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Sample records for improved smear microscopy

  1. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with chitosan and .... this compound has considerably increased its concentration in rivers and .... of the images was done by three investigators who calibrated ...

  2. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy.

  3. Low cost automated whole smear microscopy screening system for detection of acid fast bacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Nei Law

    Full Text Available In countries with high tuberculosis (TB burden, there is urgent need for rapid, large-scale screening to detect smear-positive patients. We developed a computer-aided whole smear screening system that focuses in real-time, captures images and provides diagnostic grading, for both bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB from respiratory specimens.To evaluate the performance of dual-mode screening system in AFB diagnostic algorithms on concentrated smears with auramine O (AO staining, as well as direct smears with AO and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining, using mycobacterial culture results as gold standard.Adult patient sputum samples requesting for M. tuberculosis cultures were divided into three batches for staining: direct AO-stained, direct ZN-stained and concentrated smears AO-stained. All slides were graded by an experienced microscopist, in parallel with the automated whole smear screening system. Sensitivity and specificity of a TB diagnostic algorithm in using the screening system alone, and in combination with a microscopist, were evaluated.Of 488 direct AO-stained smears, 228 were culture positive. These yielded a sensitivity of 81.6% and specificity of 74.2%. Of 334 direct smears with ZN staining, 142 were culture positive, which gave a sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 76.6%. Of 505 concentrated smears with AO staining, 250 were culture positive, giving a sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 71.0%. To further improve performance, machine grading was confirmed by manual smear grading when the number of AFBs detected fell within an uncertainty range. These combined results gave significant improvement in specificity (AO-direct:85.4%; ZN-direct:85.4%; AO-concentrated:92.5% and slight improvement in sensitivity while requiring only limited manual workload.Our system achieved high sensitivity without substantially compromising specificity when compared to culture results. Significant improvement

  4. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.

  5. The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. G S Mfinanga, E Ngadaya, R Mtandu, B Mutayoba, B Doulla, G Kimaro, T M Chonde, P Ngowi, S Mfaume, A M Kilale, S Egwaga, A Y Kitua ...

  6. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  7. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  8. Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomelli, Márcia; Silva, Priscila Regina Alves Araújo; Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Seicento, Márcia; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

  9. Smear layer-deproteinizing improves bonding of one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thittaweerat, Suppason; Foxton, Richard M; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji; Hosaka, Keiichi; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF). Flat human dentin surfaces with standardized smear layer were prepared. Smear layer deproteinizing was carried out by the application of 50ppm hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on dentin surface for 15s followed by Accel ® (p-toluenesulfinic acid salt) for 5s prior to adhesive application. No surface pretreatment was used as control. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage under TEM observation were investigated. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and t-test at the significant level of 0.05. Smear layer deproteinizing significantly improved μTBS of SE, SU, and BB (player observed in control groups of SE, BB, and BF, and reticular nanoleakage presented throughout the hybridized complex in control groups of BB and BF were eliminated upon the smear layer deproteinizing. Smear layer deproteinizing by HOCl and Accel ® application could enhance the quality of dentin for bonding to one-step self-etch adhesives, resulting in the improving μTBS, eliminating hybridized smear layer and preventing reticular nanoleakage formation in resin-dentin bonding interface. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç Şen, Özgür; Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal.

  11. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out of 283 randomly selected slides for blind rechecking, 11 (3.9%) slides

  12. Evaluation of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy - a blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A blind comparative study of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer, according to scanning electron microscopy images, was carried out. The effect of the treatments was analyzed on the smear layer of mesio-occlusodistal cavity walls prepared in vitro in human third molars. The agents used were air/water spray, 37% phosphoric acid, 5% tannic acid, biologic detergent, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and enamel hatchet alone or in association with the previous agents. Electron micrographs were evaluated by three professionals according to the degree of visualization of underlying dentin or enamel. Phosphoric acid received the highest scores due to the complete removal of the smear layer. However, statistical analyses revealed diverse performances of non or slightly demineralizing agents, according to the cavity walls in dentin, while there was equivalent effect on the enamel of gingival walls.

  13. Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Padamchand Gandhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69% cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5% new and 206/2040 (10% previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early

  14. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group).

  15. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group). After the ...

  16. Effectiveness of four different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals : a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP, manual dynamic agitation (MDA, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and needle irrigation (NI as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals.Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08-15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20 according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP (EndoVac; group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA; group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI; and group 4, needle irrigation (NI. Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification.Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05. Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique.ANP (EndoVac system can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals.

  17. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  18. Conformational Smear Characterization and Binning of Single-Molecule Conductance Measurements for Enhanced Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshoj, Lee E; Afsari, Sepideh; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-01

    Electronic conduction or charge transport through single molecules depends primarily on molecular structure and anchoring groups and forms the basis for a wide range of studies from molecular electronics to DNA sequencing. Several high-throughput nanoelectronic methods such as mechanical break junctions, nanopores, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling break junctions, and static nanoscale electrodes are often used for measuring single-molecule conductance. In these measurements, "smearing" due to conformational changes and other entropic factors leads to large variances in the observed molecular conductance, especially in individual measurements. Here, we show a method for characterizing smear in single-molecule conductance measurements and demonstrate how binning measurements according to smear can significantly enhance the use of individual conductance measurements for molecular recognition. Using quantum point contact measurements on single nucleotides within DNA macromolecules, we demonstrate that the distance over which molecular junctions are maintained is a measure of smear, and the resulting variance in unbiased single measurements depends on this smear parameter. Our ability to identify individual DNA nucleotides at 20× coverage increases from 81.3% accuracy without smear analysis to 93.9% with smear characterization and binning (SCRIB). Furthermore, merely 7 conductance measurements (7× coverage) are needed to achieve 97.8% accuracy for DNA nucleotide recognition when only low molecular smear measurements are used, which represents a significant improvement over contemporary sequencing methods. These results have important implications in a broad range of molecular electronics applications from designing robust molecular switches to nanoelectronic DNA sequencing.

  19. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  20. Microscopy of Stained Urethral Smear in Male Urethritis; Which Cutoff Should be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Hartgill, Usha; Skullerud, Kristin Helene; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-03-01

    The microscopical diagnosis of male urethritis was recently questioned by Rietmeijer and Mettenbrink, lowering the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis to ≥2 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high power field (HPF), and adopted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. The European Non-Gonococcal Urethritis Guideline advocates a limit of ≥5 PMNL/HPF. To determine if syndromic treatment of urethritis should be considered with a cutoff value of ≥2 PMNL/HPF in urethral smear. The design was a cross-sectional study investigating the presence and degree of urethritis relative to specific infections in men attending an STI clinic as drop-in patients. The material included 2 cohorts: a retrospective study of 13,295 men and a prospective controlled study including 356 men. We observed a mean chlamydia prevalence of 2.3% in the 0-9 stratum, and a 12-fold higher prevalence (27.3%) in the strata above 9. Of the chlamydia cases, 89.8% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For Mycoplasma genitalium, the prevalence was 1.4% in the 0-9 stratum and 11.2% in the stratum ≥10, and 83.6% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For gonorrhea, a significant increase in the prevalence occurred between the 0-30 strata and >30 strata from 0.2% to 20.7%. The results of the prospective study were similar. Our data do not support lowering the cutoff to ≥2 PMNL/HPF. However, a standardization of urethral smear microscopy seems to be impossible. The cutoff value should discriminate between low and high prevalence of chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhea to include as many as possible with a specific infection in syndromic treatment, without overtreating those with few PMNL/HPF and high possibility of having nonspecific or no urethritis.

  1. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, Alma; Kik, Sandra V.; Kalisvaart, Nico A.; Sebek, Maruschka M.; Verver, Suzanne; Boeree, Martin J.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2008-01-01

    Background. Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  2. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, A.; Kik, S.V.; Kalisvaart, N.A.; Sebek, M.M.; Verver, S.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  3. UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sourendu; Karthik, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

  4. A pilot study of same day sputum smear examination, its feasibility and usefulness in diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneedu, V P; Verma, A K; Sharma, P P; Behera, D

    2011-10-01

    standard and proposed new method smear microscopy was 58.25% and 40.07% respectively and specificity was 99.55% in both the methods. Same day smear microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis by a proposed new method of smear examination in the case of suspected tuberculosis seems not a promising step towards improving the quality of sputum smear examination. The results of sensitivity and specificity of the two approaches were not similar. More than eighty per cent responded in favour of same day sputum delivery system and getting result on same day. This study can be confirmed on larger scale and preference of patients can be examined in peripheral laboratory also before taking it up for consideration in the national tuberculosis programme.

  5. Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2009-01-15

    We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

  6. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P.; Koller, K.; Weinberg, V.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    2008-01-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff λ cut . The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV cut <600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  7. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  8. Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO's tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abiyu

    2014-05-13

    Organization. Lack of feedback mechanisms in the External Quality Assurance schemes of sputum smear microscopy render the opportunity for improvement difficult; Serial sputum examination showed a considerable rate of positivity in the second sputum sample when compared with the others.

  9. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  10. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  11. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-01-01

    SETTING: Urban clinic, Nairobi. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. DESIGN: Prospective study among TB suspects. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly ...

  12. Pap smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AGUS - Pap; Atypical squamous cells - Pap; HPV - Pap; Human papilloma virus - Pap cervix - Pap; Colposcopy - Pap Images Female reproductive anatomy Pap smear Uterus Pap smear Cervical erosion References ...

  13. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  14. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  15. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  16. Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Indriyotomo, D.; Aminjoyo, S.

    1996-01-01

    Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

  17. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasti, Shahnaz; Ahmed, Waleed; Jafri, Abbas; Khan, Behram; Sohail, Rizwan; Hassan, Sheema

    2004-01-01

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  18. Survival among patients with HIV infection and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis - United States, 1993-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Cavanaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993-2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006. RESULTS: Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39% were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58% were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-0.93 and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87-0.97 or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87-0.95, and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13-1.27. Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75-0.90 and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71-0.92 the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.

  19. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Dhodapkar, Rahul; Elangovan, Subashini; Chaya, D R

    2009-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman's stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman's thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  20. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parija S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC, plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman′s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman′s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  1. Evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and gel for smear layer removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho; de Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy; Machado, Manoel Eduardo de Lima; Martins, José Luiz

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel and 17% EDTA solution in cleaning dentine walls after root canal instrumentation. Thirty human canine teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution; in Group 2, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 17% EDTA solution; and in Group 3, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 24% EDTA gel. The presence of a smear layer was analysed after instrumentation using scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistical difference (P 0.05). The results indicate that 1% sodium hypochlorite alone does not remove the smear layer and that there was no statistical difference between EDTA gel and EDTA solution in smear layer removal.

  2. Sputum smear examination and time to diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, K; Bissell, K; Tabutoa, K; Kienene, T; Linh, N N; Briand, K; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, 2006-2010. To determine the proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases that were pulmonary smear-negative, and for these patients to determine how many sputum smears were examined and the time from sputum smear examination to registration. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving a record review of national TB and laboratory registers. Of 2420 TB cases identified, 709 (29%) were registered as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Of the 695 (98%) with information on smear examination, 222 (32%) had no smear recorded, 61 (9%) had one smear, 86 (12%) two smears and 326 (47%) three smears. Among the 473 patients who had at least one smear, 238 (50%) were registered before sputum examination, 131 (28%) within 1 week, 72 (15%) between 1 and 4 weeks, and 34 (7%) >4 weeks after sputum examination. NTPs in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands are diagnosing 29% of all TB patients as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Many patients do not have smears done or are registered before undergoing smear examination. Corrective measures are needed.

  3. Falciparum malaria transmitted by a thick blood smear negative kidney donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, Frederike; de Blok, Koen; de Vries, Peter; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, Ineke

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a case of P. falciparum transmission by a recent-immigrant renal donor. The donor tested negative upon microscopy of a thick blood smear. The diagnosis was made after analysis of a Quantified Buffy Coat(R). In our opinion, a renal donor from a malaria endemic country should be

  4. Audit of the practice of sputum smear examination for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-07-01

    In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.

  5. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  6. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-07-01

    Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay) spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032) and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2). Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ(2) = 1.5; P = 0.2). Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  7. Investigation of OMNIgene·SPUTUM performance in delayed tuberculosis testing by smear, culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assays in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Kelly-Cirino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection. Concentrated smear microscopy, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ culture, and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT culture were performed. For patients with negative direct smear, a second sample was split, with SOC (raw sputum and OM-S portions (sediment tested in the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert assay. OM-S group and SOC group results were strongly concordant on all four tests [range, 89% (MGIT–97% (Xpert]. OM-S MGIT, LJ, and Xpert tests were in statistical agreement with SOC MGIT as reference. OM-S specimens had lower culture contamination rates (3% vs. 10% LJ; 2% vs. 5% MGIT but required, on average, 5.6 additional days to become MGIT-positive. The findings suggest that samples held/transported in OM-S are compatible with smear microscopy, LJ or MGIT culture, and Xpert, and perform comparably to fresh sputum samples. Larger feasibility studies are warranted.

  8. Improved sensitivity, safety and laboratory turnaround time in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by use of bleach sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameh James

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate diagnostic processes and human resources in laboratories contribute to a high burden of tuberculosis (TB in low- and middle-income countries. Direct smear microscopy is relied on for TB diagnosis; however, sensitivity rates vary. To improve sensitivity of direct microscopy, the researchers employed several approaches, including sputum digestion and concentration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB, a technique which uses commercial bleach. Objectives: This study compared methods used to diagnose active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Methods: Three sputum specimens were collected from each of 340 participants in Abuja, Nigeria, over two consecutive days. Direct microscopy was performed on all specimens; following microscopy, one specimen from each patient was selected randomly for bleach sedimentation and one for Lowenstein-Jensen culture. Results: Direct microscopy produced 28.8% AFB-positive results, whilst bleach sedimentation resulted in 30.3%. When compared with the cultures, 26.5% were AFB true positive using direct microscopy and 27.1% using bleach sedimentation. Whilst the specificity rate between these two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.548, the sensitivity rate was significant (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Based on these results, bleach increases the sensitivity of microscopy compared with direct smear and has similar specificity. When diagnosing new cases of pulmonary TB, one bleach-digested smear is as sensitive as three direct smears, reducing waiting times for patients and ensuring the safety of laboratory technicians.

  9. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  10. Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Ayehu; Ayele, Yeshi; Berhan, Yifru; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Erku, Woldaregay; Sisay, Solomon

    2018-01-01

    Quality of tuberculosis (TB) microscopy diagnosis is not a guarantee despite implementation of External Quality Assurance (EQA) service in all laboratories of health facilities. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the technical quality and the findings of sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) at health centers in Hararge Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out between July 8, 2014 and July 7, 2015.A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method was put into practice for collecting all necessary sample slides. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20 software. P-value quality, smear size, smear thickness, staining and evenness were indicated in 40 (72.7%), 39 (70.9%), 37 (67.3%), 27(49.1%) and 37 (67.3%) of the collected samples, respectively. False negative AFB findings were significantly associated with lack of Internal Quality Control (IQC) measures (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio): 2.90 (95% CI (Confidence Interval): 1.25,6.75) and poor staining procedures (AOR: 2.16(95% CI: 1.01, 5.11). The qualities of AFB smear microscopy reading and smearing were low in most of the laboratories of the health centers. Therefore, it is essential to strength EQA program through building the capacity of laboratory professionals.

  11. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan- Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria. A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium -specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction. The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum . All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR. By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  12. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-05-01

    Urban clinic, Nairobi. To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. Prospective study among TB suspects. A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly more men than women produced a set of three 'good' quality specimens (175/274 vs. 182/339, P = 0.01). Lowering thresholds for definitions to include scanty smears resulted in increases in SPC detection in both sexes; the increase was significantly higher for women. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) case definition was associated with the highest detection rates in women. When analysis was restricted only to patients submitting 'good' quality specimen sets, the difference in detection between sexes was on the threshold for significance (P = 0.05). Higher SPC notification rates in men are commonly reported by TB control programmes. The revised WHO SPC definition may reduce sex disparities in notification. This should be considered when evaluating other interventions aimed at reducing these. Further study is required on the effects of the human immuno-deficiency virus and instructed specimen collection on sex-specific impact of new SPC definition.

  13. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Campos, Flávia Pavan; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution(control), II-EDTA; III-EDTAT. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was ...

  14. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio,José Eduardo Cezar; Campos,Flávia Pavan; Pilatti,Gibson Luiz; Theodoro,Letícia Helena; Leite,Fábio Renato Manzolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score wa...

  15. Pre-trained convolutional neural networks as feature extractors toward improved malaria parasite detection in thin blood smear images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a blood disease caused by the Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Microscopists commonly examine thick and thin blood smears to diagnose disease and compute parasitemia. However, their accuracy depends on smear quality and expertise in classifying and counting parasitized and uninfected cells. Such an examination could be arduous for large-scale diagnoses resulting in poor quality. State-of-the-art image-analysis based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx methods using machine learning (ML techniques, applied to microscopic images of the smears using hand-engineered features demand expertise in analyzing morphological, textural, and positional variations of the region of interest (ROI. In contrast, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN, a class of deep learning (DL models promise highly scalable and superior results with end-to-end feature extraction and classification. Automated malaria screening using DL techniques could, therefore, serve as an effective diagnostic aid. In this study, we evaluate the performance of pre-trained CNN based DL models as feature extractors toward classifying parasitized and uninfected cells to aid in improved disease screening. We experimentally determine the optimal model layers for feature extraction from the underlying data. Statistical validation of the results demonstrates the use of pre-trained CNNs as a promising tool for feature extraction for this purpose.

  16. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Azadeh; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Naseh, Godratallah

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  17. Time to sputum conversion in smear positive pulmonary TB patients on category I DOTS and factors delaying it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Raunak; Nataraj, Gita; Kanade, Swapna; Khatri, Vijay; Mehta, Preeti

    2012-08-01

    Sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients expel infectious viable bacilli for a period following commencement of treatment. Patients on Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) receive intermittent therapy with multidrug regimen. To determine the time to sputum smear and culture conversion following initiation of DOTS treatment and study the factors that influence it. A prospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai over a one year period on a cohort of 71 sputum smear positive patients on Category I DOTS treatment. Patients were followed up weekly for upto 20 weeks or until they underwent smear and culture conversion whichever was earlier. At each follow up, specimens were collected and processed for microscopy and culture using standard protocol. 60/71 [84.55%] patients completed the study. 56/60 [93.3%] patients underwent sputum smear and culture conversion. The median time to smear and culture conversion was end of 5th week [day 35] and 6 1/2 weeks [day 45] respectively. Univariate and stepwise regression analysis showed that patients who had cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade and a past history of tuberculosis were more likely to undergo delayed or nonconversion [P culture conversion under DOTS is similar to previous antituberculosis regimens. Since viable bacilli continue to be expelled for upto two months, infection control measures should be maintained for such time. Patients with cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade or a past history of tuberculosis need to be monitored more closely.

  18. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza HASSANPOUR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan-Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria.Methods: A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium-specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction.Results: The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum. All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR.Conclusion: By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  19. Comparison of blood smear microscopy to a rapid diagnostic test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures: Percent positive and negative P. falciparum malaria status, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of RDT. Results: For both years, the RDT yielded positive results of 30% in children compared to microscopy (17%). With microscopy as the “gold standard,” RDT yielded a ...

  20. [Evaluation of sputum smear examination--from the cases of Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, A

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of sputum smear examination was carried out with smear slides stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen method, which were collected from Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines. The smear slides were checked macroscopically and microscopically according to the following points: 1) smear area size, 2) thickness of smear, 3) evenness of smear, 4) decolorizing condition by Ziehl-Neelsen stain, 5) smear cleanliness, 6) presence of cells in sputum and 7) smear reading accuracy by cross-checking. As the result of smear slide evaluation, it was concluded that proper sputum specimens have been smeared but smears were generally too thin and contaminated with too many dirt . Agreement rate of the slide reading in Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines were 73%, 90% and 88% respectively. Disagreement cases were concentrated in the subtle number of acid-fast bacilli or (+/-) and (+) results. The cause of disagreement might be attributed to contamination with debris, deposit etc., which hindered reading or were misread as acid-fast bacilli. Some improvement should be considered to eliminate the dirt , such as filtration of carbol fuchsin solution, preparation of proper quantity of carbol fuchsin solution to be consumed within three months, mixing the fuchsin stock solution and 5% carbol solution just before use, rinsing the mouth before sputum collection, usage of clean sputum container and slides, and smearing and drying of the slides within clean environment. However, in many developing countries there are many difficulties for facilities, equipments, system and management. Some of these difficulties may be solved by the efforts of laboratory side but some are beyond the limits of their efforts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. CSF smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003768.htm CSF smear To use the sharing features on this ... around the spinal cord and brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the brain and spinal cord from injury. ...

  2. Effectiveness of a computer-based tutorial for teaching how to make a blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preast, Vanessa; Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Bousson, Maury

    2007-09-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality. Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using the CAI tutorial (experimental group). Students in the control group received a short demonstration and lecture by the instructor at the beginning of the laboratory and then practiced making blood smears. Students in the experimental group received their instruction through the self-paced, multimedia tutorial on a laptop computer and then practiced making blood smears. Data was collected from observation, interview, survey questionnaires, and smear evaluation by students and experts using a scoring rubric. Students using the CAI made better smears and were better able to recognize smear quality. The average time the instructor spent in the room was not significantly different between groups, but the quality of the instructor time was improved with the experimental instruction. The tutorial implementation effectively provided students and instructors with a teaching and learning experience superior to the traditional method of instruction. Using CAI is a viable method of teaching students to make blood smears.

  3. Performance evaluation of tuberculosis smear microscopists working at rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Asrat

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study assessed the performance of tuberculosis smear microscopists at external quality assessment rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 81 laboratories from April to July 2015. Panel slides were prepared and validated at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. The validated panel slides were used to evaluate the performance of microscopists at these laboratories compared with readers from the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 389 external quality assessment rechecking laboratory microscopists participated in the study, of which 268 (68.9% worked at hospitals, 241 (62% had more than five years of work experience, 201 (51.7% held Bachelors degrees, and 319 (82% reported tuberculosis smear microscopy training. Overall, 324 (83.3% participants scored ≥ 80%. Sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis bacilli was 84.5% and specificity was 93.1%. The overall percent agreement between participants and reference readers was 87.1 (kappa=0.72. All 10 slides were correctly read (i.e., scored 100% by 80 (20.6% participants, 156 (40.1% scored 90% – 95%, 88 (22.6% scored 80% – 85% and 65 (16.7% scored below 80%. There were 806 (20.7% total errors, with 143 (3.7% major and 663 (17% minor errors. Conclusion: The overall performance of participants in reading the slides showed good agreement with the reference readers. Most errors were minor, and the ability to detect tuberculosis bacilli can be improved through building the capacity of professionals.

  4. Resolution improvement by nonconfocal theta microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindek, S; Stelzer, E H

    1999-11-01

    We present a novel scanning fluorescence microscopy technique, nonconfocal theta microscopy (NCTM), that provides almost isotropic resolution. In NCTM, multiphoton absorption from two orthogonal illumination directions is used to induce fluorescence emission. Therefore the point-spread function of the microscope is described by the product of illumination point-spread functions with reduced spatial overlap, which provides the resolution improvement and the more isotropic observation volume. We discuss the technical details of this new method.

  5. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  6. Metodologia para caracterização de proficiência em leitura de resultados baciloscópicos para o diagnóstico da tuberculose Methodology for characterizing proficiency in interpreting sputum smear microscopy results in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Vieira

    2008-05-01

    methodology for characterizing proficiency in sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the number of microscopies necessary to establish this proficiency, as well as the quality of the transcription of results, the causes of the discrepancies in the readings (rater or microscope used, and the criterion for classification of microscopy results that poses the most difficulty in characterizing proficiency. METHODS: Four hundred sputum smear microscopies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed through double-blind readings by six professionals who usually read/supervise microscopies performed in public health care facilities. The sample was stratified to obtain, at least, a reliability of 90% in the double-blind readings, an alpha error of 5%, and a precision of 3%. The results were analyzed using observed reliability and the kappa index. RESULTS: Thirteen errors (0.27% were found in the transcription of results. Reliability increased when the three distinct categories of positive results (AFB+, AFB++, and AFB+++ were grouped or when inconclusive results were excluded from the analysis. The quantification of the bacterial load was the classification criterion that posed the most difficulty in establishing proficiency. Using higher quality microscopes increased reliability. Reliability values stabilized only from the reading of 75 microscopies onward. CONCLUSIONS: Double-blind sputum smear microscopy readings using a panel containing 75 slides (36 negative, 4 inconclusive, and 35 positive proved to be appropriate for characterizing proficiency in sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis when such proficiency is intended to reproduce laboratory routine.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection.

  8. A first insight into high prevalence of undiagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian prisons: implications for greater investment and quality control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantahun Biadglegne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200. Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting.

  9. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  10. The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-04-12

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, and less likely to use preventive health care and health promotion activities. There were also to demonstrate that people with visual impairment has less access to appropriate healthcare services and is less likely to receive screening examinations. In Taiwan, there was no study to explore utilization of Pap smear, associated factors and use barriers about Pap smear screening test among women with visual impairment. The purpose is to explore the utilization and barriers of using Pap smear for women with visual impairment in Taiwan. To identify the barriers of women with visual from process of receiving Pap smear screening test. The cross-sectional study was conducted and the totally 316 participators were selected by stratified proportional and random sampling from 15 to 64 year old women with visual impairment who lived in Taipei County during December 2009 to January 2010. The data was been collected by phone interview and the interviewers were well trained before interview. The mean age was 47.1 years old and the highest percentage of disabled severity was mile (40.2 %). Totally, 66.5 % of participators were ever using Pap smear and 38.9 % used it during pass 1 year. Their first time to accept Pap smear was 38.8 year old. There was near 50 % of them not to be explained by professionals before accepting the Pap smear. For non-using cases, the top two percentage of barriers were "feel still younger" (22.3 %), the second was "there's no sexual experience" (21.4 %). We found the gynecology experiences was key factor for women with visual impairment to use Pap smear, especially the experiences was during 1 year (OR = 4). Associated factors and barriers to receive Pap smear screening test for women with visual impairment can be addressed through interventions

  11. Development of an automatic smear sampler and evaluation of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, B. J.; Lee, K. W.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The surface contamination level of a radiation-controlled area is measured periodically according to atomic energy law and connection regulations. The measurement of surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to various kinds of error depending on the sampling person and consumes much time and effort in the sampling of large nuclear facilities. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed to solve these problems. The developed equipment is composed of a rotating sampling part, a sample transferring part, a power supply part a control part, and vacuum part. It improved the efficiency of estimation of the surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation-controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed in this research, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. (authors)

  12. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of suspected tuberculosis from archived smear slides from the Balimo region, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Diefenbach-Elstob, Tanya; Pelowa, Daniel; Pollard, Sandra; Burgess, Graham; McBryde, Emma S; Warner, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with an estimated 30000 new cases and 3800 deaths each year. In the Balimo region of the Western Province, diagnosis relies on clinical manifestations and on the microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smears, a technique with limited sensitivity. A molecular diagnosis assay targeting DNA extracted from archived sputum smear slides collected from the Balimo region (2012-2014) was conducted, without the need for a viable culture. The presence of Mycobacterium sp on 1162 slides prepared from 345 sputum samples was assessed using a real-time PCR (qPCR) approach. The qPCR technique identified the presence of mycobacteria in 35.4% of the smear slides and 59.7% of the tested sputum samples. Poor agreement was observed between the two diagnosis methods (smear AFB microscopy versus qPCR), with 100 AFB-positive sputum samples compared to 206 qPCR-positive sputum samples overall. Treatment was initiated in 90.2% of the smear-positive cases. Unnecessary treatment of 'false-positive' TB cases (AFB-negative/qPCR-negative) was very low (8.6%) and was even lower when the nine patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB were excluded from the analysis. However, the prevalence of false-negatives (AFB-negative/qPCR-positive) was high (28.5%). Undetected smear-negative TB is occurring in the Balimo region of PNG, as well as some unnecessary empirical treatment. Molecular methods of diagnosis could greatly reduce the frequency of inappropriate clinical assessment, as well as providing point-of-care diagnosis. This may provide substantial patient and programmatic benefits, including lowering the economic burden on patients from rural areas seeking medical diagnosis in Balimo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Raising Awareness About Cervical Cancer Using Twitter: Content Analysis of the 2015 #SmearForSmear Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Philippe; Moulahi, Bilel; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Mercier, Gregoire; Carbonnel, François

    2017-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women under 45 years of age. To deal with the decrease of smear test coverage in the United Kingdom, a Twitter campaign called #SmearForSmear has been launched in 2015 for the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Its aim was to encourage women to take a selfie showing their lipstick going over the edge and post it on Twitter with a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening. The estimated audience was 500 million people. Other public health campaigns have been launched on social media such as Movember to encourage participation and self-engagement. Their result was unsatisfactory as their aim had been diluted to become mainly a social buzz. The objectives of this study were to identify the tweets delivering a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening (sensitizing tweets) and to understand the characteristics of Twitter users posting about this campaign. We conducted a 3-step content analysis of the English tweets tagged #SmearForSmear posted on Twitter for the 2015 European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Data were collected using the Twitter application programming interface. Their extraction was based on an analysis grid generated by 2 independent researchers using a thematic analysis, validated by a strong Cohen kappa coefficient. A total of 7 themes were coded for sensitizing tweets and 14 for Twitter users' status. Verbatims were thematically and then statistically analyzed. A total of 3019 tweets were collected and 1881 were analyzed. Moreover, 69.96% of tweets had been posted by people living in the United Kingdom. A total of 57.36% of users were women, and sex was unknown in 35.99% of cases. In addition, 54.44% of the users had posted at least one selfie with smeared lipstick. Furthermore, 32.32% of tweets were sensitizing. Independent factors associated with posting sensitizing tweets were women who experienced an abnormal smear test (OR [odds ratio] 13

  15. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  16. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence...... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...

  17. An audit of a cervical smear screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, P J; Kljakovic, M; McLeod, D K

    1989-07-26

    An audit of a computer based screening and recall programme in a Wellington group general practice is reported (practice population 13,866). The records of all women aged between 20 and 59 years (4133 women) were checked to determine if they had had a cervical smear test in the previous two years. A random sample of women who had a cervical smear result recorded in the notes (107 women called "responders") showed that 71% gave "familiarity with the family doctor" and "acting in response to a recall letter" as reasons for choosing the place of their last smear. Satisfaction with the service was indicated by 95% of these women stating they would have their next smear at the medical centre. In the audit of all the records, a group of 667 women who had been sent a letter inviting them to have a smear done and who had apparently declined the procedure was identified (called "nonresponders"). A random sample of this group (168 women) was taken and an attempt made to interview them. In fact only 38 women could be identified as requiring a smear and even if those who refused to be interviewed (13) and those unable to be contacted (23) are added, then less than half of this sample were "true nonresponders". This suggests that the percentage of women in the practice who have been offered a smear and have refused to have one is less than 8%.

  18. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikuad, Apirat, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Knapp, Stefan [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Building N240 Room 3.03, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Delft, Frank von, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  19. Entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot in CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhou Menglian; Zhang Jianmin; Lin Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    In the video of linear CCD camera being irradiated by 532 nm CW laser, the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot was found. The smear area does not represent the distribution of laser. Since this smear lies merely in one side of laser spot, it can not be induced by light leaking or carriers blooming, and it may be induced by charge transfer loss. However, the feature that the smear area is entirely saturated can not be explained by the current constant model of charge transfer inefficiency. Based on the inner structure and operating principle of buried channel CCD, a new model of charge transfer inefficiency that varies with charge quantity is proposed, which can explain the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot. (authors)

  20. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The teeth were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and the root canal cleanliness and removal of smear layer were examined. RESULTS: The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with Aquatine EC and NaOCl, both with a rinse of EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Aquatine EC appears to be the first hypochlorous acid approved by the FDA to be a possible alternative to the use of NaOCl as an intracanal irrigant. Further research is needed to identify safer and more effective alternatives to the use of NaOCl irrigation in endodontics.

  1. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  2. Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. ... The risk factors among smear positive TB patients were co-illness (32.5%), previous history of TB (7.5%) and history of positive TB contact (4.7%). These findings also show that as CD4+ T Cells ...

  3. Evaluation of mobile digital light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, L H; Reber, C; Phan, H; Switz, N; Nilsson, L M; Myers, F; Nhung, N V; Luu, L; Pham, T; Vu, C; Nguyen, H; Nguyen, A; Dinh, T; Nahid, P; Fletcher, D A; Cattamanchi, A

    2015-09-01

    Hanoi Lung Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam. To compare the accuracy of CellScopeTB, a manually operated mobile digital fluorescence microscope, with conventional microscopy techniques. Patients referred for sputum smear microscopy to the Hanoi Lung Hospital from May to September 2013 were included. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy, conventional light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM), CellScopeTB-based LED FM and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF were performed on sputum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy techniques were determined in reference to Xpert results, and differences were compared using McNemar's paired test of proportions. Of 326 patients enrolled, 93 (28.5%) were Xpert-positive for TB. The sensitivity of ZN microscopy, conventional LED FM, and CellScopeTB-based LED FM was respectively 37.6% (95%CI 27.8-48.3), 41.9% (95%CI 31.8-52.6), and 35.5% (95%CI 25.8-46.1). The sensitivity of CellScopeTB was similar to that of conventional LED FM (difference -6.5%, 95%CI -18.2 to 5.3, P = 0.33) and ZN microscopy (difference -2.2%, 95%CI -9.2 to 4.9, P = 0.73). The specificity was >99% for all three techniques. CellScopeTB performed similarly to conventional microscopy techniques in the hands of experienced TB microscopists. However, the sensitivity of all sputum microscopy techniques was low. Options enabled by digital microscopy, such as automated imaging with real-time computerized analysis, should be explored to increase sensitivity.

  4. PENYULUHAN METODE PAP SMEAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP WANITA TUNA SUSILA DALAM PENDETEKSIAN KANKER SERVIKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Wulandari AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effectiveness Of Pap smear Test’s Counseling Regarding To The Level Of Knowledge And Behaviour In Prostitution Worker For Detection Of Cervical Cancer In Bintang Mas Kubu Raya 2014. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectivity of counseling toward knowledge and behavior. in prostitution worker about pap smear and cervical cancer. This research was quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. There are 38 respondents. McNemar test showed there are significant. improvement of knowledge (p<0.05, and significance behavior change (p<0.05 in all respondents before and after counseling. Keyword : knowledge, behaviour, cervical cancer, pap smear Abstrak : Penyuluhan Metode Pap smear Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Wanita Tuna Susila Dalam Pendeteksian Kanker Serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat efektivitas terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap melalui penyuluhan mengenai pap smear kepada para wanita tuna susila. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest-postest design. Besar sampel berjumlah 38 orang. Hasil menunjukkan uji McNemar menunjukkan terdapat signifikansi yang bermakna untuk pengetahuan (p < 0,05 dan signifikansi untuk perubahan sikap (p<0.05 pada responden sebelum dan setelah penyuluhan. Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, kanker serviks, pap smear

  5. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  6. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.T.; Zahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  7. Knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’s support of Pap smear among multiparous women which have Pap’s smear examination in Aviati clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyawati, L.; Anggraini, D. R.; Fitrie, A. A.; Anggreini, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious health problem and stated as the second cause of death of woman worldwide. Several studies have noted a higher incidence of cervical cancer with increasing parity. Early detection with Pap smear is proven to reduce mortality of patients. Knowledge, attitude and husband’s support contributed to theled womanto follow Pap smear examination. This study explores the knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’ s support of Pap smearin multiparous women that have Pap smear examination. This research is a quantitative study with cross sectional approach recruited 50 respondents as multiparous women that have Pap smear examination inAviati Clinic, Padang Bulan, Medan. The data were collected by self-reports using structured objectives by questionnaires. The result of this study showed that 66% respondents have high knowledge of cervical cancer and 76% respondents have ahigh attitude of Pap smear, but they almost have low husband’s support of Pap smear including information support (62%), emotional support (46%) and real support (50%). This study has revealed that multiparous women that had Pap smear examination generally had high knowledge about cervical cancer and positive attitude about Pap smear, even most of them had low husband’s support.

  8. Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Smears from Sporadic Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of abnormal smears in an unscreened population of sexually active women attending a gynaecological clinic. “Pap” smears were taken sporadically for cytological examination from sexually active women attending gynaecological clinics at the Federal Medical Centre Gombe.

  9. PAPNET-assisted primary screening of conventional cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Nagar, C; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    The PAPNET System is the only device with a neural-network-based-artificial intelligence to detect and show the images of abnormal cells on the monitor to be evaluated in an interactive way. We effectively used the PAPNET in rescreening of conventional cervical smears and we detected its advantages and its disadvantages. In this paper, we report our results from PAPNET-assisted primary screening performed on 20,154 conventional smears. The smears were classified as Negative or as Review. The Negative cases were rapidly rescreened mainly near the coverslip edges, which are the slide areas not analyzed by automated devices because of focusing problems. The Review cases were fully reanalyzed by the optic microscope. In summary, 140 positive smears were detected: 57 cases showed changes due to HPV, 63 LSIL, 15 HSIL, and 5 carcinomas. Therefore, the PAPNET System was confirmed as useful in primary screening of conventional cervical samples as well as rescreening.

  10. Effectiveness of Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Smear Layer Removal in Root Canals of Primary Teeth: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Girish Babu, K L; Tabrez, T A

    2016-01-01

    The present SEM study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of root canal instrumentation using both manual and rotary files in the root canals of primary anterior teeth. Thirty freshly extracted primary maxillary incisors were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, root canals were instrumented with rotary NiTi files; in Group II, the root canals were instrumented using manual NiTi K files and; in Group III, manual instrumentation was done with stainless steel K files. Longitudinal sections were prepared and processed for observation under SEM at the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Scoring of smear layer was done according to Hulsmann and the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Rotary files cleaned the coronal and middle thirds of root canals more effectively. Statistically there was no significant difference between the groups. Lowest score of 2.6 in the apical third of root canals was seen with hand NiTi files. Rotary instrumentation was as effective as manual instrumentation in removal of smear layer in the root canals of primary anterior teeth.

  11. Theory-Informed Interventions to Improve the Quality of Tuberculosis Evaluation at Ugandan Health Centers: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Lelia H; Katamba, Achilles; Haguma, Priscilla; Ochom, Emmanuel; Ayakaka, Irene; Mugabe, Frank; Miller, Cecily; Vittinghoff, Eric; Davis, J Lucian; Handley, Margaret A; Cattamanchi, Adithya

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains under-diagnosed in many countries, in part due to poor evaluation practices at health facilities. Theory-informed strategies are needed to improve implementation of TB evaluation guidelines. We aimed to evaluate the impact of performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy on the quality of TB evaluation at 6 health centers in rural Uganda. We tested components of a multi-faceted intervention to improve adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy. The strategies were selected based on a qualitative assessment guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and the PRECEDE model. We collected patient data 6 months before and after the introduction of each intervention component, and compared ISTC adherence in the pre- and post-intervention periods for adults with cough ≥ 2 weeks' duration. The performance feedback evaluation included 1,446 adults; 838 (58%) were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 608 (42%) during the post-intervention period. Performance feedback resulted in a 15% (95%CI +10% to +20%, pISTC-adherent care. The same-day microscopy evaluation included 1,950 adults; 907 (47%) were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 1,043 (53%) during the post-intervention period. Same-day microscopy was associated with a 14% (95%CI +10% to +18%, pISTC-adherent care. Performance feedback and same-day microscopy should be considered along with ISTC training as part of a multi-faceted intervention to improve the quality of TB evaluation in other high TB burden countries.

  12. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical smears of IUCD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida Jamal; Mohd Salleh Mohd Yasin; Zooraidah Zainal; Hamid Arshat

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a well-documented complication of IUD use. The presence of tails on the IUDs appears to facilitate ascent of bacteria from the vagina into the uterus. In this study, cervical smears of 128 IUD users were stained by Gram's stain and screened for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. 5.5% of the smears were positive for these organisms. Pus was seen in 20.1% of the smears, and yeast cells were seen in 10.2%. The average duration of IUD insertion was 8 months. Smears of 103 controls were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms, pus cells were present in 8.7%, and yeast cells in 4.8%. Of the 7 smears positive for the organisms, only 1 was from the user of a plastic device. All cases included were asymptomatic and were visiting the clinic for routine follow-up. These data suggest that colonization by Actinomyces-like organisms does not appear to be a significant problem in IUD users in Malaysia.

  13. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in a consecutive and previously unscreened population in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolnicu, Simona; Musca, Simona; Micu, Dorian; Micu, Luminita; Moldovan, Cosmin; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical smears in a previously unscreened and asymptomatic population in Romania and to compare the data with those from other countries in Europe. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from smears obtained from women in Romania who had been referred to the gynecologist between January 2006 and December 2011. The smears were collected through 3 regional opportunistic programs of cervical screening and were classified according to the Bethesda system. During the study period, 50536 smear tests were carried out. Of these, 100 smears (0.2%) were unsatisfactory and excluded from the study. Among the remaining 50436 smears, 2965 patients (5.9%) had abnormal epithelial changes. Most of the abnormal smears were represented by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (2.6% of all smears). The data confirmed that there is a high prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial squamous-type lesions (0.9% of all smears) in Romania, and of abnormal smears in women younger than 25years of age (14.0% of all abnormal smears). The data show that there is a high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities among cervical smears in Romania compared with other European countries that run a national screening program. © 2013.

  14. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

    2014-09-22

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called "CINCH".

  15. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  16. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  17. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, L.; Brienen, E.; Mbow, M.; Ochola, E.A,; Mboup, S.; Karanja, D.M.; Secor, W.E.; Polman, K.; Lieshout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific

  18. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    . HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases...

  19. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  20. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%, using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control application of saline solution (n = 20; Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0 was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100; Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0 applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100. The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test. The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos manuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle solução salina (n = 20; Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100; Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100. As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estat

  1. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  2. Variability Study between Pap Smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, S.; Bari, A.; Hayat, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. Results: The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46 percent) women, while 77(54 percent) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5 percent) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5 percent) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58 percent). In the remaining 95(66.4 percent) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46 percent), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). Conclusion: There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. (author)

  3. Parton distributions from lattice QCD with momentum smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus). Cyprus Inst.; Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-15

    In this work we continue our effort to explore a recent proposal, which allows light-cone distributions to be extracted from purely spatial correlations, being thus accessible to lattice methods. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we present our latest results from a twisted mass lattice calculation of the flavor non-singlet momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of the nucleon. Furthermore, we apply a newly proposed momentum improved smearing, which has the potential to reach higher nucleon momenta as required for a safe matching procedure to the physical distribution functions.

  4. IMPLEMENTASI HASIL PAP SMEARS PADA PENGEMBANGAN SURVEILANS TERPADU INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL DI JAWA TIMUR (ANALISIS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SURVEILANS-RESPONS IMS

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    Widjiartini Widjiartini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation analysis of Pap Smears result to the integrated Surveillance development of sexual infection in order to respond the IMS and HIV/AIDS cases which increased especially among the housewife and its aim to the implementation Pap Smears result. Results: The Analysis result: 1. Based on the Pap Smears analysis result when its managed properly might be benefited the information not merely detected service cancer which is tend to increase but its also detected fungal infection and 5 types of IMS data: Haemavilus Vaginalis (HV, Gonococoes (Cocen, Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV, Herpes and Virus Papiloma Humanus (HPV which is Cocen and TV tend to increase every years. This data might be used for Surveillance Respond of Pap Smears intended to the productive housewife who is representing susceptible age group against sexual infection and HIV/AIDS. 2. The integrated Surveillance activity of HIV and sexual infection along with eight steps of respond Pap Smears, the structure is matching up with Surveillance of WHO respond and the system and mechanism base on decision of Minister of Health number 1116/2003 to instruct the formation of Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance networking among those units. 3. Developing the integrated Surveillance of sexual infection and HIV/AIDS through the uphold unit Pap Smears is required the determination of basis function, the Surveillance uphold unit, the Respond Surveillance uphold and function, formulation of Protap and Instruction, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation Surveillance System, Communication, Procurement of Coordination and Resources. Exceptional the above mentioned it is necessary pay attention as well as Surveillance structure and quality. Suggestion: 1. Improving the Surveillance Respond System by improving the users of culture information and data for making a decision the unit of Pap Smears

  5. Maximizing microscopy as a diagnostic tool in peripheral health centres of BU endemic areas in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Enid; Newman, Mercy Jemima; Akumwena, Amos; Ofosu-Appiah, Lawrence; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-09-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, a skin condition caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) is endemic in remote rural areas. Disease diagnosis on clinical basis alone can be misleading, requiring definitive diagnosis based on laboratory tests. Resource constraints in BU endemic areas make microscopy for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) an important and useful method. It is rapid, user-friendly, convenient and cheap. Despite its usefulness, its performance is relatively low. This study investigated modifications of the current method aimed at improving its performance. Forty (IS) 2404 polymerase chain reactions (PCR) positive BU samples were processed by eight physical (centrifugation and overnight sedimentation) and chemical (phenol ammonium sulphate and sodium hypochlorite) modifications of the current direct method. Assessments were based on standard AFB evaluation coupled with in house criteria; positivity (P), clarity and contrast (C) release of bacilli from specimen (R). Overall AFB positivity rate was 64% (409/640). Each protocol had 80 smears. The percentage positivity (P) for the conventional method was 58% (46/80) smears. The highest positivity rate of 57/80 (%) was by protocol 7 (5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS) and concentrated by overnight gravitational sedimentation). The least positivity rate at 35% (28/80) was by protocol 1 (smears from direct application of swab tips). The differences in performance between the two chemical tested; 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS) and 3.5% NaHOCl was significant (p0.05). This study concluded that BU samples treated with a solution of 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate and concentrated by either centrifugation or overnight sedimentation is useful for maximizing AFB detection by bright field microscopy. This can be useful in rural health facilities with resource constraints. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximizing microscopy as a diagnostic tool in peripheral health centres of BU endemic areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Owusu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buruli ulcer (BU disease, a skin condition caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans is endemic in remote rural areas. Disease diagnosis on clinical basis alone can be misleading, requiring definitive diagnosis based on laboratory tests. Resource constraints in BU endemic areas make microscopy for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB an important and useful method. It is rapid, user-friendly, convenient and cheap. Despite its usefulness, its performance is relatively low. This study investigated modifications of the current method aimed at improving its performance. Forty (IS 2404 polymerase chain reactions (PCR positive BU samples were processed by eight physical (centrifugation and overnight sedimentation and chemical (phenol ammonium sulphate and sodium hypochlorite modifications of the current direct method. Assessments were based on standard AFB evaluation coupled with in house criteria; positivity (P, clarity and contrast (C release of bacilli from specimen (R. Overall AFB positivity rate was 64% (409/640. Each protocol had 80 smears. The percentage positivity (P for the conventional method was 58% (46/80 smears. The highest positivity rate of 57/80 (% was by protocol 7 (5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS and concentrated by overnight gravitational sedimentation. The least positivity rate at 35% (28/80 was by protocol 1 (smears from direct application of swab tips. The differences in performance between the two chemical tested; 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS and 3.5% NaHOCl was significant (p 0.05. This study concluded that BU samples treated with a solution of 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate and concentrated by either centrifugation or overnight sedimentation is useful for maximizing AFB detection by bright field microscopy. This can be useful in rural health facilities with resource constraints.

  7. Effects of Different Temperatures for Drying Cervical Mucus Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different room temperatures for drying cervical mucus on crystallisation of fern-tree patterns was determined using cervical mucus smears from 60 women undergoing investigation for infertility at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Cervical mucus smears were dried in the oven at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35C ...

  8. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

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    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  9. Theory-Informed Interventions to Improve the Quality of Tuberculosis Evaluation at Ugandan Health Centers: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

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    Lelia H Chaisson

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains under-diagnosed in many countries, in part due to poor evaluation practices at health facilities. Theory-informed strategies are needed to improve implementation of TB evaluation guidelines. We aimed to evaluate the impact of performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy on the quality of TB evaluation at 6 health centers in rural Uganda.We tested components of a multi-faceted intervention to improve adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC: performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy. The strategies were selected based on a qualitative assessment guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and the PRECEDE model. We collected patient data 6 months before and after the introduction of each intervention component, and compared ISTC adherence in the pre- and post-intervention periods for adults with cough ≥ 2 weeks' duration.The performance feedback evaluation included 1,446 adults; 838 (58% were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 608 (42% during the post-intervention period. Performance feedback resulted in a 15% (95%CI +10% to +20%, p<0.001 increase in the proportion of patients receiving ISTC-adherent care. The same-day microscopy evaluation included 1,950 adults; 907 (47% were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 1,043 (53% during the post-intervention period. Same-day microscopy was associated with a 14% (95%CI +10% to +18%, p<0.001 increase in the proportion of patients receiving ISTC-adherent care.Performance feedback and same-day microscopy should be considered along with ISTC training as part of a multi-faceted intervention to improve the quality of TB evaluation in other high TB burden countries.

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.; Butt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  11. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

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    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the

  12. Impact of a training course on the quality of malaria diagnosis by microscopy in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Sofia; Fançony, Cláudia; Mirante, Clara; Neves, Marcela; Bernardino, Luís; Fortes, Filomeno; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Brito, Miguel

    2014-11-18

    In Angola, malaria is an endemic disease having a major impact on the economy. The WHO recommends testing for all suspected malaria cases, to avoid the presumptive treatment of this disease. In malaria endemic regions laboratory technicians must be very comfortable with microscopy, the golden standard for malaria diagnosis, to avoid the incorrect diagnosis. The improper use of medication promotes drug resistance and undesirable side effects. The present study aims to assess the impact of a three-day refresher course on the knowledge of technicians, quality of blood smears preparation and accuracy of microscopy malaria diagnosis, using qPCR as reference method. This study was implemented in laboratories from three hospitals in different provinces of Angola: Bengo, Benguela and Luanda. In each laboratory samples were collected before and after the training course (slide with thin and thick blood smears, a dried blood spot and a form). The impact of the intervention was evaluated through a written test, the quality of slide preparation and the performance of microscopy. It was found a significant increase on the written test median score, from 52.5% to 65.0%. A total of 973 slides were analysed to evaluate the quality of thick and thin blood smears. Considering all laboratories there was a significant increase in quality of thick and thin blood smears. To determine the performance of microscopy using qPCR as the reference method we used 1,028 samples. Benguela presented the highest values for specificity, 92.9% and 98.8% pre and post-course, respectively and for sensitivity the best pre-course was Benguela (75.9%) and post-course Luanda (75.0%). However, no significant increase in sensitivity and specificity after the training course was registered in any laboratory analysed. The findings of this study support the need of continuous refresher training for microscopists and other laboratory staff. The laboratories should have a quality control programme to supervise

  13. The agreement between self-reported cervical smear abnormalities and screening programme records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane; Cameron, Rebecca; Baker, Krys; Brown, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Million Women Study is a cohort study of women aged 50-64 years in England and Scotland. As a component of the follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate if they had an abnormal cervical smear in the previous five years. This study compared self-reported cervical abnormalities with screening records obtained from the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. For 1944 randomly selected Million Women Study participants in Oxfordshire, screening records were assessed over a six-year period prior to the date of self-reporting. The six-year period was chosen to allow for errors in the recall of timing of abnormal smears. A total of 68 women (3.5%) had a record of at least one equivocal or abnormal smear within the last six years, whereas 49 women (2.5%) self-reported an abnormality. There was a strong trend for an increased probability of self-reporting a history of an abnormal smear as the severity of the recorded abnormality increased (P screening programme records show an abnormal smear, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality increases with the severity of the recorded lesion. Almost all women with a record of negative or inadequate smear(s) correctly interpret the result and do not self-report an abnormality.

  14. Comparative study of smear layer removal by different etching modalities and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the root surface: a scanning electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodoro, Leticia Helena

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, citric acid with tetracycline, and Er:YAG laser to smear layer removal on the root surface after scaling with manual instruments by SEM. Thirty specimens (n=30) of root surface before scaling were divided into 6 groups (n=5). The Control Group (G1) was not treated; Group 2 (G2) was conditioned with citric acid gel 24%, pH1, during 2 minutes; Group 3 (G3) was conditioned with EDTA gel 24%, pH 7, during 2 minutes; Group 4 (G4) was conditioned with citric acid and tetracycline gel 50%, pH1 during 2 minutes; Group 5 (G5) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm), 47 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 0.58 J/cm 2 ; Group 6 (G6) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94μm), 83 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 1.03 J/cm 2 . The micrographic were analyzed by scores and following the statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05) H=20,31. The G1 was significantly different of all groups (28.0); the G2 (13.4), G3 (11.7), and G4 (13.6) showed no difference in relation to G5 (20.3) and G6 (6.0), but the G6 was significantly different from G5. From the results, it can be conclude that: 1) there was intensity smear layer after scaling and root planing; 2) all treatments were effective to smear layer remove with significantly difference to G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6; G2, G3 and G4 were not statistically different from G5 and G6; 3) G6 was more effective in the smear layer remotion in relation to G5 and both presented irregular root surface. (author)

  15. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

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    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical

  16. High prevalence of abnormal Pap smears among young women co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardised questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic and clinical presentation data from women attending family planning and other reproductive health services. Pap smears were done using standard methods. Pap smear data were linked to HIV serostatus. Results. Four hundred and sixty-six women were ...

  17. Application of nose smear method to the assessment of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakata, K.; Fukuda, S.

    1985-01-01

    At PNC Tokai Works, the plutonium fuel fabrication facility has been operating since 1967. Lung counting and bioassay for urine are performed routinely for internal radiation dosimetry in this facility. The nose smear method is used for assessing the significance of intake whenever an incident involving inhalation of radioactive material occurs. It was found empirically on the basis of 22 inhalation cases that nose smear samples were useful for assessing tentatively the intake in an incidental inhalation of plutonium aerosol. In 80% of the cases of plutonium inhalation, the amount in the early faecal excretion (5 days after inhalation) is less than 10 times the plutonium in the nose smear samples over the activity region from 0.074 to 28 Bq of nose smear samples. It is suggested that the amount of plutonium in early excreted faeces be estimated by applying the factor of 10 to the activity in nose smear samples. As an example, when PuO 2 (class Y, AMAD 1 μm) 0.074 Bq corresponding to the minimum detectable amount is measured in the nose smear samples, the early faecal excretion and the total intake can be estimated approximately to be 0.74 Bq and 1.55 Bq, respectively, applying the clearance model of ICRP 30, and the committed dose equivalent of bone surface is estimated as 1.6 mSv. (author)

  18. A scanning electron microscopy study of diseased root surfaces conditioned with EDTA gel plus Cetavlon after scaling and root planing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Júnior, Walter; De Rossi, Andiara; Samih Georges Abi Rached, Ricardo; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, a scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the topical application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel associated with Cetavlon (EDTAC) in removing the smear layer and exposing collagen fibers following root surface instrumentation. Twenty-eight teeth from adult humans, single rooted and scheduled for extraction due to periodontal reasons, were selected. Each tooth was submitted to manual (scaling and root planing) instrumentation alone or combined with ultrasonic instruments, with or without etching using a 24% EDTAC gel. Following extraction, specimens were processed and examined under a scanning electron microscope. A comparative morphological semi-quantitative analysis was performed; the intensity of the smear layer and the decalcification of cementum and dentinal surfaces were graded in 12 sets using an arbitrary scale ranging from 1 (area covered by a smear layer) to 4 (no smear layer). Root debridement with hand instruments alone or combined with ultrasonic instruments resulted in a similar smear layer covering the root surfaces. The smear layer was successfully removed from the surfaces treated with EDTAC, which exhibited numerous exposed dentinal tubules and collagen fibers. This study supports the hypothesis that manual instrumentation alone or instrumentation combined with ultrasonic instrumentation is unable to remove the smear layer, whereas the subsequent topical application of EDTAC gel effectively removes the smear layer, uncovers dentinal openings and exposes collagen fibers.

  19. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert

    2008-01-01

    in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...... = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women...... developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per...

  20. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  1. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  2. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  3. [Pap smear for mass screening: Results of an African experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, O-R; Zongo, N; Ka, S; Wardini, R; Dem, A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of smear test in the fight against cervix uteri cancer in Senegal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 1836 Pap smears performed in patients over 15 years during several screening campaigns in Senegal conducted between June 2010 and June 2012. We analyzed epidemiological data, pathological smears, and the proposed management. In 69% of cases, the women were less than 45 years old. They were mostly multiparous and did not use contraceptive methods before. The smears were interpreted in 91.4% (n=1661) and were pathological in 5.2% of cases. They revealed mainly atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, squamous intraepithelial low-grade lesions, and squamous intraepithelial high-grade lesions, respectively in 2.5% (n=46), 1.7% (n=30) and 1% (n=19) of cases. Multiparity, early marriages were the main risk factors. Patients with pathological smars had colposcopy with cryotherapy (23 cases), and colposcopy and biopsy (13 cases). A hysterectomy was performed in 4 cases. The pathological smear rate found in this study confirms the interest to continue cervical cancer screening with this practice. Strengthening of its geographical and financial access through a national prevention program will effectively help to lower cases of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Non-Human Papillomavirus Pap Smear Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhaji, Kimia; Harvie, Heidi S; Cheston, Emily; Levin, Pamela J; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and non-human papillomavirus (HPV) Papanicolaou (Pap) smear abnormalities. This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 40 to 70 years who presented for consultation at our institution between 2010 and 2015 and had results of a Pap smear and HPV test available within 5 years of their visit. We extracted demographic information, medical and social history, Pap smear, and HPV results from the electronic medical record. Associations between the presence of POP and non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities were estimated using univariable and multivariable analyses. We reviewed 1590 charts and excluded 980 women, leaving 610 women in the study: 183 with POP and 427 without POP. Women with POP were significantly older (58.2 ± 7.2 vs 55.6 ± 6.6, P 10 year) history of abnormal Pap smear (24.0% vs 14.8%, P women with POP.

  5. A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush or the Ayre spatula: a practice audit. ... The purpose of this study was to compare the adequacy of cervical smears taken with the Ayre spatula as opposed to the cytobrush. Methods: This was a retrospective analytical study. One sampler, an experienced ...

  6. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  7. The evidential value of cosmetic foundation smears in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amanda; Coulson, Sally

    2004-11-01

    Cosmetic foundation products are easily transferred to clothing and other surfaces as a result of contact with such objects. Examination of past cases involving cosmetics in New Zealand has shown cosmetic foundation to be one of the more common cosmetic products encountered. The aim of this research was to determine the most discriminating method for the comparison of transferred foundation with samples obtained from a known source in forensic casework. Fifty-three foundation samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). It was found that a 5 mm2 section of a light smearing was enough to provide detectable results. The discriminating powers for FTIR, SEM-EDX and GC-FID were 98.3, 93.8, and 82.0% respectively. A combination of all three techniques provided a discriminating power of 99.7%, meaning that almost complete discrimination was achieved between the foundation samples.

  8. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  9. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, R.; Khawaja, N.P.; Malik, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  10. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B. Shaik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region.

  11. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  12. Cost-effectiveness of microscopy of urethral smears for asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis in men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise; Saunders, John; White, Peter J; Birger, Ruthie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether or not the limited use of urethral microscopy to diagnose asymptomatic and symptomatic non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) in men is a cost-effective strategy to avert pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy or infertility in female partners. Outputs from a transmission dynamic model of NCNGU in a population of 16-30 year olds in England simulating the number of consultations, PID cases and patients treated over time amongst others, were used along with secondary data to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis carried out from a health care provider perspective. The main outcome measure was cost per case of PID averted. A secondary outcome measure was cost per major outcome averted, where a major outcome is a case of symptomatic PID, ectopic pregnancy, or infertility. Offering a limited number of asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was more effective than the current practice of no microscopy in terms of reducing the number of cases of PID with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £15,700, meaning that an investment of £15,800 is required to avert one case of PID. For major outcomes averted, offering some asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was again found to be more effective than no microscopy, but here an investment of £49,900 is required to avert one major outcome. Testing asymptomatic men for NCNGU in a small number of genitourinary medicine settings in England is not cost-effective, and thus by maintaining the current practice of not offering this patient group microscopy, this continues to make savings for the health care provider.

  13. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer".

  14. Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Tucker, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

  15. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  16. The limits of pap smear in diagnosing preinvasive cervical neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Neacsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cervical-vaginal cytology can be interpreted after many classifications, starting from Babeú- Papanicolaou and ending with the Bethesda system, but no matter what the interpretation manner is it is really important to have a good quality of the smears and an experienced cytologist. If we refer to the total number of cases from the lot presented - 16732 cases, the results are satisfactory; 83% smears having normal limits, 10.14% MCB, 2.71% L-SIL, 0.82% H-SIL, 2.77% ASCUS, 0.10% AGC. In Iaúi there are significantly more patients with benign cell changes and L- SIL, while in Buzău there are significantly more patients with a normal smear, but there is also a higher frequency of theatypical squamous cells with an undetermined significance. Classically specialists say that 50-75% of the false negative results are due to the errors made when harvesting the sample. In conclusion we estimate that considering the present conditions in our country where the lack of interest and financial possibilities do not allow an action of detecting the lesions of the cervix organized nationwide, we can still make a selection of the cases with a high risk by making a free Pap smear for all the patients that come to a specialized service, either state or private, provided they respect the protocol of harvesting the cervical secretions, of preparing and reading/interpreting the smears.

  17. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaie, A; Mergenthaler, C; Nasrat, A; Seddiq, M K; Mahmoodi, S D; Stevens, R H; Creswell, J

    2016-01-01

    In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won't receive proper care. From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can push towards the targets of the Stop TB

  18. Anorectal smear in the diagnosis of anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Demirel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to point out the diagnostic value of cytologic smears in patients presenting with anorectal complaints, such as bleeding, pain or discomfort, which may suggest a neoplastic lesion. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a 3 months′ history of anal bleeding and pain during defecation. He was diagnosed as having hemorrhoids and a hemorrhoidectomy was performed. The patient developed an anal stricture postoperatively that required operative dilation. He continued to complain about anorectal pain for 2 months and a subsequent rectoscopy revealed the presence of tumor 5 to 7 cm above the dentate line. The tumor was resected laparoscopically and was reported as an adenocarcinoma. Rectal bleeding recurred 18 months postoperatively and a smear was procured from the anorectal mucosal surface for cytologic evaluation. A definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was rendered based on cytologic and histologic examination of the material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by cytologic smear in the English literature.

  19. The pathogenic microorganisms in papanicolaou vaginal smears and correlation with inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Barouti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson's chi square or Fisher's exact test.The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

  20. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  1. Acid-fast Smear and Histopathology Results Provide Guidance for the Appropriate Use of Broad-Range Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing for Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kennon; Harrington, Susan M; Procop, Gary W

    2015-08-01

    New molecular diagnostic tests are attractive because of the potential they hold for improving diagnostics in microbiology. The value of these tests, which is often assumed, should be investigated to determine the best use of these potentially powerful tools. To investigate the usefulness of broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing, in mycobacterial infections. We reviewed the test performance of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) PCR and traditional diagnostic methods (histopathology, AFB smear, and culture). We assessed the diagnostic effect and cost of the unrestricted ordering of broad-range PCR for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. The AFB PCR was less sensitive than culture and histopathology and was less specific than culture, AFB smear, and histopathology. During 18 months, $93 063 was spent on 183 patient specimens for broad-range PCR and DNA sequencing for mycobacteria to confirm one culture-proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that was also known to be positive by AFB smear and histopathology. In this cohort, there was a false-negative AFB PCR for M tuberculosis and a false-positive AFB PCR for Mycobacterium lentiflavum . Testing of AFB smear-negative specimens from patients without an inflammatory response supportive of a mycobacterial infection is costly and has not been proven to improve patient care. Traditional diagnostics (histopathology, AFB smear, and culture) should remain the primary methods for the detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.

  2. Use of and attitudes and knowledge about pap smears among women in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hammasi, Khadija; Samir, Ola; Kettaneh, Soania; Al-Fadli, Athari; Thalib, Lukman

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of Pap smear among women in Kuwait and to assess their knowledge about and attitude toward Pap smears. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling method. We interviewed 299 women attending polyclinics in Kuwait using a self-administered questionnaire. Factors related to history of having a Pap smear, knowledge level, and willingness to participate in a screening program were evaluated. The lifetime prevalence of Pap smear was found to be 37% (95% CI 33-43). Forty-four percent of women in our study had a Pap smear only once in their lives. History of having at least one Pap smear was significantly related to such factors as age, total family income, marital status, history of cervical infection, and knowledge. The level of knowledge about cervical cancer varied among the participants. Forty-six percent of women were uncertain about the symptoms of cervical cancer. About half the women recognized cervical infection, smoking, and having multiple sexual partners as risk factors for cervical cancer; however, only 10% recognized early sexual intercourse as a risk factor. Willingness to participate in a future screening program varied significantly according to educational level, employment status, and total family income. Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality are relatively low in Kuwait, they may be underreported in the absence of a screening program. Moreover, lifetime prevalence of having a Pap smear was found to be considerably lower in Kuwait compared with developed countries.

  3. Detection of the HTLV-I gene on cytologic smear slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Kenji; Nagahama, Junji; Sato, Keiji; Tanamachi, Hiroyuki; Gamachi, Ayako; Daa, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Iwao; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    To apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of the HTLV-I gene from cytologic smear slides. Samples were from seven cases of serum anti-ATL antibody (ATLA)-positive T-cell lymphoma and three from ATLA-negative T-cell lymphoma. Six of the seven ATLA-positive cases were confirmed to be ATLL by Southern blotting. From the seventh case a fresh sample for blotting could not obtained. DNA was extracted from the cytologic smear slides of all 10 cases; they had been stained with Papanicolaou or May-Giemsa stain, digested with proteinase K and precipitated with phenol and ethanol. The target sequence in the pX region of the HTLV-I gene was amplified by PCR. All seven ATLA-positive cases, including one that had not yet been confirmed by Southern blotting, showed a single band, as predicted, while the three ATLA-negative cases showed no band. If cytologic smear slides are available but a fresh sample is not, the PCR method should provide evidence that the virus is present since in our study sufficient DNA templates were successfully extracted from the stained cytologic smear slides for detection of the virus.

  4. [Abnormalities in cervical smears stored in plastic bags: potential cause of false negatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Patricia; González-Bravo, Margarita S; Jiménez-Muñoz-Ledo, Gustavo; Macías, Alejandro E

    2011-01-01

    Cervical smear is the most economic and efficient diagnostic tool for the screening of cervical cancer. However, since plastic bags have been used in Guanajuato to transport and store smears, we have observed cytological abnormalities which difficult the diagnosis and lead to false negatives. To describe those abnormalities. Out of 340 women registered in a primary care center in Mexico, 68 were selected through systematic random sampling during 2007. A cervical smear was obtained and placed on two slides. The first sample was allowed to dry but the second one was placed into the plastic bag immediately after fixation. After 15 days all the smears were stained with the Papanicolaou technique. A certified pathologist, blinded about the variable of study, interpreted the samples according to the Bethesda system, and evaluated the presence of necrosis, edema, holes, and opportunistic microorganisms. Of the 68 smears exposed to a humid storage, 36 (53%) were inadequate for diagnosis (Fisher's exact probability plastic bags.

  5. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs......), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged...... as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT...

  6. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  7. Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... Objective: To determine the age distribution pattern of abnormal Paps smear in women in our environment in order to have a basis for the points of entry and exit for cervical cancer screening protocol. Materials and Method: In this ...

  8. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  9. Validation of a model for predicting smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with initial acid-fast bacilli smear-negative sputum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun-Jun [Department of Chest Medicine, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi City (China); Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China); Meiho University, Pingtung (China); Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Heng Chun Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China)

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort. HRCT characteristics were analysed, and multivariable regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to develop a score predictive of iSN-SP-aPTB. The derivation cohort showed clusters of nodules/mass of the right upper lobe or left upper lobe were independent predictors of iSN-SP-aPTB, while bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe or left lingual lobe were negatively associated with iSN-SP-aPTB. A predictive score for iSN-SP-aPTB based on these findings was tested in the validation and prospective cohorts. With an ideal cut-off score = 1, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the prediction model were 87.5% (90%, 90.5%), 99% (97.1%, 98.4%), 94.6% (81.3%, 57.5%), and 97.6% (97%, 99.8%) in the derivation (validation, prospective) cohorts, respectively. The model may help identify iSN-SP-aPTB among patients with non-iSP pulmonary diseases. circle Smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis that is initial smear-negative (iSN-SP-aPTB) is infectious. (orig.)

  10. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  11. Crack Models for Concrete, Discrete or Smeared? Fixed, Multi-Directional or Rotating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, J.G.; Blaauwendraad, J.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical tools to simulate cracking in concrete and similar materials are developed. Firstly, a treatment is given of smeared and discrete crack concepts, which start from the notion of a continuum and a discontinuum respectively. With the smeared crack concept a distinction is furthermore made

  12. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  13. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p SPOT.TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  14. How group education impacts female factory workers' behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

  15. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  17. The urethral smear as a tool in diagnosing adenovirus-induced urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønsberg, E; Hartgill, U

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus is a recognised cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, and is not uncommonly associated with extragenital signs and symptoms. This case report describes a patient with symptoms of conjunctivitis, meatitis and urethritis. The urethral smear revealed almost exclusively monocytes microscopically, raising the suspicion of a viral aetiology. Results confirmed the presence of adenovirus in both the eyes and urethra. Despite waning reliance on the urethral smear in sexual health clinics, it can still be an important diagnostic tool in assessing the aetiology of non-specific urethritis. Finding an obvious monocytic cell response in the urethral smear can indicate a viral cause and allow the clinician to optimise management, counsel appropriately, and potentially reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  19. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  20. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (protary file system produced significantly less smear layer (protary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to ProTaper rotary instruments with respect to canal cleanliness in the apical thirds of the root canal. PMID:25954704

  1. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanaie

    Full Text Available In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won't receive proper care.From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification.We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125 were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified.While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can push towards the targets of

  2. Improved microscopical detection of acid-fast bacilli by the modified bleach method in lymphnode aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annam Vamseedhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve the smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of lymph node using the bleach method and also to compare this with cytological diagnosis and the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN method. Study Design: In 99 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis (TB presenting with lymphadenopathy, FNACs were performed. Smears from the aspirates were processed for routine cytology and the conventional ZN method. The remaining material in the needle hub and/or the syringe was used for the bleach method. The significance of the bleach method over the conventional ZN method and cytology was analyzed using the χ2 test. Results: Of 99 aspirates, 93 were studied and the remaining six were excluded from the study due to diagnosis of malignancy in 4.04% (4/6 and inadequate aspiration in 2.02% (2/6. Among the 93 aspirates, 33.33% (31/93 were positive for AFB on conventional ZN method, 41.94% (39/93 were indicative of TB on cytology and the smear positivity increased to 63.44% (59/93 on bleach method. Conclusion: The bleach method is simple, inexpensive and potent disinfectant, also limiting the risk of laboratory-acquired infections. The implementation of the bleach method clearly improves microscopic detection and can be a useful contribution to routine cytology.

  3. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  4. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear microscopy centres in Blantyre Malawi: a facility based cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majamanda, J; Ndhlovu, P; Shawa, I T

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workers' risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be prioritized and optimized to provide sufficient safety to laboratory workers. To assess the safety for the laboratory workers in TB primary microscopy centres in Blantyre urban. TB primary microscopy centers in Blantyre urban were assessed in aspects of equipment availability, facility layout, and work practice, using a standardized WHO/AFRO ISO 15189 checklist for the developing countries which sets the minimum safety score at ≥80%. Each center was graded according to the score it earned upon assessment. Only one (1) microscopy center out nine (9) reached the minimum safety requirement. Four (4) centers were awarded 1 star level, four (4) centers were awarded 2 star level and only one (1) center was awarded 3 star level. In Blantyre urban, 89% of the Tuberculosis microscopy centers are failing to provide the minimum safety to the laboratory workers. Government and other stake holders should be committed in addressing the safety challenges of TB microscopy centres in the country to ensure safety for the laboratory workers. It is recommended that the study be conducted at the regional or national level for both public and private laboratories in order to have a general picture of safety in Tb microscopy centres possibly across the country.

  5. Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Rached, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Batista, Luiz Henrique Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, ...

  6. Effects of liquid- and paste-type EDTA on smear-layer removal during rotary root-canal instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of paste/gel-type chelators during rotary nickel–titanium instrumentation resulted in improved cleanliness in the coronal and middle parts of the root canal. We recommend using liquid EDTA as a final flushing solution during root-canal preparation because it provides a better smear layer-free condition before 3-dimensional root-canal obturation.

  7. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  8. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A

    2011-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from...

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  10. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  11. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis in...

  12. Symptomatic candidiasis: Using self sampled vaginal smears to establish the presence of Candida, lactobacilli, and Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberts, M K; Boon, M E; van Haaften, M; Heintz, A P M

    2007-10-01

    In a prospective cohort study, 10 symptomatic women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were taught how to prepare vaginal smears of their own vaginal fluids on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The 40 smears were stained with the PAS-method and examined by three different cytopathologists for presence of Candida. Thereafter, the smears were restained with Giemsa-stain to determine presence of lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis ("clue cells") and neutrophils. All three cytopathologists unequivocally established Candida blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae in 27 out of the 40 PAS-stained vaginal smears, whereas in the remaining 13 smears Candida was not found. All 10 patients had Candida in their smears during the second half of their menstrual cycle.Self sampled smears prove to be reliable for establishing the presence of Candida in symptomatic patients with candidiasis. Candida is associated with a lactobacillus-predominated vaginal flora, but with the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis. Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H.; Bulava, J.; Foley, J.; Juge, K.J.; Peardon, M.

    2011-08-01

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z N noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24 3 x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a s ∝0.12 fm and temporal spacing a t ∝0.034 fm for pion masses m π ∼ 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  15. 17 Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted in February 2009 to assess the effect of the level of CD4 lymphocyte ... development of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) among HIV patients before ..... (2000) Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on the risk of tuberculosis.

  16. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cervical cancer will take several decades to be apparent. There are more effective ways of screening, such as HPV DNA testing,[2] ... ARTICLE. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! C Gordon, MB ChB, Diploma in HIV ...

  17. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo

    2016-01-01

    and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...... was detected in 68 of the 71 FNA smears from OPSCC metastases. All corresponding surgical specimens from primary tumors (n = 71) and metastases (n = 38) were p16- and HPV DNA-positive. All the surgical specimens and corresponding FNA smears from OSCCs, Warthin tumors, and branchial cleft cysts were HPV DNA...

  18. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tabor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001 the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

  19. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  20. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  1. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  2. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ∼1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10 –6 kpc m –20/3 would be expected at z ∼ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with τ host ∝(1 + z) –3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or τ host ∝(1 + z) –17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling τ IGM ∼ z 2 for z ∼ 0.2–0.5 for z ∼> 1

  3. Evaluation of final irrigation regimens with maleic acid for smear layer removal and wettability of root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria; Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K Narayan; Arias-Moliz, Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the smear layer removal and wettability of AH Plus sealer on root canal dentin treated with MA (maleic acid), MA + CTR (cetrimide) and MA + CTR + CHX (chlorhexidine) as final irrigating regimens. For smear layer removal, 40 teeth were instrumented to size F4 and divided into four groups: (1) 7% MA, (2) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR, (3) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR + 2% CHX, (4) distilled water (control). After irrigation, teeth were subjected to SEM analysis. For contact angle analysis, 20 teeth were split longitudinally and divided into four groups similar to smear layer analysis. AH plus sealer was placed on each specimen and contact angle was analysed. In both smear layer (p = .393) and contact angle analysis (p = .961), there was no significant difference between the groups MA and MA + CTR. However, MA + CTR + CHX removed smear layer less effectively (p = .023) and increased the contact angle of the sealer (p = .005). In smear layer analysis, specimens in negative control group were heavily smeared. In case of contact angle analysis, samples in the control group had least contact angle. MA alone or in combination with CTR removed smear layer effectively and increased the wettability of AH plus sealer to root canal dentin.

  4. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Siwakoti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients.Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS.

  5. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS) to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwakoti, Shraddha; Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Agarwal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha

    2016-12-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB) patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients. Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB) cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS.

  6. Evaluating the Pap Smear Reports of Pathology Laboratories in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Zargar Shoushtari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pap smear is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. The incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer has decreased up to 90% in the regular screening in women aged 20-65 years. This study aimed to investigate the Pap smear reports of pathology laboratories in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,006 Pap smear reports were collected from pathology laboratories via cluster sampling method. Data was analyzed by a self-structured questionnaire. In addition, variables such as age, type of infection, grade of inflammation, metaplastic changes, and epithelial cell abnormalities in cervix were studied in this study. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16.0 using descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Fisher’s exact, and Chi-square tests. Results: While no infection was reported in 94.43% (n=950 of cases, the highest incidence rate of infections in the remaining samples (5.56%, n=56 was related to Candida Albicans (4.77%, n=48. Various grades of inflammation were reported in 83.69% (n=842 of the samples. Moreover, the highest grade of inflammation in fungal infections was 2+, whereas the grades in Trichomonas and bacterial infections were 1+ and 3+, respectively. Cervical dysplasia and metaplasia were reported in 0.29% (n=3 and 1.19% (n=12 of the cases, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical-vaginal infections, cervical metaplasia, and dysplasia were relatively low in Pap smear reports of laboratories in Ahvaz.

  7. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  8. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W.

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  9. The effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of free Pap smear among female teachers in Birnin-Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, A N; Abiola, A O; Ibrahim, Mto

    2012-01-01

    The Routine Pap smear test has successfully reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the presence of a proper structure for its implementation. This study was designed to assess the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of Pap smear among female teachers. It was a quasi-experimental, controlled study with a pre-test, post-test design. A total of 100 respondents were recruited for each of the intervention and control groups, by the multistage sampling technique. The mean knowledge score of cervical cancer was low in both the interventions (25.5% ± 10.5) and control groups (18.9% ± 10.0) at baseline; a significant rise to 57.2% ± 20.7 was recorded after the intervention in the Intervention group (Pfree Pap smear was poor at the post-intervention phase in both the groups (P=0.45). Reported reasons for poor uptake included the respondents' dislike for the test (38.4%) and the belief that the test was not necessary (24.4%). About 20% of the respondents did not have any reason at all. Health education had no significant effect on the uptake of a free Pap smear among teachers. Despite the significant improvement in the attitude toward the test, many respondents did not like the test after than before the intervention. Sociocultural issues such as the gender of the sample collector, and system factors like few service delivery points, and the time required to access the service could have contributed to the poor uptake recorded in this study. A program designed to improve routine cervical cancer screening by Pap smear should therefore address not only the knowledge and cost, but also the sociocultural and systemic factors.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, T.; Shaikh, Z.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in clinically suspected patients of leprosy using histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital, Dermatology Department Military Hospital (MH) and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from 18th August 2012 to 18 Feb 2013. Methods: Appropriate technical and ethical approval for the study and patient consent were obtained. All suspected patients of leprosy of any age and either gender having typical hypo-aesthetic or anesthetic, erythematous or hypo-pigmented scaly skin lesions on any part of body were included in this study. All patients who have already received treatment for leprosy, patients with pure neural leprosy, patient not giving their consent for skin biopsy and patients with lepra reactions were excluded from this study. Forty eight patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Sample size had been calculated by using WHO sample size calculator taking confidence level 95%, absolute precision required 14% and anticipated population proportion 40%. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used to collect sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of 48 clinically suspected patients of leprosy skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (70.8%) and the slit skin smear had diagnostic accuracy of 68.75% with sensitivity 55.8% and specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Study suggested that although slit skin smears are rapid and inexpensive method of diagnosis but their diagnostic accuracy is low. (author)

  11. Effects of spectral smearing on performance of the spectral ripple and spectro-temporal ripple tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Sharma, Mridula; Van Dun, Bram; Bansal, Shalini; Prabhu, Latika; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to use spectral smearing to evaluate the efficacy of a spectral ripple test (SRt) using stationary sounds and a recent variant with gliding ripples called the spectro-temporal ripple test (STRt) in measuring reduced spectral resolution. In experiment 1 the highest detectable ripple density was measured using four amounts of spectral smearing (unsmeared, mild, moderate, and severe). The thresholds worsened with increasing smearing and were similar for the SRt and the STRt across the three conditions with smearing. For unsmeared stimuli, thresholds were significantly higher (better) for the STRt than for the SRt. An amplitude fluctuation at the outputs of simulated (gammatone) auditory filters centered above 6400 Hz was identified as providing a potential detection cue for the STRt stimuli. Experiment 2 used notched noise with energy below and above the passband of the SRt and STRt stimuli to reduce confounding cues in the STRt. Thresholds were almost identical for the STRt and SRt for both unsmeared and smeared stimuli, indicating that the confounding cue for the STRt was eliminated by the notched noise. Thresholds obtained with notched noise present could be predicted reasonably accurately using an excitation-pattern model.

  12. Impact of quality improvement in tuberculosis laboratories in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, I D; Albert, H; Zallet, J; Werner, U-E; Ahmed, N; Rieder, H L; Salfinger, M; Kranzer, K

    2018-03-01

    The effect of quality improvement measures on the performance of diagnostic tuberculosis (TB) laboratories in low- and lower-middle-income countries is not known, and is the subject of this review. Three databases were searched for quality improvement studies presenting data on performance parameters before and after the implementation of quality improvement interventions. Twenty-one studies were included in this review. Quality improvement measures were most frequently implemented by an external organization; settings targeted ranged from microscopy centers, hospitals, districts, regional and national reference laboratories. Quality improvement interventions and outcome measurements were highly heterogeneous. Most studies investigated interventions aimed at improving smear microscopy (n = 17). Two studies evaluated comprehensive quality improvement measures (n = 2) and another three studies focused on mycobacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing. Most studies showed an improvement in outcomes measured on before-after or time trend analysis. Quality improvement measures implemented in TB laboratories showed a positive impact on various outcomes. Due to the high heterogeneity of outcome reporting and interventions and the low quality of the studies, the effect size was not clear. Identification of standardized quality indicators and their link to the quality of patient care would improve knowledge in this field.

  13. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bulava, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Foley, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Juge, K.J. [University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Peardon, M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics

    2011-08-15

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3} x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s} {proportional_to}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t} {proportional_to}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  14. Performance of LED-based fluorescence microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis in a peripheral health centre in Nairobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Bonnet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sputum microscopy is the only tuberculosis (TB diagnostic available at peripheral levels of care in resource limited countries. Its sensitivity is low, particularly in high HIV prevalence settings. Fluorescence microscopy (FM can improve performance of microscopy and with the new light emitting diode (LED technologies could be appropriate for peripheral settings. The study aimed to compare the performance of LED-FM versus Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy and to assess feasibility of LED-FM at a low level of care in a high HIV prevalence country. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in an urban health clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Three sputum specimens were collected over 2 days from suspected TB patients. Each sample was processed with Auramine O and ZN methods and a 4(th specimen was collected for TB culture reference standard. Auramine smears were read using the same microscope, equipped with the FluoLED™ fluorescence illuminator. Inter-reader agreement, reading time and technicians' acceptability assessed feasibility. RESULTS: 497 patients were included and 1394 specimens were collected. The detection yields of LED-FM and ZN microscopy were 20.3% and 20.6% (p = 0.64, respectively. Sensitivity was 73.2% for LED-FM and 72% for ZN microscopy, p = 0.32. It was 96.7% and 95.9% for specificity, p = 0.53. Inter-reader agreement was high (kappa = 0.9. Mean reading time was three times faster than ZN microscopy with very good acceptance by technicians. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not increase sensitivity, the faster reading time combined with very good acceptance and ease of use supports the introduction of LED-FM at the peripheral laboratory level of high TB and HIV burden countries.

  15. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    Full Text Available The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  16. Tuberculosis risk factors in children with smear-positive tuberculosis adult as household contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hajarsjah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Children in household contact of adults with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB are at higher risk of TB infection. Screening of these children is a main strategy for eliminating childhood TB. Objective To determine risk factors of TB among children in household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 5 public health centers at Batu Bara District, North Sumatera. We studied children from birth to 18 year-old living in the same house as adults with smear-positive TB. A tuberculosis scoring system was used to diagnosis TB in the children. Associations between risk factors and the incidence of TB were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and logistic regression tests. Results We enrolled 145 children who had household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients. Subjects were allocated to either the case group [TB score >6; 61 subjects (42.0%] or the control group [TB score <6; 84 subjects (58.0%]. Bivariate analysis revealed that nutritional status, immunization status, number of people in the house, sleeping in the same bed, and duration of household contact had significant associations with the incidence of TB. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, nutritional status and duration of household contact were significant risk factors for TB, with OR 5.89 and 8.91, respectively. Conclusion Malnutrition and duration of household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients of more than 6 hours per day were risk factors for TB among children.

  17. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  18. Diagnostic performance of automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assay in smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Aarti; Biswas, Debasis; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra; Sindhwani, Girish; Kakati, Barnali; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is particularly challenging, and automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assays (LPA) may prove particularly useful. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of automated liquid culture (ALC) technology and commercial LPA in sputum smear-negative PTB suspects. Spot sputum samples were collected from 145 chest-symptomatic smear-negative patients and subjected to ALC, direct drug susceptibility test (DST) testing and LPA, as per manufacturers' instructions. A diagnostic yield of 26.2% was observed among sputum smear-negative TB suspects with 47.4% of the culture isolates being either INH- and/or rifampicin-resistant. Complete agreement was observed between the results of ALC assay and LPA except for two isolates which demonstrated sensitivity to INH and rifampicin at direct DST but were rifampicin-resistant in LPA. Two novel mutations were also detected among the multidrug isolates by LPA. In view of the diagnostic challenges associated with the diagnosis of TB in sputum smear-negative patients, our study demonstrates the applicability of ALC and LPA in establishing diagnostic evidence of TB.

  19. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, U.; Hanif, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  20. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  1. Declining prevalence of cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix among women living with well-controlled HIV - Most women living with HIV do not need annual PAP smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Inka; Kivelä, Pia; Haukka, Jari; Sutinen, Jussi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2017-11-01

    Cervical screening by means of annual Papanicolaou (PAP) smears has been recommended for all women living with HIV. We analysed the results of our annual PAP smear screening program to identify low-risk subgroups for less rigorous screening. The study comprised 369 women followed at the Helsinki University Hospital 2002-2013, with a total of 2033 PAP smear results. We analyzed the temporal changes in PAP smear findings. Logistic regression analysis for binominal dependent variables was used for assessing risk factors for ever having cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions (hereafter referred as SIL) using generalized estimating equations taking into account multiple observations of each patient. Most women had well-controlled HIV, especially towards the end of the study. PAP smear results improved substantially. At the time of each individual's last PAP smear, 90.0% of the findings displayed normal results. Conversely, the rate of SIL decreased from 16.8% to 4.6% from 2002 to 2013. In multivariate analysis the risk of SIL was significantly lower in women with consecutive normal PAP smear findings during the first two years of follow up [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.45, p 500 cells/μL (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.26, p < 0.001). Widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and systematic cervical screening has reduced the rate of abnormal PAP smears. It seems feasible to identify low-risk women by combining HIV-related information and PAP smear results. Screening low-risk women living with HIV at three-year intervals similar to HIV-negative women appears justified. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection; Culture, microscopy of biopsy smears, and the rapid urease test compared with the sup 14 C-urea breath test. Diagnostikk av Helicobacter pylori-infeksjon; Urease hurtigtest, mikroskopi av utstryk, og dyrking av ventrikkelbiopsi sammenlignet med sup 14 C-urea-pusteproeven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nysaeter, G; Berstad, K; Weberg, R; Berstad, A; Hardardottir, H [Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    1992-08-01

    By employing the {sup 14}C-urea breath test as the reference methods the authors determined the specificity and sensitivity of three bioptic methods for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in 103 subjects. All biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum. For culture the specificity was 100%. Its applicability was reduced, however, by a low sensitivity (73.8%) and a delay of several days before the final result was available. Microscopy of Loeffler-stained biopsy smears yielded a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.9%, but the method was regarded time-consuming. The rapid urease test yielded a specificity of 98.4% and a sensitivity of 85.7%. Being quick, simple and inexpensive, the rapid urease test is well suited for routine use in gastroscopy. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  4. A portable microscopy system for fluorescence, polarized, and brightfield imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Paul; Wattinger, Rolla; Lewis, Cody; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.; Coté, Gerard

    2018-02-01

    The use of mobile phones to conduct diagnostic microscopy at the point-of-care presents intriguing possibilities for the advancement of high-quality medical care in remote settings. However, it is challenging to create a single device that can adapt to the ever-varying camera technologies in phones or that can image with the customization that multiple modalities require for applications such as malaria diagnosis. A portable multi-modal microscope system is presented that utilizes a Raspberry Pi to collect and transmit data wirelessly to a myriad of electronic devices for image analysis. The microscopy system is capable of providing to the user correlated brightfield, polarized, and fluorescent images of samples fixed on traditional microscopy slides. The multimodal diagnostic capabilities of the microscope were assessed by measuring parasitemia of Plasmodium falciparum-infected thin blood smears. The device is capable of detecting fluorescently-labeled DNA using FITC excitation (490 nm) and emission (525 nm), the birefringent P. falciparum byproduct hemozoin, and detecting brightfield absorption with a resolution of 0.78 micrometers (element 9-3 of a 1951 Air Force Target). This microscopy system is a novel portable imaging tool that may be a viable candidate for field implementation if challenges of system durability, cost considerations, and full automation can be overcome.

  5. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  6. Infrequent detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens from TB patients with or without HIV and healthy contacts in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte; Jensen, Andreas V; Praygod, George

    2010-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB) endemic parts of the world, patients with pulmonary symptoms are managed as "smear-negative TB patients" if they do not improve on a two-week presumptive, broad-spectrum course of antibiotic treatment even if they are TB microscopy smear negative. These patients are frequentl......- and TB-endemic area of sub-Saharan Africa....

  7. False-Negative Rate of Gram-Stain Microscopy for Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis: Suggestions for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stirling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the false-negative diagnostic rate of septic arthritis using Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid and compare this to values reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We propose a method of improving the diagnostic value of Gram-stain microscopy using Lithium Heparin containers that prevent synovial fluid coagulation. Retrospective study of the Manchester Royal Infirmary microbiology database of patients undergoing synovial fluid Gram-stain and culture between December 2003 and March 2012 was undertaken. The initial cohort of 1896 synovial fluid analyses for suspected septic arthritis was reduced to 143 after exclusion criteria were applied. Analysis of our Gram-stain microscopy yielded 111 false-negative results from a cohort size of 143 positive synovial fluid cultures, giving a false-negative rate of 78%. We report a false-negative rate of Gram-stain microscopy for septic arthritis of 78%. Clinicians should therefore avoid the investigation until a statistically significant data set confirms its efficacy. The investigation's value could be improved by using Lithium Heparin containers to collect homogenous synovial fluid samples. Ongoing research aims to establish how much this could reduce the false-negative rate.

  8. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  9. Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro negativa Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Jacomelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da broncoscopia em pacientes com suspeita clínica ou radiológica de tuberculose, com baciloscopia negativa ou incapazes de produzir escarro. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de 286 pacientes com suspeita clínica/radiológica de tuberculose pulmonar e submetidos à broncoscopia - LBA e biópsia transbrônquica (BTB. As amostras de LBA foram testadas por pesquisas diretas e culturas de BAAR e de fungos, e as de BTB por exame histopatológico. RESULTADOS: Dos 286 pacientes estudados, a broncoscopia contribuiu para o diagnóstico em 225 (79%: tuberculose pulmonar em 127 (44%; inflamações crônicas inespecíficas em 51 (18%; pneumocistose, infecções fúngicas ou nocardiose em 20 (7%; bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, alveolites ou pneumoconioses em 14 (5%; neoplasias pulmonares ou metastáticas em 7 (2%; e micobacterioses não tuberculosas em 6 (2%. Para o diagnóstico de tuberculose, o LBA mostrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 60% e 100% respectivamente, havendo um aumento importante da sensibilidade quando associado à biópsia (84% e à baciloscopia após a broncoscopia (94%. Complicações controláveis decorrentes do procedimento ocorreram em 5,6% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: A broncoscopia representa um método diagnóstico confiável para pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar, apresentando baixos índices de complicações. A associação de biópsia transbrônquica ao lavado broncoalveolar elevou a sensibilidade diagnóstica do método e permitiu o diagnóstico diferencial com outras doenças.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to

  10. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  11. A misleading urethral smear with polymorphonuclear leucocytes and intracellular diplococci; case report of urethritis caused by Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genders, R E; Spitaels, D; Jansen, C L; van den Akker, Th W; Quint, K D

    2013-12-01

    The primary pathogens found in men with urethritis are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Rapid diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection can be made based on a Gram- or methylene blue-stained urethral smear. We describe a case of a man with purulent penile discharge, in which microscopic examination led to the presumptive diagnosis of gonorrhoea. A nucleic acid amplification test was negative for N. gonorrhoeae but positive for C. trachomatis. Culture showed Gram-negative diplococci which were identified as Neisseria meningitidis. N. meningitidis can be sporadically pathogenic in the genito-urinary tract and mimicks gonococcal urethritis, and appears identical by microscopy. When a gonococcal urethritis is suspected based on clinical signs and microscopic examination, but investigatory tests cannot confirm the diagnosis, a N. meningitidis infection should be considered.

  12. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  13. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  14. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  15. Comparison between high concentration EDTA (24%) and low concentration EDTA (3%) with surfactant upon removal of smear layer after rotary instrumentation: a SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghustani, Mohsen; Alhammadi, Ahmad; Merdad, Khalid; Ohlin, Johan; Erhardt, Fredrik; Ahlquist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study compare cleanliness of tooth canal walls regarding smear layer after final treatment with 24% ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) and 3% EDTA with or without surfactant. Sixty extracted teeth, randomly distributed into four groups, were prepared using ProFile instruments (DENTSPLY, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and subjected to different final irrigation solutions: group A, 24% EDTA; group B, 3% EDTA with surfactant; group C (positive control), 3% EDTA; and group D (negative control), 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Roots were sectioned, examined and evaluated under scanning electron microscope; microphotographs were taken for the coronal, middle and apical third of each specimen. Statistical analysis showed no difference regarding presence of smear layer between test groups in the coronal and apical sections. They were cleaned in the coronal sections and uncleaned in the apical sections. In the middle section, group B was significantly cleaner (p EDTA did not improve root canal cleanliness and there is no difference between different EDTA concentrations in removing the smear layer.

  16. .\tA Study on Cervical Pap Smear Examination in Patient Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devanshi Gosai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive screening programme of cervical Pap smear examination can detect the precancerous and cancerous lesions at an early stage and mortality & morbidity due to these lesions can be reduced. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in HIV infected women. Methods: The study was carried out on 369 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counselling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 142 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynaecology OPD with various gynaecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conclusion: Regular gynaecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females. Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population.

  17. SIMPLE MEASURES ARE AS EFFECTIVE AS INVASIVE TECHNIQUES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN MALAWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David J; Dacombe, Russell; Graham, Stephen M; Hicks, Alexander; Cohen, Danielle; Chikaonda, Tarsizio; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Zijlstra, Ed E; Squire, S Bertel; Gordon, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Setting Detection of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is vital for tuberculosis control. Methods to augment sputum collection are available but their additional benefit is uncertain in resource-limited settings. Objective To compare the diagnostic yields using five methods to obtain sputum from adults diagnosed with smear-negative PTB in Malawi. Design Self-expectorated sputum was collected under supervision for microscopy and mycobacterial culture in the study laboratory. Confirmed smear-negative patients, provided physiotherapy-assisted sputum and induced sputum followed, the next morning, by gastric washing and bronchoalveolar-lavage samples. Results 150 patients, diagnosed with smear-negative PTB by the hospital service, were screened. 39 (26%) were smear-positive from supervised self-expectorated sputum examined in the study laboratory. The remaining 111 confirmed smear-negative patients were enrolled; 89% were HIV positive. Seven additional smear-positive cases were diagnosed using the augmented sputum collection techniques. No differences were observed in the numbers of cases detected using the different methods. 44 (95.6%) of the 46 smear-positive cases could be detected from self-expectorated and physiotherapy-assisted samples Conclusions For countries like Malawi, the best use of limited resources to detect smear-positive PTB cases would be to improve the quality of self-expectorated sputum collection and microscopy. The additional diagnostic yield using bronchoalveolar-lavage after induced sputum is limited. PMID:19105886

  18. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Switz

    Full Text Available The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  19. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switz, Neil A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  20. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); CERN, PH-TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-15

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  1. The Prevalence of Abnormal Pap Smears in females Referred to Health Centers Affiliated to Medical Sciences During the Years 2012 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Massomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most important female reproductive system diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears of pregnant females in public health centers and hospitals of Hamadan. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 36046 Pap smears of females was extracted from the records referred to government health centers affiliated to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Fatemiyeh Hospital Hamadan, between 2012 and 2016. After checking the results of Pap smear, abnormal information (605 cases were collected and investigated. Data were then analyzed using the SPSS21-software and descriptive statistics and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: The majority of females with abnormal Pap smear results (%30.4 were aged 45 to 36 years, and %48.6 of females with abnormal Pap smear had parity (1-3. From a total of 36046 cases, 605 cases of abnormal Pap smear were observed. The highest and lowest frequencies of abnormal Pap smear were related to ASCUS and LSIL, at a prevalence of %78 and %1, respectively. There was a positive relationship between abnormal Pap smear results and age (P = 0.037. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal Pap smear in Hamadan was %1.67. Malignant cervical cancer and invasive cancer risk increased with age, hence, screening and Pap smear, especially from age 35 and above, is recommended.

  2. Confocal fluorescence microscopy in a murine model of microdissection testicular sperm extraction to improve sperm retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan P; Lowe, Greg J; Kavoussi, Parviz K; Steers, William D; Costabile, Raymond A; Herr, John C; Shetty, Jagathpala; Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction markedly improves the sperm retrieval rates in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. However, localizing sperm foci can be time-consuming and it is not always successful. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy offers the advantage of rapid in vivo detection of fluorescently labeled sperm in the seminiferous tubules. After establishing the feasibility of fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy to identify antibody labeled sperm in vivo C57/B6 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of busulfan to induce azoospermia. During spermatogenesis reestablishment at approximately 16 weeks the mice were anesthetized and the testes were delivered through a low midline incision. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antibody to intra-acrosomal protein Hs-14 was injected retrograde into a single murine rete testis. The testes were imaged in vivo with fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy and sperm foci were detected. The respective seminiferous tubules were excised and squash prepared for immunofluorescence microscopy. Sperm foci were identified in the testis injected with fluorescently tagged antibody by in vivo fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy. The contralateral control testis of each mouse showed no specific signal. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the excised tubules provided morphological confirmation of the presence of labeled sperm with an absence in controls. Findings were consistent in the feasibility portion of the study and in the busulfan model of nonobstructive azoospermia. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy was feasible during microdissection testicular sperm extraction in an azoospermic mouse model to identify fluorescently labeled sperm in vivo. Translation to the clinical setting could decrease operative time and improve the sperm harvest rate. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

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    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  4. Preliminary Study of In Vivo Formed Dental Plaque Using Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    KA. Al-Salihi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM is relatively a new light microscopical imaging technique with a wide range of applications in biological sciences. The primary value of CLSM for the biologist is its ability to provide optical sections from athree-dimensional specimen. The present study was designed to assess the thickness and content of in vivo accumulated dental plaque using CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Materials and Methods: Acroflat lower arch splints (acrylic appliance were worn by five participants for three days without any disturbance. The formed plaques were assessed using CLSM combined with vital fluorescence technique and SEM.Results: In this study accumulated dental plaque revealed varied plaque microflora vitality and thickness according to participant’s oral hygiene. The thickness of plaque smears ranged from 40.32 to 140.72 μm and 65.00 to 128.88 μm for live (vital and dead accumulated microorganisms, respectively. Meanwhile, the thickness of plaque on the appliance ranged from 101 μm to 653 μm. CLSM revealed both dead and vital bacteria on the surface of the dental plaque. In addition, SEM revealed layers of various bacterial aggregations in all dental plaques.Conclusion: This study offers a potent non-invasive tool to evaluate and assess the dental plaque biofilm, which is a very important factor in the development of dental caries.

  5. The effect of root surface conditioning on smear layer removal in periodontal regeneration (a scanning electron microscopic study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyawati, D.; Soeroso, Y.; Masulili, S. L. C.

    2017-08-01

    The role of root surface conditioning treatment on smear layer removal of human teeth is affected by periodontitis in periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study is to analyze the smear layer on root surface conditioned with 2.1% minocycline HCl ointment (Periocline), and 24% EDTA gel (Prefgel). A total of 10 human teeth indicated for extraction due to chronic periodontitis were collected and root planed. The teeth were sectioned in thirds of the cervical area, providing 30 samples that were divided into three groups - minocycline ointment treatment, 24% EDTA gel treatment, and saline as a control. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscope. No significant differences in levels of smear layer were observed between the minocycline group and the EDTA group (p=0.759). However, there were significant differences in the level of smear layer after root surface treatment in the minocycline and EDTA groups, compared with the control group (p=0.00). There was a relationship between root surface conditioning treatment and smear layer levels following root planing.

  6. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  7. More experiences with the Tzanck smear test: cytologic findings in cutaneous granulomatous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2009-09-01

    Granulomatous dermatitis is a distinctive histopathologic cutaneous reaction pattern against various infectious and noninfectious agents. Cytologically, granulomatous dermatitis shows granulomas and multinucleated giant cells. Various etiologic agents of granulomatous diseases can also be identified. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings in granulomatous skin diseases. Patients who had granulomas and/or multinucleated giant cells of Langhans, foreign body- and/or Touton type in Tzanck smear tests were included in the study. In these patients, Tzanck preparations were then further evaluated for additional cytologic findings. Samples stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study. In some patients, methylene blue, Gram and/or Erlich-Ziehl-Nielsen stains were also performed. In all of the study cases, the final diagnosis was established after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; bacterial, leishmanial, and fungal cultures; histopathology; tuberculosis and leishmania polymerase chain reaction). We also calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the Leishman-Donovan body for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Over a 2-year period, 94 of 950 patients (9.9%) in whom Tzanck smear tests were performed had cytologic findings consistent with a granulomatous reaction. In 74 (78.7%) and 20 (21.3%) patients, the granulomatous reaction was due to infectious and noninfectious causes, respectively. Infectious causes included cutaneous leishmaniasis in 65 patients (87.8%), candidal granuloma in two patients, botyromycosis in two patients, and aspergillosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, leprosy, and cutaneous tuberculosis in one patient each. In 58 of 74 patients (78.4%) with infectious granulomatous dermatitis, the causes of the granulomas were identified. Noninfectious granulomatous reactions were due to granuloma annulare in 7 patients, sarcoidosis

  8. Cervicovaginal Smear Findings of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma: A Case Report

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    Figen Barut

    2008-08-01

    Although cervicovaginal smear generally is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinomas, it played an important role in determining serous carcinoma. This may be related with advanced stage and/or aggressive features of the neoplastic process.

  9. KLASIFIKASI INTI SEL PAP SMEAR BERDASARKAN ANALISIS TEKSTUR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION BERBASIS ALGORITMA C4.5

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    Toni Arifin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Pap Smear is an early examination to diagnose whether there’s indication cervical cancer or not, the process of observations were done by observing pap smear cell under the microscope. There’s so many research has been done to differentiate between normal and abnormal cell. In this research presents a classification of pap smear cell based on texture analysis. This research is using the Harlev image which amounts to 280 images, 140 images are used as training data and 140 images other are used as testing. On the texture analysis used Gray level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM method with 5 parameters that is correlation, energy, homogeneity and entropy added by counting the value of brightness. For choose which the best attribute used correlation-based feature selection method and than used C45 algorithm for produce classification rule. The result accuracy of the classification normal and abnormal used decision tree C45 is 96,43% and errors in predicting is 3,57%. Keywords : Classification, Pap Smear cell image, texture analysis, Correlation-based feature selection, C45 algorithm. Abstrak - Pap Smear merupakan pemeriksaan dini untuk mendiagnosa apakah ada indikasi kanker serviks atau tidak, proses pengamatan dilakukan dengan mengamati sel pap smear dibawah mikroskop. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membedakan antara sel normal dan abnormal. Dalam penelitian ini menyajikan klasifikasi inti sel pap smear berdasarkan analisis tektur. Citra yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah citra Harlev yang berjumlah 280 citra, 140 citra digunakan sebagai data training dan 140 citra lain digunakan sebagai testing. Pada analisis tekstur mengunakan metode Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM menggunakan 5 parameter yaitu korelasi, energi, homogenitas dan entropi ditambah dengan menghitung nilai brightness. Untuk memilih mana atribut terbaik digunakan metode correlation-based feature selection lalu digunakan algoritma C45 untuk

  10. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is the commonestmalignancy of the genital tract inNigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. Goal: To determine cervical smear pattern in patients ...

  11. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Masanori; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Yukio; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Itoh, Harumi; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  12. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  13. Pap Smear Abnormalities in Women Admitted to a Tertiary Health Center in Southeast Turkey

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    Alev Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the cervical cytological abnormalities which are detected in women undergoing Pap screening in a tertiary health care center within Siirt, a southeastern province of Turkey. Material and Method: A total of 3000 women who underwent Pap screening at the study center between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 were recruited for the study. The women who were diagnosed with benign epithelial changes, infectious alterations, as well as atypical squamous cells with undetermined significance (ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of high significance (ASC-H, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL were included. Results: Benign epithelial alterations, infectious changes, ASCUS, ASC-H, and LSIL were detected in 83.7%, 15.3%, 0.8%, 0.1% and 0.1% of the Pap smears respectively. A significant correlation was found between the patient age and the histopathological alterations in the Pap smears (r=0.072, p=0.001. Although no correlation could be detected between gravidity and Pap smear results (r=0.033, p=0.067, a significant correlation existed between parity and the histopathological findings within the Pap smears (r=0.051, p=0.005. Interestingly, the Pap smear results were found to be unrelated to socioeconomic status (r=0.088, p=0.168, education level (r=0.048, p=0.257, and smoking habit (r=0.086, p=0.077. Discussion: The present study has reported a value of 1.0% for the overall prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities, which is much lower than in western countries. Thus, rather than being dependent on the data reported by clinical studies that have been conducted in western countries, Turkish health care policy should be based on the data obtained from national studies.

  14. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

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    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  15. comparative study of intradermal smear microscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a common medical complication of pregnancy in malaria endemic zones of the world where about 40% of the world's population lives . Pregnant women are generally known to have an increased susceptibility as well as a more severe form of the infection . A relative decline in immunity has.

  16. A correlative study of Papanicolaou smear, fluorescent antibody, and culture for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M R; Barbacci, M; Kappus, E; Quinn, T

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 300 patients undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy was conducted. A Papanicolaou smear was obtained and a clinical evaluation of the cervix was made. Specimens from the cervix were examined by both direct fluorescent antibody and culture techniques for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of inflammation on Papanicolaou smear could be correlated with C trachomatis isolation. Papanicolaou smear findings consistent with C trachomatis lacked both sensitivity and specificity when compared with direct fluorescent antibody and/or culture techniques. A correlation was found between the clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and C trachomatis. This interrelationship was absent when the component findings of cervicitis (ectopy, friability, and purulent mucus) were examined independently.

  17. [Value of optimization of bedside Gram staining of sputum smear in the early diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinyan; Ran, Yu; Bian, Shichang; Wang, Chao; Xu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    was 80.17% (287/358), and negative predictive value was 74.03% (114/154). On the 1st day, no statistical differences in infection index between the two groups could be found, but on the 3rd day, the results were significantly improved in both groups. Compared with the empirical treatment group, the body temperature, WBC, PCT and hs-CRP in the target treatment group were significantly lower [body temperature (centigrade): 36.83 ± 0.69 vs. 37.64 ± 0.71, WBC (× 10⁹/L): 7.91 ± 2.75 vs. 9.66 ± 3.39, PCT (μg/L): 7.14 ± 3.89 vs. 10.14 ± 4.32, hs-CRP (mg/L): 12.24 ± 6.28 vs. 15.54 ± 5.94, P<0.05 or P<0.01]. Compared with the empirical treatment group, the time of antibiotics use(days: 6.00 ± 2.55 vs. 9.20 ± 3.46), the duration of mechanical ventilation (days: 5.00 ± 1.73 vs. 7.00 ± 1.94), and the length of ICU stay (days: 7.43 ± 1.72 vs. 12.57 ± 4.16) were significantly shortened (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of bedside sputum examination and sputum culture showed a good correlation, and the former is helpful in early diagnosis and treatment of VAP. The result of high quality sputum smear in significant in guiding the first choice of antibiotics, reduce the time of antibiotic use, shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation and the length of ICU stay, and improve the outcome of the patients.

  18. Intraoperative squash smear cytology in CNS lesions: A study of 150 pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of CNS lesions in pediatric patients were studied over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative squash smears were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. Remaining sample was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Medulloblastoma (24.0% was the most frequently encountered tumor followed by pilocyctic astrocytoma (21.33% and ependymoma (13.33%. Diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique was 94.67% when compared with histological diagnosis. Conclusion: Smear cytology is a fairly accurate tool for intraoperative CNS consultations.

  19. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  20. Economic analysis of CDC's culture- and smear-based tuberculosis instructions for Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, B; Posey, D L; Coleman, M S; Asis, R; Zhou, W; Painter, J A; Wingate, L T; Roque, M; Cetron, M S

    2018-04-01

    In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised its tuberculosis (TB) technical instructions for panel physicians who administer mandatory medical examinations among US-bound immigrants. Many US-bound immigrants come from the Philippines, a high TB prevalence country. To quantify economic and health impacts of smear- vs. culture-based TB screening. Decision tree modeling was used to compare three Filipino screening programs: 1) no screening, 2) smear-based screening, and 3) culture-based screening. The model incorporated pre-departure TB screening results from Filipino panel physicians and CDC databases with post-arrival follow-up outcomes. Costs (2013 $US) were examined from societal, immigrant, US Public Health Department and hospitalization perspectives. With no screening, an annual cohort of 35 722 Filipino immigrants would include an estimated 450 TB patients with 264 hospitalizations, at a societal cost of US$9.90 million. Culture-based vs. smear-based screening would result in fewer imported cases (80.9 vs. 310.5), hospitalizations (19.7 vs. 68.1), and treatment costs (US$1.57 million vs. US$4.28 million). Societal screening costs, including US follow-up, were greater for culture-based screening (US$5.98 million) than for smear-based screening (US$3.38 million). Culture-based screening requirements increased immigrant costs by 61% (US$1.7 million), but reduced costs for the US Public Health Department (22%, US$750 000) and of hospitalization (70%, US$1 020 000). Culture-based screening reduced imported TB and US costs among Filipino immigrants.

  1. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

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    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  2. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in cervical smear by DNA PCR testing and its comparison with pap smear

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    Sushil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Discussion: The study reveals HPV prevalence rate of 28.3% in women attending gynaecology OPD of a tertiary care hospital and also prevalence of HPV was found to be highest in sexually active individuals with parity of 3 or more. These results are in agreement to many published national and international studies [12,13,14]. The study results also indicate lower sensitivity and higher specificity of Pap smear in detecting HPV infection, however it still remains the most important practicably available test in early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  3. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier....... The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization...

  4. Infrequent detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens from TB patients with or without HIV and healthy contacts in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte; Jensen, Andreas V.; Praygod, George

    2010-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB) endemic parts of the world, patients with pulmonary symptoms are managed as "smear-negative TB patients" if they do not improve on a two-week presumptive, broad-spectrum course of antibiotic treatment even if they are TB microscopy smear negative. These patients are frequently...... HIV positive and have a higher mortality than smear-positive TB patients. Lack of access to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia might be a contributing reason. We therefore assessed the prevalence of P. jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens among TB patients and healthy individuals in an HIV...

  5. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  6. A Correlation Of Symptomatology With Nasal Smear Eosinophilia In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also low correlation of total symptom score with family history of atopy (r = 0.06). There is positive correlation of total symptom score with number of provocative agents identified (r = 0.34). There is low positive correlation of nasal smear eosinophilia with total symptom score (r = 0.030) and itchy nose score (r = 0.038) ...

  7. Deep learning enhanced mobile-phone microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-12-12

    Mobile-phones have facilitated the creation of field-portable, cost-effective imaging and sensing technologies that approach laboratory-grade instrument performance. However, the optical imaging interfaces of mobile-phones are not designed for microscopy and produce spatial and spectral distortions in imaging microscopic specimens. Here, we report on the use of deep learning to correct such distortions introduced by mobile-phone-based microscopes, facilitating the production of high-resolution, denoised and colour-corrected images, matching the performance of benchtop microscopes with high-end objective lenses, also extending their limited depth-of-field. After training a convolutional neural network, we successfully imaged various samples, including blood smears, histopathology tissue sections, and parasites, where the recorded images were highly compressed to ease storage and transmission for telemedicine applications. This method is applicable to other low-cost, aberrated imaging systems, and could offer alternatives for costly and bulky microscopes, while also providing a framework for standardization of optical images for clinical and biomedical applications.

  8. Smears for determinations surface unfixed tritium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes a method of obtaining expanded polystyrene with hydrophilized surface smears by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. The grafting was carried out by using a 60 Co γ radiation source. The variation of grafting rates as a function of dose range and absorbed dose was established. Grafting radiochemical rates were determined by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labeled with tritium as a grafting agent. The sampling coefficients and the reproducibility were analyzed as a function of the nature of the contaminated surface. (authors)

  9. I = 2 ππ scattering phase shift from the HAL QCD method with the LapH smearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Daisuke; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Iritani, Takumi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Miyamoto, Takaya; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Physical observables, such as the scattering phase shifts and binding energy, calculated from the non-local HAL QCD potential do not depend on the sink operators used to define the potential. In practical applications, the derivative expansion of the non-local potential is employed, so that physical observables may receive some scheme dependence at a given order of the expansion. In this paper, we compare the I=2ππ scattering phase shifts obtained in the point-sink scheme (the standard scheme in the HAL QCD method) and the smeared-sink scheme (the LapH smearing newly introduced in the HAL QCD method). Although potentials in different schemes have different forms as expected, we find that, for reasonably small smearing size, the resultant scattering phase shifts agree with each other if the next-to-leading-order (NLO) term is taken into account. We also find that the HAL QCD potential in the point-sink scheme has a negligible NLO term for a wide range of energies, which implies good convergence of the derivative expansion, while the potential in the smeared-sink scheme has a non-negligible NLO contribution. The implications of this observation for future studies of resonance channels (such as the I=0 and 1ππ scatterings) with smeared all-to-all propagators are briefly discussed.

  10. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s Smear and it\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted among 421 undergraduates of the University of Ibadan using self- dministered questionnaires probing into their risk factors for neoplastic cervical lesions, awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s smear and its utilisation. The percentage of sexually active respondents was 81.5%. Sexual ...

  11. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  12. Quantification of confocal fluorescence microscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ward, Rabab K; Carraro, Anita; Chen, Zhao Yang; van Niekerk, Dirk; Miller, Dianne; Ehlen, Tom; MacAulay, Calum E; Follen, Michele; Lane, Pierre M; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer remains a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Colposcopic examination is used to detect high-grade lesions in patients with a history of abnormal pap smears. New technologies are needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We propose to test the potential of fluorescence confocal microscopy to identify high-grade lesions. We examined the quantification of ex vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy to differentiate among normal cervical tissue, low-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), and high-grade CIN. We sought to (1) quantify nuclear morphology and tissue architecture features by analyzing images of cervical biopsies; and (2) determine the accuracy of high-grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy relative to the accuracy of detection by colposcopic impression. Forty-six biopsies obtained from colposcopically normal and abnormal cervical sites were evaluated. Confocal images were acquired at different depths from the epithelial surface and histological images were analyzed using in-house software. The features calculated from the confocal images compared well with those features obtained from the histological images and histopathological reviews of the specimens (obtained by a gynecologic pathologist). The correlations between two of these features (the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the average of three nearest Delaunay-neighbors distance) and the grade of dysplasia were higher than that of colposcopic impression. The sensitivity of detecting high-grade dysplasia by analysing images collected at the surface of the epithelium, and at 15 and 30 μm below the epithelial surface were respectively 100, 100, and 92 %. Quantitative analysis of confocal fluorescence images showed its capacity for discriminating high-grade CIN lesions vs. low-grade CIN lesions and normal tissues, at different depth of imaging. This approach could be used to help clinicians identify high-grade CIN in clinical

  13. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  15. A Study on Cervical Cancer Screening Using Pap Smear Test and Clinical Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Lata Sachan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the use of the Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous lesions. Methods: All women who visited the outpatient gynecology clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, over 1 year for different clinical problems were recruited for the study. A total of 1650 women who were sexually active and over 21 years of age were enrolled in the study. A clinical examination, an examination per speculum, and a vaginal examination were performed and a history taken for all women. A Pap smear was used for all women to screen for cervical cancer. The smear was obtained using an Ayre spatula and spread over a marked glass slide, which was placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and sent to the Department of Pathology for cytopathological examination. All data were recorded using a predetermined pro forma. Women who had visible malignant cervical lesions were excluded from the study. Results: Most women were in the age range of 30–50 years and multiparous. Vaginal discharge was the most common complaint, occurring in 36.96% of the women. An irregular menstrual cycle was the complaint of 12.78% and abdominal pain of 25.63% of women, while 15.15% were asymptomatic. The Pap smear test of 93.57% of the women was adequately taken, while 6.42% of the individuals had an inadequate sample. The test was negative for malignancy in 48.84%, and 42.66% had infection or inflammation. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were detected in 2.90%, 5.09%, and 0.48%, respectively. Women with Pap tests positive for ASCUS, LSIL, and HSIL underwent a colposcopy and guided biopsy. Conclusions: Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a colposcopy, and those with abnormal colposcopy findings should be advised to undergo a biopsy. A Pap

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Smear as a Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...

  17. Comparison of a four-drug fixed-dose combination regimen with a single tablet regimen in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartacek, A; Schütt, D; Panosch, B; Borek, M

    2009-06-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety and acceptability of two short-course regimens of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (HRZE) given either as fixed-dose combination (4-FDC) tablets or as single tablets (ST) in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This randomised, open, multicentre, multinational study was conducted in 26 centres and included 1159 patients with smear-positive PTB. 4-FDC daily for 2 months then H+R for 4 months, or single preparations of H, R, Z and E for 2 months followed by H and R for 4 months were administered daily. Sputum smear conversion rates at 2, 4 and 6 months (end of treatment [EOT], primary endpoint) and at 9 and 12 months (follow-up) were measured, together with adverse events and the acceptability of the formulations. Smear conversion rates for 4-FDC and ST at EOT were 80.4% (468/582 patients) vs. 82.7% (477/577) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, and 98.1% (404/412) vs. 98.6% (416/422) in the per-protocol (PP) subgroup. Non-inferiority of 4-FDC was demonstrated at month 2, EOT and follow-up in both the ITT and the PP populations. Overall numbers of adverse events were not significantly different between the groups. The efficacy of the 4-FDC regimen was non-inferior to that of the ST regimens, but patient acceptability significantly improved with 4-FDC.

  18. The Correlation of Initial Sputum Smear Positivity on Treatment Failure of Category 1 Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Dyah Ayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is an important public health problem. Based on data from East Java Province Health Department reported that number of tuberculosis patient in Surabaya is the highest in East Java on year 2014. Early identification and good treatment based on the result of sputum identification are the strategy use to control tuberculosis widespread. So that why, microscopic observation to identify acid fast bacilli (AFB is the fundamental stage to determine recovery treatment. Initial sputum smear positivity is necessary to determine infectious graded. The objectives of the study were to identify of initial sputum smear positivity on treatment failure of category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011-2014. This study used case control method with quantitative approach. Forty two samples were taken from secondary data. Case group is 21 samples who have treatment failure and control group is 21 successful treatment. Samples were selected by simple random sampling. The chi square correlation showed that highly positive initial smear (p = 0,045; OR = 5,4 have correlated and risk factor to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The conclusion is patient’s high positive sputum smear initially correlated to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011–2014. Keywords: initial sputum smear positivity, treatment failure,, category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

  19. Comparative study of smear layer removal by different etching modalities and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the root surface: a scanning electron microscopy study; Estudo comparativo, atraves de microscopia eletronica de varredura, da acao de diferentes substancias quimicas e do laser de Er:YAG, na remocao de smear layer, em superficies radiculares submetidas a raspagem e aplainamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoro, Leticia Helena

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, citric acid with tetracycline, and Er:YAG laser to smear layer removal on the root surface after scaling with manual instruments by SEM. Thirty specimens (n=30) of root surface before scaling were divided into 6 groups (n=5). The Control Group (G1) was not treated; Group 2 (G2) was conditioned with citric acid gel 24%, pH1, during 2 minutes; Group 3 (G3) was conditioned with EDTA gel 24%, pH 7, during 2 minutes; Group 4 (G4) was conditioned with citric acid and tetracycline gel 50%, pH1 during 2 minutes; Group 5 (G5) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 47 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 0.58 J/cm{sup 2}; Group 6 (G6) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94{mu}m), 83 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 1.03 J/cm{sup 2}. The micrographic were analyzed by scores and following the statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05) H=20,31. The G1 was significantly different of all groups (28.0); the G2 (13.4), G3 (11.7), and G4 (13.6) showed no difference in relation to G5 (20.3) and G6 (6.0), but the G6 was significantly different from G5. From the results, it can be conclude that: 1) there was intensity smear layer after scaling and root planing; 2) all treatments were effective to smear layer remove with significantly difference to G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6; G2, G3 and G4 were not statistically different from G5 and G6; 3) G6 was more effective in the smear layer remotion in relation to G5 and both presented irregular root surface. (author)

  20. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  1. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  2. An institution-based cervical PAP smear study, correlation with clinical findings & histopathology in the Konkan region of Maharashtra state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan M. Warpe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical carcinoma is a common cause of death in India. It is presented by spectrum of precancerous lesions, called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Cervical cytological screening is designed to detect over 90% of cytological abnormalities. It has been established that cervical cancers can be diagnosed at the pre-invasive stage with adequate, repetitive cytological screening. Keeping in view of the importance of cervical PAP abnormalities & by classifying them by Bethesda terminology; correlation with clinical findings & histopathological findings was done. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in Department of Pathology from 1st August 2015 to 31st July 2016, were prospectively studied and classified according to revised Bethesda terminology, 2014. Also cytoradiological and clinico-cytological, cytohistological correlation was studied. Results: Due to increasing awareness among masses inculcated by social workers, most of the patients for PAP smear cytology came for routine screening to rule out cervical lesions followed by clinical finding of per-vaginal discharge. The 350 screened patients were in the third and fourth decades of life. 99/350 cases were subjected to USG study, with maximum number of cases (34 cases showing normal study, followed by cases with ovarian cysts and fatty liver disease. Negative for intra-epithelial lesion (NILM without any denotable organism was the pre-dominant cytological finding of PAP smear study followed by cases of NILM with bacterial vaginosis (30 cases with two malignancies. Intra-epithelial lesions (IELs were noted in 16.86%. ASCUS comprised 12.29%, ASC-H comprised 1.14%, L-SIL comprised 1.71%, HSIL comprised 1.43%, Atrophic cervical smears comprised 5.14%, Squamous cell carcinoma comprised 0.29% cases. ASC/LSIL ratio was 7.8 and inadequacy rate for PAP smear study was 7.43%. Cytologyhistopathology correlation was possible in 62 cases. Conclusion: Classification of cervical PAP

  3. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, R.; Amjad, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and

  4. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research.

  5. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! | Gordon | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of keen volunteer ...

  6. Role of PCR method using IS6110 primer in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis among the clinically diagnosed childhood tuberculosis patients at an urban hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjuti Kabir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Better methods are needed for the accurate detection of child tuberculosis (TB. This study compared different laboratory tests and evaluated IS6110 PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB among clinically diagnosed child TB patients. Methods: A total of 102 paediatric patients (<15 years old with clinically diagnosed TB were enrolled in this study. The patients were admitted to the icddr,b hospital in Dhaka between 2003 and 2005. Sputum/gastric lavage samples were collected for smear microscopy, culture (solid/Lowenstein–Jensen medium and liquid/MGIT, and IS6110 PCR testing. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV of smear microscopy and PCR were compared to the two culture methods. Results: Three patients were positive on smear microscopy (2.9%. MTB was detected by conventional culture in 15.7% (16/102, liquid culture in 14% (14/100, and IS6110 PCR in 61.8% (63/102. PCR detected an additional 45 patients who were undetected with the three other tests. Compared to conventional and liquid culture, respectively, smear microscopy showed sensitivity of 18.8% and 21.4%, specificity of 100% individually, PPV of 100% individually, and NPV of 86.9% and 88.7%, whereas PCR had sensitivity of 87.5% and 92.9%, specificity of 43% individually, PPV of 22.2% and 21%, and NPV of 94.9% and 97.4%. Conclusions: PCR can be useful compared to smear microscopy and culture methods and is applicable as a rapid screening test for child TB. A larger scale study is required to determine its diagnostic efficacy in improving the detection of child TB in the presence and absence of severe malnutrition. Keywords: Child tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, IS6110 PCR

  7. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Coherent optical adaptive technique improves the spatial resolution of STED microscopy in thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yang, Yanlong; Tan, Yu; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Qu, Junle; Ye, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) is one of far-field optical microscopy techniques that can provide sub-diffraction spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the STED microscopy is determined by the specially engineered beam profile of the depletion beam and its power. However, the beam profile of the depletion beam may be distorted due to aberrations of optical systems and inhomogeneity of specimens’ optical properties, resulting in a compromised spatial resolution. The situation gets deteriorated when thick samples are imaged. In the worst case, the sever distortion of the depletion beam profile may cause complete loss of the super resolution effect no matter how much depletion power is applied to specimens. Previously several adaptive optics approaches have been explored to compensate aberrations of systems and specimens. However, it is hard to correct the complicated high-order optical aberrations of specimens. In this report, we demonstrate that the complicated distorted wavefront from a thick phantom sample can be measured by using the coherent optical adaptive technique (COAT). The full correction can effectively maintain and improve the spatial resolution in imaging thick samples. PMID:29400356

  9. Molecular Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Negative Samples Examined by Direct Smear and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI world­wide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may de­pend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Dia­mond's media. The aim of this study was checking the samples, which were negative by direct smear and culture, with PCR technique.Methods: The urine samples and vaginal discharge of patients attending Gynecology Clinics of Ma­zandaran Province, Iran with different symptoms rechecked for Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR technique using primers targeting a conserved region of the beta-tubulin genes of the para­site. Data were analyzed by Epi Info software programResults: Out of 161 negative samples by direct smear and culture, seven samples (4.3% were posi­tive by PCR technique.Conclusion: Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could play important role to help the physicians for properly treatment and control of infection.

  10. Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2018-02-01

    Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.

  11. Pap smear receipt among Vietnamese immigrants: the importance of health care factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Victoria M; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T; Woodall, Erica; Do, H Hoai; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J Carey

    2009-12-01

    Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington, DC. A total of 1532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Eighty-one percentage of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing.

  12. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, K.-W.; Woo, Z.-H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Oh, W.-Z.; Han, M.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3 H and 14 C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared

  13. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

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    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  14. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

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    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  16. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  17. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan.

  18. Role of PCR method using IS6110 primer in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis among the clinically diagnosed childhood tuberculosis patients at an urban hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Senjuti; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Fannana, Tilka; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Uddin, Muhammad Reaj; Banu, Sayera; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2018-03-01

    Better methods are needed for the accurate detection of child tuberculosis (TB). This study compared different laboratory tests and evaluated IS6110 PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among clinically diagnosed child TB patients. A total of 102 paediatric patients (PCR testing. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of smear microscopy and PCR were compared to the two culture methods. Three patients were positive on smear microscopy (2.9%). MTB was detected by conventional culture in 15.7% (16/102), liquid culture in 14% (14/100), and IS6110 PCR in 61.8% (63/102). PCR detected an additional 45 patients who were undetected with the three other tests. Compared to conventional and liquid culture, respectively, smear microscopy showed sensitivity of 18.8% and 21.4%, specificity of 100% individually, PPV of 100% individually, and NPV of 86.9% and 88.7%, whereas PCR had sensitivity of 87.5% and 92.9%, specificity of 43% individually, PPV of 22.2% and 21%, and NPV of 94.9% and 97.4%. PCR can be useful compared to smear microscopy and culture methods and is applicable as a rapid screening test for child TB. A larger scale study is required to determine its diagnostic efficacy in improving the detection of child TB in the presence and absence of severe malnutrition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple and rapid measurement of α-rays on smear samples using air luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, M.

    1980-01-01

    The α-activity collected on smear samples has been measured indirectly using an air luminescence counting method and a liquid scintillation spectrometer. In this method, air luminescence, attributed to the fluorescence emitted by nitrogen molecules excited by α-rays in air, serves to detect α-rays. Thus, sample preparation and α-ray measurement are simple and rapid, and moreover, no radioactive waste solution is produced. Taking into account a low background and a counting efficiency between 10 and 20%, it is estimated that the detectable limit for α-ray measurement is about 1 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 2 for loose contamination. This method is convenient to use in the routine analysis of α-ray-emitting nuclides on smear paper. (author)

  20. Comparison of bloody pap smear fixation by Carnoy’s and fixator spray in samples from women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz Najmeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding is a serious problem among women of late reproductive age. Cervical cancer is one of the reasons of AUB and Pap smear is the best way to diagnose it. Blood has negative effects on Pap smear especially in AUB with great blood. One of the effective solutions for lysing RBC is Carnoy’s. This study aims to compare two methods of fixation in bloody Pap smear by Carnoy’s and normal spray in samples from women with AUB. This study was done on 204 bloody Pap smear from 102 women with AUB that referred to Zeinabieh and Faghihi hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from2012-2013. After observing uterine bleeding in each subject, two samples were provided using usual Pap smear method; one of the slides was fixed by normal spray and the other slide fixed by Carnoy’s solution for20 minutes. After staining (Papanicolaou method, two pathologists performed a double-blind trial to analyze them. Data analysis was done using SPSS. 82 samples did not have cell adequacy. Squamous cells in Carnoy’s-fixed slides were more than spray-fixed ones (p=0.024. The decrease in the number of RBC on slides and the increase in the clarity of slides in Carnoy’s-fixed samples were more than sprayfixed slides (p=0.001, while identifying inflammatory cells(p=0.832 and microbial factors (p=1 in both methods showed no significant difference. Carnoy’s solution can be used as an effective fixative in bloody Pap smear from women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  1. Clinical value of whole-blood interferon-gamma assay in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB smear- and polymerase chain reaction-negative bronchial aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin Yup; Yoo, Seung Soo; Cha, Seung Ick; Won, Dong Il; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Won-Kil; Kim, Chang Ho

    2012-07-01

    Combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchoscopy is frequently performed to allow a rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, limited data are available concerning clinical judgment in patients with suspected PTB and AFB smear- and PCR-negative bronchial aspirates (BA). The present study evaluated the usefulness of whole-blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in these patients. Of 166 patients with suspected PTB who had undergone bronchoscopy because of smear-negative sputum or inadequate sputum production, 93 (56%) were diagnosed with culture-positive PTB. Seventy-four patients were either AFB smear- or PCR-positive. In the 75 patients whose BA AFB smear and PCR results were both negative, 19 were finally diagnosed with PTB by culture. The QFT test had a negative predictive value of 91% for PTB. The QFT test may be useful for excluding PTB in patients with suspected PTB whose BA AFB smear and PCR results are both negative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison on the sensitivity of laboratory diagnosis technology in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis

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    Peng-Fei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation and clinical significance of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination in the diagnosis of fungalkeratitis. METHODS:One hundred and ten cases(110 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to December 2014 were collected. The results of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination results were analyzed retrospectively. Fungal smear was detected by 10% KOH wet microscopy and gram staining microscopy. Fungal culture was used potato dextrose agar(PDAmedium. The specimens of pathological examination were from corneal transplantation surgery. paraffin section, HE and hexamine silver and PAS staining was used in the pathological examination. RESULTS:Of the 110 cases of fungal keratitis, fungal smear positive were observed in 50 cases(45.5%, fungal culture positive were observed in 55 cases(50.0%; pathological examination positive were observed in 88 cases(80.0%. Fifty cases were both fungal smear and pathological examination positive and 22 cases were both fungal smear and pathological examination negative. The coincidence rate of fungal smear and pathologic examination was 65.5%. Fifty-five cases were both fungal culture and pathological examination positive and 22 cases were both fungal culture and pathological examination negative. The coincidence rate of fungal culture and pathologic examination was 70.0%. In the 60 cases of fungal smear negative results, 38 cases(63.3%were confirmed positive through pathological examination. In the 55 cases of fungus culture negative results, 33 cases(60.0%were confirmed positive by pathological examination. CONCLUSION:The accuracy of pathological examination is the highest. The combined application of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination can improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungal keratitis.

  3. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  4. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, G.; Hanumantha Rao, A.; Gopalachari, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  5. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Terefe G; Ayanto, Samuel Y

    2016-04-02

    People concentrated in congregated systems such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for tuberculosis transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. The condition is more serious in Africa particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its poor living conditions and ineffective health services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June 2013 in Hadiya Zone prison. Prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through compound light microscopy. The data obtained was analyzed using statistical software like Epidata and STATA. A total of 164 prisoners were included in the survey using active screening strategy and the point prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the prison was 349.2 per 100,000 populations; about three times higher than its prevalence in the general population. Even though lack of visit from family was the only variable identified as a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.029), almost all of the PTB positive cases were rural residents, farmers, male youngsters and those who shared cell with TB patients and chronically coughing persons as well as those who stayed in a cell that contains >100 inmates. There is high prevalence of TB in Hadiya Zone prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. The study also documented a number of factors which may facilitate exposures to TB though most of them are not significantly associated. Therefore, strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.

  6. Eruptive furunculosis following the soak and smear regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn; Sukhdeo, Kumar; Meinhardt, Eric

    2015-02-18

    The 'soak and smear' regimen is a highly effective method for localised topical therapy employed by dermatologists for widespread inflammatory skin conditions. The regimen involves application of topical medication under occlusion after soaking in water. Complications from this treatment method are rare. We present a case of multiple, generalised methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive furuncles arising in a patient as an unexpected consequence of therapy. The case highlights an unanticipated risk of a commonly employed treatment amid an epidemic of MRSA in the community. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  8. Comparative performance of PCR-based assay versus microscopy and culture for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical respiratory specimens in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, G F; Talhouk, R S; Itani, L Y; Jaber, W; Jamaleddine, G W

    2000-09-01

    American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon. To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that flank 542 bp within IS6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) vs. microscopy and BACTEC culture, in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. A total of 82 clinical respiratory pulmonary specimens and 73 samples from BACTEC vials were tested by the three methods. Of 24 smear-positive culture-positive (SP-CP) and 11 smear-negative culture-positive (SN-CP) TB specimens, PCR detected 83% and 64%, respectively. Among 17 specimens yielding mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), the PCR was positive in 33% SP-CP and 14% SN-CP specimens. Among the 73 BACTEC vials, PCR was positive in 36 of 38 (95%) yielding culture-positive TB, and in one of 20 (5%) yielding culture positive MOTT. None of the 30 smear-negative culture-negative (SN-CN) clinical specimens and 15 of the CN vials were positive by PCR. The overall sensitivity of PCR was 77% and 95% for TB detection in respiratory specimens and BACTEC vials, respectively, and the specificity was 94% in both. Because a substantial number of TB cases are missed, especially in SN-CP specimens, a PCR-based assay utilizing these primers cannot be used reliably, alone, in clinical laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial respiratory infections.

  9. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    determined with a 0.02 taper #10 stainless steel FlexoFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Tulsa, OK) on all canals using a Root ZX (J Morita, Irvine,CA) apex...of adhesion based root canal filling materials in which smear plugs are removed to allow for the formation of a resin based hybrid layer have not...in eliminating intracanal enterococcus faecalis Biofilm . J Endod 2010; 36:894-98. 23. Chugal NM, Clive JM, Spangberg LSW. A prognostic model for

  10. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

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    Melahat Görduysus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA] and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA; G3, Ca(OCl2 + Poly(AA-co-MA; G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05. In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05. EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl2.

  11. Innovative Strategies for Clinical Microscopy Instruction: Virtual Versus Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, M Jane; Russell, Gregory B; Crandall, Sonia J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare virtual microscopy with light microscopy to determine differences in learning outcomes and learner attitudes in teaching clinical microscopy to physician assistant (PA) students. A prospective, randomized, crossover design study was conducted with a convenience sample of 67 first-year PA students randomized to 2 groups. One group used light microscopes to find microscopic structures, whereas the other group used instructor-directed video streaming of microscopic elements. At the midpoint of the study, the groups switched instructional strategies. Learning outcomes were assessed via posttest after each section of the study, with comparison of final practical examination results to previous cohorts. Attitudes about the 2 educational strategies were assessed through a postcourse questionnaire with a Likert scale. Analysis of the first posttest demonstrated that students in the video-streamed group had significantly better learning outcomes than those in the light microscopy group (P = .004; Cohen's d = 0.74). Analysis of the posttest after crossover showed no differences between the 2 groups (P = .48). Between the 2 posttests, students first assigned to the light microscopy group scored a 6.6 mean point increase (±10.4 SD; p = .0011), whereas students first assigned to the virtual microscopy group scored a 1.3 mean point increase (±7.1 SD; p = .29). The light microscopy group improved more than the virtual microscopy group (P = .019). Analysis of practical examination data revealed higher scores for the study group compared with 5 previous cohorts of first-year students (P virtual microscopy to traditional light microscopy. Virtual microscopy is an effective educational strategy, and students prefer this method when learning to interpret images of clinical specimens.

  12. Improved cancer risk stratification and diagnosis via quantitative phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2017-02-01

    Pathology remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis and in some cases prognosis, in which trained pathologists examine abnormality in tissue architecture and cell morphology characteristic of cancer cells with a bright-field microscope. The limited resolution of conventional microscope can result in intra-observer variation, missed early-stage cancers, and indeterminate cases that often result in unnecessary invasive procedures in the absence of cancer. Assessment of nanoscale structural characteristics via quantitative phase represents a promising strategy for identifying pre-cancerous or cancerous cells, due to its nanoscale sensitivity to optical path length, simple sample preparation (i.e., label-free) and low cost. I will present the development of quantitative phase microscopy system in transmission and reflection configuration to detect the structural changes in nuclear architecture, not be easily identifiable by conventional pathology. Specifically, we will present the use of transmission-mode quantitative phase imaging to improve diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology and the nuclear dry mass is progressively correlate with negative, atypical, suspicious and positive cytological diagnosis. In a second application, we will present the use of reflection-mode quantitative phase microscopy for depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of clinically prepared formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. We demonstrated that the quantitative phase microscopy system detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  13. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando qualquer instrumento abrasiona ou corta a dentina, produz na superfície uma camada de lama dentinária ou "smear layer". Dependendo do agente de união indicado em Odontologia adesiva, há a necessidade ou não da remoção da camada de lama da superfície dentinária. Com a finalidade de verificar a ação de diferentes substâncias para a limpeza dentinária, utilizamos 20 dentes pré-molares superiores íntegros, mantidos em soro fisiológico, nos quais as coroas foram seccionadas ao meio no sentido mésio-distal. Com instrumento diamantado, removeu-se o esmalte da porção vestibular e da porção lingual da coroa e, com uma broca carbide cilíndrica lisa nº 56, cortou-se aproximadamente 1 mm de dentina com alta rotação sob abundante refrigeração ar/água, para produzir a camada de lama dentinária. Em seguida, essa superfície foi tratada com diferentes substâncias e lavada por 30 segundos com "spray" ar/água. No controle, foi simplesmente utilizado o "spray" ar/água. Os espécimes foram montados em suportes metálicos, preparados e visualizados no MEV-DSM 950 da Zeiss, em aumentos que variaram de 100 a 5.000 vezes. Os materiais que mais removeram a camada de lama foram, em ordem crescente: 1. "spray" ar/água; 2. fluoreto de sódio 2%; 3. associação alternada de Dakin/Tergensol; 4. água oxigenada 3%; 5. jateamento com óxido de alumínio 50 mm; 6. flúor acidulado 1,27%; 7. ácido poliacrílico 25%; 8. ácido fosfórico 10%.A smear layer is produced on the dentin surface after abrasion or cutting by instruments. Its removal is indicated or not according to the kind of bonding agent used in adhesive dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of some substances on the smear layer. Twenty upper non-carious premolars, stored in isotonic saline solution, were mesiodistally hemi-sectioned and the buccal and lingual enamel was removed with high speed diamond bur. One millimeter of the dentinal

  14. The sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide smear and fungal culture relative to clinical assessment in the evaluation of tinea pedis: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jacob Oren; Levitt, Barrie H; Akhavan, Arash; Yanofsky, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5%) and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%), respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5%) and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%). Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  15. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  16. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Shavey: DNA extraction from archived Giemsa-stained blood smears using polymerase chain reaction to detect host and parasitic DNA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are the data from a laboratory experiment in which DNA content was removed from blood smears and extracted. The blood smears were either stained with...

  17. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  18. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

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    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  19. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  20. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Microscopic evaluation of methods of fixation and preservation of vaginal smears taken from normal women submitted to radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, O.L.N.; Baruffi, I.; Valeri, V.; Parente, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were evaluated for fixation and conservation of vaginal smears of normal and irradiated women for periods as long as four months. An initial fixation was used with 95% alcohol for 24 hours followed by either air storage or 0,5% alcohol - ether celoidina solution coating. It is concluded that through microscopic evaluation, the smears of non-irradiated women treated by both methods in long run observation are only worthwhile for oncotic studies. On the other hand, the smears of irradiated women are not valid either for hormonal or oncotic analysis. (Author) [pt

  2. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  3. Experimental and theoretical analysis for improved microscope design of optical projection tomographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Ryan L; Seibel, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results of axial displacement of objects relative to a fixed condenser focal plane (FP) in optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM). OPTM produces three-dimensional, reconstructed images of single cells from two-dimensional projections. The cell rotates in a microcapillary to acquire projections from different perspectives where the objective FP is scanned through the cell while the condenser FP remains fixed at the center of the microcapillary. This work uses a combination of experimental and theoretical methods to improve the OPTM instrument design.

  4. Combined effect of smear layer characteristics and hydrostatic pulpal pressure on dentine bond strength of HEMA-free and HEMA-containing adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdan, Mohd Haidil Akmal; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of smear layer characteristics with hydrostatic pulpal pressure (PP) on bond strength and nanoleakage expression of HEMA-free and -containing self-etch adhesives. Flat dentine surfaces were obtained from extracted human molars. Smear layers were created by grinding with #180- or #600-SiC paper. Three HEMA-free adhesives (Xeno V, G Bond Plus, Beautibond Multi) and two HEMA-containing adhesives (Bond Force, Tri-S Bond) were applied to the dentine surfaces under hydrostatic PP or none. Dentine bond strengths were determined using the microtensile bond test (μTBS). Data were statistically analyzed using three- and two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc comparison test. Nanoleakage evaluation was carried out under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Coarse smear layer preparation and hydrostatic PP negatively affected the μTBS of HEMA-free and -containing adhesives, but there were no significant differences. The combined experimental condition significantly reduced μTBS of the HEMA-free adhesives, while the HEMA-containing adhesives exhibited no significant differences. Two-way ANOVA indicated that for HEMA-free adhesives, there were significant interactions in μTBS between smear layer characteristics and pulpal pressure, while for HEMA-containing adhesives, there were no significant interactions between them. Nanoleakage formation within the adhesive layers of both adhesive systems distinctly increased in the combined experimental group. The combined effect of coarse smear layer preparation with hydrostatic PP significantly reduced the μTBS of HEMA-free adhesives, while in HEMA-containing adhesives, these effects were not obvious. Smear layer characteristics and hydrostatic PP would additively compromise dentine bonding of self-etch adhesives, especially HEMA-free adhesives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of efficacy of scaling and root planing using magnification: A randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A randomized controlled clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of scaling and root planing (SRP by using Magnifying Loupes (ML and dental operating microscope (DOM. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 human teeth scheduled for extraction from 18 patients aged between 25 and 65 years suffering from generalized chronic severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 consisted SRP performed without using magnification (unaided, Group 2-SRP with ML and Group 3-SRP with DOM. Following extractions, samples were prepared for (i evaluation of surface topography by atomic force microscopy, (ii presence of smear layer, debris by scanning electron microscopy (iii elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance, post-hoc (Tukey-HSD and Chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.001 difference was found among the different treatment groups. Group 3 was the best while Group 1 was the least effective technique for SRP. Order of efficacy in terms of the surface was found to be - Palatal < Lingual < Distal ≅ Mesial < Buccal. Efficiency in mandibular to maxillary teeth was found to be significant (P < 0.05, also anterior to posterior teeth (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Magnification tools significantly enhance the efficacy of supragingival and subgingival SRP.

  6. Signal improvement in multiphoton microscopy by reflection with simple mirrors near the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Krombach, Fritz; Pohl, Ulrich; Dietzel, Steffen

    2010-03-01

    In conventional fluorescence or confocal microscopy, emitted light is generated not only in the focal plane but also above and below. The situation is different in multiphoton-induced fluorescence and multiphoton-induced higher harmonic generation. Here, restriction of signal generation to a single focal point permits that all emitted photons can contribute to image formation if collected, regardless of their path through the specimen. Often, the intensity of the emitted light is rather low in biological specimens. We present a method to significantly increase the fraction of photons collected by an epi (backward) detector by placing a simple mirror, an aluminum-coated coverslip, directly under the sample. Samples investigated include fluorescent test slides, collagen gels, and thin-layered, intact mouse skeletal muscles. Quantitative analysis revealed an intensity increase of second- and third-harmonic generated signal in skeletal muscle of nine- and sevenfold respectively, and of fluorescent signal in test slides of up to twofold. Our approach thus allows significant signal improvement also for situations were a forward detection is impossible, e.g., due to the anatomy of animals in intravital microscopy.

  7. The hematology of captive Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa): blood counts, light microscopy, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Cheryl A; Gaál, Tibor; Mills, Jennifer N

    2016-12-01

    Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails. Complete blood cell counts and smear evaluations were performed, and cytochemical stains and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize blood cells. The eosinophils of this species were uniformly vacuolated: a unique feature not previously reported in reptiles. Heterophils were the predominant leukocyte, with fewer lymphocytes, azurophilic and nonazurophilic monocytes, occasional eosinophils, and basophils. Thrombocytes were frequently clumped. Slight polychromasia (0-15% of erythrocytes) was typically present. Hemogregarine parasites were seen on some smears. The range of CBC results was often wide. The PCV ranged from 11% to 38%. Total plasma proteins by refractometry were between 3.5 and 7.8 g/dL. Hemoglobin ranged between 2.6 and 12.6 g/dL by the modified hemoglobin-hydroxylamine method. Manual RBC count was 0.35-1.27 × 10 6 /μL, and WBC count was 2.86-22.66 × 10 3 /μL. Bobtail lizards housed outdoors had lower PCVs than indoor-housed animals. Bobtails with hemogregarine infections had lower PCVs than noninfected lizards. Ranges for CBC data were often very wide, influenced by preanalytic and analytic factors. Hemogregarine infection is associated with a decreased PCV, suggesting that some hemogregarine species are pathogenic in this population. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  9. Development of automatic smear testing sampler for radioactive contamination of floor in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Katsuro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yohtaro; Iwaki, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    The floor contamination with radioactive substances in the controlled area of nuclear power stations is strictly controlled, and it is tested by the smear method, wiping the contaminants on floors with filter papers or cloths and measuring the radioactive intensity to obtain contamination density. The works are very laborious, therefore the automatic smear sampler was developed. Simple operation, shortening of time required for wiping, constant and high efficiency of wiping, and easy numbering of samples were the aims in the development. The method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the surface pressure at the time of wiping, the number of times of wiping and required motor torque were studied. The outline of the developed sampler is explained. The performance of the sampler was compared with manual wiping. The efficiency of wiping with the sampler was 92%, assuming manual wiping as 100. Difference was not observed between careful manual wiping and the wiping with the sampler, therefore it was confirmed that this automatic floor smear sampler can be put in practical use. By conventional manual sampling, the maximum limit was about 400 samples/man-day, but when this sampler is used, about 1000 samples/sampler-day is possible. At present, this sampler is operated in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Kako, I.)

  10. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  11. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevil, S.; Kevser, O.; Aleattin, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test , and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who k new of the Pap smear test . Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  12. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  13. A comparative study of cervical smears in an urban Hospital in India and a population-based screening program in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulay Kaustubh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study cervical smear abnormalities in urban women in India and women in Mauritius and to compare the results in the two groups. Study Design: An analysis of 6010 cervical smears taken as part of routine check-ups in an urban hospital was done and an analysis of 10,000 cervical smears taken from women participating in a National Cancer Screening Program in Mauritius was done. Emphasis was put on cervical epithelial cell abnormalities and the results in the two populations are compared with that of similar studies in other parts of the world. Results: Non specific inflammation formed 19.6% and 25.34% of the smears in the Indian and Mauritian groups, respectively (with specific infection forming 6.05% and 15.08%. The epithelial abnormalities constituted 1.392% of the Indian group and 0.47% of the Mauritian group. The difference was statistically significant in the atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance (AGUS group. Conclusions: The prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL is similar to that in the developed world.

  14. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  15. Comparison of LED and Conventional Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in a Low-Incidence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minion, Jessica; Pai, Madhukar; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Greenaway, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS). Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. Results There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. Conclusions Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used. PMID:21811622

  16. Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid fast bacilli in a low-incidence setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Minion

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS. Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. RESULTS: There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. CONCLUSIONS: Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used.

  17. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorb, Martin; Briggs, John A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals. - Highlights: • Workflow for correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. • Cryo-fluorescence microscopy setup incorporating a high numerical aperture objective. • Fluorescent signals located in cryo-electron micrographs with 50 nm spatial precision

  18. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorb, Martin [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Briggs, John A.G., E-mail: john.briggs@embl.de [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals. - Highlights: • Workflow for correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. • Cryo-fluorescence microscopy setup incorporating a high numerical aperture objective. • Fluorescent signals located in cryo-electron micrographs with 50 nm spatial precision.

  19. Cytological pattern of cervical papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years.

  20. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrugresistant tuberculosis among Malaysians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04–9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24–17.35, respectively, unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09–6.09, living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08–6.19, are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71–11.82, were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66–21.67, and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46–19.89 and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51–91.99. Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment

  1. Entanglement between smeared field operators in the Klein-Gordon vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2010-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the application of quantum physics to fields. It provides a theoretical framework widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. One of the most distinct features of quantum physics with respect to classical physics is entanglement or the existence of strong correlations between subsystems that can even be spacelike separated. In quantum fields, observables restricted to a region of space define a subsystem. While there are proofs on the existence of local observables that would allow a violation of Bell's inequalities in the vacuum states of quantum fields as well as some explicit but technically demanding schemes requiring an extreme fine-tuning of the interaction between the fields and detectors, an experimentally accessible entanglement witness for quantum fields is still missing. Here we introduce smeared field operators which allow reducing the vacuum to a system of two effective bosonic modes. The introduction of such collective observables is motivated by the fact that no physical probe has access to fields in single spatial (mathematical) points but rather smeared over finite volumes. We first give explicit collective observables whose correlations reveal vacuum entanglement in the Klein-Gordon field. We then show that the critical distance between the two regions of space above which two effective bosonic modes become separable is of the order of the Compton wavelength of the particle corresponding to the massive Klein-Gordon field.

  2. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  3. 4Pi-confocal microscopy of live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Karsten; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2002-06-01

    By coherently adding the spherical wavefronts of two opposing lenses, two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy has achieved three-dimensional imaging with an axial resolution 3-7 times better than confocal microscopy. So far this improvement was possible only in glycerol-mounted, fixed cells. Here we report 4Pi-confocal microscopy of watery objects and its application to the imaging of live cells. Water immersion 4Pi-confocal microscopy of membrane stained live Escherichia coli bacteria attains a 4.3 fold better axial resolution as compared to the best water immersion confocal microscope. The resolution enhancement results into a vastly improved three-dimensional representation of the bacteria. The first images of live biological samples with an all-directional resolution in the 190-280 nm range are presented here, thus establishing a new resolution benchmark in live cell microscopy.

  4. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Chongthawonsatid

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30-59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities.

  5. Detection of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) abortus and Toxoplasma gondii in smears from cases of ovine and caprine abortion by the streptavidin-biotin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, L; Bacsadi, A

    2002-11-01

    Fetal membranes from 59 cases of ovine and six of caprine abortion from a total of 52 flocks or herds were collected. Immunohistochemical examination of cotyledons fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax detected Chlamydophila abortus in 44 (68%) cases. Immunocytochemical examination of smears made from the surface of fetal membranes detected the organism in 37 (57%) cases. Light microscopical examination of such smears stained by Stamp's method detected C. abortus in 26 (40%) cases. The streptavidin-biotin method described proved to have 100% specificity and 84% sensitivity in the detection of C. abortus in cotyledon smears. Sensitivity could probably be increased still further by the simultaneous examination of smears made from the cut surface of several cotyledons. In five cases Toxoplasma gondii was detected in the cotyledons by immunohistochemical examination. In three of these cases the presence of T. gondii was revealed also by immunocytological examination. In four cases, simultaneous C. abortus and T. gondii infection of the cotyledons was observed. The two pathogens and the lesions caused by them occurred in separate locations. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Delong; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy have enabled label-free visualization and analysis of functional, endogenous biomolecules in living systems. When compared with spontaneous Raman microscopy, a key advantage of CRS microscopy is the dramatic improvement in imaging speed, which gives rise to real-time vibrational imaging of live biological samples. Using molecular vibrational signatures, recently developed hyperspectral CRS microscopy has improved the readout of chemical information available from CRS images. In this article, we review recent achievements in CRS microscopy, focusing on the theory of the CRS signal-to-noise ratio, imaging speed, technical developments, and applications of CRS imaging in bioscience and clinical settings. In addition, we present possible future directions that the use of this technology may take. PMID:26514285

  8. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chapon

    Full Text Available Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples’ characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters. Keywords: Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC, PerkinElmer, Tri-Carb, Smear, Swipe

  9. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid nodules: effective technique and a peculiar smear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyeong Rok; Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook; Koo, Yong Woon; Lee, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Tae Woo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the effective methods that are appropriate for an endemic area of thyroid disease and to compare the differences of cytologic diagnostic rates with and without using a peculiar smear technique. We analyzed the incidence rate of insufficient results, complications and the total procedure times of 1,126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients who underwent US-FNAB (ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy) from January to December 2005. We compared the diagnostic rate between the two groups; the groups' tests were performed with a peculiar smear technique (Group A, n 313) or with a ventional smear technique (Group B, n = 250). According to the size of the thyroid nodule, the incidence rate of an insufficient result on US-FNAB and the mean total procedure time for 1126 thyroid nodules in 776 patients were measured as 16.9% (52/308) and 208 seconds for nodules under 0.5 cm, 9.8% (30/306) and 160 seconds for nodules between 0.5 cm-10 cm, and 6.0% (30/504) and 134 seconds for nodules over 1.0 cm. These 776 patients showed no significant complication, except for mild pain. In Group A, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was calculated as 15.1% (14/93) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 5.3% (5/95) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 4.8% (6/125) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 8.0% (25/313) for the total A Group. In Group B, the incidence rate of an insufficient result was measured as 33.3% (15/45) for the group with nodules under 0.5 cm, 28.1% (25/89) for the group with nodules between 0.5 cm-1.0 cm, 21.4% (24/112) for the group with nodules over 1.0 cm, and 25.7% (63/245) for the total B group. There was a statistically significant correlation between the rate of an insufficient result and the peculiar smear technique or the size of the thyroid nodule. We consider that US-FNAB is very simple, safe and accurate diagnostic method for thyroid nodules, and US-FNAB with a peculiar smear technique is able to

  10. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  11. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P; Zhu, R; Mayer, B; Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F; Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V; Dieudonne, M

    2010-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from ∼ 25 to ∼ 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  12. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P [Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Zhu, R; Mayer, B [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscopic Methods in Biophysics, Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F [Agilent Technologies Austria GmbH, Aubrunnerweg 11, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V [Cancer Research UK Tumor Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); Dieudonne, M, E-mail: ferry_kienberger@agilent.com [Agilent Technologies Belgium, Wingepark 51, Rotselaar, AN B-3110 (Belgium)

    2010-03-19

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}GalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from {approx} 25 to {approx} 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  13. Factors Associated with Pap Smear Implementation among Women Referring to Healthcare Centers in Fasa, Iran: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among the females. This cancer is considered as a preventable disease due to having a long period before the invasion, availability of appropriate screening program, and effective treatment of primary lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to per forming regular Pap smear test based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB among the females living in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 married women in Fasa city in 2016. The study population was selected from the females referring to the healthcare centers of Fasa using simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by means of a three-part questionnaire, including demographic data, knowledge, and TPB constructs. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient test and logistic regression in SPSS, version 22. Results: According to the results, 45.7% of the patients had a history of undergoing a Pap smear test, and 20.7% of them performed this test regularly. The results indicated that knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were the predictors of intention and behavior of Pap smear test among the women (P<0.05. These components accounted for 57.4% and 31.6% of the intention and behavior variance, respectively. Conclusion: As the findings of this study indicated, it is possible to increase the level of screening behaviors among the women by improving their awareness, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This measure in turn plays a significant role in the prevention and control of cervical cancer.

  14. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Giulia; Breedijk, Ronald; Hoebe, Ron; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  15. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Breedijk, R.; Hoebe, R.; Stallinga, S.; Manders, E.

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  16. [Importance of quality control of baciloscopy in laboratories that perform diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Rosarys Martínez, María; Díaz, Raúl; Mederos, Lilian M

    2016-06-01

    Baciloscopy is the primary tool for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, being this technique the most used internationally in the search for infectious cases. Quality control is the process of the rechecking smears by a highly qualified observer. To evaluate and highlight the importance of quality control of smear microscopy in the Provincial Laboratories diagnosticians of Tuberculosis in Cuba. This study was conducted at the National Reference Laboratory and Research in Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Mycobacteria in the Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kouri", Havana, Cuba, Were evaluated 2676 smears received from January 2013 to December 2014, from Provincial Centers of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology of Cuba, including the special municipality Isla de la Juventud. 2,664 (99.5%) were concordant smears, the correlation obtained for the positive smears were 96.5% and 99.8% for negative. Were identified12 reading errors: 7 (3.5%) false positive and 5 (0.2%) false negatives. Slides were classified with adequate quality of smears in 2039 (76.2%), showed difficulties in realizing the extension in 1464 (54.7%) and staining were adequate in 2343 (87.6%). The kappa index was 0.9674. Although there was good agreement between observations it is recommended to improve the quality of extended, maintain staff training program that performs this activity, like regular supervision by specialists, to further improve the quality of diagnosis.

  17. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilities left-to-right shunt quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eterovic, D.; Popovic, S.; Dujic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistogram. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, c k . The output is the ideal curve, c k =c k /RVEF-(1-EF)xC k-1 /RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. Once RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is trivial. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEF upp > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (author)

  18. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  19. External quality assessment of malaria microscopy diagnosis in selected health facilities in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Getachew; Zewdie, Olifan; Tadele, Geletta; Samuel, Abdi

    2018-06-18

    Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment are one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria disease. External quality assessment is the most effective method for evaluation of the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis and its associated factors in selected public health facility laboratories in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in 30 randomly selected public health facility laboratories from November 2014 to January 2015 in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Ten validated stained malaria panel slides with known Plasmodium species, developmental stage and parasite density were distributed. Data were captured; cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software-multivariate logistic regressions and the agreement in reading between the peripheral diagnostic centers and the reference laboratory were done using kappa statistics. A total of 30 health facility laboratories were involved in the study and the overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor (62.3%). The associated predictors of quality in this diagnosis were in-service training [(AOR = 16, 95% CI (1.3, 1.96)], smearing quality [(AOR = 24, 95% CI (1.8, 3.13)], staining quality [(AOR = 15, 95% CI (2.35, 8.61), parasite detection [(AOR = 9, 95% CI (1.1, 8.52)] and identification skills [(AOR = 8.6, 95% CI (1.21, 1.63)]. Eighteen (60%) of health facility laboratories had in-service trained laboratory professionals on malaria microscopy diagnosis. Overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor and a significant gap in this service was observed that could impact on its diagnostic services.

  20. Vaginal flora changes on Pap smears after insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Berger, Judith; Heuninckx, Hélène; Bellen, Gert; Cornelis, Ann

    2011-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) combines a uterine foreign body and the continuous release of low-dose levonorgestrel for contraception. Its influence on the rate of vulvovaginal infections and flora disturbance is insufficiently known, but important for contraceptive advice in women, especially those who develop recurrent vaginosis or Candida vulvovaginitis. Slides of 286 women who had a Pap smear taken before and 1 to 2 years after placement of a LNG-IUS were blindly reviewed for the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and Candida vaginitis (CV). Prior to insertion, there were no differences in vaginal flora abnormalities between women using different kinds of contraception. LNG-IUS users did not have different rates of AVF, BV, AV or CV, but the general risk to develop any infection was increased. Uterine bleeding after insertion did not seem to predict a different flora type. We found that Pap smears suggested more vaginal infections after 1 year of LNG-IUS use than prior to insertion of the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    /100,000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100,000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (Pcervical cancer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...

  2. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  3. Correlative Super-Resolution Microscopy: New Dimensions and New Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Meghan; Wojcik, Michal; Kim, Doory; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Li, Wan; Xu, Ke

    2017-06-14

    Correlative microscopy, the integration of two or more microscopy techniques performed on the same sample, produces results that emphasize the strengths of each technique while offsetting their individual weaknesses. Light microscopy has historically been a central method in correlative microscopy due to its widespread availability, compatibility with hydrated and live biological samples, and excellent molecular specificity through fluorescence labeling. However, conventional light microscopy can only achieve a resolution of ∼300 nm, undercutting its advantages in correlations with higher-resolution methods. The rise of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) over the past decade has drastically improved the resolution of light microscopy to ∼10 nm, thus creating exciting new opportunities and challenges for correlative microscopy. Here we review how these challenges are addressed to effectively correlate SRM with other microscopy techniques, including light microscopy, electron microscopy, cryomicroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and various forms of spectroscopy. Though we emphasize biological studies, we also discuss the application of correlative SRM to materials characterization and single-molecule reactions. Finally, we point out current limitations and discuss possible future improvements and advances. We thus demonstrate how a correlative approach adds new dimensions of information and provides new opportunities in the fast-growing field of SRM.

  4. Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a smeared crack modelling approach is used to simulate corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete. The presented modelling approach utilizes a thermal analogy to mimic the expansive nature of solid corrosion products, while taking into account the penetration of corrosion...... products into the surrounding concrete, non-uniform precipitation of corrosion products, and creep. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented modelling approach, numerical predictions in terms of corrosion-induced deformations as well as formation and propagation of micro- and macrocracks were......-induced damage phenomena in reinforced concrete. Moreover, good agreements were also found between experimental and numerical data for corrosion-induced deformations along the circumference of the reinforcement....

  5. Overview of Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) Microscopy and Its Electroporation-Based Version with Efficient Labeling and Improved Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Sawako; Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Live-cell single-molecule imaging was introduced more than a decade ago, and has provided critical information on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the motion of plasma membrane proteins, and dynamics of molecular motor proteins. Actin remodeling has been the best target for this approach because actin and its associated proteins stop diffusing when assembled, allowing visualization of single-molecules of fluorescently-labeled proteins in a state specific manner. The approach based on this simple principle is called Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) microscopy. For instance, spatiotemporal regulation of actin polymerization and lifetime distribution of actin filaments can be monitored directly by tracking actin SiMS. In combination with fluorescently labeled probes of various actin regulators, SiMS microscopy has contributed to clarifying the processes underlying recycling, motion and remodeling of the live-cell actin network. Recently, we introduced an electroporation-based method called eSiMS microscopy, with high efficiency, easiness and improved spatiotemporal precision. In this review, we describe the application of live-cell single-molecule imaging to cellular actin dynamics and discuss the advantages of eSiMS microscopy over previous SiMS microscopy. PMID:28684722

  6. Overview of Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) Microscopy and Its Electroporation-Based Version with Efficient Labeling and Improved Spatiotemporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Sawako; Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-07-06

    Live-cell single-molecule imaging was introduced more than a decade ago, and has provided critical information on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the motion of plasma membrane proteins, and dynamics of molecular motor proteins. Actin remodeling has been the best target for this approach because actin and its associated proteins stop diffusing when assembled, allowing visualization of single-molecules of fluorescently-labeled proteins in a state specific manner. The approach based on this simple principle is called Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) microscopy. For instance, spatiotemporal regulation of actin polymerization and lifetime distribution of actin filaments can be monitored directly by tracking actin SiMS. In combination with fluorescently labeled probes of various actin regulators, SiMS microscopy has contributed to clarifying the processes underlying recycling, motion and remodeling of the live-cell actin network. Recently, we introduced an electroporation-based method called eSiMS microscopy, with high efficiency, easiness and improved spatiotemporal precision. In this review, we describe the application of live-cell single-molecule imaging to cellular actin dynamics and discuss the advantages of eSiMS microscopy over previous SiMS microscopy.

  7. Tuberculosis Laboratory Diagnosis Quality Assurance among Public Health Facilities in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Hailu, Hiwot Amare; Fola, Abebe Alemu; Derebe, Mulatu Melese; Kebede, Aimro Tadese; Kebede, Abayneh Admas; Emiru, Manamnot Agegne; Gelaw, Zelalem Dessie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS) strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48%) in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate (70%). This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4%) laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4%) laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4%) laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%), 133 (66.2%) and 126 (62.7%) laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25-6.75; P: 0.013) and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14-6.18; P: 0.024) were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007) was associated with false positive results. The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic service.

  8. Tuberculosis Laboratory Diagnosis Quality Assurance among Public Health Facilities in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    Full Text Available Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48% in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO estimate (70%. This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20.Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4% laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4% laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4% laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%, 133 (66.2% and 126 (62.7% laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25-6.75; P: 0.013 and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14-6.18; P: 0.024 were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007 was associated with false positive results.The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic service.

  9. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ2 tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test ...

  10. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (1) The Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research Facility (AMMRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, S.P.; Apperley, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the strategy underpinning the formation and operation of the Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research Facility (AMMRF). AMMRF is a formal collaboration that links eight Australian Universities together to create a user-focused national capability in microscopy and microanalysis. The AMMRF flagship capabilities include: Cameca IMS-1280 and NanoSIMS-50 ion microprobes (University of Western Australia); High-throughput, high-resolution cryoTEM (University of Queensland); Atom Probe Microscopy (University of Sydney); High-resolution Focussed Ion-Beam and SEM (Universities of Adelaide and NSW); High-resolution SEM microanalysis facility (University of New South Wales); and PHI TRIFT V nanoToF ToF-SIMS (University of South Australia). Secondly, a network of peer support and expert training has been established amongst facility professional support staff. The governance and funding of the organisation are described and the advantages and achievements of a nationally coordinated facility for microscopy and microanalysis are set out. Selected data are presented that benchmark the performance of the facility, describe the economic impact and demonstrate the impact on the quality of research outcomes as a result of operating national collaborative research infrastructure for microscopy and microanalysis

  11. Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni- Ti files - An In-Vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J M V Raghavendra; Latha, Prasanna; Gowda, Basavana; Manvikar, Varadendra; Vijayalaxmi, D Benal; Ponangi, Kalyana Chakravarthi

    2014-02-01

    Predictable successful endodontic therapy depends on correct diagnosis, effective cleaning, shaping and disinfection of the root canals and adequate obturation. Irrigation serves as a flush to remove debris, tissue solvent and lubricant from the canal irregularities; however these irregularities can restrict the complete debridement of root canal by mechanical instrumentation.Various types of hand and rotary instruments are used for the preparation of the root canal system to obtain debris free canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris removal on canal walls following the using of manual Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) files compared with rotary ProTaperNiTi files using a Scanning Electron Microscope in two individual groups. A comparative study consisting of 50 subjects randomized into two groups - 25 subjects in Group A (manual) and 25 subjects in Group B (rotary) was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of smear layer and debris between manual and rotary NiTi instruments. Chi square test was used to find the significance of smear layer and debris removal in the coronal, middle and apical between Group A and Group B. Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used in the present study, did not create completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary ProTaperNiTi instruments. Rotary instruments were less time consuming when compared to manual instruments. Instrument separation was not found to be significant with both the groups. Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used did not produce completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary protaper instruments. How to cite the article: Reddy JM, Latha P, Gowda B, Manvikar V, Vijayalaxmi DB, Ponangi KC. Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni-Ti files

  12. The effect of the KTP laser on smear layer and temperature change: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Dilara; Kuştarcı, Alper

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser irradiation on smear layer removal and temperature changes of the root surfaces. Two hundred four extracted single-root human premolars were included. The canals were instrumented and divided into two main groups: group A (smear layer examination n:119) and group B (temperature change examination n:85). Each group was divided into subgroups (n:17) according to the different five laser power settings: A1, B1: 1 W-5.33 J/cm 2 ; A2, B2: 1.5 W-7.52 J/cm 2 ; A3, B3: 2 W-10.3 J/cm 2 ; A4, B4: 3 W-15.5 J/cm 2 , A5, B5: 4 W-20.1 J/cm2, A6: positive control no laser irradiation-irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water and A7: negative control groups no laser irradiation irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 17% EDTA + 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water. The temperature elevations were measured with an infrared thermographic camera and smear layer examined by scanning electron microscope. According to Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests, in all groups the highest smear scores were in the apical third. In all areas, there were statistically significant differences between negative control group (17% EDTA) and all other groups (p laser and positive control (2.5% NaOCl) groups. Statistically, in all thirds, the differences the 3 W and 4 W KTP laser groups between each other and all other groups were significant (p laser, increase in temperature values in all groups were found to be below 10 °C in 20 s.

  13. Studies on immunoglobulin containing cell in the vaginal smear during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Toshioki

    1979-01-01

    In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  15. Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia; Entringer, Aline Piovezan; Steffen, Ricardo; Trajman, Anete

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the costs of a molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF) and of smear microscopy, within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). In SUS laboratories in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, we performed activity-based costing and micro-costing. The mean unit costs for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were R$35.57 and R$14.16, respectively. The major cost drivers for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were consumables/reagents and staff, respectively. These results might facilitate future cost-effectiveness studies and inform the decision-making process regarding the expansion of Xpert MTB/RIF use in Brazil.

  16. Factors Associated with Treatment Failure among Smear Positive TB Patients in Khorasan-e-Razavi and Sistan-Baluchistan Provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatollah Khoubfekr, Narges Khanjani, Yunes Jahani, Mahmoud Moosazadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB treatment failure is one of the major problems of the health sector in developing countries. Poor treatment of patients leads to drug resistance, relapse, death, and ultimately prevents TB control programs. This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting tuberculosis treatment failure in Khorasan and Sistan- Balochistan regions which have a high prevalence of TB. Methods: In this case - control study 270 patients with tuberculosis (90 cases, 180 controls were analyzed. New TB patients registered with failure to treatment according to the national protocol between March 2008 - March 2012 were chosen as cases and new TB patients with negative sputum smear in the same time frame were enrolled as control group. Demographic data and clinical treatment outcomes were collected through interviews and file records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of treatment failure in SPSS 19. Results: Independent factors and predictors of failure treatment included illiteracy, a three plus positive sputum smear, positive sputum smear at end of the second month, non-implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment Short strategy by healthcare staff, history of addiction and history of diabetes. Conclusion: Intervention programs for early detection and control of diabetes, drug control programs, giving priority to providing DOTS by health care workers, more individual care and attention to patients with initial smear p + 3 or those that remain sputum positive at the end of the second month or those who are less educated is necessary. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(4: 172-178

  17. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  18. Analyzing Lysosome-Related Organelles by Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Hurbain, Ilse

    2017-04-29

    Intracellular organelles have a particular morphological signature that can only be appreciated by ultrastructural analysis at the electron microscopy level. Optical imaging and associated methodologies allow to explore organelle localization and their dynamics at the cellular level. Deciphering the biogenesis and functions of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and their dysfunctions requires their visualization and detailed characterization at high resolution by electron microscopy. Here, we provide detailed protocols for studying LROs by transmission electron microscopy. While conventional electron microscopy and its recent improvements is the method of choice to investigate organelle morphology, immunoelectron microscopy allows to localize organelle components and description of their molecular make up qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. → Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. → Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. → The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 o C or 65 o C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  20. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  1. A scanning electron microscopic study of smear layer remaining following use of Greater Taper rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the smear layer in the root canal following the use of Ni-Ti hand ProTaper, HERO shaper and Twisted rotary instruments. Fifteen freshly extracted single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Crowns of all teeth were cut off at the cemento-enamel junction with a carborundum disc. The roots were then randomly divided into three groups of 5 samples each. The working length of all teeth was established by the insertion of an endodontic instrument into the canal until its tip is visible at the apical foramen and then subtracted by 0.5 mm. A sequential crown down technique was carried out in all the three groups as follows: Group-I- Specimens in this group were instrumented with ProTaper Ni-Ti hand instruments. Group-II- Specimens were instrumented with HERO shapers. Group-III - The specimens in this group were instrumented with Twisted rotary instruments. Irrigation was done with 3% NaOCl and 15% EDTA in all the three groups. Teeth were carefully split with hammer and chisel and stored in small labeled bottles containing normal saline until SEM evaluation. Results showed that when comparing ProTaper files, Twisted rotary instruments and HERO shaper instruments, HERO shaper series of rotary instruments showed maximum amount of smear layer followed by the Twisted rotary instruments. Hand instruments produced least amount of smear layer.

  2. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa.And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%.These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  3. Chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Yidian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Mei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-03-15

    By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge. This background corresponds to a strongly coupled, nonconformal relativistic fluid with a conserved vector current. The presence of the chiral vortical effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except that the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed rely only on the chemical potential, most of the other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of the first order depend both on the temperature and the chemical potential. According to our result, the way that the chiral vortical effect coefficient depends on the chemical potential seems irrelevant with whether the relativistic fluid is conformal or not. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of the smeared D0-brane charge will slow down the sound speed.

  4. The value of colposcopy, high risk HPV-DNA and histopathologic examination in the management of abnormal Pap smear results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugar Bayramov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pap smear test is a major screening test for early diagnosis and treatment of cervix cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the value of HPV-DNA, colposcopy and histopathologic examination in the management of patients with abnormal cervical cytology. Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Ankara University Cebeci Hospital gynecology outpatient clinic. The study compremised 86 patients with smear results of ASCUS, AGC, L-SIL and H-SIL. Age, gravity, parity, age at first coitus, smoking status, number of partners, high risk HPV-DNA status and pathologic colposcopy findings were investigated. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35 years and the most common abnormal smear result was ASCUS, with 55 patients (63%. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demographic characteristics except age at first coitus and pathologic colposcopy findings. Among patients diagnosed as ASCUS 34.5% had been up-graded with histopathologic examination. Among patients diagnosed as L-SIL 73.6% had been down-graded with histopathologic examination. However, after the histopathologic exam of 9 H-SIL patients two (22.2% were diagnosed as CIN II, two (22.2% were diagnosed as CIN III and one (11.1% was diagnosed as cervical cancer. In the groups of ASCUS, L-SIL and H-SIL the presence of high risk HPV-DNA were 11%, 5% and 33%, respectively. Conclusion: If we are sure that the patient will attend the follow-up visits, then fort he ones with ASCUS and L-SIL a repeat smear test would be the appropriate. However, in the management of patients with H-SIL colposcopic biopsy would be the best approach.

  5. Predictors of delayed sputum smear and culture conversion among a Portuguese population with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Caetano Mota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure of sputum smear and/or culture conversion after 2 months of tuberculosis (TB treatment has been considered a predictor of patient infectivity and treatment failure. We aimed to identify the factors associated with delayed sputum smear and culture conversion in patients with pulmonary TB who were given anti-TB treatment. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort of 136 adult patients with sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB referred to an urban Chest Disease Centre. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiological, microbiological, and therapeutic data were evaluated. Results: The median age was 41.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 18.0 years and 75.0% of patients were male. Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in 25.4% (30/118 and 27.2% (37/136 of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–13.3, male gender (OR 10.8, 95% CI 1.3–91.1, and smear grade > 1–9 acid fast bacilli (AFB/field (3+ (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.4–100.6 were significantly associated with persistent smear positivity after 2 months of treatment. Bilateral radiological involvement (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5–9.0 and colony count > 100 (3+ (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2–27.4 were significantly associated with persistent culture positivity. Conclusions: Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in about one third of patients. Older age, male gender, and higher bacillary load were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Bilateral radiological involvement and higher colony count were independently associated with delayed culture conversion. Resumo: Introdução: A ausência de conversão dos exames micobacteriológicos direto e/ou cultural de expetoração após 2 meses de tratamento para a tuberculose (TB tem sido considerado um preditor do grau de infeciosidade do doente e de falência terap

  6. Comparison of a radiometric method (BACTEC) and conventional culture media for recovery of mycobacteria from smear-negative specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Horstmeier, C.D.; DeYoung, D.R.; Roberts, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The BACTEC system and three conventional media (Middlebrook 7H10, selective Middlebrook 7H11 [S7H11], and Lowenstein-Jensen [LJ] were compared for their mean recovery times and recovery rates of mycobacteria from acid-fast, smear-negative clinical specimens. Of the 71 smear-negative, culture-positive specimens recovered from 2,165 submitted smear-negative cultures, the BACTEC system detected 71.8%, compared with 88.7% for the conventional three-medium system. When media were individually compared, BACTEC medium (Middlebrook 7H12) was more successful in recovering mycobacteria (71.8%) than was LJ (62%), Middlebrook medium 7H10 (55.9%), or Middlebrook S7H11 medium (52.1%). Middlebrook 7H11 medium containing sodium selenate was also evaluated and did not increase the recovery rate or decrease the recovery time of mycobacterial species when compared with LJ, Middlebrook 7H10, S7H11, and 7H12 media. The mean detection time for the BACTEC system was less than that by conventional methods for the seven species of mycobacteria recovered. Detection times for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the BACTEC system and conventional cultural systems were 13.7 and 26.3 days, respectively

  7. Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We estimated the costs of a molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF and of smear microscopy, within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System. In SUS laboratories in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, we performed activity-based costing and micro-costing. The mean unit costs for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were R$35.57 and R$14.16, respectively. The major cost drivers for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were consumables/reagents and staff, respectively. These results might facilitate future cost-effectiveness studies and inform the decision-making process regarding the expansion of Xpert MTB/RIF use in Brazil.

  8. [Verification of doubtful PAP smear results of women included in the screening program in the Podlaskie province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błońska, Ewa; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Verification of uncertain PAP-smear results in a group of women covered by the cervical screening program in the Podlaski province. The main aim of the study was to identify CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) lesions present, with varying degrees of severity in women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and ASC-H (atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The study evaluated 101 cervical smears taken from the vaginal part of the cervix in a group of screened women in the Podlaski province. Cytological evaluation was performed according the Bethesda System. We analyzed abnormal smears selected from a total of 7296 cytological examinations performed during 2012 at the University Center for Pathomorphological and Genetic - Molecular Diagnosis, Medical University in Białystok. The cytological results which were of interest to us included 19 cases with ASCUS, 59 with LSIL, and 23 with ASC-H, as well as with morphological features of the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Staining was performed using CINtecPLUS test according to the manufacturer's instructions. CINtecPLUS is a immunocytochemical test based on specially designed monoclonal antibodies (E6H4TM) that let us identify protein p16ink4a within the cervical smear Additionally the diagnostic kit was provided with antibodies for diagnosing the presence of Ki-67 protein, a known marker of cell proliferation. The result was considered positive when staining of the nucleus and the cytoplasm appeared in red and brown, respectively. All abnormal results were eventually verified by histological examination of the tissue taken from cervical lesions by diagnostic-therapeutic procedure following colposcopic evaluation of cervical lesion topography In the group of cytological smears with ASCUS, the diagnosis was positive in 5 cases (26.3%), negative in 14 (73

  9. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  10. Human papilloma virus testing knowledge and attitudes among women attending colposcopy clinic with ASCUS/LGSIL pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T; Hicks, W; Menard, C; Boyd, D; Hewson, T; Hopkins, L; Kee Fung, M Fung

    2004-09-01

    To study women's knowledge regarding the role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and their attitudes toward the integration of HPV testing as part of routine follow-up of atypical squamous cell of uncertain significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LGSIL) abnormalities. Over a 12-month period, all women attending the University of Ottawa colposcopy clinic for evaluation and follow-up of ASCUS/LGSIL Pap smears were recruited. Demographic data included age, nature of the Pap smear abnormality, gravidity, parity, occupation and education level, smoking history, previous history of abnormal smears, colposcopic examination and treatment, and current method of contraception. The women were asked to rate their level of concern over their Pap smear abnormality, from 0 (not concerned) to 10 (very concerned). Women's knowledge regarding the role of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the rationale behind the use of HPV testing was assessed by the clinic nurse as being minimal, moderate, or good, as defined by pre-specified criteria. Upon explanation by the nurses of the results of the recent ALTS (ASCUS/LGSIL Triage Study) trial, the women were asked to state whether they preferred to continue with regular colposcopic surveillance every 6 months, or to use the results of the HPV test, if negative, to reduce the number of colposcopy examinations to one annually. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify significant demographic factors associated with the women's preference for incorporation of HPV testing in their follow-up. All P values less than.10 were considered to be statistically significant, due to the exploratory nature of the study. Of the 100 women who participated in the study, 42% presented with ASCUS. The mean age (+/- SD) of the women was 33.63 +/- 11.25 years (range, 18-75 years); 66% were office workers with at least a community college degree, 86% reported

  11. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobek, Tanja; Reiter, Michael; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    The scanning probe microscopy setups are small, lightweight and do not require vacuum or high voltage supply. In addition, samples can be investigated directly without further preparation. Therefore, these techniques are well-suited for applications in space, in particular, for operation on the International Space Station (ISS) or for high resolution microscopy on planetary missions. A feasibility study for a scanning tunneling microscopy setup was carried out on a parabolic flight campaign in November 2001 in order to test the technical setup for microgravity applications. With a pocket-size design microscope, a graphite surface was imaged under ambient conditions. Atomic resolution was achieved although the quality of the images was inferior in comparison to laboratory conditions. Improvements for future scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity are suggested

  13. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using 35 S-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two 35 S-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material

  14. The effect of 17% EDTA and MTAD on smear layer removal and on erosion of root canal dentin when used as final rinse: An in vitro SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal A Mahajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the ability of a mixture of tetracycline isomer, citric acid and detergent (MTAD and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA in removing the smear layer along with their effects on peritubular and intertubular dentinal structures by scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination. Materials and Methods: Thirty recently extracted maxillary and mandibular single-rooted human teeth were divided into 3 groups and prepared to an apical size of 30. In Group 1, 2, and 3, MTAD, EDTA, and distilled water were used, respectively, as a final rinse solution to remove the smear layer. The specimens were subjected to SEM evaluation for the presence or absence of the smear layer and degree of erosion using a scoring system. Results: The result showed that MTAD shows better smear layer removing ability and does not significantly change the structure of dentinal tubules. Conclusion: MTAD is an efficient solution for the removal of the smear layer, especially in the apical third of root canals, and does not significantly change the structure of the dentinal tubules.

  15. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  16. OPTIMASI KLASIFIKASI SEL TUNGGAL PAP SMEAR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION BASED FEATURES SELECTION (CFS BERBASIS C4.5 DAN NAIVE BAYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asti Herliana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Cervical cancer was the most dangerous disease and generally attacks women. Early detection through Pap Smear method was one way to prevent the desease to grow in womans cervival canal. Based on the result of Pap Smear methode, the single cell of data that known as herlev data is available. This data, then used as a reference by the experts to find the best level classification from each class of cervical cancer. The decision tree C4.5 and Naïve Bayes have proven to give the best result on 280 data trial of herlev with support by Correlation based Features Selection (CFS optimization method. The issues raised in the present study was does CFS optimization methode that combined with the classification method of C4.5 and Naïve Bayes can provide increased the accuracy results when it faced the 917 data of herlev. The results of this study show that CFS method that combined either with C4.5 methods and naïve bayes classification accuracy was decrease when compared without using CFS method. In terms of showing that CFS can not provide the best result when if confronted with big data. Keywords : optimization, classification, single cell of Pap Smear, Correlation based Features Selection, C4.5, Naïve Bayes   Abstrak – Kanker serviks merupakan penyakit yang sangat berbahaya dan pada umumnya menyerang kaum wanita. Deteksi sejak dini melalui metode Pap Smear merupakan salah satu cara untuk mencegah penyakit ini berkembang didalam saluran serviks wanita. Berdasarkan hasil dari metode Pap Smear, didapatkanlah data sel tunggal yang kini dikenal dengan data herlev. Data ini, kemudian dijadikan acuan dalam penelitian oleh para ahli dewasa ini untuk menemukan tingkat klasifikasi terbaik dari masing-masing kelas kanker serviks. Metode Decision tree C4.5 dan Naïve Bayes terbukti memberikan hasil yang terbaik pada ujicoba data herlev sebanyak 280 data dengan dukungan dari metode optimasi Correlation based Features Selection(CFS. Permasalahan

  17. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  18. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  19. A survey of awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women at tertiary care centre in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Rani; Kalpana Singh; Shreya Thapa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is very common in developing countries. In Uttar Pradesh the literacy rate of women is low as compared to other states of India. Poverty is very high. Most women report with advance stage of cervical cancer. It can be prevented by early screening with Pap smear. Aim of our study is to know about the awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women attending a tertiary hospital in Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh India. Methods: A questionnaire based ...

  20. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  1. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... in their cervical smears at 12 months' follow-up was identical in the two groups, supporting the hypothesis that HPV is a persistent infection during which the virus is widespread in the vaginal epithelium....

  2. Investigation of coronal leakage of root fillings after smear-layer removal with EDTA or Nd:YAG lasing through capillary-flow porometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Rafaël; Vergauwen, Tom Edgard Maria; Mavridou, Athina; Meire, Maarten; De Bruyne, Mieke; De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation combined with different irrigation protocols on the marginal seal of root fillings. Limited information exists regarding the effects of morphologic changes to root canal (RC) walls after Nd:YAG laser irradiation after smear-layer removal with EDTA on the sealing ability of root fillings. The 75 root-filled teeth (5 × 15 teeth) were analyzed for through-and-through leakage by using capillary flow porometry (CFP). The RC cleaning procedure determined the assignment to a group: (1) irrigation with NaOCl 2.5% and EDTA 17% or standard protocol (SP), (2) SP + Nd:YAG lasing (dried RC), (3) NaOCl 2.5% + Nd:YAG lasing (dried RC), (4) SP + Nd:YAG lasing (wet RC), or (5) NaOCl 2.5% + Nd:YAG lasing (wet RC). Groups 1r to 5r consisted of the same filled teeth with resected apices up to the most apical point of the preparation length. Resection was performed after the first CFP measurement. Roots were filled with cold lateral condensation. CFP was used to assess minimum, mean flow and maximum pore diameters after 48 h, and immediately after these measurements, including root resection. Statistics were performed by using nonparametric tests (p > 0.05). An additional three roots per group were submitted to SEM of the RC wall. Through-and-through leakage was observed in all groups. Statistically significant differences were observed in maximum pore diameter: 1r > 3r, and 1r > 5r; in mean flow pore diameter: 1r > 2r, 2r < 4r (p < 0.05). Typical Nd:YAG glazing effects were observed when the smear layer was present and exposed to the laser fiber (i.e., in the groups without use of EDTA) or when the fiber tip made direct contact with a smear-layer free RC wall. The reduction in through-and-through leakage is significantly higher with the Nd:YAG laser as smear-layer modifier than when smear layer is removed with an EDTA rinsing solution.

  3. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of efficacy of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chitosan for smear layer removal with ultrasonics: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Babu Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of root canal treatment is cleaning, shaping and then obturating three dimensionally to prevent reinfection. This includes chemicomechanical cleansing by instrumentation and the use of irrigating solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the smear layer removal from root canal dentine subjected to two root canal irrigants, 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan, a new irrigant using Scanning Electron Microscope. Methodology: 40 single rooted premolars were decoronated followed by instrumentation with I Race files and intermediate irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite and activation with ultrasonics. Then the samples were longitudinally sectioned and place in the respective test solutions and their controls for 5 minutes. Scanning Electron Microscopic evaluation was further carried out. Results: The results of the present study indicates that the Chitosan which was proved effective in removing smear layer. Conclusion: A moderate concentration of 0.2% chitosan removes the smear layer with greater efficiency.

  4. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  5. DotLens smartphone microscopy for biological and biomedical applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yu-Lung; Zhao, Fusheng; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in inkjet-printed optics have created a new class of lens fabrication technique. Lenses with a tunable geometry, magnification, and focal length can be fabricated by dispensing controlled amounts of liquid polymer onto a heated surface. This fabrication technique is highly cost-effective, and can achieve optically smooth surface finish. Dubbed DotLens, a single of which weighs less than 50 mg and occupies a volume less than 50 μL. DotLens can be attached onto any smartphone camera akin to a contact lens, and enable smartphones to obtain image resolution as fine as 1 µm. The surface curvature modifies the optical path of light to the image sensor, and enables the camera to focus as close as 2 mm. This enables microscopic imaging on a smartphone without any additional attachments, and has shown great potential in mobile point-of-care diagnostic systems, particularly for histology of tissue sections and cytology of blood cells. DotLens Smartphone Microscopy represents an innovative approach fundamentally different from other smartphone microscopes. In this paper, we describe the application and performance of DotLens smartphone microscopy in biological and biomedical research. In particular, we show recent results from images collected from pathology tissue slides with cancer features. In addition, we show performance in cytological analysis of blood smear. This tool has empowered Citizen Science investigators to collect microscopic images from various interesting objects.

  6. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation.

  7. Can follow-up examination of tuberculosis patients be simplified? A study in Chhattisgarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Kundu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Each follow-up during the course of tuberculosis treatment currently requires two sputum examinations. However, the incremental yield of the second sputum sample during follow-up of different types of tuberculosis patients has never been determined precisely. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental yield of the second sputum sample in the follow-up of tuberculosis patients under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP in Chhattisgarh, India. METHODOLOGY: A record review of tuberculosis (TB patients registered in 2009 using a structured proforma from two sources, Tuberculosis and Laboratory Register, was undertaken in the six districts of Chhattisgarh, India. RESULTS: In smear positive cases, of 10,048 follow-up examinations, 45 (0.5% were found to be smear positive only on the second sputum when the result of the first sample was negative. In smear negative pulmonary and extra pulmonary TB patients, of 6,206 follow-up smear examinations, 11(0.2% were found to be smear positive. CONCLUSIONS: The incremental yield of a second smear examination was very low, indicating that examination of one sputum sample is enough during follow-up among TB patients. There is insufficient yield to support sputum smear microscopy for monitoring smear negative pulmonary TB and extra pulmonary TB patients. These results indicate that the follow-up smear microscopy can be substantially simplified with favourable resource implications.

  8. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  10. Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis.Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope. The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and intestinal protozoa infection in a community-based survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One slide of 10 ml filtered urine and a single Kato-Katz thick smear from 226 individuals were subjected to the Newton Nm1 microscope and CellScope for detection of Schistosoma eggs and compared to conventional microscopy. Additionally, 121 sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF-fixed stool samples were examined by the Newton Nm1 microscope and compared to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa.The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, as determined by conventional microscopy, was 39.8%, 5.3%, 20.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The Newton Nm1 microscope had diagnostic sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection of 91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 59.8-99.6% and 81.1% (95% CI 71.2-88.3%, respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100% and 97.1% (95% CI 92.2-99.1%, respectively. The CellScope demonstrated sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium of 50.0% (95% CI 25.4-74.6% and 35.6% (95% CI 25.9-46.4%, respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100% and 100% (95% CI 86.7-100%, respectively. For G. intestinalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar, the Newton Nm1 microscope had sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI 63.1-94.7% and 83.3% (95% CI 36.5-99.1%, respectively, and 100% specificity.Handheld diagnostic devices can be employed in community-based surveys in resource

  11. Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Andrews, Jason R; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2016-06-01

    Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis. Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope). The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and intestinal protozoa infection in a community-based survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One slide of 10 ml filtered urine and a single Kato-Katz thick smear from 226 individuals were subjected to the Newton Nm1 microscope and CellScope for detection of Schistosoma eggs and compared to conventional microscopy. Additionally, 121 sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples were examined by the Newton Nm1 microscope and compared to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, as determined by conventional microscopy, was 39.8%, 5.3%, 20.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The Newton Nm1 microscope had diagnostic sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection of 91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.8-99.6%) and 81.1% (95% CI 71.2-88.3%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 97.1% (95% CI 92.2-99.1%), respectively. The CellScope demonstrated sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium of 50.0% (95% CI 25.4-74.6%) and 35.6% (95% CI 25.9-46.4%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 100% (95% CI 86.7-100%), respectively. For G. intestinalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar, the Newton Nm1 microscope had sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI 63.1-94.7%) and 83.3% (95% CI 36.5-99.1%), respectively, and 100% specificity. Handheld diagnostic devices can be employed in community-based surveys in resource

  12. Evaluation of smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of root canal sealer after final irrigation using ethylenediaminetetraacetic, peracetic, and etidronic acids with different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Özgür İlke; Zeyrek, Salev; Çelik, Bülent

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different irrigation solutions on the smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of a resin-based sealer to root canal dentine. A total of 152 instrumented roots were irrigated with the following irrigants: 9,18% etidronic acid (HEBP), 0.5, 1,2% peracetic acid (PAA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), saline. The amount of smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in seventy root samples. Eighty-two roots were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha. Slices obtained from apical third of each specimen were viewed with SEM to assess marginal adaptation. Use of 9% and 18% HEBP resulted in more efficient smear layer removal in the apical third than the other chelators (p acid is a promising candidate for final irrigation of root canals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  14. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  15. Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Björk, Pasi; Säljö, Roger

    2011-03-30

    Virtual microscopy is being introduced in medical education as an approach for learning how to interpret information in microscopic specimens. It is, however, far from evident how to incorporate its use into existing teaching practice. The aim of the study was to explore the consequences of introducing virtual microscopy tasks into an undergraduate pathology course in an attempt to render the instruction more process-oriented. The research questions were: 1) How is virtual microscopy perceived by students? 2) Does work on virtual microscopy tasks contribute to improvement in performance in microscopic pathology in comparison with attending assistant-led demonstrations only? During a one-week period, an experimental group completed three sets of virtual microscopy homework assignments in addition to attending demonstrations. A control group attended the demonstrations only. Performance in microscopic pathology was measured by a pre-test and a post-test. Student perceptions of regular instruction and virtual microscopy were collected one month later by administering the Inventory of Intrinsic Motivation and open-ended questions. The students voiced an appreciation for virtual microscopy for the purposes of the course and for self-study. As for learning gains, the results indicated that learning was speeded up in a subgroup of students consisting of conscientious high achievers. The enriched instruction model may be suited as such for elective courses following the basic course. However, the instructional model needs further development to be suited for basic courses.

  16. Daily peer review of abnormal cervical smears in the assessment of individual practice as an additional method of internal quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confortini, M; Di Stefano, C; Biggeri, A; Bulgaresi, P; Di Claudio, G; Grisotto, L; Maddau, C; Matucci, M; Petreschi, C; Troni, G M; Turco, P; Foxi, P

    2016-02-01

    An important internal quality control system used in the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute cytopathology laboratory in Florence is the peer review procedure, based on the review of all abnormal cytological smears which routinely emerge. Peer review is an important training opportunity for all cytologists, especially for those with less experience. This article shows the results of the peer review procedure. Of the 63 754 Papanicolaou (Pap) smears screened in 2011, 1086 were considered to be abnormal [at least atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US+)] on primary screening (selected by a single cytologist) and were subjected to the peer review procedure. The overall performance of the laboratory's cytologists was evaluated using a multiple rater analysis and the comparison of each cytologist with the final diagnosis. Further, the agreement was assessed by means of Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa statistics. In general, a moderate/substantial level of agreement between the ten cytologists and the final diagnoses was evident. Kappa values for each reader compared with the final diagnosis ranged from 0.54 to 0.69. The overall kappa value was 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.66] and overall weighted kappa value was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79). The category-specific agreement showed the lowest values for atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). In summary, peer review represents an important internal quality control in the evaluation and improvement of inter-observer agreement and of the functioning of the laboratory as a whole. Multi-head microscope sessions may improve particularly the reproducibility of borderline diagnoses and, above all, can be an important training contribution for cytologists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S; Devi, S; Shriyan, A; Rajaram, M; Jagdishchandra, K

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%), and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0%) was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5%) women by smear alone and 88 (17.42%) women by semiquantitative culture.

  18. Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2.0% chlorhexidine and saline solutions. Fifty extracted teeth were used in this study. All teeth were radiographed to determine the existence of a single canal. The crowns were cut at the cervical limit and the root canals were instrumented with K-type files up to size 45. During root canal preparation, irrigations were made with the different solutions being evaluated: Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl (10 roots; Group 2: 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minute (10 roots; Group 3: 2.0% chlorhexidine (10 roots; Group 4: 2.0% chlorhexidine and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (10 roots; Group 5: saline solution (5 roots; Group 6: saline solution and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (5 roots. After instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with each one of the solutions and the roots were cut in the buccolingual direction for SEM analysis, at the cervical, middle and apical thirds, to ascertain the presence or absence of smear layer and debris. SEM analysis was performed by three calibrated examiners and scores were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test at the significance level of p = 5%. Results showed that the use of 17% EDTA decreased the smear layer significantly (p < 0.05 for all evaluated solutions in all thirds. When EDTA was not used, a significantly higher quantity of smear layer on the apical third was observed only in the NaOCl groups. The use of 17% EDTA was significant for debris removal except for the chlorhexidine groups. The following conclusion could be drawn: the use of 17% EDTA was necessary to enhance cleanness of the root canals.

  19. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Pap Smear Screening Behavior among Women Referring to Health Centers in Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Khiyali; Leila Ghahremani; Mohammad Hossein Kaveh; Sareh Keshavarzi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of pap smear in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and its death, this cancer is still one of the leading causes of death among women around the world. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of an educational program based on the protection motivation theory on Pap smear screening behavior. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 women referring to Fasa health centers, Fasa, Ira...

  20. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  1. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Leahy, Brian D.; Alemi, Alexander A.; Cohen, Itai; Sethna, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI). As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10-100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  2. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bierbaum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10–100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  3. Case-Detection Rate of Direct Sputum Smear Microscopy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de la culture sur milieu de Löwenstein- Jensen en tant que norme de référence . Sur les 150 participants testés, 51 étaient à frottis positif pour les bacilles acido rapide (taux de positivité, 34,0%, 51/150), tandis que 79 étaient positifs à la culture pour complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis et 12 pour les mycobactéries non ...

  4. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  5. Role of Papanicolaou Smear in the Diagnosis of Pathologic Flora in Asymptomatic Patients in Rural Health Care Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siona Sabu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infections of female genital tract, especially the cervix are asymptomatic in presentation and pose a diagnostic challenge. Vaginal infections can lead to cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities in the epithelial cells. Additionally, these infections could augur an inflammatory response of varying nature. The most common flora include Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, Human Herpes Virus (HHV and Actinomyces sp. Aim: This study seeks to measure the role of Papanicolaou smear in detection of pathologic flora: Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, HPV, HHV and Actinomyces; in a rural health care set up amongst women in the reproductive and menopausal age group. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of cervical smears by Papanicolaou method, over a 14 month period was carried out in a tertiary care centre including a total number of 150 patients. Results: Of the total of 150 samples examined, Candida species was the most frequently detected (8.7% followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (5.3% and Gardnerella vaginalis species (4.7%. HPV-induced changes were noted in a mere 2% of cases. Actinomyces species was noted in less than 1% of cases. Conclusion: The Papanicolaou test for examining cervical smear has definite uses in detecting vaginal microorganisms. Apart from detection of the usual pathogenic flora, the test has utility in defining the degree of inflammation and additional reparative changes.

  6. Correlative Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doory; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Sigal, Yaron M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy allows the imaging of spatial distributions of specific biomolecules in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows the location of molecules to be determined with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, correlative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) still remains challenging because the optimal specimen preparation and imaging conditions for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and EM are often not compatible. Here, we have developed several experiment protocols for correlative stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and EM methods, both for un-embedded samples by applying EM-specific sample preparations after STORM imaging and for embedded and sectioned samples by optimizing the fluorescence under EM fixation, staining and embedding conditions. We demonstrated these methods using a variety of cellular targets. PMID:25874453

  7. Evaluation of the 2007 WHO guideline to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis in ambulatory HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Olivier; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Pe, Reaksmey; van Griensven, Johan; Apers, Ludwig; Van den Ende, Jef; Mao, Tan Eang; Lynen, Lutgarde

    2011-04-06

    In 2007 WHO issued a guideline to improve the diagnosis of smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-positive patients. This guideline relies heavily on the acceptance of HIV-testing and availability of chest X-rays. Cohort study of TB suspects in four tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We assessed the operational performance of the guideline, the incremental yield of investigations, and the diagnostic accuracy for smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients using culture positivity as reference standard. 1,147 (68.9%) of 1,665 TB suspects presented with unknown HIV status, 1,124 (98.0%) agreed to be tested, 79 (7.0%) were HIV-positive. Compliance with the guideline for chest X-rays and sputum culture requests was 97.1% and 98.3% respectively. Only 35 of 79 HIV-positive patients (44.3%) with a chest X-ray suggestive of TB started TB treatment within 10 days. 105 of 442 HIV-positive TB suspects started TB treatment (56.2% smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB), 28.6% smear-positive PTB, 15.2% EPTB). The median time to TB treatment initiation was 5 days (IQR: 2-13 days), ranging from 2 days (IQR: 1-11.5 days) for EPTB, over 2.5 days (IQR: 1-4 days) for smear-positive PTB to 9 days (IQR: 3-17 days) for smear-negative PTB. Among the 34 smear-negative TB patients with a confirmed diagnosis, the incremental yield of chest X-ray, clinical suspicion or abdominal ultrasound, and culture was 41.2%, 17.6% and 41.2% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to diagnose smear-negative TB in HIV-positive TB suspects was 58.8% (95%CI: 42.2%-73.6%) and 79.4% (95%CI: 74.8%-82.4%) respectively. Pending point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for TB disease, diagnostic algorithms are needed. The diagnostic accuracy of the 2007 WHO guideline to diagnose smear-negative TB is acceptable. There is, however, reluctance to comply with the guideline in terms of immediate treatment initiation.

  8. Adherence to tuberculosis treatment, sputum smear conversion and mortality: a retrospective cohort study in 48 rwandan clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Mugisha, Veronicah; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Gasana, Michel; Cobelens, Frank; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to treatment and sputum smear conversion after 2 months of treatment are thought to be important for successful outcome of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Retrospective cohort study of new adult TB patients diagnosed in the first quarter of 2007 at 48 clinics in Rwanda. Data were abstracted

  9. Evaluation of noise limits to improve image processing in soft X-ray projection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsranjav, Erdenetogtokh; Kuge, Kenichi; Ito, Atsushi; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-03-03

    Soft X-ray microscopy has been developed for high resolution imaging of hydrated biological specimens due to the availability of water window region. In particular, a projection type microscopy has advantages in wide viewing area, easy zooming function and easy extensibility to computed tomography (CT). The blur of projection image due to the Fresnel diffraction of X-rays, which eventually reduces spatial resolution, could be corrected by an iteration procedure, i.e., repetition of Fresnel and inverse Fresnel transformations. However, it was found that the correction is not enough to be effective for all images, especially for images with low contrast. In order to improve the effectiveness of image correction by computer processing, we in this study evaluated the influence of background noise in the iteration procedure through a simulation study. In the study, images of model specimen with known morphology were used as a substitute for the chromosome images, one of the targets of our microscope. Under the condition that artificial noise was distributed on the images randomly, we introduced two different parameters to evaluate noise effects according to each situation where the iteration procedure was not successful, and proposed an upper limit of the noise within which the effective iteration procedure for the chromosome images was possible. The study indicated that applying the new simulation and noise evaluation method was useful for image processing where background noises cannot be ignored compared with specimen images.

  10. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to

  11. PEMERIKSAAN LEUCOCYTOZOONOSIS PADA BROILER DAN ITIK MENGGUNAKAN METODE GERUSAN ORGAN DAN HAPUSAN DARAH (EXAMINATION OF LEUCOCYTOZOONOSIS IN BROILERS AND DUCKS USING ORGAN MASHED METHODS AND BLOOD SMEAR *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafiah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has been done to examine Leucocytozoonosis case using organ mashed method in broiler and ducks slaughtered in chickens slaughter house in Banda Aceh Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. From each of broiler and ducks fifty organs were collected for sample. Before those animals were killed blood smear were taken to find merozoites and gametosites stadium while smashed organs were made to find schizont stadium. The number of schizont of Leucocytozoonosis were analyzed descriptively. Result of research indicate that was higher positiveLeucocytozoonosis with mashed method better than blood smear in broiler and duck. The prevalence of Leucocylozoonosis with blood smear respectively are 30 % and 24 % from broiler while by using organ smashed methods are 58 % and 54 % respectively.

  12. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  13. Assessment of LED fluorescence microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biallas Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is central to clinical management and the prevention of drug-overuse, which may lead to resistance development, toxicity and economic losses. So far, light microscopy (LM of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears is the gold standard. Under optimal conditions the procedure is fast and reliable; nevertheless a gain in speed would be a great advantage. Rapid diagnosis tests are an alternative, although they cost more and give qualitative instead of quantitative results. Light-emitting diode (LED fluorescence microscopy (ledFM 400 ×, 1000 × may offer a reliable and cheap alternative, which can be used at the point of care. Methods LedFM and conventional fluorescence microscopy (uvFM were compared to LM in 210 samples from patients with history of fever in the last 24 hours admitted to the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon. Results Sensitivities were 99.1% for ledFM and 97.0% for uvFM, specificities 90.7% for ledFM 400 × and 92.6% for ledFM 1000 × and uvFM. High agreement was found in Bland-Altman-plot and Kappa coefficient (ledFM 1000 ×: 0.914, ledFM 400 × and uvFM: 0.895. The time to diagnosis for both FM methods was shorter compared to LM (LM: 43 min, uvFM: 16 min, ledFM 1000 ×: 14 min, ledFM 400 ×: 10 min. Conclusion ledFM is a reliable, accurate, fast and inexpensive tool for daily routine malaria diagnosis and may be used as a point of care diagnostic tool.

  14. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F

    1999-01-01

    phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown...

  15. Impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on triage of respiratory isolation rooms for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis: a hypothetical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Lelia H; Roemer, Marguerite; Cantu, David; Haller, Barbara; Millman, Alexander J; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian

    2014-11-15

    Placing inpatients with presumed active pulmonary tuberculosis in respiratory isolation pending results of serial sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy is standard practice in high-income countries. However, this diagnostic strategy is slow and yields few tuberculosis diagnoses. We sought to determine if replacing microscopy with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) nucleic acid amplification assay could reduce testing time and usage of isolation rooms. We prospectively followed inpatients at San Francisco General Hospital undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. We performed smear microscopy and Xpert testing on concentrated sputum, and calculated diagnostic accuracy for both strategies in reference to serial sputum mycobacterial culture. We measured turnaround time for microscopy and estimated hypothetical turnaround times for Xpert on concentrated and unconcentrated sputum. We compared median and total isolation times for microscopy to those estimated for the 2 Xpert strategies. Among 139 patients with 142 admissions, median age was 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 43-60 years); 32 (23%) patients were female, and 42 (30%) were HIV seropositive. Serial sputum smear microscopy and a single concentrated sputum Xpert had identical sensitivity (89%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-100%) and similar specificity (99% [95% CI, 96%-100%] vs 100% [95% CI, 97%-100%]). A single concentrated sputum Xpert could have saved a median of 35 hours (IQR, 24-36 hours) in unnecessary isolation compared with microscopy, and a single unconcentrated sputum Xpert, 45 hours (IQR, 35-46 hours). Replacing serial sputum smear microscopy with a single sputum Xpert could eliminate most unnecessary isolation for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis, greatly benefiting patients and hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Comparative study of Gram stain, potassium hydroxide smear, culture and nested PCR in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Nejabat, Mahmood; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Keshavarz, Fatemeh; Shakiba, Elaheh

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and practicality of the molecular method, compared to the standard microbiological techniques for diagnosing fungal keratitis (FK). Patients with eye findings suspected of FK were enrolled for cornea sampling. Scrapings from the affected areas of the infected corneas were obtained and were divided into two parts: one for smears and cultures, and the other for nested PCR analysis. Of the 38 eyes, 28 were judged to have fungal infections based on clinical and positive findings in the culture, smear and responses to antifungal treatment. Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining, culture and nested PCR results (either positive or negative) matched in 76.3, 42.1, 68.4 and 81.6%, respectively. PCR is a sensitive method but due to the lack of sophisticated facilities in routine laboratory procedures, it can serve only complementarily and cannot replace conventional methods. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. A method for improved clustering and classification of microscopy images using quantitative co-localization coefficients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Singan, Vasanth R

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundThe localization of proteins to specific subcellular structures in eukaryotic cells provides important information with respect to their function. Fluorescence microscopy approaches to determine localization distribution have proved to be an essential tool in the characterization of unknown proteins, and are now particularly pertinent as a result of the wide availability of fluorescently-tagged constructs and antibodies. However, there are currently very few image analysis options able to effectively discriminate proteins with apparently similar distributions in cells, despite this information being important for protein characterization.FindingsWe have developed a novel method for combining two existing image analysis approaches, which results in highly efficient and accurate discrimination of proteins with seemingly similar distributions. We have combined image texture-based analysis with quantitative co-localization coefficients, a method that has traditionally only been used to study the spatial overlap between two populations of molecules. Here we describe and present a novel application for quantitative co-localization, as applied to the study of Rab family small GTP binding proteins localizing to the endomembrane system of cultured cells.ConclusionsWe show how quantitative co-localization can be used alongside texture feature analysis, resulting in improved clustering of microscopy images. The use of co-localization as an additional clustering parameter is non-biased and highly applicable to high-throughput image data sets.

  19. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Performance of LED fluorescence microscopy for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) bright-field microscopy is time-consuming, with poor sensitivity, even under optimal conditions. Introduction of Primo Star iLED fluorescent microscopy (FM) may improve TB case finding at referral hospitals in Rwanda. The study aimed to determine the acceptability and effectiveness of iLED ...

  1. Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Minoru; Ito, Haruo; Nozawa, Katsuro; Shinohara, Yotaro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Improving the visualization of electron-microscopy data through optical flow interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Carata, Lucian; Shao, Dan; Hadwiger, Markus; Grö eller, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    with electron-microscopy (EM). However, the technique achieves a low resolution in the cutting direction, due to limitations of the mechanical process, making a direct visualization of a dataset difficult. We aim to increase the depth resolution of the volume

  3. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe; Eunice Leonora Chaplin; Maria das Graças de Souza Paiva; Nilton Rogério Santos Silva; Flávio A. Pacheco Araújo; Elinor Fortes

    1992-01-01

    The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  4. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

  5. Diagnosing multibacillary leprosy: A comparative evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of slit-skin smear, bacterial index of granuloma and WHO operational classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Premanshu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the relatively poor performance of skin smears WHO adopted a purely clinical operational classification, however the poor specificity of operational classification leads to overdiagnosis and unwarranted overtreatment while the poor sensitivity leads to underdiagnosis of multibacillary (MB cases with inadequate treatment. Bacilli are more frequently and abundantly demonstrated in tissue sections. Aims and Methods: We compared WHO classification, slit-skin smears (SSS and demonstration of bacilli in biopsies (bacterial index of granuloma or BIG with regards to their efficacy in correctly identifying multibacillary cases. The tests were done on 141 patients and were evaluated for their ability to diagnose true MB leprosy using detailed statistical analysis. Results: A total of 76 patients were truly MB with either positive smears, BIG positivity or with a typical histology of BB, BL or LL. Amongst these 76 true-MB patients, WHO operational classification correctly identified multibacillary status in 56 (73.68%, and SSS in 43 (56.58%, while BIG correctly identified 65 (85.53% true-MB cases. Conclusion: BIG was most sensitive and effective of the three methods especially in paucilesional patients. We suggest adding estimation of bacterial index of granuloma in the diagnostic workup of paucilesional patients.

  6. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, Stefan W; Sahl, Steffen J; Bates, Mark; Jakobs, Stefan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  7. Critical evaluation of quality assurance in laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in selected nearby microscopic centers under RNTCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: RNTCP relies on sputum smear microscopy for diagnosis, categorization of patients for treatment and assessment of their program. Therefore, it is crucial that the smear microscopy services provided are of highest quality possible. The current study is undertaken to do on site evaluation and Random blinded rechecking (RBRC of slides at selected microscopic centers. Material & Methods: Five microscopic centers were selected for onsite evaluation and Random Blinded rechecking. Slides were collected monthly from the respective DMCs. A questionnaire was developed to assess the overall operational conditions at the DMCs and a checklist was prepared to record the observation during the visit. RBRC slides were read by two microbiologists independently and results were compared with RNTCP results. Slides were read before and after restaining the slides. Results: After the evaluation of checklist and questionnaire, it was found that 100% centers were following the charts for smear preparation, staining and grading with adequate stock supply. One out of 5 centers had maximum number of slides with poor quality of smear (16.7%, 8% uneven smear and 14% slides with improper thickness. There was 100% concordance when reading five positive and five negative smears. The mean time spent on microscopic examination was 4.4 minutes, compared with recommended time of 10 minutes. Out of 828 slides rechecked under RBRC one low false negative error was found. Conclusion: The evaluation of quality control practices was found satisfactory. The laboratory staff was able to incorporate simple quality control procedures for AFB microscopy into their routine practice, resulting in reliable service. Onsite evaluation and RBRC

  8. Shedding light on endocytosis with optimized super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyton Puig, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a relatively new microscopy technique that is still under optimization. In this thesis we focus on the improvement of the quality of super-resolution images, to apply them to the study of the processes of cell signaling and endocytosis. First, we show that the use of a

  9. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  10. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing and Sequencing Combined with Acid-Fast Staining in Needle Biopsy Lung Tissues for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Faming; Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Ye; Tian, Panwen; Chen, Xuerong; Liang, Zongan

    2016-01-01

    Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB) staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB. Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with AFB in sputum smears were excluded. All lung biopsy specimens were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subjected to acid-fast staining and tuberculous polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR). For patients with positive AFB and negative TB-PCR results in lung tissues, probe assays and 16S rRNA sequencing were used for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of PCR and AFB staining were calculated separately and in combination. Among the 220 eligible patients, 133 were diagnosed with TB (men/women: 76/57; age range: 17-80 years, confirmed TB: 9, probable TB: 124). Forty-eight patients who were diagnosed with other specific diseases were assigned as negative controls, and 39 patients with indeterminate final diagnosis were excluded from statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of histological AFB (HAFB) for the diagnosis of smear-negative were 61.7% (82/133), 100% (48/48), 100% (82/82), 48.5% (48/181), and 71.8% (130/181), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of histological PCR were 89.5% (119/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.3% (119/121), and 76.7% (46/60), respectively, demonstrating that histological PCR had significantly higher accuracy (91.2% [165/181]) than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181]), P pulmonary tuberculosis. For patients with positive histological AFB and

  11. Improved throughput traction microscopy reveals pivotal role for matrix stiffness in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Aleksandar; Mih, Justin D.; Park, Jin-Ah; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Lung fibroblast functions such as matrix remodeling and activation of latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are associated with expression of the myofibroblast phenotype and are directly linked to fibroblast capacity to generate force and deform the extracellular matrix. However, the study of fibroblast force-generating capacities through methods such as traction force microscopy is hindered by low throughput and time-consuming procedures. In this study, we improved at the detail level methods for higher-throughput traction measurements on polyacrylamide hydrogels using gel-surface-bound fluorescent beads to permit autofocusing and automated displacement mapping, and transduction of fibroblasts with a fluorescent label to streamline cell boundary identification. Together these advances substantially improve the throughput of traction microscopy and allow us to efficiently compute the forces exerted by lung fibroblasts on substrates spanning the stiffness range present in normal and fibrotic lung tissue. Our results reveal that lung fibroblasts dramatically alter the forces they transmit to the extracellular matrix as its stiffness changes, with very low forces generated on matrices as compliant as normal lung tissue. Moreover, exogenous TGF-β1 selectively accentuates tractions on stiff matrices, mimicking fibrotic lung, but not on physiological stiffness matrices, despite equivalent changes in Smad2/3 activation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a pivotal role for matrix mechanical properties in regulating baseline and TGF-β1-stimulated contraction of lung fibroblasts and suggest that stiff fibrotic lung tissue may promote myofibroblast activation through contractility-driven events, whereas normal lung tissue compliance may protect against such feedback amplification of fibroblast activation. PMID:22659883

  12. Virtual Hematoxylin and Eosin Transillumination Microscopy Using Epi-Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Michael G; Husvogt, Lennart; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Hornegger, Joachim; Connolly, James L; Fujimoto, James G

    2016-01-01

    We derive a physically realistic model for the generation of virtual transillumination, white light microscopy images using epi-fluorescence measurements from thick, unsectioned tissue. We demonstrate this technique by generating virtual transillumination H&E images of unsectioned human breast tissue from epi-fluorescence multiphoton microscopy data. The virtual transillumination algorithm is shown to enable improved contrast and color accuracy compared with previous color mapping methods. Finally, we present an open source implementation of the algorithm in OpenGL, enabling real-time GPU-based generation of virtual transillumination microscopy images using conventional fluorescence microscopy systems.

  13. qPCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR, a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H, the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease.

  14. qPCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Ramuno, Natália Mortari; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Tassa, Mônica; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy) and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA) and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H), the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  16. A New Nano-Chitosan Irrigant with Superior Smear Layer Removal and Penetration

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    Mohammad Kassaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our primary objective was to measure root canal penetrations of aqueous antibacterial nano-chitosan (Nano-CS, for the first time. The second objective was to compare and contrast such penetrations to those of chitosan (CS itself, as well as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexidine (CHX and ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA, at the routinely used concentrations. Molar roots were split longitudinally by a rotary diamond saw. Nano-CS was made by dissolving CS in acetic acid and adding tripolyphosphate (TPP, followed by a freeze-drying process. Dentin penetrations are estimated through measurements of sessile contact angles. Penetrations of the probed irrigants were assessed as inverse functions of their sessile contact angles. Accordingly, all Nano-CS solutions showed smaller sessile angles compared to those of NaOCl, CS, and EDTA samples. Hence, Nano-CS appeared to be a superior irrigant for demonstrating a higher penetration than the latter three. It fell only behind CHX, yet, the superb chelating ability of Nano-CS enabled it to remove smear layer to a larger extend than all of our other irrigants including CHX. Nano-CS could be considered as a new irrigant. Higher penetration was its main advantage over CS, and commercial NaOCl, and EDTA. This was verified by  the smaller sessile contact angle of Nano-CS. Anticipated chelating effect of Nano-CS could anchor more efficient removal of smear layer. This was another advantage of Nano-CS over other irrigants including CHX. Other advantages of Nano-CS included its reported biocompatibility, biodegradability and antibacterial effects. Commercialization of Nano-CS was deemed in the near horizon.

  17. Citologia vaginal a fresco na gravidez: correlação com a citologia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou Fresh wet mount in pregnancy: correlation with Pap smears

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    Amadeu Ramos da Silva Filho

    2004-01-01

    neste último método propedêutico. Os diagnósticos de tricomoníase observados em ambos os métodos citológicos (3,7 e 2,7% traduzem a baixa prevalência destes parasitas na gestação. O cálculo do índice kappa para avaliação da concordância entre os dois procedimentos citológicos nos diversos achados microbiológicos demonstrou baixa correlação nos diagnósticos da vaginose bacteriana e colpites bacterianas inespecíficas, bem como na identificação da flora vaginal normal. CONCLUSÕES: embora a citologia corada apresente melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de fungos não formadores de micélios, a citologia direta a fresco demonstrou ser melhor avaliador dos elementos não epiteliais dos esfregaços vaginais. Entretanto, a microscopia corada pela técnica de Papanicolaou, por permitir melhor apreciação das células epiteliais cervicovaginais, representa o mais importante instrumento revelador das agressões e reações nucleocitoplasmáticas.PURPOSE: to analyze vaginal contents using the fresh wet mount of a cytological exam in the first prenatal visit of women with or without genital complaints and correlate the conclusion with the results from the Pap smears. Microscopy during pregnancy should be valued and recognized as a method capable of providing immediate diagnosis in 90% of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis cases. METHODS: a prospective study was performed in 216 pregnant women selected from the prenatal department of a public hospital, between October 30, 2001 and November 12, 2002. Two samples were collected from the posterior vaginal vault and deposited onto two separate microscope slides. To one slide, a droplet of 0.9% NaCl was applied and to the other, a droplet of 10% KOH. Both slides were covered with a coverslip for immediate microscopic evaluation. Tests were perfomed in one drop of the material to examine pH and whiff. The microscopic examination of the material was carried out at a 100X, 400X and exceptionally 1000X

  18. Correlated Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Klaas A.; Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Kalicharan, Ruby; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; MullerReichert, T; Verkade, P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding where, when, and how biomolecules (inter)act is crucial to uncover fundamental mechanisms in cell biology. Recent developments in fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) allow protein imaging in living cells and at the near molecular level. However, fluorescence microscopy only reveals

  19. Effect of tropical fruit juices on dentine permeability and erosive ability in removing the smear layer: An in vitro study

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    Kanittha Kijsamanmith

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that tropical fruit juices, especially green mango and lime, increase dentine permeability and have a strong erosive ability to remove the smear layer, which causes dentine hypersensitivity.

  20. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

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    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  1. Baryon axial charges from chirally improved fermions - first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, G.; Gattringer, C.; Glozman, L. Y.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.; Mohler, D.; Schäfer, A.

    We present first results from dynamical Chirally Improved (CI) fermion simulations for the axial charge $G_A$ of various hadrons. We work with 16^3x32 lattices of spatial extent 2.4 fm and use the variational method with a suitable basis of Jacobi-smeared interpolators to suppress contaminations from excited states.

  2. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required imaging with multiple-laser-wavelength measurements to quantify oxygen saturation. Eliminating the need for multiwavelength measurements removes the influence of spectral properties on oxygenation calculations and improves the portability and cost-effectiveness of functional or molecular photoacoustic microscopy.

  3. Evaluation of the 2007 WHO guideline to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis in ambulatory HIV-positive adults.

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    Olivier Koole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007 WHO issued a guideline to improve the diagnosis of smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB in HIV-positive patients. This guideline relies heavily on the acceptance of HIV-testing and availability of chest X-rays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cohort study of TB suspects in four tuberculosis (TB clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We assessed the operational performance of the guideline, the incremental yield of investigations, and the diagnostic accuracy for smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients using culture positivity as reference standard. 1,147 (68.9% of 1,665 TB suspects presented with unknown HIV status, 1,124 (98.0% agreed to be tested, 79 (7.0% were HIV-positive. Compliance with the guideline for chest X-rays and sputum culture requests was 97.1% and 98.3% respectively. Only 35 of 79 HIV-positive patients (44.3% with a chest X-ray suggestive of TB started TB treatment within 10 days. 105 of 442 HIV-positive TB suspects started TB treatment (56.2% smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB, 28.6% smear-positive PTB, 15.2% EPTB. The median time to TB treatment initiation was 5 days (IQR: 2-13 days, ranging from 2 days (IQR: 1-11.5 days for EPTB, over 2.5 days (IQR: 1-4 days for smear-positive PTB to 9 days (IQR: 3-17 days for smear-negative PTB. Among the 34 smear-negative TB patients with a confirmed diagnosis, the incremental yield of chest X-ray, clinical suspicion or abdominal ultrasound, and culture was 41.2%, 17.6% and 41.2% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to diagnose smear-negative TB in HIV-positive TB suspects was 58.8% (95%CI: 42.2%-73.6% and 79.4% (95%CI: 74.8%-82.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pending point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for TB disease, diagnostic algorithms are needed. The diagnostic accuracy of the 2007 WHO guideline to diagnose smear-negative TB is acceptable. There is, however, reluctance to comply with the guideline in terms of immediate treatment

  4. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  5. Less medical intervention after sharp demarcation of grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia smears by neural network screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, MR; Boon, ME; Schreiner-Kok, PG; Hermans, J; Grobbee, DE; Kok, LP

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Neural network technology has been used for the daily screening of cervical smears in The Netherlands since 1992. The authors believe this method might have the potential to demarcate diagnoses of Grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1-2). METHODS. Of 133,196 women who were

  6. Diagnostic utility of melanin production by fungi: Study on tissue sections and culture smears with Masson-Fontana stain

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    Challa Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dematiaceous fungi appear brown in tissue section due to melanin in their cell walls. When the brown color is not seen on routine H and E and culture is not available, differentiation of dematiaceous fungi from other fungi is difficult on morphology alone. Aims and Objective: To study if melanin production by dematiaceous fungi can help differentiate them from other types of fungi. Materials and Methods: Fifty tissue sections of various fungal infections and 13 smears from cultures of different species of fungi were stained with Masson Fontana stain to assess melanin production. The tissue sections included biopsies from 26 culture-proven fungi and 24 biopsies of filamentous fungi diagnosed on morphology alone with no culture confirmation. Results: All culture-proven dematiaceous fungi and Zygomycetes showed strong positivity in sections and culture smears. Aspergillus sp showed variable positivity and intensity. Cryptococcus neoformans showed strong positivity in tissue sections and culture smears. Tissue sections of septate filamentous fungi (9/15, Zygomycetes (4/5, and fungi with both hyphal and yeast morphology (4/4 showed positivity for melanin. The septate filamentous fungi negative for melanin were from biopsy samples of fungal sinusitis including both allergic and invasive fungal sinusitis and colonizing fungal balls. Conclusion: Melanin is produced by both dematiaceous and non-dematiaceous fungi. Masson-Fontana stain cannot reliably differentiate dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi like Aspergillus sp; however, absence of melanin in the hyphae may be used to rule out dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi. In the differential diagnosis of yeast fungi, Cryptococcus sp can be differentiated from Candida sp by Masson-Fontana stain in tissue sections.

  7. Implementation of the Thin Layer Agar Method for Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Setting with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Homa Bay, Kenya▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anandi; Munga Waweru, Peter; Babu Okatch, Fred; Amondi Ouma, Naureen; Bonte, Laurence; Varaine, Francis; Portaels, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a low-cost method, the thin layer agar (TLA) method, for the diagnosis of smear-negative patients. This prospective study was performed in Homa Bay District Hospital in Kenya. Out of 1,584 smear-negative sputum samples, 212 (13.5%) were positive by culture in Löwenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and 220 (14%) were positive by the TLA method. The sensitivities of LJ and TLA were 71% and 74%, respectively. TLA could become an affordable method for the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in resource-limited settings, with results available within 2 weeks. PMID:19494065

  8. Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Fasa district in 2012

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Material & Methods: Slit biopsies were collected from 138 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis who were presented, consecutively, in Fasa district from April 2011 to February 2012. After the microscopy, the entire smear was then scraped off the slide surface for DNA extraction and PCR assay. Results: All 138 investigated smears were reported positive by microscopy and nested PCR assay. In PCR, One of the smears had the 750-bp band, indicative of L. tropica and the rest had the 560-bp band indicative of L. major. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Fasa district is predominantly Rural Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The PCR-based assay used in the present study appears to be a suitable and powerful tool for the characterization of Leishmanial species.

  9. Evaluating treatment outcomes and durations among cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Yemen: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Ammar Ali Saleh; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015. Standardized forms were used to obtain information from the patients regarding their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment duration, and TB-related information. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). The study included data from 273 cases of newly diagnosed TB, with treatment being successful in 227 cases (83.1%) and unsuccessful in 46 cases (16.9%). Among the 46 patients with unsuccessful treatment, 29 patients (10.6%) stopped treatment, 6 patients (2.2%) transferred to another facility, 6 patients (2.2%) experienced treatment failure, and 5 patients (1.8%) died. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that unsuccessful treatment was associated with female sex, illiterate status, and the presence of comorbidities. Prolonged treatment durations were associated with living in a rural area, smoking, chewing khat, a cough that lasted for >3 weeks at the beginning of treatment, and bilateral cavities during radiography. These results confirm that the treatment success rate in Yemen is lower than the World Health Organization's target for smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Targeting the risk factors that we identified may help improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, it may not be prudent to re-treat patients using first-line TB drugs after an initial treatment failure.

  10. Dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) with improved background rejection for accurate 3D digital pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihe; Bolus, Daniel; Brown, J. Quincy

    2018-02-01

    Current gold-standard histopathology for cancerous biopsies is destructive, time consuming, and limited to 2D slices, which do not faithfully represent true 3D tumor micro-morphology. Light sheet microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for 3D imaging of cancer biospecimens. Here, we utilize the versatile dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) to render digital histological images of cancer biopsies. Dual-view architecture enabled more isotropic resolution in X, Y, and Z; and different imaging modes, such as adding electronic confocal slit detection (eCSD) or structured illumination (SI), can be used to improve degraded image quality caused by background signal of large, scattering samples. To obtain traditional H&E-like images, we used DRAQ5 and eosin (D&E) staining, with 488nm and 647nm laser illumination, and multi-band filter sets. Here, phantom beads and a D&E stained buccal cell sample have been used to verify our dual-view method. We also show that via dual view imaging and deconvolution, more isotropic resolution has been achieved for optical cleared human prostate sample, providing more accurate quantitation of 3D tumor architecture than was possible with single-view SPIM methods. We demonstrate that the optimized diSPIM delivers more precise analysis of 3D cancer microarchitecture in human prostate biopsy than simpler light sheet microscopy arrangements.

  11. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Kaur, M; Gupta, N; Kumar, A; Goyal, K; Sharma, A; Majumdar, M; Gupta, M; Ratho, R K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs) due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) approach. The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01). The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5%) FSW versus 23/98 (23.5%) HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  12. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

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    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  13. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing and Sequencing Combined with Acid-Fast Staining in Needle Biopsy Lung Tissues for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Jiang

    Full Text Available Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB.Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with AFB in sputum smears were excluded. All lung biopsy specimens were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subjected to acid-fast staining and tuberculous polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR. For patients with positive AFB and negative TB-PCR results in lung tissues, probe assays and 16S rRNA sequencing were used for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of PCR and AFB staining were calculated separately and in combination.Among the 220 eligible patients, 133 were diagnosed with TB (men/women: 76/57; age range: 17-80 years, confirmed TB: 9, probable TB: 124. Forty-eight patients who were diagnosed with other specific diseases were assigned as negative controls, and 39 patients with indeterminate final diagnosis were excluded from statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of histological AFB (HAFB for the diagnosis of smear-negative were 61.7% (82/133, 100% (48/48, 100% (82/82, 48.5% (48/181, and 71.8% (130/181, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of histological PCR were 89.5% (119/133, 95.8% (46/48, 98.3% (119/121, and 76.7% (46/60, respectively, demonstrating that histological PCR had significantly higher accuracy (91.2% [165/181] than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181], P < 0.001. Parallel testing of histological AFB staining and PCR showed the

  14. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A

    2017-12-31

    Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P<0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher's exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.

  15. [The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of internal organs determined by the smear method (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailow, R

    1975-09-05

    The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of twelve organs from 25 male and female corpses was determined using the smear method. It was found to be about 60% in the case of female, and about 6% in the case of male corpses.

  16. Commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review.

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    Karen R Steingart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global tuberculosis epidemic results in nearly 2 million deaths and 9 million new cases of the disease a year. The vast majority of tuberculosis patients live in developing countries, where the diagnosis of tuberculosis relies on the identification of acid-fast bacilli on unprocessed sputum smears using conventional light microscopy. Microscopy has high specificity in tuberculosis-endemic countries, but modest sensitivity which varies among laboratories (range 20% to 80%. Moreover, the sensitivity is poor for paucibacillary disease (e.g., pediatric and HIV-associated tuberculosis. Thus, the development of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is imperative. Immune-based tests are potentially suitable for use in low-income countries as some test formats can be performed at the point of care without laboratory equipment. Currently, dozens of distinct commercial antibody detection tests are sold in developing countries. The question is "do they work?" METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to assess the accuracy of commercial antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies from all countries using culture and/or microscopy smear for confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible. Studies with fewer than 50 participants (25 patients and 25 control participants were excluded. In a comprehensive search, we identified 68 studies. The results demonstrate that (1 overall, commercial tests vary widely in performance; (2 sensitivity is higher in smear-positive than smear-negative samples; (3 in studies of smear-positive patients, Anda-TB IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay shows limited sensitivity (range 63% to 85% and inconsistent specificity (range 73% to 100%; (4 specificity is higher in healthy volunteers than in patients in whom tuberculosis disease is initially suspected and subsequently ruled out; and (5 there are insufficient data to determine the accuracy of most

  17. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I S; Youcef-Toumi, K; Burns, D J; Fantner, G E

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  19. Virtual Hematoxylin and Eosin Transillumination Microscopy Using Epi-Fluorescence Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Giacomelli

    Full Text Available We derive a physically realistic model for the generation of virtual transillumination, white light microscopy images using epi-fluorescence measurements from thick, unsectioned tissue. We demonstrate this technique by generating virtual transillumination H&E images of unsectioned human breast tissue from epi-fluorescence multiphoton microscopy data. The virtual transillumination algorithm is shown to enable improved contrast and color accuracy compared with previous color mapping methods. Finally, we present an open source implementation of the algorithm in OpenGL, enabling real-time GPU-based generation of virtual transillumination microscopy images using conventional fluorescence microscopy systems.

  20. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  1. Serological testing versus other strategies for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Dowdy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Undiagnosed and misdiagnosed tuberculosis (TB drives the epidemic in India. Serological (antibody detection TB tests are not recommended by any agency, but widely used in many countries, including the Indian private sector. The cost and impact of using serology compared with other diagnostic techniques is unknown.Taking a patient cohort conservatively equal to the annual number of serological tests done in India (1.5 million adults suspected of having active TB, we used decision analysis to estimate costs and effectiveness of sputum smear microscopy (US$3.62 for two smears, microscopy plus automated liquid culture (mycobacterium growth indicator tube [MGIT], US$20/test, and serological testing (anda-tb ELISA, US$20/test. Data on test accuracy and costs were obtained from published literature. We adopted the perspective of the Indian TB control sector and an analysis frame of 1 year. Our primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted. We performed one-way sensitivity analysis on all model parameters, with multiway sensitivity analysis on variables to which the model was most sensitive. If used instead of sputum microscopy, serology generated an estimated 14,000 more TB diagnoses, but also 121,000 more false-positive diagnoses, 102,000 fewer DALYs averted, and 32,000 more secondary TB cases than microscopy, at approximately four times the incremental cost (US$47.5 million versus US$11.9 million. When added to high-quality sputum smears, MGIT culture was estimated to avert 130,000 incremental DALYs at an incremental cost of US$213 per DALY averted. Serology was dominated by (i.e., more costly and less effective than MGIT culture and remained less economically favorable than sputum smear or TB culture in one-way and multiway sensitivity analyses.In India, sputum smear microscopy remains the most cost-effective diagnostic test available for active TB; efforts to increase access to quality-assured microscopy

  2. Biostatistical analysis of quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, C; Albrecht, M A; Lam, V; Takechi, R; Mamo, J C

    2016-12-01

    Semiquantitative immunofluorescence microscopy has become a key methodology in biomedical research. Typical statistical workflows are considered in the context of avoiding pseudo-replication and marginalising experimental error. However, immunofluorescence microscopy naturally generates hierarchically structured data that can be leveraged to improve statistical power and enrich biological interpretation. Herein, we describe a robust distribution fitting procedure and compare several statistical tests, outlining their potential advantages/disadvantages in the context of biological interpretation. Further, we describe tractable procedures for power analysis that incorporates the underlying distribution, sample size and number of images captured per sample. The procedures outlined have significant potential for increasing understanding of biological processes and decreasing both ethical and financial burden through experimental optimization. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. The use of a novel phage-based technology as a practical tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although smear microscopy is useful for detecting the most infectious cases, a significant portion of cases are negative on sputum smears, making diagnosis more difficult. New tests are urgently needed. The FASTPlaqueTB test, a bacteriophage-based method, has been evaluated in several studies in Africa and elsewhere.

  4. Variations in fatty acid proportions during desiccation of Telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although smear microscopy is useful for detecting the most infectious cases, a significant portion of cases are negative on sputum smears, making diagnosis more difficult. New tests are urgently needed. The FASTPlaqueTB test, a bacteriophage-based method, has been evaluated in several studies in Africa and elsewhere.

  5. Microscopy as a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to cast a huge impact on humanity with its high incidence and mortality, especially in developing countries. For tuberculosis case detection, microscopy continues to be indispensible, given its low cost, rapidity, simplicity of procedure and high specificity. Modifications have attempted to improve the sensitivity of microscopy which include: concentration methods such as centrifugation, N-acetyl cysteine–sodium hydroxide, bleach, ammonium sulfate or chitin. Furthermore, classical Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN staining has been subjected to varying carbol fuchsin concentrations or replaced by Kinyoun staining, fluorescent microscopy or immune-fluorescence. Currently, light emitting diode fluorescence is recognizably the most plausible method as an alternative to ZN staining.

  6. Applications of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in deep-tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Betty; Hsu, Lily L.; Kaplan, Peter D.; Blankschstein, D.; Langer, Robert; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-07-01

    Based on the non-linear excitation of fluorescence molecules, two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a significant new tool for biological imaging. The point-like excitation characteristic of this technique enhances image quality by the virtual elimination of off-focal fluorescence. Furthermore, sample photodamage is greatly reduced because fluorescence excitation is limited to the focal region. For deep tissue imaging, two-photon microscopy has the additional benefit in the greatly improved imaging depth penetration. Since the near- infrared laser sources used in two-photon microscopy scatter less than their UV/glue-green counterparts, in-depth imaging of highly scattering specimen can be greatly improved. In this work, we will present data characterizing both the imaging characteristics (point-spread-functions) and tissue samples (skin) images using this novel technology. In particular, we will demonstrate how blind deconvolution can be used further improve two-photon image quality and how this technique can be used to study mechanisms of chemically-enhanced, transdermal drug delivery.

  7. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-15

    People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  8. Critical evaluation of quality assurance in laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in selected nearby microscopic centers under RNTCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: RNTCP relies on sputum smear microscopy for diagnosis, categorization of patients for treatment and assessment of their program. Therefore, it is crucial that the smear microscopy services provided are of highest quality possible. The current study is undertaken to do on site evaluation and Random blinded rechecking (RBRC of slides at selected microscopic centers. Material & Methods: Five microscopic centers were selected for onsite evaluation and Random Blinded rechecking. Slides were collected monthly from the respective DMCs. A questionnaire was developed to assess the overall operational conditions at the DMCs and a checklist was prepared to record the observation during the visit. RBRC slides were read by two microbiologists independently and results were compared with RNTCP results. Slides were read before and after restaining the slides. Results: After the evaluation of checklist and questionnaire, it was found that 100% centers were following the charts for smear preparation, staining and grading with adequate stock supply. One out of 5 centers had maximum number of slides with poor quality of smear (16.7%, 8% uneven smear and 14% slides with improper thickness. There was 100% concordance when reading five positive and five negative smears. The mean time spent on microscopic examination was 4.4 minutes, compared with recommended time of 10 minutes. Out of 828 slides rechecked under RBRC one low false negative error was found. Conclusion: The evaluation of quality control practices was found satisfactory. The laboratory staff was able to incorporate simple quality control procedures for AFB microscopy into their routine practice, resulting in reliable service. Onsite evaluation and RBRC are viable measures of laboratory performance and both should be continued.

  9. A study of megakaryocyte morphology in bone marrow aspiration smears of cases of thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala Vinayakamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia may be encountered in various hematological and nonhematological conditions and may be associated with dysplastic megakaryocytes which is a feature of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, even though they can be observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Objective: To study the morphological variations of megakaryocytes on bone marrow aspiration smears in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia in a Medical College in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 86 cases of non-MDS thrombocytopenia whose bone marrow aspirates were studied morphologically. Results: The most common cause of thrombocytopenia was acute leukemia followed by other systemic malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Both dysplastic and nondysplastic features were observed in the above-mentioned conditions. The most common dysplastic feature was nuclear segmentation followed by micromegakaryocytes and hypogranular forms. Among nondysplastic features, the most common were immature forms, bare nuclei, and hypolobation. Emperipolesis and cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in a case of pyrexia of unknown origin. Conclusion: Dysplastic megakaryocytes are common in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia and their mere presence should not lead to the diagnosis of MDS. Hence, proper diagnosis should be made on megakaryocyte morphology, patient's clinical findings, and other hematological parameters. This understanding can improve the diagnostic accuracy for wide range of hematological disorders.

  10. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  11. On the uncertainties in the shell correction by Strutinsky smearing procedure for certain shapes relevant in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Prakash, M.; Kapoor, S.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that for level schemes obtained from a folded Yukawa potential, the Strutinsky smearing procedure for the evaluation of the shell correction to the total potential energy of nuclei does not lead to a unique value for nuclear shapes near and beyond the outer fission barrier deformations and consequently introduces uncertainties in the relative fission barrier heights. (author)

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Smear Layer and Debris on the Canal Walls prepared with a Combination of Hand and Rotary ProTaper Technique using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; Prakash, Sandeep; Siddharth, Pujari R; Saha, Supradip; Geojan, Naiza E; Ramachandran, Mookambika

    2016-07-01

    The effect of smear layer and debris on the success rate of endodontic treatment has not yet been definitely determined. So the present study was aimed to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris on the canal walls prepared with a combination of hand and rotary ProTaper technique using NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alternately as root canal irrigants using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Eighty intact freshly extracted human permanent mandibular premolar teeth were collected and randomly divided equally into four groups. In group I canals were prepared with hand K-Flexofiles; group II with rotary ProTaper instruments; group III with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with hand K-Flexofile; group IV with rotary ProTaper instruments and final instrumentation was done with RC-Prep and irrigated with 1 mL of normal saline. In all groups canals were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA alternately. After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM examination using five-score indices for debris and smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third levels. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test (p hand files after automated rotary preparation could result in cleaner canal walls. Alternate irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA is effective in the removal of debris and smear layer in the coronal and middle level, but the effectiveness in the apical third is less.

  13. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Pap Smear Screening Behavior among Women Referring to Health Centers in Fasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khiyali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of pap smear in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and its death, this cancer is still one of the leading causes of death among women around the world. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of an educational program based on the protection motivation theory on Pap smear screening behavior. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 women referring to Fasa health centers, Fasa, Iran. The participants were randomized into experimental and control groups (n=100 per group. The data collection tool, which consisted of demographic data and protection motivation theory constructs, was completed by both groups before and 2 months after the intervention. For the experimental group, the educational program was implemented during 4 sessions using group discussions and educational pamphlets. To analyze the data, chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired t-test were run in SPSS, version 22. Results: After the intervention, the mean scores of protection motivation theory constructs significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.001. However, no significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding the response efficacy construct at the post-intervention stage (P=0.552. In addition, after the intervention, the rate of conducting Pap smear test significantly incremented in the experimental group (58%. Conclusions: The study results revealed the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on protection motivation theory in promoting Pap smear screening behavior. Therefore, we recommend designing educational interventions based on this theory to promote public health, especially in women.

  14. Myoepithelial Cells: Any role in aspiration cytology smears of breast tumors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattari Sanjib

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims and Objective To study the role of myoepithelial (ME cells in distinguishing benign, proliferative breast diseases (PBD and frank malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods In this study, histology proven 71 cases of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of palpable breast lesions were selected. There were 30 invasive carcinomas (24 infiltrating duct carcinoma and 6 infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 25 cases of benign lesion (21 fibroadenomas and 4 fibrocystic lesions and 11 proliferative breast diseases (other than carcinoma in situ and five cases of carcinoma in situ. The number of ME cells were estimated in respect to 1000 ductal cells. In every case at least 20 high power fields (× 40 were studied. Quantitative estimation of ME cell was correlated with the final diagnosis. Corresponding histopathology cases were also evaluated for diagnostic confirmation along with the pattern of distribution of ME cells. The ME cells were also quantitated on histopathology sections on smooth muscle actin (SMA immunostained sections. Results The mean number of ME cells per 1000 ductal cells on cytology smears was 5.1 ± 5.5, 30.8 ± 25, 28.3 ± 20.2, and 38.4 ± 38.8 in malignant, carcinoma in situ, PBD and benign breast lesions respectively. The non parametric Mann Whitney test showed significant difference in number of the ME cells between benign and malignant groups (p .01. In SMA stained histopathology sections, ME cell in benign, PBD, carcinoma in situ and malignant cases were 741.12 ± 248, 238 ± 172, 121.6 ± 115 and 15.6 ± 25.1 respectively. Statistical analysis showed significantly different number of ME cell between benign versus PBD group, carcinoma in situ and malignant group. It was also significant between PBD versus malignant, and carcinoma in situ versus malignant (p Conclusion The number of ME cell in breast lesions may be helpful in distinguishing PBD versus invasive malignant tumors on FNAC smears. However it is not

  15. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by stepwise optical saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Vigil, Genevieve D.; Khan, Aamir A.; Mason, Devon E.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Roeder, Ryan K.; Howard, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a M-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images. For example, linearly combining (scaling and subtracting) two images obtained at regular powers extends the resolution by a factor of 1.4 beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution improvement in SOS microscopy is theoretically infinite but practically is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. We perform simulations and experimentally demonstrate super-resolution microscopy with both one-photon (confocal) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence. We show that with the multiphoton modality, the SOS microscopy can provide super-resolution imaging deep in scattering samples. PMID:29675306

  16. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2016-11-30

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6–8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging.

  17. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenson, Yair; Wu, Yichen; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6-8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging.

  18. Nobel Prize Recipient Eric Betzig Presents Lecture on Efforts to Improve High-Resolution Microscopy | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Betzig, Ph.D., a 2014 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and a scientist at Janelia Research Campus (JRC), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, in Ashburn, Va., visited NCI at Frederick on Sept. 10 to present a Distinguished Scientist lecture and discuss the latest high-resolution microscopy techniques. Betzig co-invented photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM)

  19. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  20. On understanding crosstalk in the face of small, quantized, signals highly smeared by Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, D.; Hsieh, F.; Li, H.

    1995-01-01

    As detectors become smaller and more densely packed, signals become smaller and crosstalk between adjacent channels generally increases. Since it is often appropriate to use the distribution of signals in adjacent channels to make a useful measurement, it is imperative that inter-channel crosstalk be well understood. In this paper we shall describe the manner in which Poissonian fluctuations can give counter-intuitive results and offer some methods for extracting the desired information from the highly smeared, observed distributions. (orig.)

  1. Diabetes mellitus and its influence on sputum smear positivity at the 2nd month of treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Noorsuzana Mohd; Safian, Nazarudin

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have suggested that sputum smear conversion after 2 months of antituberculosis treatment is an important determinant of treatment success and can be a predictor for relapse. The objective of this study is to determine the factors that influence sputum smear conversion after 2 months of treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients receiving treatment in the Institute of Respiratory Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 75 cases and 75 controls were interviewed, and their medical records were retrieved in order to extract the information needed. All analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of sputum smear nonconversion. Results showed that the following factors were associated with sputum smear positivity after 2 months of intensive treatment: diabetes mellitus (p=.013, odds ratio [OR]=2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-5.33), underweight body mass index (p=.025, OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.80-3.49), nonadherent to tuberculosis treatment (p=.024, OR=2.85, 95% CI 1.21-6.74), and previous history of tuberculosis (p=.043, OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.09-5.83). Multivariable analysis identified diabetes mellitus (p=.003, OR=4.01, 95