Strong, B; Murray-Smith, R


    A method is described which is specific for the determination of gold in sulphide copper ores and concentrates. Direct decomposition with aqua regia was found to be incomplete. A carefully controlled roasting stage followed by treatment with hydrochloric acid and then aqua regia was effective for dissolving all the gold. The gold is extracted into 4-methylpentan-2-one (methyli-sobutylketone) then aspirated into a very lean air-acetylene flame and the gold determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry. No interferences were observed from large concentrations of copper, iron or nickel.

  4. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano


    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  5. Cytotoxicity testing of silver-containing burn treatments using primary and immortal skin cells. (United States)

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila


    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem Silver(®) and Flamazine™ cream. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT and primary HEK) and normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were exposed to dressings incubated on Nunc™ polycarbonate inserts for 24, 48 and 72h. Four different cytotoxicity assays were performed including; Trypan Blue cell count, MTT, Celltiter-Blue™ and Toluidine Blue surface area assays. The results were expressed as relative cell viability compared to an untreated control. The cytotoxic effects of Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were dependent on exposure time and cell type. After 24h exposure, Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were toxic to all tested cell lines. Surprisingly, HaCaTs treated with Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ had an improved ability to survive at 48 and 72h while HEKs and NHFs had no improvement in survival with any treatment. The novel silver hydrogel and PolyMem Silver(®) showed low cytotoxicity to all tested cell lines at every time interval and these results support the possibility of using the novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing. Researchers who rely on HaCaT cells as an accurate keratinocyte model should be aware that they can respond differently to primary skin cells.

  6. The Myth of the Silver Surfer (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil


    In this article, the authors write about the myth of the "silver surfers"--those third-age learners adept at using the internet and other technologies for a mixture of formal and informal learning episodes. The notion of the silver surfer has endured since the latter half of the 1990s. It is sustained by the annual Silver Surfer week, media…

  7. Geometrical parameters effects on local electric field enhancement of silver-dielectric-silver multilayer nanoshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah 67144-15111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The local electric field enhancement at different points of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell is investigated using quasi-static theory. Because of the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupling between surface plasmon of inner silver core and outer silver shell, the local electric field spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver has two distinct peaks at resonance wavelengths. The silver core size and middle dielectric thickness affect the local electric field enhancement at different points of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. Increasing the silver core radius always leads to blue shift of shorter resonance wavelength and red shift of longer resonance wavelength. We observed two distinct local electric field peaks, which are corresponded to the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupling between inner and outer surface plasmons. In a system with thick silver shell, local electric field enhancement is greater than a system with thin silver shell. However, the local electric field variations as a function of silver core radius in both systems are different at different points of nanoshell. The effects of the dielectric thickness variations on local electric field are different from those from silver core size variations. As the dielectric thickness is about 3 nm, the highest local electric field enhancement occurs at the surface of the inner silver core, where the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are mixed together.

  8. Synergistic effect of silver seeds and organic modifiers on the morphology evolution mechanism of silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ren, Min; Liu, Yuming; Jiang, Tingshun


    Triangular, truncated triangular, quadrangular, hexagonal, and net-structured silver nanoplates as well as decahedral silver nanoparticles were manipulatively prepared starting from silver nitrate and silver seeds in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and Tween 80 at room temperature, respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, SAED, and FTIR were used to illustrate the crystal growth process and to characterize the resultant silver nanoparticles. It was found that the silver seeds and organic modifiers synergistically affected the morphology evolution of the silver nanoparticles. The co-presence of silver seeds and PEG was beneficial to the formation of triangular and truncated triangular silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and PVP favored the formation of polygonal silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and Tween 80 preferred to the formation of net-structured silver plates. The morphology evolution of the resultant silver nanoparticles was correlated with the crystallinity of the silver seeds and the adsorption ability of the organic modifiers on the crystal surfaces.

  9. A noble and single source precursor for the synthesis of metal-rich sulphides embedded in an N-doped carbon framework for highly active OER electrocatalysts. (United States)

    Barman, Barun Kumar; Nanda, Karuna Kar


    Here, we demonstrate a green and environment-friendly pyrolysis route for the synthesis of metal-rich sulphide embedded in an N-doped carbon (NC) framework in the absence of sulphide ions (S(2-)). The metal-chelate complex (tris(ethylenediamine) metal(ii) sulfate) serves as a new and single source precursor for the synthesis of earth abundant and non-precious hybrid structures such as metal-rich sulphides Co9S8@NC and Ni3S2@NC when M(II) = Co(2+) and Ni(2+) and counter sulphate (SO4(2-)) ions are the source of S. Both the hybrids show superior OER activity as compared to commercial RuO2.

  10. Reactions at the silver/polymer interface: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, P.; Czanderna, A.W.


    One of the possible solutions for improving mirrors for long-life, inexpensive solar concentrators is to coat the reactive mirror material with a polymer. Polymer-coated reflectors may improve optical efficiency and reduce the cost of solar mirrors. Because the mirror/polymer interface may have long-term instabilities in a solar-stressed environment, it is necessary to isolate the effects attributable to the bulk materials from those of the interface. Actual failure mechanisms are unknown but we present several possible explanations for failure of the polymer/mirror interface. The purpose of the paper is to review the literature on one of the systems of great current interest, the silver/polymer interface. First, the components of this interface are considered separately. Studies of reactions of environmental gases with silver are summarized. Then, several candidate fluoropolymers and polymethylmethacrylate are considered independently of the metal. The thermal, photo, and oxidative degradation reactions are briefly outlined. Finally, the limited data actually obtained on the silver/polymer interface are summarized. Results obtained on the silver/Teflon-FEP interface are emphasized because its use for thermal control panels in the space program resulted in extensive study. 117 references.

  11. Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence signals by colloidal silver nanoparticles in studies of protein translation. (United States)

    Bharill, Shashank; Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskiran; Smilansky, Zeev; Mandecki, Wlodek; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Cooperman, Barry S; Goldman, Yale E


    Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) increased total photon emission of Cy3- and Cy5-labeled ribosomal initiation complexes near 50 nm silver particles 4- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Fluorescence intensity fluctuations above shot noise, at 0.1-5 Hz, were greater on silver particles. Overall signal-to-noise ratio was similar or slightly improved near the particles. Proximity to silver particles did not compromise ribosome function, as measured by codon-dependent binding of fluorescent tRNA, dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between adjacent tRNAs in the ribosome, and tRNA translocation induced by elongation factor G.

  12. Optical Properties of Mixed Nanofluids Containing Carbon Nanohorns and Silver Nanoparticles for Solar Energy Applications. (United States)

    Sani, E; Di Ninni, P; Colla, L; Barison, S; Agresti, F


    Different kinds of nanofluids show peculiar characteristics. In this work, a mixed nanofluid consisting of single-wall carbon nanohorns and silver nanoparticles aqueous suspensions is prepared and optically characterized, in the perspective to merge the favorable optical characteristics of carbon nanohorn-based nanofluids to the good thermal properties of silver-nanofluids. For the samples, both the spectral extinction and the scattering albedo at discrete wavelengths have been investigated. The silver nanoparticle plasmonic peak in the visible range further improves the overall nanofluid sunlight absorption properties, opening interesting perspectives for using such mixed nanofluids as solar absorber and heat transfer media in solar thermal collectors.

  13. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications (United States)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Williams, D. C.

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri André developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  14. Ammonia leaching of copper smelter dust and precipitation as copper sulphide; Lixiviacion amoniacal de polvos de fundicion de cobre y precipitacion como sulfuro de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A.; Hevia, J. F.; Cifuentes, G.


    The effect of ammonia on the leaching of copper smelter dust and copper precipitation from these solutions as sulphide using sulfur and sulfur dioxide was studied. The precipitation was done in ammoniacal media because this solution produced more satisfactory results at room temperature that a sulphuric media. A solid was precipitated containing 60 % of copper of the dust smelter. The other waste generated contained around 80 % of the arsenic of the original copper smelter dust. Based on the preliminary results obtained in this work it will propose a procedure for the recovery of copper as sulphide from copper smelter dust with parallel confinement of arsenic. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. The tropospheric processing of acidic gases and hydrogen sulphide in volcanic gas plumes as inferred from field and model investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aiuppa


    Full Text Available Improving the constraints on the atmospheric fate and depletion rates of acidic compounds persistently emitted by non-erupting (quiescent volcanoes is important for quantitatively predicting the environmental impact of volcanic gas plumes. Here, we present new experimental data coupled with modelling studies to investigate the chemical processing of acidic volcanogenic species during tropospheric dispersion. Diffusive tube samplers were deployed at Mount Etna, a very active open-conduit basaltic volcano in eastern Sicily, and Vulcano Island, a closed-conduit quiescent volcano in the Aeolian Islands (northern Sicily. Sulphur dioxide (SO2, hydrogen sulphide (H2S, hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF concentrations in the volcanic plumes (typically several minutes to a few hours old were repeatedly determined at distances from the summit vents ranging from 0.1 to ~10 km, and under different environmental conditions. At both volcanoes, acidic gas concentrations were found to decrease exponentially with distance from the summit vents (e.g., SO2 decreases from ~10 000 μg/m3at 0.1 km from Etna's vents down to ~7 μg/m3 at ~10 km distance, reflecting the atmospheric dilution of the plume within the acid gas-free background troposphere. Conversely, SO2/HCl, SO2/HF, and SO2/H2S ratios in the plume showed no systematic changes with plume aging, and fit source compositions within analytical error. Assuming that SO2 losses by reaction are small during short-range atmospheric transport within quiescent (ash-free volcanic plumes, our observations suggest that, for these short transport distances, atmospheric reactions for H2S and halogens are also negligible. The one-dimensional model MISTRA was used to simulate quantitatively the evolution of halogen and sulphur compounds in the plume of Mt. Etna. Model predictions support the hypothesis of minor HCl chemical processing during plume transport, at least in cloud-free conditions. Larger

  16. The relationship between the antimicrobial effect of catheter coatings containing silver nanoparticles and the coagulation of contacting blood. (United States)

    Stevens, Kris N J; Crespo-Biel, Olga; van den Bosch, Edith E M; Dias, Aylvin A; Knetsch, Menno L W; Aldenhoff, Yvette B J; van der Veen, Frederik H; Maessen, Jos G; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Koole, Leo H


    It is well known that surface coatings for medical devices can be made antimicrobial through introduction of silver nanoparticles. By virtue of their extremely large surface-to-volume ratio, the silver particles serve as a depot for sustained release of silver ions, despite the fact that silver is not readily oxidized. Antimicrobial coatings are especially important in connection with indwelling catheters with a high risk of bacterial line infections, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). This study specifically addressed the question what the impact of silver nanoparticles (exposed at the coating's surface) and/or the release of silver ions would be on coagulation of contacting blood. Studies, performed in vitro with fresh platelet-rich blood plasma (PRP) from 5 different healthy volunteer donors, clearly pointed out that: (i) the presence of silver nanoparticles correlates with accelerated thrombin formation upon contact of the coating with PRP; (ii) platelet activation is stronger as a result from the contact with silver nanoparticle-containing coatings as compared to other coatings which are devoid of silver. A series of titration experiments, in which the potential effect of silver ions is mimicked, revealed that the observed activation of blood platelets can be best explained through a collision mechanism. The results suggest that platelets that collide with silver, exposed at the surface, become activated without adhering to the surface. These new results point, rather unexpectedly, at a double effect of the silver nanoparticles in the coating: a strong antimicrobial effect occurs simultaneously with acceleration of the coagulation of contacting blood. This new information is, evidently, most relevant for the development of improved surface coatings for indwelling catheters (such as CVCs) which should combine antimicrobial features and close-to-zero thrombogenicity.

  17. Electrochemical studies on interplay of mineralogical variation and particle size on bioleaching low grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The interplay of mineralogical variation and mineral phase distribution within varying particle sizes on the dissolution behaviour of a low grade complex sulphide ore was investigated through bioleaching experiments and electrochemical technique. Investigations were carried out utilizing mineralogical data on the variations in mineral and phase distribution within particle sizes of<53 μm, 53-75 μm, 75-106 μm and 106-150 μm in mixed mesophilic cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Electrochemical behaviour was studied using particulate electrodes from the four varying particle sizes and from massive electrodes prepared from the two major sulphide mineral rich phases (sphalerite-rich and galena-rich) and a complex mineralogical phase of the bulk ore. Bioleaching studies reveal the highest recoveries at a particle size of 75 μm, while electrochemical investigations reveal the highest dissolution at particle size of 106 μm. Electrochemical results show that sphalerite rich phase has the highest dissolution rate while galena-rich complex phase has the least. SEM studies confirm the highest bacterial attack at the sphalerite-rich phase. The discrepancies between the dissolutions within particle sizes obtained from bioleaching experiments and electrochemical studies are consistent with and attributed both to the physical and mineralogical influences. Electrochemical behaviour is influenced and controlled by galvanic interaction resulting from mineralogical variation, while bioleaching behaviour is influenced by mineralogical variation as well as physical effect of particle size.

  18. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate. (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre


    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL(®)). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide photoanode for light energy storage in vanadium photoelectrochemical cell (United States)

    Peimanifard, Zahra; Rashid-Nadimi, Sahar


    The aim of this study is utilizing the artificial photosynthesis, which is an attractive and challenging theme in the photoelectrocatalytic water splitting, to charge the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). In this work multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide hybrid is employed as a photoanode material to oxidize VO2+ to VO2+ for charging the positive vanadium redox flow battery's half-cell. Characterization studies are also described using the scanning electron microscopic-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and UV-Visible methods. The phtoelectrochemical performance is characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) is achieved for both two and three-electrode configurations. The glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide yields high maximum ABPE of 2.6% and 2.12% in three and two-electrode setups, respectively. These results provide a useful guideline in designing photoelectrochemical cells for charging the vanadium redox flow batteries by sunlight as a low cost, free and abundant energy source, which does not rely on an external power input.

  20. Deformation and metamorphism of gold-sulphide lodes in the Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect, Rajasthan: Implications for ore genesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Deol; A Chattopadhyay; M Deb


    The role of polyphase deformation in controlling the emplacement of gold-quartz lodes in dilational regimes is demonstrated from the Proterozoic Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect in south Rajasthan. Earlier researchers deciphered the gold-sulphide mineralisation event as synchronous to the second phase of deformation (D2) without convincing microstructural or metamorphic evidences. In this contribution, we correlate the deformation and metamorphic imprints in the host rocks with those in the gold-sulphide mineralised zone, and present a new interpretation for the relative timing of gold emplacement vis-á-vis deformation. The ore-forming process first involved layer-parallel influx of ore-bearing hydrothermal fluids along S1 schistosity in the host rocks, synkinematic with respect to the first phase of deformation (D1). This initial ore concentration experienced metamorphism isofacially (∼500° C at 5.3 kb) along with its host rocks during D1, and subsequently underwent extensive remobilisation, giving rise to gold-bearing silicified lodes along the hinges and axial surfaces of F2 folds during D2.

  1. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.


    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  2. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with Tacaribe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speshock Janice L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silver nanoparticles possess many unique properties that make them attractive for use in biological applications. Recently they received attention when it was shown that 10 nm silver nanoparticles were bactericidal, which is promising in light of the growing number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. An area that has been largely unexplored is the interaction of nanomaterials with viruses and the possible use of silver nanoparticles as an antiviral agent. Results This research focuses on evaluating the interaction of silver nanoparticles with a New World arenavirus, Tacaribe virus, to determine if they influence viral replication. Surprisingly exposing the virus to silver nanoparticles prior to infection actually facilitated virus uptake into the host cells, but the silver-treated virus had a significant reduction in viral RNA production and progeny virus release, which indicates that silver nanoparticles are capable of inhibiting arenavirus infection in vitro. The inhibition of viral replication must occur during early replication since although pre-infection treatment with silver nanoparticles is very effective, the post-infection addition of silver nanoparticles is only effective if administered within the first 2-4 hours of virus replication. Conclusions Silver nanoparticles are capable of inhibiting a prototype arenavirus at non-toxic concentrations and effectively inhibit arenavirus replication when administered prior to viral infection or early after initial virus exposure. This suggests that the mode of action of viral neutralization by silver nanoparticles occurs during the early phases of viral replication.

  3. Influence of injected silver content on synthesis of silver coated nickel particles by DC thermal plasma (United States)

    Park, Si Taek; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Dong-Wha


    Silver nanoparticle-coated spherical nickel particles were prepared from a mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel as raw materials by DC thermal plasma treatment. The mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel powders was injected into the high-temperature region of an argon thermal plasma jet. Although the silver, with its very high thermal conductivity and relatively low boiling point, was thoroughly evaporated by this process, nickel was not evaporated perfectly because of its comparatively low thermal conductivity and high boiling point. The rough nickel powder was spheroidized as it melted. Finally, silver evaporated by the thermal plasma quickly condensed into nanoparticles on the surfaces of the micro-sized spherical nickel particles, aided by the sharp temperature gradient of the thermal plasma jet. With varying the ratios of silver to nickel feedstock from 1:10 to 5:1, the products synthesized in each condition were examined by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, and FE-TEM. More silver nanoparticles were attached on the nickel by increasing the injected feedstock to 9.8 at% silver. Meanwhile, a decrease of silver in the products was observed when larger amounts of silver were introduced to the thermal plasma jet. The exposed silver components decreased with greater proportions of silver feedstock because of the metal's dendritic structure and the formation of silver-coated silver particles.

  4. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Rezazaeh Hamed


    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine sponge extract Haliclona was carried out. Marine sponges' extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate solution. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using fresh and dry marine sponge. Experimental factors including, time duration, pH, temperature were optimized. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The sizes of synthesis silver nanoparticles were 27-46 nm and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD crystallography indicated the silver nanoparticles crystalline nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was revealed the functional groups of extract of Haliclona, which are capable of reduction of silver nanoparticles. This method is a cost-effective, eco-friendly and nontoxic procedure..

  5. Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition...... efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver......-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under...

  6. Silver based batteries for high power applications (United States)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Murphy, J. P.

    The present status of silver oxide-zinc technology and applications has been described by Karpinski et al. [A.P. Karpinski, B. Makovetski, S.J. Russell, J.R. Serenyi, D.C. Williams, Silver-Zinc: status of technology and applications, Journal of Power Sources, 80 (1999) 53-60], where the silver-zinc couple is still the preferred choice where high specific energy/energy density, coupled with high specific power/power density are important for high-rate, weight or size/configuration sensitive applications. Perhaps the silver oxide cathode can be considered one of the most versatile electrode materials. When coupled with other anodes and corresponding electrolyte management system, the silver electrode provides for a wide array of electrochemical systems that can be tailored to meet the most demanding, high power requirements. Besides zinc, the most notable include cadmium, iron, metal hydride, and hydrogen electrode for secondary systems, while primary systems include lithium and aluminum. Alloys including silver are also available, such as silver chloride, which when coupled with magnesium or aluminum are primarily used in many seawater applications. The selection and use of these couples is normally the result of a trade-off of many factors. These include performance, safety, risk, reliability, and cost. When high power is required, silver oxide-zinc, silver oxide-aluminum, and silver oxide-lithium are the most energetic. For moderate performance (i.e., lower power), silver oxide-zinc or silver-cadmium would be the system of choice. This paper summarizes the suitability of the silver-based couples, with an emphasis on the silver-zinc system, as primary or rechargeable power sources for high energy/power applications.

  7. Hyaluronan/Tween 80-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles for biological application (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jun; Zhang, An-Qi; Sui, Li; Qian, Dong-Jin; Chen, Meng


    Water-soluble and well-stabilized silver nanoparticles (NPs) of small size have been synthesized using hyaluronan (HA) and Tween 80 as reducing and stabilizing agents. The effect of reaction conditions on the formation process of silver NPs was studied, and an aggregative growth mechanism of the silver NPs dominated in HA/Tween 80 system at pH 12 has been proposed. The obtained Ag NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the stability of the HA-Tween 80-silver NPs in normal saline was also studied, and a flexible blend membrane containing chitosan, gelatin, and the HA-Tween 80-silver NPs was prepared for further biological applications. Due to the high specific surface area and improved stability of silver NPs, the chitosan-gelatin-silver membrane has shown high antibacterial activity for strains of Escherichia coli. The cell viability tests indicate that the polymer membrane is non-cytotoxic to HepG2 cells, which might be attributed to its good biocompatibility.

  8. Printed UHF RFID antennas with high efficiencies using nano-particle silver ink. (United States)

    Lee, Yongshik; Kim, Chung Hwan; Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Young Gook


    One of the most popular targets of conductive ink technology is to print RFID tag antennas. However, the printed RFID antennas, manufactured by conductive silver ink which is generally based on microsized silver particles, have lower conductivity and consequently lower radiation efficiency than those by conventional copper etching method. This work demonstrates nano-particle conductive silver ink that is capable of printing UHF RFID antennas with improved radiation efficiency. Compared with commercial micro-particle silver ink, the solid content of metal is much higher in the proposed nanoparticle silver ink, leading to better electrical properties. Two types of dipole antennas are printed with the proposed nano-particle as well as with commercial micro-particle inks. Also, the same antennas are fabricated by copper etching. With these conductive inks, a straight and a meandered dipole antennas are fabricated and their radiation efficiencies are measured with the Wheeler cap method. Experimental results show that the radiation efficiencies of the antennas based on nanoparticle silver ink are superior to those printed with the micro-particle silver ink, and are comparable to those of popular copper antennas.

  9. Peculiarities of the dielectric response of the silver-modified-zeolite porous microstructure (United States)

    Bunyatova, U.; Ozturk Koc, S.; Orbukh, V. I.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Lebedeva, N. N.; Koçum, İ. C.; Salamov, B. G.; Ozer, M.


    The aim of this study was to characterize electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of the silver-exchanged zeolite - natural clinoptilolite from Western part of Turkey and Azerbaijan in the range of frequencies from 200 Hz to 1 MHz and at room temperature. For a better understanding the effect of concentration and content of silver in the nanoporous zeolite volume on the conductivity, a study of the dielectric properties of an un-modified and silver-modified zeolite plates with different amounts of Ag ions and Ag nanoparticles is performed. Un-modified and three different types of the silver ion-exchanged modified clinoptilolite plates were prepared. It was found, that with increasing silver concentration, resistance of zeolite plate monotonically decreases at the same time a capacitance is increases. It is suggested an explanation of the observed frequency dependence of the capacitance and resistance of zeolite plates on the silver concentrations may be explain on the basis of an electrode-dielectric interface gap model. At the same time, the observed phenomenon can be explained by considering the fact that with increasing content of silver the conductivity increases. These results show that Ag nanoparticles play significant role for performance improvement in plasma electronic devices with zeolite cathode.

  10. Hyaluronan/Tween 80-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles for biological application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Jun [Fudan University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry (China); Zhang, An-Qi [Fudan University, Department of Materials Science (China); Sui, Li [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering (China); Qian, Dong-Jin; Chen, Meng, E-mail: [Fudan University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry (China)


    Water-soluble and well-stabilized silver nanoparticles (NPs) of small size have been synthesized using hyaluronan (HA) and Tween 80 as reducing and stabilizing agents. The effect of reaction conditions on the formation process of silver NPs was studied, and an aggregative growth mechanism of the silver NPs dominated in HA/Tween 80 system at pH 12 has been proposed. The obtained Ag NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the stability of the HA–Tween 80-silver NPs in normal saline was also studied, and a flexible blend membrane containing chitosan, gelatin, and the HA–Tween 80-silver NPs was prepared for further biological applications. Due to the high specific surface area and improved stability of silver NPs, the chitosan–gelatin-silver membrane has shown high antibacterial activity for strains of Escherichia coli. The cell viability tests indicate that the polymer membrane is non-cytotoxic to HepG2 cells, which might be attributed to its good biocompatibility.

  11. The fabrication of highly ordered silver nanodot patterns by platinum assisted nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hae-Wook; Jung, Jin-Mi; Lee, Su-kyung; Jung, Hee-Tae, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK-21), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Silver has been widely used for optical sensing and imaging applications which benefit from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a nanoscale configuration. Many attempts have been made to fabricate and control silver nanostructures in order to improve the high performance in sensing and other applications. However, a fatal mechanical weakness of silver and a lack of durability in oxygen-rich conditions have disrupted the manufacturing of reproducible nanostructures by the top-down lithography approach. In this study, we suggest a steady fabrication strategy to obtain highly ordered silver nanopatterns that are able to provide tunable LSPR characteristics. By using a protecting layer of platinum on a silver surface in the lithography process, we successfully obtained large-area (2.7 x 2.7 mm{sup 2}) silver nanopatterns with high reproducibility. This large-area silver nanopattern was capable of enhancing the low concentration of a Cy3 fluorescence signal ({approx}10{sup -10} M) which was labeled with DNA oligomers.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions in porcine contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianFei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanocrystalline silver dressings have anti-inflammatory activity, unlike solutions containing Ag+ only, which may be due to dissolution of multiple silver species. These dressings can only be used to treat surfaces. Thus, silver-containing solutions with nanocrystalline silver properties could be valuable for treating hard-to-dress surfaces and inflammatory conditions of the lungs and bowels. This study tested nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions for anti-inflammatory activity. Methods Inflammation was induced on porcine backs using dinitrochlorobenzene. Negative and positive controls were treated with distilled water. Experimental groups were treated with solutions generated by dissolving nanocrystalline silver in distilled water adjusted to starting pHs of 4 (using CO2, 5.6 (as is, 7, and 9 (using Ca(OH2. Solution samples were analyzed for total silver. Daily imaging, biopsying, erythema and oedema scoring, and treatments were performed for three days. Biopsies were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry (for IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, EGF, KGF, KGF-2, and apoptotic cells, and zymography (MMP-2 and -9. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey-Kramer post tests were used for statistical analyses. Results Animals treated with pH 7 and 9 solutions showed clear visual improvements. pH 9 solutions resulted in the most significant reductions in erythema and oedema scores. pH 4 and 7 solutions also reduced oedema scores. Histologically, all treatment groups demonstrated enhanced re-epithelialisation, with decreased inflammation. At 24 h, pMMP-2 expression was significantly lowered with pH 5.6 and 9 treatments, as was aMMP-2 expression with pH 9 treatments. In general, treatment with silver-containing solutions resulted in decreased TNF-α and IL-8 expression, with increased IL-4, EGF, KGF, and KGF-2 expression. At 24 h, apoptotic cells were detected mostly in the dermis with pH 4 and 9 treatments, nowhere with pH 5.6, and in both the

  13. Long-term effect of silver powder in vivo. (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Shin-ich


    The cytotoxicity of silver is a known property of this metal. Interestingly, in the cases of argyria and tattoos, Ag remains in the tissue for a long time without causing harm to the host except pigmentation. To understand these contradictions, pure silver implantation by an original subcutaneous injection method was performed. Two sizes of silver powder particles were implanted subcutaneously: 100 nm (P-silver) and the maximum 45 microm (G-silver). The sulfuration of silver and histopathologic changes were observed for a year. Results were as follows: silver affected the host in the case of P-silver to a greater extent than in G-silver, especially on the 7th day and after 2-4 weeks. Nonetheless, the effect of silver weakened at 12 months after implantation. The presence of P-silver caused various histological reactions, while the decline of silver effect on the host was correlated with an increase in the sulfuration of silver.

  14. Gold, Silver and Bronze Citations. (United States)

    American School & University, 2003


    Presents the gold, silver, and bronze winners of a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total…

  15. Nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy treating ankylosing spondylitis. (United States)

    Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying


    This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe.

  16. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, J.P.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo


    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver q...

  17. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter... (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts...

  18. Electrochemical method for improving the spectral response of CdS/Cu 2S heterojunctions (United States)

    Garcia-Camarero, E.; Arjona, F.; Fatas, E.

    The effect on the stoichiometry of a copper sulphide electrode of short-circuiting the Cu/Cu aq2+/Cu 2-δS/In galvanic cell for different times has been studied. This treatment has been carried out on the copper sulphide layer of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells prepared by different methods. The resulting changes of the spectral short circuit current and the I-V characteristics of the cells have been recorded. Remarkable increases in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and fill factor have been observed as a consequence of any transformation that increases the proportion of copper in the copper sulphide films. Thus, this treatment could be a suitable method of improving the efficiency of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells.

  19. Simultaneous determination of nanomole amounts of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide by flow injection analysis with on-line preconcentration by means of capillary denuder tubes. (United States)

    Achilli, Marco; Gács, Istvan


    A simple and rapid method for trace determination of SO2 and H2S in gaseous samples by using a flow injection system with on line preconcentration on capillary denuder is described. The gaseous samples are led through a 0.4 M sulphamic acid solution, retaining nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen chloride. The sulphur dioxide is collected from the carrier gas stream (250 cm3 min-1) as sulphuric acid in a capillary denuder tube coated with a thin layer of 0.01-0.03 M hydrogen peroxide solution of 0.05 mM sulphuric acid; hydrogen sulphide passes into a second tube coated with 0.075 mM sodium sulphide solution of 0.1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide. The films containing the sulphuric acid and the sodium sulphide, respectively, are eluted with the corresponding circulating absorbent streams and pass through the detectors. Sulphuric acid is detected by conductimetry and sulphide is determined spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. If nanoequivalent amounts of H2S are present in the sample containing a large concentration of SO2 (SO2/H2S concentration ratio > 20), the sulphur dioxide is filtered out of the sample gas stream by solid sodium hydrogen carbonate. A limit of detection of 3.5 micrograms m-3 is obtained.

  20. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J


    Full Text Available Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO3) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO2 gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO3 recovery in the Alkali...

  1. Protection of stainless-steels against corrosion in sulphidizing environments by Ce oxide coatings: X-ray absorption and thermogravimetric studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.; Fuggle, J.C.; Laan, van der G.; Esteva, J.-M.; Karnatak, R.C.


    In this paper a study is reported concerning ceramic coatings containing cerium oxide, prepared by the sol-gel method, used to protect Incoloy 800H against sulphidation. When the coating is sintered in air at 850°C good protection is obtained. In an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the coatin

  2. Study on sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags was studied at 1773 K using gas-slag equilibrium techniques.Utilizing a Pt crucible, the slag was equilibrated with a mixture of gases, namely, CO, CO2, SO2 and N2 to provide the partial pressure of oxygen and sulphur. It was shown that at fixed FetO and Al2O3 contents and a fixed {(%CaO)+(%MgO)}/(%SiO2) ratio, the sulphide capacity decreases with increasing MgO content. At a constant (%CaO)/(%SiO2) ratio and constant MgO and Al2O3 contents, increasing the FetO content of the slags also results in an increase of the sulphide capacity. The rising basicity of (%CaO)/(%SiO2) from 1.0 to 1.4 at fixed MgO, FetO and Al2O3 contents significantly increases the sulphide capacity.

  3. Electrochemical determination of sulphide at multi-walled carbon nanotubes-dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate composite film modified electrodes based on in situ synthesis of methylene blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Min Xiang; Li Zhou; Cheng Guo Hu; Sheng Shui Hu


    A novel electrochemical method for the determination of sulphide at a multi-walled carbon nanotube-dihexadecyl hydrogenphosphate composite film coated glassy carbon electrode (MWNTs-DHP/GCE) based on in situ synthesis of methylene blue (MB)was established.

  4. Simulation of substrate erosion and sulphate assimilation by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for the genesis of precious metal-rich sulphide mineralisation on Mars (United States)

    Baumgartner, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Gaillard, Fabrice; Fiorentini, Marco


    On Earth, high temperature mafic to ultramafic lava flows, such as komatiites and ferropicrites of the Archean and Proterozic eons, can be hosts to Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralisation. Mechanical/thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks is ascribed as the principal mechanism that leads to sulphide supersaturation, batch segregation and subsequent accumulation of metal-enriched magmatic sulphides (e.g., Bekker et al., Science, 2009). In order to investigate the likelihood of the occurrence of similar sulphide mineralisation in extraterrestrial magmatic systems, we numerically modelled erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of Martian lavas, some of which display chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial komatiites and ferropicrites, on a variety of consolidated sedimentary sulphate-rich substrates. The modelling approach relies on the integration of i) mathematical lava erosion models for turbulent flows (Williams et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1998), ii) thermodynamic volatile degassing models (Gaillard et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2013), and iii) formulations on the stability of sulphides (Fortin et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2015). A series of scenarios are examined in which various Martian mafic to ultramafic mantle-derived melts emplace over, and assimilate consolidated sulphate-rich substrates, such as the sedimentary lithologies (i.e., conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones) recently discovered at the Gale Crater landing site. Our modellings show that lavas emplacing over consolidated sedimentary substrate rather than stiff basaltic crust, are governed by relatively high cooling and substrate erosion rates. The rapid assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates at fO2 ≳QFM-1. This effect is further enhanced with increased temperature. Nevertheless, sulphide supersaturation in the way of sulphate

  5. Paramagnetic behaviour of silver nanoparticles generated by decomposition of silver oxalate (United States)

    Le Trong, Hoa; Kiryukhina, Kateryna; Gougeon, Michel; Baco-Carles, Valérie; Courtade, Frédéric; Dareys, Sophie; Tailhades, Philippe


    Silver oxalate Ag2C2O4, was already proposed for soldering applications, due to the formation when it is decomposed by a heat treatment, of highly sinterable silver nanoparticles. When slowly decomposed at low temperature (125 °C), the oxalate leads however to silver nanoparticles isolated from each other. As soon as these nanoparticles are formed, the magnetic susceptibility at room temperature increases from -3.14 10-7 emu.Oe-1.g-1 (silver oxalate) up to -1.92 10-7 emu.Oe-1.g-1 (metallic silver). At the end of the oxalate decomposition, the conventional diamagnetic behaviour of bulk silver, is observed from room temperature to 80 K. A diamagnetic-paramagnetic transition is however revealed below 80 K leading at 2 K, to silver nanoparticles with a positive magnetic susceptibility. This original behaviour, compared to the one of bulk silver, can be ascribed to the nanometric size of the metallic particles.

  6. Toxicogenomic responses of nanotoxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nitrate and coated silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxic...

  7. Silver/chitosan/cellulose fibers foam composites: from synthesis to antibacterial properties. (United States)

    Guibal, Eric; Cambe, Simon; Bayle, Sandrine; Taulemesse, Jean-Marie; Vincent, Thierry


    Chitosan, associated with cellulose fibers, can be used for elaborating sponge-like structures (membranes, foams) for the binding of silver ions. The composite material has very promising antibacterial properties versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram(-))≫Escherichia coli (Gram(-))>Staphylococcus hominis (Gram(+))≫Staphylococcus aureus (Gram(+)). The amount of silver required for bactericidal effect is quite low (below 0.1 mg per disk, this means less than 6 mg Ag g(-1)) in antibiogram-type test but also for the treatment of water suspensions (in dynamic mode with water recycling). The presence of cellulose fibers improves the efficiency of metal binding, due to chitosan dispersion and enhancement of the availability and accessibility of amine groups. Silver nanoparticles (about 100 nm) were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The photo-reduction (exposure to sun light or UV lamp) leaded to the partial aggregation of silver nanoparticles: metal ions that were released tended to aggregate at the surface of the material.

  8. Laser induced augmentation of silver nanospheres to nanowires in ethanol fostered by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Suneetha, E-mail:; Linslal, C.L.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Kailasnath, M.


    Highlights: • Silver nanospheres are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone which acts as a polymeric capping agent to nanoparticles thus improving its stability. • Laser irradiation onto the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles produced well defined nanowires through ripening mechanism promoted by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. • Nanowires so formed are having an average length of 8.7 μm and width of 160 nm. - Abstract: Stable uniform silver nanospheres having an average diameter of 45 nm are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone using Laser Ablation in Liquid technique. Further irradiation of the nanocolloidal solution by focussed laser beam produced stable well defined silver nanowires through ripening mechanism fostered by the presence of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. Confirmation of the mechanism is obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopic images of the nanocolloidal solution irradiated for different time durations.

  9. Electrolytic Synthesis and Characterizations of Silver Nanopowder

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T


    This work reports a simple, novel, cost effective and eco-friendly electrolytic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as metal precursor. The synthesis rate is much faster than other methods and this approach is suitable for large scale production. They are characterized by XRD, SEM and FT-IR techniques to analyze size, morphology and functional groups. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles. Their particle size is found to be 24 nm and specific surface area (SSA) is 24 m2/g. Analysis of Ag nanoparticles SSA reports that increasing their SSA improves their antibacterial actions. Microbiology assay founds that Ag nanoparticles are effective against E.coli and B.megaterium bacteria. SSA of bacteria analysis reveals that it plays a major role while reacting with antimicrobial agents.

  10. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics (United States)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y.-J.; Ansell, D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thackray, B.; Britnell, L.; Belle, B. D.; Withers, F.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorenko, A. N.


    Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics. PMID:24980150

  11. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells (United States)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.


    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 Ω sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 °C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2).

  12. Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeling, Emma L; Brioude, Frédéric; Lokulo-Sodipe, Oluwakemi


    This Consensus Statement summarizes recommendations for clinical diagnosis, investigation and management of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), an imprinting disorder that causes prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Considerable overlap exists between the care of individuals born...... and speech delay and psychosocial challenges. An early emphasis on adequate nutritional status is important, with awareness that rapid postnatal weight gain might lead to subsequent increased risk of metabolic disorders. The benefits of treating patients with SRS with growth hormone include improved body...

  13. Differential genotoxicity mechanisms of silver nanoparticles and silver ions. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Qin, Taichun; Ingle, Taylor; Yan, Jian; He, Weiwei; Yin, Jun-Jie; Chen, Tao


    In spite of many reports on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the mechanisms underlying the toxicity are far from clear. A key question is whether the observed toxicity comes from the silver ions (Ag(+)) released from the AgNPs or from the nanoparticles themselves. In this study, we explored the genotoxicity and the genotoxicity mechanisms of Ag(+) and AgNPs. Human TK6 cells were treated with 5 nM AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3) to evaluate their genotoxicity and induction of oxidative stress. AgNPs and AgNO3 induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a similar range of concentrations (1.00-1.75 µg/ml) when evaluated using the micronucleus assay, and both induced oxidative stress by measuring the gene expression and reactive oxygen species in the treated cells. Addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an Ag(+) chelator) to the treatments significantly decreased genotoxicity of Ag(+), but not AgNPs, while addition of Trolox (a free radical scavenger) to the treatment efficiently decreased the genotoxicity of both agents. In addition, the Ag(+) released from the highest concentration of AgNPs used for the treatment was measured. Only 0.5 % of the AgNPs were ionized in the culture medium and the released silver ions were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic at this concentration. Further analysis using electron spin resonance demonstrated that AgNPs produced hydroxyl radicals directly, while AgNO3 did not. These results indicated that although both AgNPs and Ag(+) can cause genotoxicity via oxidative stress, the mechanisms are different, and the nanoparticles, but not the released ions, mainly contribute to the genotoxicity of AgNPs.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of colloidal fluorescent silver nanoclusters. (United States)

    Huang, Sherry; Pfeiffer, Christian; Hollmann, Jana; Friede, Sebastian; Chen, Justin Jin-Ching; Beyer, Andreas; Haas, Benedikt; Volz, Kerstin; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Montenegro Martos, Jose Maria; Chang, Walter; Parak, Wolfgang J


    Ultrasmall water-soluble silver nanoclusters are synthesized, and their properties are investigated. The silver nanoclusters have high colloidal stability and show fluorescence in the red. This demonstrates that like gold nanoclusters also silver nanoclusters can be fluorescent.

  15. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.


    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  16. Sulphide phases in Y zeolite for hydro-treatment reactions; Phase sulfures dans une zeolithe Y pour l'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyrit, P.


    Several types of single (Mo, Co, Pd, Pt) or binary (MoCo, PdCo, PtCo) sulphides phases supported on a HY zeolite were studied. The catalysts were first prepared and characterised in the oxide form. Their reactivity was then evaluated in toluene hydrogenation and 4.6-dimethyl-dibenzo-thiophene hydro-desulfurization reactions. Characterisation of sulphide phases supported on HY zeolite was carried out by elemental analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Temperature Programmed Reduction coupled with HS analysis. The results show that. compared with alumina supported catalysts, zeolite used as a support enables extremely active catalysts to be obtained. It appears in particular that molybdenum sulphide phases inside the zeolite have a very high intrinsic activity at low molybdenum content. This activity is attributed to highly dispersed molybdenum sulphide phases differing from MoS{sub 2} slabs and probably present as clusters. The influence of cobalt depends of its concentration. Thus at low loadings cobalt has a strong negative effect. It has been shown, in the molybdenum case, that cobalt interaction leads to an increase in the sulphur content of the molybdenum phases. At higher cobalt loading, the formation of a mixed phase is possible but the degree of promotion remains limited. This work emphasises the advantages of using zeolite supported sulphide phases, and especially Mo and Pd phases, in the hydro-treatment reactions. It seems however that single phases present a greater interest than binary phases. (author)

  17. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)


    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  18. Final environmental assessment : Using livestock grazing as a management tool to provide quality wildlife habitat : Silver Dollar Habitat Unit (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental assessment is for the use of livestock grazing to improve the quality of wildlife habitats within the Silver Dollar Habitat Unit on Charles...

  19. Detecting cells on the surface of a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance using plasma treatment and graft polymerization. (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Che; Yan, Tsong-Rong; Chen, Ko-Shao


    This paper utilizes a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) mass sensor to detect the physiology of cells. This study also investigates the plasma surface modification of silver electrode QCMs through deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSZ) films as a protection film. To improve the cell growth, this paper also performs post-treatments by surface-grafting acrylic acid (AAc), acrylamide (AAm), and oxygen plasma treatment onto the QCM electrodes. Experimental results indicate that plasma deposition is a useful technique to protect the surface of silver electrodes. This technique extends the unpeeling time of silver electrodes from 1 to 7 days. The hydrophilic silver electrode QCM surface modified by AAm exhibited a better storage time effect than other post-treatments.

  20. Cost-effective use of silver dressings for the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor B E; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen


    AIM: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulceration affects 1-3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing....... METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: 'Healed ulcer', 'Healing ulcer' or 'No improvement' were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer...... area from baseline to four weeks of treatment. A data set from a recent meta-analysis, based on four RCTs, was applied to the model. RESULTS: Treatment with silver dressings for an initial four weeks was found to give a total cost saving (£141.57) compared with treatment with non-silver dressings...

  1. Surface modification of stainless steel by plasma-based fluorine and silver dual ion implantation and deposition. (United States)

    Shinonaga, Yukari; Arita, Kenji


    The aims of this study were to modify dental device surface with fluorine and silver and to examine the effectiveness of this new surface modification method. Stainless steel plates were modified by plasma-based fluorine and silver ion implantation-deposition method. The surface characteristics and brushing abrasion resistance were evaluated by XPS, contact angle and brushing abrasion test. XPS spectra of modified specimens showed the peaks of fluoride and silver. These peaks were detected even after brushing abrasion test. Water contact angle significantly increased due to implantation-deposition of both fluorine and silver ions. Moreover, the contact angle of the modified specimen was significantly higher than that of fluorine only deposited specimen with the same number of brushing strokes. This study indicates that this new surface modification method of fluorine and silver ion implantation-deposition improved the brushing abrasion resistance and hydrophobic property making it a potential antimicrobial device.

  2. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature (United States)

    Mishra, Mini; Chauhan, Pratima


    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  3. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mini, E-mail: [Centre of Environmental Science, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, U.P. (India); Chauhan, Pratima, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad U.P. (India)


    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  4. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited nickel sulphide film and its application as a potential counter electrode (United States)

    Ray, Jaymin; Patel, Mitesh; Ghediya, Prashant; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.


    Nickel sulphide (NiS) film has emerged as a counter electrode in many applications, such as thin film batteries, dye sensitized solar cells, and supercapacitors. In this regard, we report the direct liquid coating of pure hexagonal NiS films on glass using a precursor solution of nickel-thiourea complex. A uniform and void free film is observed using scanning electron microscopy. The room temperature electrical conductivity of ˜5 × 103 S cm-1 and the positive thermoelectric power (+6 μV K-1) specify p-type conduction. The temperature variation conductivity in the range 77-300 K depicts the transition of NiS films from conducting to semi-conducting behaviour at certain transition temperatures. Preliminary results from a cyclic voltammetry study shows the feasibility of NiS films as counter electrodes.

  5. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation. (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe


    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  6. Electrochemical and surface studies on the passivity of a dental Pd-based casting alloy in alkaline sulphide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki; Matsuda, Koichi; Asakura, Shukuji


    The corrosion and tarnish behavior of a dental casting Pd-25Ag-18Cu-12Au alloy in 0.1% Na{sub 2}S solution at 37 deg. C was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and spectrocolorimetric techniques. The surface film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This alloy exhibited markedly higher resistance to corrosion and tarnish than did the Ag-20Pd-18Cu-12Au alloy in current clinical use. XPS spectra indicated the presence of a thin sulphide film composed of PdS. It was found that the PdS film is very protective and is responsible for the passivity of the Pd-25Ag-18Cu-12Au alloy in 0.1% Na{sub 2}S solution.

  7. [Selection of a community of acidochemolithotrophic microorganisms with a high oxidation rate of pyrrhotite- containing sulphide ore flotatation concentrate]. (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, T F; Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Moshchanetskiĭ, P V; Tsaplina, I A; Grigor'eva, N V; Zhuravleva, A E; Melamud, V S; Belyĭ, A V


    A community of acidochemolithotrophic microorganisms with a high oxidation rate of pyrrhotite-containing sulphide ore flotation concentrate was selected. The Acidithiobacillus caldus OP-1 and Ferroplasma acidiphilum OP-2 cultures were identified to be dominating members. The presence of the Acidithio- bacillusferrooxidans OP-3, Leptospirillumferriphilum OP-4, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans OP-5 cultures in the community's composition was also mentioned. The analysis results of solid residues of the process showed a greater elemental sulfur oxidation level and gold recovery when the initial pH value in tank I was maintained at a level of 1.8-2.0 (90.5%) rather than 1.6-1.8 (86.3%).

  8. The Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural Properties of Spray Pyrolysed Lead Sulphide (PbS Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G. Faraj


    Full Text Available Lead sulphide (PbS films were prepared by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique using a solution of Lead nitrate and thiourea. PbS films were deposited (prepared on glass substrate at varied temperature (250-350 oC. Effects of substrate temperature on the structural characteristics of the films were studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns’ results reveal that the all of PbS films have a face centered cubic structure. The X-ray diffraction study showed that irrespective of substrate temperature all the films exhibits a preferred orientation along the (200 plane. The degree of preferred orientation increased with the substrate temperature. It was observed that the increase of the substrate temperature increase the diffraction peak intensity of (200 plane which resulted in increase in grain size and good crystallinity of the films.

  9. Preparation of copper sulphide clusters in organic-inorganic composites of Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Hemakanthi; Aruna Dhathathreyan; T Ramasami; D Möbius


    Copper sulphide clusters were prepared in Langmuir-Blodgett films of copper complexes of amphiphilic Schiff bases-3,4-dimethoxy-N-benzylidene hexadeylamine (I) and 3,4-dimethoxy-N-benzylidene-4 -(hexadecylamino) benzylamine (II) The clusters obtained were analysed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Brewster angle microscopic studies on monolayers of I and II at air/water interface showed formation of needle-like domains which seem to cluster faster in I than in II. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies also showed fairly uniform sized clusters in II whereas in the case of I they seem to show varying sizes. From the results it is concluded that -elongation in the polar head groups leads to controlled cluster sizes in compound II as compared to those in compound I.

  10. Silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films: Fabrication and evaluation of tensile, barrier and antimicrobial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoksan, Rangrong, E-mail: [Department of Packaging and Materials Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyothin Rd., Ladyao, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Chirachanchai, Suwabun [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)


    The fabrication of silver nanoparticles was accomplished by {gamma}-ray irradiation reduction of silver nitrate in a chitosan solution. The obtained nanoparticles were stable in the solution for more than six months, and showed the characteristic surface plasmon band at 411 nm as well as a positively charged surface with 40.4 {+-} 2.0 mV. The silver nanoparticles presented a spherical shape with an average size of 20-25 nm, as observed by TEM. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus of the silver nanoparticles dispersed in the {gamma}-ray irradiated chitosan solution was 5.64 {mu}g/mL. The silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films were prepared by a solution casting method. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles led to a slight improvement of the tensile and oxygen gas barrier properties of the polysaccharide-based films, with diminished water vapor/moisture barrier properties. In addition, silver nanoparticle-loaded films exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus. The results suggest that silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films can be feasibly used as antimicrobial materials for food packaging and/or biomedical applications.

  11. Microwave assisted template synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K J Sreeram; M Nidhin; B U Nair


    Easier, less time consuming, green processes, which yield silver nanoparticles of uniform size, shape and morphology are of interest. Various methods for synthesis, such as conventional temperature assisted process, controlled reaction at elevated temperatures, and microwave assisted process have been evaluated for the kind of silver nanoparticles synthesized. Starch has been employed as a template and reducing agent. Electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance have been employed to characterize the silver nanoparticles synthesized. Compared to conventional methods, microwave assisted synthesis was faster and provided particles with an average particle size of 12 nm. Further, the starch functions as template, preventing the aggregation of silver nanoparticles.

  12. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin


    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  13. Silver doped metal layers for medical applications (United States)

    Kocourek, T.; Jelínek, M.; Mikšovský, J.; Jurek, K.; Weiserová, M.


    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 at% to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 at% to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficacy (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using scratch test. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  14. Preparation of counterion stabilized concentrated silver sols. (United States)

    LaPlante, Sylas; Halaciuga, Ionel; Goia, Dan V


    A strategy for obtaining stable concentrated silver dispersions without dedicated stabilizing agents is presented. This approach consists of rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of silver salicylate and ascorbic acid. By using salicylate as Ag(+) counterion, it is possible to prepare stable sols with metal concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than with silver nitrate. The stabilizing effect of the counterion is the result of a decreased ionic strength due to salicylate protonation and its adsorption on the surface of silver. Both effects increase the range of the electrostatic repulsive forces by expanding the electrical double layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Silver in medicine: a brief history BC 335 to present. (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Marx, David E


    Silver is a naturally occurring element. Similar to other metals, the ionized form of silver (Ag(+1)) has known antimicrobial properties. A number of wound dressings incorporating silver ion or silver compounds have recently been developed and marketed. In addition, the antimicrobial effects of silver are currently being promoted in consumer products such as clothing and household appliances. The present use of silver in medical and consumer products has prompted concerns for potential toxicity and ecological effects, including induction of microbial resistance to antibiotics. These concerns ignore the fact that silver has been used for medicinal purposes for several thousand years. A historical review of the uses of silver in medicine is presented.

  16. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.


    With the continuous reduction in the availability of extractive metallurgical curricula in colleges and universities, the concern has in part been from where will the next generation of extractive metallurgists come? One objective of this article is to emphasize the fact that extractive metallurgy is, in fact, one of many areas of chemical engineering technology. Thus, although the extractive metallurgist may have disappeared in name, its activity is alive and well, subsumed in the field of chemical engineering. One goal of this lecture is to demonstrate the applicability of chemical engineering principles to what is typically considered "the field of extractive metallurgy." Two processes will be described that have supplanted typical pyrometallurgical fire refining of precious metals, particularly silver. The origins of fire refining can be traced back to biblical times. There are numerous references to it in the old testament: Ezekiel 22:20, "As men gather silver and bronze and iron and lead and tin into a furnace to blow the fire upon it in order melt it"; Jeremiah 6:29, "The bellows blow fiercely; the lead is consumed by the fire; in vain the refining goes on"; and Malachi 3:2 (The Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha), "For he is like a refiners fire." Many references to it will also be found in "De Re Metallurgica" and as well in Lazarus Ercker's 1574 Manual "Treatise on Ores and Refining." Today, fire refining has been improved greatly by innovative furnace design, new fluxing technologies, and the improved use of oxygen. However, fundamentally, the process chemistry has not changed much in the last millennium. Illustrations of hydrometallurgical processing of silver-bearing inputs will be provided by the treatment of sulfated silver-bearing materials and chlorinated slimes. The first of these technologies will be described briefly as practiced by the Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation for several years. The second, the treatment of silver chloride

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S kheybari


    Full Text Available "n  "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are famous for their high anti-microbial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit anti-mold, anti-microbial and anti-algal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity as well as physical properties of the silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction method. "nMethods:Silver nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a reducing agent and also poly [N-vinylpyrolidone] (PVP as a stabilizer. Two kinds of NPs were synthesized by ethylene glycol (EG and glucose as reducing agent. The nanostructure and particle size of silver NPs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle analyzer (LPA. The formations of the silver NPs were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The anti-bacterial activity of silver NPs were assessed by determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. "nResults and Conclusion:The silver nanoparticles were spherical with particle size between 10 to 250 nm. Analysis of the theoretical (Mie light scattering theory and experimental results showed that the silver NPs in colloidal solution had a diameter of approximately 50 nm. "nBoth colloidal silver NPs showed high anti-bacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Glucose nanosilver colloids showed a shorter killing time against most of the tested bacteria which could be due to their nanostructures and uniform size distribution patterns.

  18. Antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles and antibiotic-adsorbed silver nanoparticles against biorecycling microbes. (United States)

    Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra


    Silver nanoparticles have a huge share in nanotechnology based products used in clinical and hygiene products. Silver nanoparticles leaching from these medical and domestic products will eventually enter terrestrial ecosystems and will interact with the microbes present in the land and water. These interactions could be a threat to biorecycling microbes present in the Earth's crust. The antimicrobial action towards biorecycling microbes by leached silver nanoparticles from medical waste could be many times greater compared to that of silver nanoparticles leached from other domestic products, since medical products may contain traditional antibiotics along with silver nanoparticles. In the present article, we have evaluated the antimicrobial activities of as-synthesized silver nanoparticles, antibiotics - tetracycline and kanamycin, and antibiotic-adsorbed silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles with adsorbed antibiotics is 33-100% more profound against the biorecycling microbes B. subtilis and Pseudomonas compared to the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles of the same concentration. This study indicates that there is an immediate and urgent need for well-defined protocols for environmental exposure to silver nanoparticles, as the use of silver nanoparticles in nanotechnology based products is poorly restricted.

  19. Toxicity of various silver nanoparticles compared to silver ions in Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Saba


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of silver nanoparticles released into freshwater environments, the Daphnia magna 48-hour immobilization test was used. Methods The toxicities of silver nitrate, two types of colloidal silver nanoparticles, and a suspension of silver nanoparticles were assessed and compared using standard OECD guidelines. Also, the swimming behavior and visible uptake of the nanoparticles by Daphnia were investigated and compared. The particle suspension and colloids used in the toxicity tests were well-characterized. Results The results obtained from the exposure studies showed that the toxicity of all the silver species tested was dose and composition dependent. Plus, the silver nanoparticle powders subsequently suspended in the exposure water were much less toxic than the previously prepared silver nanoparticle colloids, whereas the colloidal silver nanoparticles and AgNO3 were almost similar in terms of mortality. The silver nanoparticles were ingested by the Daphnia and accumulated under the carapace, on the external body surface, and connected to the appendages. All the silver species in this study caused abnormal swimming by the D. magna. Conclusion According to the present results, silver nanoparticles should be classified according to GHS (Globally Harmonized System of classification and labeling of chemicals as "category acute 1" to Daphnia neonates, suggesting that the release of nanosilver into the environment should be carefully considered.

  20. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate (United States)


    Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of AgNPs. Besides the intestinal system, the largest silver concentrations were detected in the liver and kidneys. Silver was also found in the lungs and brain. Autometallographic (AMG) staining revealed a similar cellular localization of silver in ileum, liver, and kidney tissue in rats exposed to AgNPs or AgAc. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanosized granules were detected in the ileum of animals exposed to AgNPs or AgAc and were mainly located in the basal lamina of the ileal epithelium and in lysosomes of macrophages within the lamina propria. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy it was shown that the granules in lysosomes consisted of silver, selenium, and sulfur for both AgNP and AgAc exposed rats. The diameter of the deposited granules was in the same size range as that of the administered AgNPs. No silver granules were detected by TEM in the liver. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that the organ distribution of silver was similar when AgNPs or AgAc were administered orally to rats. The presence of silver granules containing