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Sample records for improved recovery application

  1. Selection and application of microorganisms to improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P.F.; Moreira, R.S.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Guimaraes, A.K.; Carvalho, A.S. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Ecologia de Microrganismos da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Reitor Miguel Calmon, s/n, Vale do Canela, CEP 41.160-100 Salvador BA (Brazil); Quintella, C.; Esperidia, M.C.A. [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitario de Ondina, CEP 40.170-290, Salvador BA (Brazil); Taft, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (Meor) is an incontestably efficient alternative to improve oil recovery, especially in mature fields and in oil reservoirs with high paraffinic content. This is the case for most oil fields in the Reconcavo basin of Bahia, Brazil. Given the diverse conditions of most oil fields, an approach to apply Meor technology should consider primarily: (i) microbiological studies to select the appropriate microorganisms and (ii) mobilization of oil in laboratory experiments before oil field application. A total of 163 bacterial strains, selectively isolated from various sources, were studied to determine their potential to be used in Meor. A laboratory microbial screening based on physiological and metabolic profiles and growth rates under conditions representative for oil fields and reservoirs revealed that 10 bacterial strains identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), Bacillus licheniformis (2), Bacillus brevis (1), Bacillus polymyxa (1), Micrococcus varians (1), Micrococcus sp. (1), and two Vibrio species demonstrated potential to be used in oil recovery. Strains of B. licheniformis and B. polymyxa produced the most active surfactants and proved to be the most anaerobic and thermotolerant among the selected bacteria. Micrococcus and B. brevis were the most salt-tolerant and polymer producing bacteria, respectively, whereas Vibrio sp. and B. polymyxa strains were the most gas-producing bacteria. Three bacterial consortia were prepared with a mixture of bacteria that showed metabolic and technological complementarity and the ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures and salinity characteristics for the oil fields in Bahia, Brazil. Oil mobilization rates in laboratory column experiments using the three consortia of bacteria varied from 11.2 to 18.3 % [v/v] of the total oil under static conditions. Consortia of B. brevis, B. icheniformis and B. polymyxa exhibited the best oil mobilization rates. Using these consortia under anaerobic

  2. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  3. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  4. Australian mental health consumers contributions to the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Sarah L; Oades, Lindsay G; Growe, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    One key component of recovery-oriented mental health services, typically overlooked, involves genuine collaboration between researchers and consumers to evaluate and improve services delivered within a recovery framework. Eighteen mental health consumers working with staff who had received training in the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) took part in in-depth focus group meetings, of approximately 2.5 hours each, to generate feedback to guide improvement of the CRM and its use in mental health services. Consumers identified clear avenues for improvement for the CRM both specific to the model and broadly applicable to recovery-oriented service provision. Findings suggest consumers want to be more engaged and empowered in the use of the CRM from the outset. Improved sampling procedures may have led to the identification of additional dissatisfied consumers. Collaboration with mental health consumers in the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented practice is crucial with an emphasis on rebuilding mental health services that are genuinely oriented to support recovery.

  5. Improved flotation recovery via hydrophobicity adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Ofori; Graham O' Brien; Bruce Firth; Clint McNally; Anh Nguyen [University of Queensland, Qld. (Australia). CSIRO

    2009-03-15

    The main goal of this project was to examine a new approach to maximising the recovery of product specification coal during coal flotation using new generation reagents complemented by the use of the Coal Grain Analysis tool. Laboratory flotation experiments in which the novel reagents were employed as promoters by adding small amounts before adding conventional collector (diesel oil) showed that flotation recovery was significantly increased with only a small product quality (ash%) penalty. The groups of reagents used included surfactants from the group of tri-block copolymers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO) often denoted as PEO/PPO/PEO or the reverse block copolymer PPO/PEO/PPO. Analysis of the flotation products using the grain analysis technique determined that whilst the recoveries of most grain types were improved, the coarse composite grains which were the components targeted for enhancement showed the most improvement. Plant scale test results confirmed the laboratory findings with remarkable improvements in recovery achieved for all components, especially for coarse inertite and composite grains. The difficult to float coals that are lost at this plant may be recovered without significant modification to the fines circuit by the use of targeted reagents.

  6. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  7. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  8. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  9. High-performance heat pipes for heat recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Methods to improve the performance of reflux heat pipes for heat recovery applications were examined both analytically and experimentally. Various models for the estimation of reflux heat pipe transport capacity were surveyed in the literature and compared with experimental data. A high transport capacity reflux heat pipe was developed that provides up to a factor of 10 capacity improvement over conventional open tube designs; analytical models were developed for this device and incorporated into a computer program HPIPE. Good agreement of the model predictions with data for R-11 and benzene reflux heat pipes was obtained.

  10. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basics studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Final report; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Fischer, K. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Yakimov, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Kroeger, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Kruckemeyer, I. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Mengel-Jung, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Bock, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Denger, K. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Amro, M. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Jacobs, G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Hoffmann, G.G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Ziran, B. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Nowak, H.U. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Eins, I. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Rosenspiess, K. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Lungershausen, D. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) is the use of microorganisms or microbial products that are injected into the oil reservoir to improve oil flow. The aim of this project was the application of MIOR in case of clastic reservoir rocks of the type encountered typically in Northern Germany. Microorganisms were concentrated, insolated and characterized from samples that were taken from oil production wells, oil processing facilities and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. More than 500 bacteria strains were investigated for ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, halotolerance, heat tolerance and production of substances that increase viscosity or are surface active. 39 strains were selected for specific tests and genetic investigations. The two bacteria strains Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 and Sporohalobacter showed to the capable for MIOR. Dynamic flooding experiments were carried out under realistic reservoir conditions, in order to quantify the ability of the microorganisms to mobilize residual oil in place, as well as to investigate the oil mobilizing mechanisms in more detail. It could be shown that the injectivity and migration of the bacteria in porous media are ensured. The microorganisms are able to grow under reservoir conditions as present in oil reservoirs of Northern Germany. Their application in flooding experiments leads to a significant increase of oil recovery. The most important factors influencing the oil recovery are the reduction of the permeability of the reservoir pores and changes in the wettability because of the bacterial growth. A suitable nutrient medium with an acid buffer was developed for the application of MIOR in sandstone reservoirs. An executive summary is prublished in DGMK-Report 441-2/1. (orig.) [Deutsch] MIOR (microbial improved oil recovery)-Verfahren dienen dazu, den Entoelungsgrad einer Erdoellagerstaette durch den gezielten in-situ-Einsatz von geeigneten Mikroorganismen und deren Stoffwechselprodukten zu erhoehen

  11. Supporting Stroke Motor Recovery Through a Mobile Application: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sonia; Tang, Ziying; Feng, Jinjuan

    Neuroplasticity and motor learning are promoted with repetitive movement, appropriate challenge, and performance feedback. ARMStrokes, a smartphone application, incorporates these qualities to support motor recovery. Engaging exercises are easily accessible for improved compliance. In a multiple-case, mixed-methods pilot study, the potential of this technology for stroke motor recovery was examined. Exercises calibrated to the participant's skill level targeted forearm, elbow, and shoulder motions for a 6-wk protocol. Visual, auditory, and vibration feedback promoted self-assessment. Pre- and posttest data from 6 chronic stroke survivors who used the app in different ways (i.e., to measure active or passive motion, to track endurance) demonstrated improvements in accuracy of movements, fatigue, range of motion, and performance of daily activities. Statistically significant changes were not obtained with this pilot study. Further study on the efficacy of this technology is supported. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  13. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher

  14. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  15. An ecologically-controlled exoskeleton can improve balance recovery after slippage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, V.; Tropea, P.; Aprigliano, F.; Martelli, D.; Parri, A.; Cortese, M.; Molino-Lova, R.; Vitiello, N.; Micera, S.

    2017-05-01

    The evolution to bipedalism forced humans to develop suitable strategies for dynamically controlling their balance, ensuring stability, and preventing falling. The natural aging process and traumatic events such as lower-limb loss can alter the human ability to control stability significantly increasing the risk of fall and reducing the overall autonomy. Accordingly, there is an urgent need, from both end-users and society, for novel solutions that can counteract the lack of balance, thus preventing falls among older and fragile citizens. In this study, we show a novel ecological approach relying on a wearable robotic device (the Active Pelvis Orthosis, APO) aimed at facilitating balance recovery after unexpected slippages. Specifically, if the APO detects signs of balance loss, then it supplies counteracting torques at the hips to assist balance recovery. Experimental tests conducted on eight elderly persons and two transfemoral amputees revealed that stability against falls improved due to the “assisting when needed” behavior of the APO. Interestingly, our approach required a very limited personalization for each subject, and this makes it promising for real-life applications. Our findings demonstrate the potential of closed-loop controlled wearable robots to assist elderly and disabled subjects and to improve their quality of life.

  16. Combining bleach and mild predigestion improves ancient DNA recovery from bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Nistelberger, Heidi M.

    2017-01-01

    library characteristics, such as DNA damage profiles or the composition of microbial communities, are little affected by the pre-extraction protocols. Application of the combined protocol presented in this study will facilitate the genetic analysis of an increasing number of ancient remains...... aimed to improve ancient DNA recovery before library amplification have recently been developed. Here, we test the effects of combining two of such protocols, a bleach wash and a predigestion step, on 12 bone samples of Atlantic cod and domestic horse aged 750-1350 cal. years before present. Using high...

  17. Thermal enhanced oil recovery in Indonesia. Prospect of HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sumardiono; Lasman, A.N.; Sudarto; Prihardany, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the next future, Indonesia will face oil scarcity. The present reserves are estimated to be depleted in 20 years. However, after primary and secondary recovery processes, there are still more than 50% of original oil in place remaining in the reservoir, and this could be recovered by using tertiary recovery method or which is known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Among the three major methods of EOR, steam flooding is a thermal recovery method into which High Temperature Reactor (HTR) module can be integrated for producing steam. However, the feasibility of application of HTR as an alternative to conventional oil-fired steam generator will depend strongly on the price of oil. This paper discusses EOR screening for Indonesian oil fields to identify the appropriate oil reservoirs for steam flooding application as well as the possibility of steam supply by HTR module. Also reviewed is the previous study on HTR application for Duri Steam Flood Project. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  18. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  19. 40 CFR 427.90 - Applicability; description of the solvent recovery subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solvent recovery subcategory. 427.90 Section 427.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solvent Recovery Subcategory § 427.90 Applicability; description of the solvent recovery subcategory. The...

  20. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Rachlow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available United States recovery plans contain biological information for a species listed under the Endangered Species Act and specify recovery criteria to provide basis for species recovery. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether recovery plans provide uncertainty (e.g., variance with estimates of population size. We reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species to record the following data: (1 if a current population size was given, (2 if a measure of uncertainty or variance was associated with current estimates of population size and (3 if population size was stipulated for recovery. We found that 59% of completed recovery plans specified a current population size, 14.5% specified a variance for the current population size estimate and 43% specified population size as a recovery criterion. More recent recovery plans reported more estimates of current population size, uncertainty and population size as a recovery criterion. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty compared to reptiles and amphibians. We suggest the use of calculating minimum detectable differences to improve confidence when delisting endangered animals and we identified incentives for individuals to get involved in recovery planning to improve access to quantitative data.

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  2. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  3. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basic studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Executive summary; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recocery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Kurzbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Tessmer, G. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) is the use of microorganisms or microbial products that are injected into the oil reservoir to improve oil flow. The aim of this project was the application of MIOR in case of clastic reservoir rocks of the type encountered typically in Nothern Germany. Microorganisms were concentrated, isolated and characterized from samples that were taken from oil production wells, oil processing facilities and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. More than 500 bacteria strains were investigated for ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, halotolerance, heat tolerance and production of substances that increase viscosity or are surface active. 39 strains were selected for specific tests and genetic investigations. The two bacteria strains Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 and Sporohalobacter showed to the capable for MIOR. Dynamic flooding experiments were carried out under realistic reservoir conditions, in order to quantify the ability of the microorganisms to mobilize residual oil in place, as well as to investigate the oil mobilizing mechanisms in more detail. It could be shown that the injectivity and migration of the bacteria in porous media are ensured. The microorganisms are able to grow under reservoir conditions as present in oil reservoirs of Nothern Germany. Their application in flooding experiments leads to a significant increase of oil recovery. The most important factors influencing the oil recovery are the reduction of the permeability of the reservoir pores and changes in the wettability because of the bacterial growth. A suitable nutrient medium with an acid buffer was developed for the application of MIOR in sandstone reservoirs. (orig.) [Deutsch] MIOR (microbial improved oil recovery)-Verfahren dienen dazu, den Entoelungsgrad einer Erdoellagerstaette durch den gezielten in-situ-Einsatz von geeigneten Mikroorganismen und deren Stoffwechselprodukten zu erhoehen. Ziel des Projektes war es, die Anwendbarkeit von MIOR

  4. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  5. Improved heavy oil recovery by low rate waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, A. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Waterflooding techniques are frequently used to recover oil in low viscosity or marginal heavy oil reservoirs. This paper described a low-rate waterflooding oil recovery mechanism. The mechanism was determined by examining the effect of sand permeability on the impact of viscous force contributions. Changes in permeability and injection rates parameters were studied in order to evaluate the significance of imbibition, and a method of quantifying the effect of capillary forces was presented. The mechanism was demonstrated in an experimental study that used sand packs of varying permeabilities wet-packed into cores with overburden pressures. A fixed injection rate was used to investigate waterflooding in the different permeability systems with 2 different oils. Overall recovery rates were examined as a function of injection velocity. An analysis of normalized oil production rates demonstrated that viscous forces are more important during the early phases of waterflooding. The study showed that breakthrough oil recovery values increased with higher permeability values. However, when injection rates were reduced to low frontal velocity values, the correlation between sand permeability and breakthrough oil recovery resulted in low permeability rates. Lower permeability porous media resulted in more restrictive flow conditions. However, the capillary force components increased as a result of the smaller pore sizes, which in turn led to enhanced water imbibition and higher oil recovery values after water breakthrough. It was concluded that waterflooding rates can be modified later in the recovery process in order to improve final oil recovery values. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  6. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  7. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  8. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  9. Increased oil recovery: secondary and tertiary. Application and future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, R L

    1978-01-01

    Oil is initially produced using the nature reservoir pressure present, in a process called primary oil recovery. Secondary recovery uses artificial means to increase the natural reservoir pressure; tertiary, or enhanced oil recovery, uses a number of methods to enhance the flow characteristics of the oil. The scope for such techniques to increase the yield from oil fields in the US is estimated; the practicality of their application is shown to be particularly dependent upon pricing, taxation, and other existing policies. 16 references.

  10. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  11. Improved Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Mutant Obtained by Random Mutagenesis and Its Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery in a Sand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Mouna; Ghazala, Imen; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2018-01-28

    Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of environmental bioremediation as well as the petroleum industry and enhanced oil recovery. However, the major issues in biosurfactant production are high production cost and low yield. Improving the bioindustrial production processes relies on many strategies, such as the use of cheap raw materials, the optimization of medium-culture conditions, and selecting hyperproducing strains. The present work aims to obtain a mutant with higher biosurfactant production through applying mutagenesis on Bacillus subtilis SPB1 using a combination of UV irradiation and nitrous acid treatment. Following mutagenesis and screening on blood agar and subsequent formation of halos, the mutated strains were examined for emulsifying activity of their culture broth. A mutant designated B. subtilis M2 was selected as it produced biosurfactant at twice higher concentration than the parent strain. The potential of this biosurfactant for industrial uses was shown by studying its stability to environmental stresses such as pH and temperature and its applicability in the oil recovery process. It was practically stable at high temperature and at a wide range of pH, and it recovered above 90% of motor oil adsorbed to a sand sample.

  12. Modelling of waste heat recovery for combined heat and power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descombes, Georges; Boudigues, Serge

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental context dictates to reduce the pollutant emissions by improving thermal efficiency of the energy production units. The authors present some studies of cogeneration applications using gas turbines and thermal engines. The on-going research concerns a detailed study of thermodynamic modelling cycles with energy recovery. These combined cycles with gas turbine and ICE can generate a potential increase of about 10% of the energy efficiency. They will generate a technological complexity and the over-charge must be estimated. At last, the authors insist on the necessary synergy between gas turbines and thermal engines.

  13. Evaluation of postoperative recovery in day surgery patients using a mobile phone application: a multicentre randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Eriksson, M; Nilsson, U

    2017-11-01

    Many patients undergoing anaesthesia and surgery experience postoperative complications. Our aim was to investigate whether a systematic follow-up smartphone-based assessment, using recovery assessment by phone points (RAPP) compared with standard care, had a positive effect on day surgery patients' postoperative recovery. We also investigated whether there were differences in women and men's recovery and recovery scores. The study was a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial. A total of 997 patients were randomly allocated to either RAPP or standard care. The Swedish web version of a quality of recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire was used to evaluate the patients' postoperative recovery, either on paper or using an application (RAPP) on postoperative days seven and 14. On postoperative day seven the RAPP group reported significantly better values in seven out of 24 items of the SwQoR: sleeping difficulties; not having a general feeling of wellbeing; having difficulty feeling relaxed/comfortable; and dizziness; headache; pain in the surgical wound; and a swollen surgical wound compared with the control group, implying a good postoperative recovery. Both men and women in the RAPP group reported significantly better values (and, hence good postoperative recovery) compared with the control group in the items sleeping difficulties; not having a general feeling of wellbeing and pain in the surgical wound. Measurement of patient-reported outcomes using a smartphone-based application was associated with decreased discomfort from several postoperative symptoms. Systematic e-assessment can thereby increase patients' quality of recovery and identify key areas for improvement in perioperative care. NCT02492191. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  14. The new paradigm of recovery from schizophrenia: cultural conundrums of improvement without cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Janis H; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth

    2005-12-01

    This article is a qualitative investigation of the subjective experience of recovery from the perspective of persons living with schizophrenia-related disorders. An NIMH-sponsored ethnographic study of community outpatient clinics was completed for 90 persons taking second-generation antipsychotic medications. Research diagnostic criteria and clinical ratings were obtained in tandem with an anthropologically developed Subjective Experience of Medication Interview (SEMI) that elicits narrative data on everyday life and activities, medication and treatment, management of symptoms, expectations concerning recovery, and stigma. Ethnographic observations from diverse settings (clinics, public transportation, restaurants, homes) were also obtained. The primary findings are that recovery was experienced in relation to low levels of symptoms, the need to take medications to avoid hospitalization or psychotic episodes, and personal agency to struggle against the effects of illness. The majority of participants articulated their sense of illness recovery and expectation that their lives would improve. Improvement and recovery is an incremental, yet definitively discernable subjective process. Several problems were identified as part of this process surrounding cultural conflicts that generate the experience of ambivalence analyzed here as the "paradox of recovery without cure," irreconcilable "catch-22" dilemmas involving sacrifice (e.g., one must be "fat" or be "crazy"), and substantial stigma despite improvement in illness and everyday life experience.

  15. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  16. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  17. 77 FR 12611 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  18. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  19. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  20. 76 FR 14424 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  1. 77 FR 5045 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity...

  2. 78 FR 16703 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  3. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  4. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  5. 76 FR 20004 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  6. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  7. Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.

  8. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  9. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  11. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Abdelmonem, M.A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, S M; Abdelmonem, M A.S. [Soil and Water Dept., Atomic Energy Auth., Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Biological opportunities for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.S.; Debus, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of existing biological technologies for the recovery of copper and uranium. Engineering and biological challenges and opportunities in these areas are discussed. New opportunities for the bio oxidation of refractory goal ore are described. Techniques for the development of new strains of microorganisms for commercial metal recovery applications are discussed with special reference to the use of genetic manipulation for bacterial strain improvement. (author)

  14. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with

  15. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  16. Applications of Brain–Machine Interface Systems in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, significantly impacting the quality of life (QOL) in survivors, and rehabilitation remains the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Recent engineering and technological advances such as brain-machine interfaces (BMI) and robotic rehabilitative devices are promising to enhance stroke neu-rorehabilitation, to accelerate functional recovery and improve QOL. This review discusses the recent applications of BMI and robotic-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients. We present the framework for integrated BMI and robotic-assisted therapies, and discuss their potential therapeutic, assistive and diagnostic functions in stroke rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on the potential challenges and future directions of these neurotechnologies, and their impact on clinical rehabilitation. PMID:25110624

  17. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  18. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  19. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H. [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  20. Exploring the focus and experiences of smartphone applications for addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Best, David; Rodda, Simone; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-01-01

    Addiction recovery Smartphone applications (apps) (n = 87) identified on the Google Play store in 2012 were coded, along with app user reviews, to explore functions, foci, and user experiences. Content analysis revealed that apps typically provided information on recovery, as well as content to enhance motivation, promote social support and tools to monitor progress. App users commented that the apps helped to inform them, keep them focussed, inspire them, and connect them with other people and groups. Because few addiction recovery apps appear to have been formally evaluated, further research is needed to ascertain their effectiveness as stand-alone or adjunctive interventions.

  1. Lithium-ion battery performance improvement based on capacity recovery exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddahech, Akram; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Experiments on combined power-cycling/calendar aging of high-power lithium battery. •Recovery phenomenon on battery capacity when we stop power-cycling. •Full discharge at rest time is a potential source for battery life prolongation. •Temperature impact on capacity recovery and battery aging. -- Abstract: In this work, the performance recovery phenomenon when aging high-power lithium-ion batteries used in HEV application is highlighted. This phenomenon consists in the increase on the battery capacity when power-cycling is stopped. The dependency of this phenomenon on the stop-SOC value is demonstrated. Keeping battery at a fully discharged state preserves a large amount of charge from the SEI-electrolyte interaction when they are in the positive electrode during rest time. Results from power cycling and combined aging, calendar/power-cycling, of a 12 A h-commercialized lithium-ion battery, at two temperatures (45 °C and 55 °C), are presented and obtained results are discussed

  2. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  3. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  4. Improving access to important recovery information for heart patients with low health literacy: reflections on practice-based initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Biuso, Catuscia; Jennings, Amanda; Patsamanis, Harry

    2018-05-29

    Evidence exists for the association between health literacy and heart health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation is critical for recovery from heart attack and reducing hospital readmissions. Despite this, literacy. This brief case study reflects and documents practice-based initiatives by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. Three key initiatives, namely the Six Steps To Cardiac Recovery resource, the Love Your Heart book and the nurse ambassador program, were implemented informed by mixed methods that assessed need and capacity at the individual, organisational and systems levels. Key outcomes included increased access to recovery information for patients with low health literacy, nurse knowledge and confidence to engage with patients on recovery information, improved education of patients and improved availability and accessibility of information for patients in diverse formats. Given the challenges involved in addressing heart health literacy, multifaceted practice-based approaches are essential to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What is known about the topic? Significant challenges exist for patients with lower health literacy receiving recovery information after a heart attack in hospitals. What does this paper add? This case study provides insights into a practice-based initiative by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What are the implications for practitioners? Strategies to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy must address the needs of patients, nursing staff and the health system within hospitals. Such strategies need to be multifaceted and designed to build the capacity of nurses, heart patients and their carers, as well as support from hospital management.

  5. Application of Portfolio Theory in Recovery Planning for Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological applications of portfolio theory demonstrate the utility of this analytical framework for understanding the stability of commercial and indigenous Pacific Salmon fisheries. Portfolio theory also has the potential to aid in recovery planning for threatened and endangere...

  6. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-06

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered.

  7. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  8. Enhanced Recovery Pathways for Improving Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jocelyn S; Roddy, Erika; Ueda, Stefanie; Brooks, Rebecca; Chen, Lee-Lynn; Chen, Lee-May

    2016-07-01

    To estimate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway facilitates early recovery and discharge in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. This was a retrospective case-control study. Consecutive gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic surgery between July 1 and November 5, 2014, were treated on an enhanced recovery pathway. Enhanced recovery pathway components included patient education, multimodal analgesia, opioid minimization, nausea prophylaxis as well as early catheter removal, ambulation, and feeding. Cases were matched in a one-to-two ratio with historical control patients on the basis of surgery type and age. Primary endpoints were length of hospital stay, rates of discharge by noon, 30-day hospital readmission rates, and hospital costs. There were 165 patients included in the final cohort, 55 of whom were enhanced recovery pathway patients. Enhanced recovery patients were more likely to be discharged on postoperative day 1 compared with patients in the control group (91% compared with 60%, Pcontrol patients (P=.03). Postoperative pain scores decreased (2.6 compared with 3.12, P=.03) despite a 30% reduction in opioid use. Average total hospital costs were decreased by 12% in the enhanced recovery group ($13,771 compared with $15,649, P=.01). Readmission rates, mortality, and reoperation rates did not differ between the two groups. An enhanced recovery pathway in patients undergoing gynecologic oncology minimally invasive surgery is associated with significant improvements in recovery time, decreased pain despite reduced opioid use, and overall lower hospital costs.

  9. Improvement in deuterium recovery from water–isotope mixture by thermal diffusion in the device of branch columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ching-Chun; Yeh, Ho-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recovery of deuterium by thermal diffusion from water–isotope mixture has been investigated. • The undesirable remixing effect can be reduced by employing the device of branch columns. • Deuterium recoveries were compared with that in a single column of the same total column length. • Considerable recovery improvement is obtainable in the device of branch columns, instead of in a single-column device. - Abstract: Deuterium recovery from water–isotopes mixture using thermal diffusion can be improved by employing the branch column device, instead of single column devices, with the same total column length. The remixing effect due to convection currents in a thermal diffusion column for heavy water enrichment is thus reduced and separation improvement increases when the flow rate or the total column length increases. The improvement in separation can reach about 50% for the numerical example given

  10. Application of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to oil shale recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekamper, D.C.; Arcilla, N.T.; Impellezzeri, J.R.; Taylor, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Current oil shale recovery processes combust some portion of the products to provide energy for the recovery process. In an attempt to maximize the petroleum products produced during recovery, the potentials for substituting nuclear process heat for energy generated by combustion of petroleum were evaluated. Twelve oil shale recovery processes were reviewed and their potentials for application of nuclear process heat assessed. The High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor-Reformer/Thermochemical Pipeline (HTGR-R/TCP) was selected for interfacing process heat technology with selected oil shale recovery processes. Utilization of these coupling concepts increases the shale oil product output of a conventional recovery facility from 6 to 30 percent with the same raw shale feed rate. An additional benefit of the HTGR-R/TCP system was up to an 80 percent decrease in emission levels. A detailed coupling design for a typical counter gravity feed indirect heated retorting and upgrading process were described. Economic comparisons prepared by Bechtel Group Incorporated for both the conventional and HTGR-R/TCP recovery facility were summarized

  11. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  12. Application of proton-conducting ceramics and polymer permeable membranes for gaseous tritium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Kawano, Takao; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tsuji, Naruhito; Katahira, Koji; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2004-01-01

    In order to carry out deuterium plasma experiments on the Large Helical Device (LHD), the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is planning to install a system for the recovery of tritium from exhaust gas and effluent liquid. As well as adopting proven conventional tritium recovery systems, NIFS is planning to apply the latest technologies such as proton-conducting ceramics and membrane-type dehumidifiers in an overall strategy to ensure minimal risk in the tritium recovery process. Application of these new technologies to the tritium recovery system for the LHD deuterium plasma experiment is evaluated quantitatively using recent experimental data. (author)

  13. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  14. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  15. Recovery i fællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Diana Astrup

    2013-01-01

    in present day practice. The dissertation aims at examining the potentials and limitations of recovery-orientation in a context of practice, and is thus concerned with the question: Which limitations and potentials emerge for recovery-orientation, when the applications of the the-ory are investigated...... gathered consists of interviews with the residents and recordings from institutional staff meetings at the establishment. The analyses presented in the dissertation are from in-depth studies of two select cases with resi-dents of the establishment. Two theoretical approaches are applied to each case...... as for identifying suggestions for improving and developing such practice. 4 The analyses of the empirical data presented serve to identify limitations, as well as potentials for practice based upon recovery-orientation. The approach from critical psychology supports that the concepts of recovery-orientation lack...

  16. Feasibility analysis of a small-scale ORC energy recovery system for vehicular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capata, Roberto; Toro, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the feasibility of an “on-board” ORC recovery system to power auxiliaries. • Performance of the ORC cycle has been simulated with CAMEL-Pro™. • Several relevant ORC components have been designed. • Approximate characteristics dimensions of HRSG and evaporator have been calculated and a preliminary layout provided. • The evaluation of a possible assembling of the system has been developed. - Abstract: This paper analyses the feasibility of an “on-board” innovative and patented ORC recovery system. The vehicle thermal source can be either a typical diesel engine (1400 cc) or a small gas turbine set (15–30 kW). The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system that can produce sufficient extra power to sustain the conditioning system and other auxiliaries. The concept is suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles, but it is studied here for automotive applications. The characteristics of the organic cycle-based recovery system are discussed, and a preliminary design of the main components, such as the heat recovery exchanger, the evaporator and the pre-heater is presented. The main challenge are the imposed size and weight limitations that require a particular design for this compact recovery system. A possible system layout is analyzed and the requirements for a prototypal application are investigated

  17. Aircraft Route Recovery Based on An Improved GRASP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircrafts maintenance, temporary airport closures are common factors that disrupt normal flight schedule. The aircraft route recovery aims to recover original schedules by some strategies, including flights swaps, and cancellations, which is a NP-hard problem. This paper proposes an improved heuristic procedure based on Greedy Random Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to solve this problem. The effectiveness and high global optimization capability of the heuristic is illustrated through experiments based on large-scale problems. Compared to the original one, it is shown that the improved procedure can find feasible flight recovered schedules with lower cost in a short time.

  18. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  19. Improvement of Particle Recovery Method for Uranium Isotope Analysis Using SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Jinkyu; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Lim, Sang Ho; Han, Sun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new design of vacuum-suction impactor with wider inlet nozzle and outlet nozzle for guiding particles to disperse the particles on the surface of carbon planchet. We prepared simulated samples with lead dioxide and examined particle recovery yield and degree of dispersion using the conventional vacuum impactor and the newly designed ones with different inlet nozzle diameters. We tried to improve the inlet part of vacuum impactor, in order to increase the recovery yield and disperse the collected particle on carbon planchet. As the diameter of inlet nozzle became larger, the collected particles were better dispersed on planchet. In addition, when the inner diameter of the impactor was 3 mm or 5 mm, the recovery yield was higher than that of conventional impactor. Considering the degree of dispersion and recovery yield, we used the impactor with 5 mm exit diameter and recovered the mixed uranium standard materials for SIMS measurement. We were able to reduce the mixing effect and measure the isotopic ratio more accurately and precisely.

  20. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  1. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2000-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  2. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2001-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  3. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  4. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  5. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  6. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  7. Distribution Agnostic Structured Sparsity Recovery: Algorithms and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Masood, Mudassir

    2015-05-01

    Compressed sensing has been a very active area of research and several elegant algorithms have been developed for the recovery of sparse signals in the past few years. However, most of these algorithms are either computationally expensive or make some assumptions that are not suitable for all real world problems. Recently, focus has shifted to Bayesian-based approaches that are able to perform sparse signal recovery at much lower complexity while invoking constraint and/or a priori information about the data. While Bayesian approaches have their advantages, these methods must have access to a priori statistics. Usually, these statistics are unknown and are often difficult or even impossible to predict. An effective workaround is to assume a distribution which is typically considered to be Gaussian, as it makes many signal processing problems mathematically tractable. Seemingly attractive, this assumption necessitates the estimation of the associated parameters; which could be hard if not impossible. In the thesis, we focus on this aspect of Bayesian recovery and present a framework to address the challenges mentioned above. The proposed framework allows Bayesian recovery of sparse signals but at the same time is agnostic to the distribution of the unknown sparse signal components. The algorithms based on this framework are agnostic to signal statistics and utilize a priori statistics of additive noise and the sparsity rate of the signal, which are shown to be easily estimated from data if not available. In the thesis, we propose several algorithms based on this framework which utilize the structure present in signals for improved recovery. In addition to the algorithm that considers just the sparsity structure of sparse signals, tools that target additional structure of the sparsity recovery problem are proposed. These include several algorithms for a) block-sparse signal estimation, b) joint reconstruction of several common support sparse signals, and c

  8. Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Runkuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen (APAP overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G0, the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose. Methods C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline. Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours. Results 72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-κB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration. Conclusion RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.

  9. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: heavy oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the application of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) which operates in a process steam/cogeneration (PS/C) mode in supplying steam for enhanced recovery of heavy oil and in exporting electricity. The technical and economic merits of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C are compared with those of coal-fired plants and (product) oil-fired boilers for this application. The utility requirements for enhanced oil recovery were calculated by establishing a typical pattern of injection wells and production wells for an oil field similar to that of Kern County, California. The safety and licensing issues of the nuclear plant were reviewed, and a comparative assessment of the alternative energy sources was performed. Technically and economically, the HTGR-PS/C plant has attractive merits. The major offsetting factors would be a large-scale development of a heavy oil field by a potential user for the deployment of a 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C; plant and the likelihood of available prime heavy oil fields for the mid-1990 operation

  10. Wettability Improvement with Enzymes: Application to Enhanced Oil Recovery under Conditions of the North Sea Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    (Nasiri et al., 2009), working mechanisms are poorly known and understood. The main goal of the present work is to establish possible mechanisms in which enzymes may enhance oil recovery. Improvement of the brine wettability of the rock and decrease of oil adhesion to it by addition of an enzyme is one...... of the possible mechanisms of enzymatic action. This mechanism has been investigated experimentally, by measurements of the contact angles between oil drops and enzyme solutions in brine on the mineral surfaces. Fifteen enzyme samples belonging to different enzyme classes, such as esterases/lipases, carbohydrases......, proteases and oxidoreductases, provided by Novozymes, have been investigated. Two commercial mixtures containing enzymes: Apollo-GreenZyme™ and EOR-ZYMAX™ have also been applied. The North Sea dead oil and the synthetic sea water were used as test fluids. Internal surface of a carbonate rock has been...

  11. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  12. Potassium improves photosynthetic tolerance to and recovery from episodic drought stress in functional leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Rizwan; Zhao, Wenqing; Dong, Haoran; Snider, John L; Abid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Babar; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether potassium (K) application enhances the potential of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to maintain physiological functions during drought and recovery, low K-sensitive (Siza 3) and -tolerant (Simian 3) cotton cultivars were exposed to three K rates (0, 150, and 300 K 2 O kg ha -1 ) and either well-watered conditions or severe drought stress followed by a recovery period. Under drought stress, cotton plants showed a substantial decline in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and the maximum and actual quantum yield of PSII, resulting in greater non-photochemical quenching and lipid peroxidation as compared to well-watered plants. However, plants under K application not only showed less of a decline in these traits but also displayed greater potential to recover after rewatering as compared to the plants without K application. Plants receiving K application showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities, and increased proline accumulation as compared to plants without K application. Significant relationships between rates of photosynthetic recovery and K application were observed. The cultivar Siza 3 exhibited a more positive response to K application than Simian 3. The results suggest that K application enhances the cotton plant's potential to maintain functionality under drought and facilitates recovery after rewatering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1......After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after......,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3...

  14. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado'', for the Second Biennial Report covering the time period May 1, 2003 through October 31, 2003. During this period, the project achieved two significant objectives: completion of the acquisition and processing design and specifications 3D9C seismic acquisition and the 3D VSP log; and completion of the permitting process involving State, Tribal and Federal authorities. Successful completion of these two major milestones pave the way for field acquisition as soon as weather permits in the Spring of 2004. This report primarily describes the design and specifications for the VSP and 3D9C surveys

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains a site and facility description of WIPP; procedures for waste analysis and characterization, testing, monitoring, inspection, and training; hazard prevention, safety and security plans; plans for closure; and a discussion of other applicable laws. Also included are maps, photographs, and diagrams of the facilities and surrounding areas. 180 refs., 75 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  18. Product recovery optimization in closed-loop supply chain to improve sustainability in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.; Garg, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    that emerge from that business’s economical, environmental and social dimensions. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective mixed integer mathematical problem for a generic closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network to rationalise how a system’s product recovery helps to improve manufacturing sustainability....... The CLSC network proposed in this study consists of a hybrid manufacturing facility, warehouse, distribution centres, collection centres and a hybrid recovery facility (HRF). The proposed model determines the best location for the HRF and optimal flow of products, recovered parts and material...

  19. Don't fix it, make it better! : using frontline service employees to improve recovery performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.A.H.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Nijssen, E.J.; Ordanini, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how frontline service employees (FSEs) can learn from recovery services and improve their performance accordingly. While research recognizes that FSEs can fulfill an innovation role by sourcing customer knowledge and developing ideas for performance improvement, it remains

  20. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  1. Reweighted Low-Rank Tensor Completion and its Applications in Video Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M., Baburaj; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focus on recovering multi-dimensional data called tensor from randomly corrupted incomplete observation. Inspired by reweighted $l_1$ norm minimization for sparsity enhancement, this paper proposes a reweighted singular value enhancement scheme to improve tensor low tubular rank in the tensor completion process. An efficient iterative decomposition scheme based on t-SVD is proposed which improves low-rank signal recovery significantly. The effectiveness of the proposed method is es...

  2. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 4, contains Appendices C3, C4, and D1--D10. These appendices cover information on environmental impacts, site characterization, geology and hydrology of the area, monitoring of the environment, compatibility of waste forms and containers, and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC)

  4. Improving Multi-Sensor Drought Monitoring, Prediction and Recovery Assessment Using Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakouchak, Amir; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable drought monitoring, prediction and recovery assessment tools are fundamental to water resources management. This presentation focuses on how gravimetry information can improve drought assessment. First, we provide an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using remote sensing observations and model simulations. Then, we present a framework for integration of satellite gravimetry information for improving drought prediction and recovery assessment. The input data include satellite-based and model-based precipitation, soil moisture estimates and equivalent water height. Previous studies show that drought assessment based on one single indicator may not be sufficient. For this reason, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions and provides composite multi-index drought information for overall characterization of droughts. GIDMaPS includes a seasonal prediction component based on a statistical persistence-based approach. The prediction component of GIDMaPS provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation we present a new component in which the drought prediction information based on SPI, SSI and MSDI are conditioned on equivalent water height obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Using a Bayesian approach, GRACE information is used to evaluate persistence of drought. Finally, the deficit equivalent water height based on GRACE is used for assessing drought recovery. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from 2014

  5. Terrestrial liming to promote Atlantic Salmon recovery in Nova Scotia - approaches needed and knowledge gained after a trial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, S. M.; Angelidis, C.; Armstrong, M.; Biagi, K. M.; Clair, T. A.; Jackson, N.; Breen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS) have plummeted since the 1980s. Acidification is considered a main threat to this population. The lakes and streams of SWNS were among the most heavily acidified in North America during the last century and calcium levels are predicted to continue to fall in coming decades. One of the most promising mitigation options to reduce the risk of extirpation of the SWNS Salmo salar is terrestrial liming; however, both the chemistry of SWNS rivers, and effective strategies for terrestrial liming in SWNS are poorly understood. Here we have launched the first terrestrial liming study in Nova Scotia, employing a test hydrologic source area liming strategy in a 5 ha experimental catchment in SWNS, Maria Brook; we apply an average local application rate of 13 t ha-1 to 10% of the 47 ha catchment. We employ high frequency stream monitoring to complement grab sampling to identify which constituents pose a threat to Salmo salar and to identify strategies for larger scale terrestrial liming that would fit the local conditions. Results indicate that the water chemistry conditions are currently at toxic levels for Salmo salar throughout the year, with levels of ionic aluminium exceeding toxic thresholds almost 100% of the time. The stream chemistry in Maria Brook is remarkably similar to pre-recovery conditions in other heavily acidified watersheds, such as Birkenes in Norway. Our results support the hypothesis that there has been no recovery from acidification in SWNS. Results from the first year of post-liming do not show an improvement in stream chemistry levels, and further lime application is needed to improve the water chemistry conditions to needed levels for the recovery of Salmo salar.

  6. Incomplete reporting of enhanced recovery elements and its impact on achieving quality improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, R W; Fielder, S; Calhoun, J

    2015-01-01

    per cent), length of stay (47, 94 per cent) and mortality (45, 90 per cent). CONCLUSION: The current standard of reporting is frequently incomplete. To transfer knowledge and facilitate implementation of pathways that demonstrate improvements in perioperative care and recovery, a consistent structured...

  7. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  8. Single image super-resolution based on compressive sensing and improved TV minimization sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnukumar, S.; Wilscy, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a single image Super-Resolution (SR) method based on Compressive Sensing (CS) and Improved Total Variation (TV) Minimization Sparse Recovery. In the CS framework, low-resolution (LR) image is treated as the compressed version of high-resolution (HR) image. Dictionary Training and Sparse Recovery are the two phases of the method. K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method is used for dictionary training and the dictionary represents HR image patches in a sparse manner. Here, only the interpolated version of the LR image is used for training purpose and thereby the structural self similarity inherent in the LR image is exploited. In the sparse recovery phase the sparse representation coefficients with respect to the trained dictionary for LR image patches are derived using Improved TV Minimization method. HR image can be reconstructed by the linear combination of the dictionary and the sparse coefficients. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives better results quantitatively as well as qualitatively on both natural and remote sensing images. The reconstructed images have better visual quality since edges and other sharp details are preserved.

  9. Foam rheology in porous media and enhanced oil recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies using foam as a mobility control agent in partially depleted oil wells have shown that foam has a potential for enhancing oil recovery after primary water flooding. The characteristics of foam as indicated by the results of several studies point to three potential applications of foam in oil recovery processes. These are: Improving the displacement efficiency of gas-drive processes (mobility control). Improving the sweep efficiency of other fluid injection processes (mobility control and flow impediment). Restricting the flow of undesired fluids and plugging of high permeable oil 'thief' zones (partial or total pore blockage). (author)

  10. High-precision high-sensitivity clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lichong; Yan Na; Min Hao; Ren Wenliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated carrier clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application. The architecture is based on a sampling-detection module and a charge pump phase locked loop. Compared with clock recovery in conventional 13.56 MHz transponders, this circuit can recover a high-precision consecutive carrier clock from the on/off keying (OOK) signal sent by interrogators. Fabricated by a SMIC 0.18-μm EEPROM CMOS process, this chip works from a single power supply as low as 1.5 V Measurement results show that this circuit provides 0.34% frequency deviation and 8 mV sensitivity. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. A Smartphone Application Supporting Recovery from Heroin Addiction: Perspectives of Patients and Providers in China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya; Liang, Di; Wu, Fei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Tsay, Wening; Du, Jiang; Zhao, Min; Li, Xu; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-09-01

    Smartphone-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-monitoring, self-management, and treatment and medication compliance in order to improve overall functioning and well-being. In attempting to develop a smartphone application (S-Health) that assists heroin-dependent patients in recovery, a series of focus groups (72 patients, 22 providers) were conducted in China, Taiwan, and the USA to obtain their perspectives on its acceptance and potential adoption. Data were analyzed according to the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory of characteristics important to the adoption of innovation. Important to Relative Advantage, USA participants cited S-Health's potential ability to overcome logistical barriers, while those in China and Taiwan valued its potential to supplement currently limited services. In terms of Compatibility, participants across sites reported recovery needs and goals that such an application could be helpful in supporting; however, its utility during strong craving was questioned in China and Taiwan. Important factors relevant to Complexity included concerns about smartphone access and familiarity, individualization of content, and particularly in China and Taiwan, participants wanted assurance of privacy and security. The study results suggest a general acceptance, but also indicate cultural variations in access to therapeutic and other social support systems, legal repercussions of substance use, societal perceptions of addiction, and the role of family and other social support in recovery. Taking these factors into consideration is likely to increase diffusion as well as effectiveness of these smartphone-based interventions.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains Appendices B1, C1, and C2. These appendices describe the surface hydrology of the area, provide a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes to be placed in WIPP, and outline a waste analysis plan which gives an overview of the total waste inventory planned for WIPP. 34 refs., 107 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  15. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  17. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A Thermal Energy Recovery System and its Applications in Building (A Short Comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a heat recovery system from oil heater as a water heater is proposed and analyzed. The potential of heat recovery is studied technically and economically. A model was built and experiments on it are discussed. Recovery of waste heat from the oil heater stack and its application in building is proven to be economically beneficial. The most part of this apparatus was a double-walled tanks and oil heater stack act as firebox for water heater. This tank with 200 liters volume was made of galvanized iron sheets and painted with black color for adsorption of solar radiation. The tank of water heater was filled with 12-15○C water. Sampling was performed at 8 in the morning to 8 at night during one week. The analysis results show that the heat recovery system is recognized as a well option for the examined residential building from both economic and environmental points of view. With the operation considering optimal economic benefits, cost is reduced by about 50%. With maximizing the environmental advantages, CO2 emissions are decreased.

  19. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2

  20. Visualized study of thermochemistry assisted steam flooding to improve oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with glass micromodels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, X.; Liu, Huiqing; Pang, Zhanxi; Sun, Zhixue

    2018-01-01

    Steam channeling, one serious problem in the process of steam flooding in heavy oil reservoir, decreases the sweep efficiency of steam to cause a lower oil recovery. Viscosity reducer and nitrogen foam, two effective methods to improve oil recovery with different mechanism, present a satisfactory

  1. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  2. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. VAN VAERENBERGH; B. LARIVIÈRE; I. VERMEIR

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  3. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers | Olwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of timing recovery in wireless mobile receiver systems is critical. This is partly because timing recovery functions must follow rapid parameter changes inherent in mobile systems and partly because both bandwidth and power must be conserved in low signal to noise ratio communication channels. The ultimate ...

  4. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes centrifugal recovery as an improved method for collection of lignin isolated from black liquor obtained from a South African kraft mill. Precipitation of lignin was achieved by utilising 6 M sulphuric acid. Recovery...

  5. Effects of topical application of aqueous solutions of hexoses on epidermal permeability barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that hexose molecules influence the stability of phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, the effects of topical application of all 12 stereoisomers of dextro-hexose on the epidermal barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were evaluated. Immediately after tape stripping, 0.1 m aqueous solution of each hexose was applied on hairless mouse skin. Among the eight dextro-aldohexoses, topical application of altose, idose, mannose and talose accelerated the barrier recovery, while allose, galactose, glucose and gulose had no effect. Among the four dextro-ketohexoses, psicose, fructose, sorbose and tagatose all accelerated the barrier recovery. As the effects of hexoses on the barrier recovery rate appeared within 1 h, the mechanism is unlikely to be genomic. Instead, these hexoses may influence phase transition of the lipid bilayers of lamellar bodies and cell membrane, a crucial step in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  7. Energy recovery as a key technology for future mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellbeck, Hans; Risse, Silvio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2011-07-01

    Internal and external combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications represent an essential, basic module for a functioning economy and society. In ensuring mobility worldwide by land and by sea, the combustion engine plays the dominant role. Customer requirements to be fulfilled are manifold. Accordingly a downward trend in the demand for or indeed the abandonment of the combustion engine in personal or freight transport is in the near future unforeseeable. With regard to the continuously increasing need for mobility subject to limited resources and rising environmental consciousness, the combustion engine and the means to improve its efficiency and sustainability are under intensive investigation. Along with the application of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, improvements in the system itself will be valuable to its future. More specifically, compared to many other techniques the recovery of energy losses resulting from the operation of these engines promises a very high degree of optimization. An overview of the current and predicted number of combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications is given at the beginning of the paper. Furthermore, a differentiation between personal and freight traffic must be made since there is not only a difference in their respective power requirements but also in their lifecycles. The energy losses through exhaust gases and coolants, for example, are quantified and rated in terms of their capabilities on the basis of certain fields of application and utilization profiles. With regard to additional specific boundary conditions, various concepts ranging from recuperation in theory to actual recovery in practice under conditions approximating actual production are analysed in different application scenarios for their efficiency, ecological benefit, and economy. Retroactive or synergistic effects which may follow from their integration into the complete system are considered precisely with the help of examples

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 5, contains Appendices E1, H1, I1--3, K1, K2, and L1. These appendices cover a RCRA ground water monitoring waiver, a list of job titles, the operational closure plan, the waste retrieval plan for wastes placed during the test phase, and listings of agreements between WIPP, DOE, and various state and federal agencies. 91 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Single dose systemic acetaminophen to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory segmental mastectomy: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Rodes, Meghan E; Bialek, Jane; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J

    2017-11-15

    Few systemic drug interventions are efficacious to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory surgery. We aimed to evaluate whether a single dose systemic acetaminophen improve quality of recovery in female patients undergoing ambulatory breast surgery. We hypothesized that patients receiving a single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgical procedure would have a better global quality of postsurgical recovery compared to the ones receiving saline. The study was a prospective randomized double blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial. Healthy female subjects were randomized to receive 1 g single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgery or the same volume of saline. The primary outcome was the Quality of Recovery 40 (QOR-40) questionnaire at 24 hours after surgery. Other data collected included opioid consumption and pain scores. Data were analyzed using group t tests and the Wilcoxon exact test. The association between opioid consumption and quality of recovery was evaluated using Spearman rho. P quality of recovery, P = .007. A single dose of systemic acetaminophen improves patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory breast surgery. The use of systemic acetaminophen is an efficacious strategy to improve patient perceived quality of postsurgical recovery and analgesic outcomes after hospital discharge for ambulatory breast surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a chronic stroke patient who showed motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) after undergoing intensive rehabilitation for a period of one month, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe paralysis of the left extremities at the onset of thalamic hemorrhage. At thirty months after onset, the patient exhibited moderate weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. In addition, he exhibited a slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern during grasp-release movements of his left hand. During a one-month period of intensive rehabilitation, which was started at thrity months after onset, the patient showed 22% motor recovery of the left extremities. The slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern of the left hand almost disappeared. DTTs of the corticospinal tract (CST) in both hemispheres originated from the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor cortex, and passed along the known CST pathway. The DTT of the right CST was located anterior to the old hemorrhagic lesion. TMS study performed at thirty and thirty-one months after onset showed normal and similar findings for motor evoked potential in terms of latency and amplitude of the left hand muscle. We think that the motor weakness of the left extremities in this patient was mainly ascribed to LKA and that most of the motor recovery during a one-month period of rehabilitation was attributed to improvement of LKA.

  11. Control of a waste heat recovery system with decoupled expander for improved diesel engine efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is proposed for a Waste Heat Recovery system in heavy-duty automotive application. The objective is to maximize the WHR system output power while satisfying the output constraints under highly dynamic engine variations. For control design,

  12. Recent Applications of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) to Membrane Bio-Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Gamal; Guet, Jean-Erik; Taulier, Nicolas; Pincet, Frederic; Urbach, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    This review examines some recent applications of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to biopolymers, while mainly focusing on membrane protein studies. Initially, we discuss the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, as measured by FRAP. Then, we talk about the use of FRAP to probe interactions between membrane proteins by obtaining fundamental information such as geometry and stoichiometry of the interacting complex. Afterwards, we discuss some applications of FRAP at the cellular level as well as the level of organisms. We conclude by comparing diffusion coefficients obtained by FRAP and several other alternative methods. PMID:22219695

  13. Review of the Application of Positive Psychology to Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the US, UK, Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macro-systems focus of the recovery movement. PMID:22985057

  14. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  15. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  16. Improving Recovery and Outcomes Every Day after the ICU (IMPROVE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia; Hammes, Jessica; Khan, Sikandar; Gao, Sujuan; Harrawood, Amanda; Martinez, Stephanie; Moser, Lyndsi; Perkins, Anthony; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Clark, Daniel O; Boustani, Malaz; Khan, Babar

    2018-03-27

    Delirium affects nearly 70% of older adults hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), and many of those will be left with persistent cognitive impairment or dementia. There are no effective and scalable recovery models to remediate ICU-acquired cognitive impairment and its attendant elevated risk for dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). The Improving Recovery and Outcomes Every Day after the ICU (IMPROVE) trial is an ongoing clinical trial which evaluates the efficacy of a combined physical exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function among ICU survivors 50 years and older who experienced delirium during an ICU stay. This article describes the study protocol for IMPROVE. IMPROVE is a four-arm, randomized controlled trial. Subjects will be randomized to one of four arms: cognitive training and physical exercise; cognitive control and physical exercise; cognitive training and physical exercise control; and cognitive control and physical exercise control. Facilitators administer the physical exercise and exercise control interventions in individual and small group formats by using Internet-enabled videoconference. Cognitive training and control interventions are also facilitator led using Posit Science, Inc. online modules delivered in individual and small group format directly into the participants' homes. Subjects complete cognitive assessment, mood questionnaires, physical performance batteries, and quality of life scales at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Blood samples will also be taken at baseline and 3 months to measure pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants; neurotrophic factors; and markers of glial dysfunction and astrocyte activation. This study is the first clinical trial to examine the efficacy of combined physical and cognitive exercise on cognitive function in older ICU survivors with delirium. The results will provide information about potential synergistic effects of a combined intervention on a range of outcomes and mechanisms

  17. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine......In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...

  18. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  19. Improving Gold Recovery from Artificial Preg-Robbing Ore by Pre-treatment using Blinding Agent and Resin-in-Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zaki Mubarok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effectiveness of the use of blinding agents, ionic exchanger resins and the combination of them in improving gold extraction from simulated preg-robbing ore is discussed. The blinding agents used were kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil, while the ion exchange resins used were Lewatit Monoplus MP 800, Lewatit AF 5 and guanidine. Preg-robbing conditions were simulated by blending fine activated carbon with ore sample. The investigation results show that the presence of artificial carbonaceous materials at 2% (w/w in the gold ore significantly reduces gold recovery. Pretreatment of artificial preg-robbing ore prior to cyanidation by mixing with kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil for 0.5h improved gold recovery up to 25.4%. A combination of pre-treatment using blinding agent and a resin in leach (RIL test using Lewatit MP 800 resin demonstrated a synergistic effect that improves gold recovery up to a level of 99.5%,which is significantly higher than using activated carbon and without pretreatment.

  20. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus

    2018-04-27

    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  1. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria for the Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Niraj; Dasgupta, Sumita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Gupta, Smita

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, a biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated, screened and identified. Further, various fermentation conditions (such as pH (5-10), incubation period (24-96h) and incubation temperature (20-60 °C) were optimized for maximum production of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized by measuring emulsification index, foaming characteristics, rhamnolipid detection, interfacial tension between water and oil and stability against pH and temperature for its potential application in oil recovery process. The additional oil recovery for two different sand, sand1 and sand2, was found to be 49% and 38%, respectively.

  3. Cold-Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy: No Improvement of Short-Term Recovery After Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Broatch, James R; Petersen, Aaron C; Polman, Remco; Bishop, David J; Halson, Shona

    2017-08-01

    An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. To determine the effectiveness of both cold-water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared with control on short-term recovery (<4 h) after a single full-body resistance-training session. Thirteen men (age 26 ± 5 y, weight 79 ± 7 kg, height 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVC] of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) before and immediately after the training session. Subjects then completed 1 of three 14-min recovery strategies (CWI, CWT, or passive sitting [CON]), with the perceptual and performance measures reassessed immediately, 2 h, and 4 h postrecovery. Peak torque during MVC and jump performance were significantly decreased (P < .05) after the resistance-training session and remained depressed for at least 4 h postrecovery in all conditions. Neither CWI nor CWT had any effect on perceptual or performance measures over the 4-h recovery period. CWI and CWT did not improve short-term (<4-h) recovery after a conventional resistance-training session.

  4. Recent Applications of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP to Membrane Bio-Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Rayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review examines some recent applications of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP to biopolymers, while mainly focusing on membrane protein studies. Initially, we discuss the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, as measured by FRAP. Then, we talk about the use of FRAP to probe interactions between membrane proteins by obtaining fundamental information such as geometry and stoichiometry of the interacting complex. Afterwards, we discuss some applications of FRAP at the cellular level as well as the level of organisms. We conclude by comparing diffusion coefficients obtained by FRAP and several other alternative methods.

  5. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  6. Advances in primary recovery: centrifugation and membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, David J; Lu, Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Significant and continual improvements in upstream processing for biologics have resulted in challenges for downstream processing, both primary recovery and purification. Given the high cell densities achievable in both microbial and mammalian cell culture processes, primary recovery can be a significant bottleneck in both clinical and commercial manufacturing. The combination of increased product titer and low viability leads to significant relative increases in the levels of process impurities such as lipids, intracellular proteins and nucleic acid versus the product. In addition, cell culture media components such as soy and yeast hydrolysates have been widely applied to achieve the cell culture densities needed for higher titers. Many of the process impurities can be negatively charged at harvest pH and can form colloids during the cell culture and harvest processes. The wide size distribution of these particles and the potential for additional particles to be generated by shear forces within a centrifuge may result in insufficient clarification to prevent fouling of subsequent filters. The other residual process impurities can lead to precipitation and increased turbidity during processing and even interference with the performance of the capturing chromatographic step. Primary recovery also poses significant challenges owing to the necessity to execute in an expedient manner to minimize both product degradation and bioburden concerns. Both microfiltration and centrifugation coupled with depth filtration have been employed successfully as primary recovery processing steps. Advances in the design and application of membrane technology for microfiltration and dead-end filtration have contributed to significant improvements in process performance and integration, in some cases allowing for a combination of multiple unit operations in a given step. Although these advances have increased productivity and reliability, the net result is that optimization of primary

  7. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheshu; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The increase of ship's energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  8. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zheshu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  9. [Present situation and prospect of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengyu; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-05-25

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.

  10. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Improved genome recovery and integrated cell-size analyses of individual uncultured microbial cells and viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fergusson, Elizabeth A; Brown, Joseph; Poulton, Nicole J; Tupper, Ben; Labonté, Jessica M; Becraft, Eric D; Brown, Julia M; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Povilaitis, Tadas; Thompson, Brian P; Mascena, Corianna J; Bellows, Wendy K; Lubys, Arvydas

    2017-07-20

    Microbial single-cell genomics can be used to provide insights into the metabolic potential, interactions, and evolution of uncultured microorganisms. Here we present WGA-X, a method based on multiple displacement amplification of DNA that utilizes a thermostable mutant of the phi29 polymerase. WGA-X enhances genome recovery from individual microbial cells and viral particles while maintaining ease of use and scalability. The greatest improvements are observed when amplifying high G+C content templates, such as those belonging to the predominant bacteria in agricultural soils. By integrating WGA-X with calibrated index-cell sorting and high-throughput genomic sequencing, we are able to analyze genomic sequences and cell sizes of hundreds of individual, uncultured bacteria, archaea, protists, and viral particles, obtained directly from marine and soil samples, in a single experiment. This approach may find diverse applications in microbiology and in biomedical and forensic studies of humans and other multicellular organisms.Single-cell genomics can be used to study uncultured microorganisms. Here, Stepanauskas et al. present a method combining improved multiple displacement amplification and FACS, to obtain genomic sequences and cell size information from uncultivated microbial cells and viral particles in environmental samples.

  12. Heat recovery in compost piles for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an estimation of the possible heat recovery of self-heating compost piles for building applications. The energy released during the aerobic composting of lignin and cellulose-based materials is computed by solving an inverse problem. The method consists first in an experimental phase with measurement of the temperature within the heap, then a numerical procedure allows for the inverse identification of the heat production due to the chemical reaction of composting. The simulation results show a good accordance with the experiments for the chosen source-term model. Comparing the results to the theoretical values for the energy released by aerobic composting provides an estimate for the efficiency of the reaction. The reached temperatures and recovered energy fit with the order of magnitude of building needs.

  13. Applications guide for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  14. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  15. Engineering the biosynthesis of novel rhamnolipids in Escherichia coli for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Liu, P; Peng, Y; Lin, J; Wang, Q; Ma, Y

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial tension of rhamnolipids and their applications in enhanced oil recovery are dependent on their chemical structures and compositions. To improve their performances of interfacial tension and enhanced oil recovery, the engineered strategies were applied to produce novel rhamnolipids with different chemical structures and compositions. By introducing different key genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli was firstly constructed to produce rhamnolipids that showed different performances in interfacial tension from those from Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the different fatty acyl compositions. Then, the mutant RhlBs were created by directed evolution and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis and resulted in the production of the novel rhamnolipids with the different performances in interfacial tension as well as enhanced oil recovery. Lastly, computational modelling elucidates that the single amino acid mutation at the position 168 in RhlB would change the volume of binding pocket for substrate and thus affect the selectivity of rhamnolipid formation in E. coli. The novel rhamnolipids that showed the improved performances of interfacial tension and the potential different applications in enhanced oil recovery were successfully produced by engineered E. coli. This study proved that the combination of metabolic engineering and protein engineering is an important engineered strategy to produce many novel metabolites in micro-organisms. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Efficiency of two-step solar thermochemical non-stoichiometric redox cycles with heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, J.; Davidson, J.H.; Lipiński, W.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in the effectiveness of solid phase heat recovery and in the thermodynamic properties of metal oxides are the most important paths to achieving unprecedented thermal efficiencies of 10% and higher in non-stoichiometric solar redox reactors. In this paper, the impact of solid and gas phase heat recovery on the efficiency of a non-stoichiometric cerium dioxide-based H 2 O/CO 2 splitting cycle realized in a solar-driven reactor are evaluated in a parametric thermodynamic analysis. Application of solid phase heat recovery to the cycling metal oxide allows for lower reduction zone operating temperatures, simplifying reactor design. An optimum temperature for metal oxide reduction results from two competing phenomena as the reduction temperature is increased: increasing re-radiation losses from the reactor aperture and decreasing heat loss due to imperfect solid phase heat recovery. Additionally, solid phase heat recovery increases the efficiency gains made possible by gas phase heat recovery. -- Highlights: ► Both solid and gas phase heat recovery are essential to achieve high thermal efficiency in non-stoichiometric ceria-based solar redox reactors. ► Solid phase heat recovery allows for lower reduction temperatures and increases the gains made possible by gas phase heat recovery. ► The optimum reduction temperature increases with increasing concentration ratio and decreasing solid phase heat recovery effectiveness. ► Even moderate levels of heat recovery dramatically improve reactor efficiency from 3.5% to 16%.

  17. Solvent extraction and its practical application for the recovery of copper and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.

    1975-01-01

    In recent years solvent extraction has been developed to a stage that allows practical application first for the recovery of uranium and later also for winning copper from low-grade acid-soluble ores. By now it has been realized in several plants with great technical and ecomomic success. Solvent extraction includes the following essential operations: leaching, solvent extraction, back extraction of the organically bonded valuable mineral to an acid, aqueous solution and finally separation of the valuable metal from the final acid by precipitation or electrolytic procedures. Upon assessing the cost of the solvent extraction process for the recovery of copper it turns out that from an economic point of view it is significantly superior to the conventional cementation process. (orig.) [de

  18. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  19. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application; Notice of Intent To Prepare a... intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Strata Energy, Inc. (Strata...

  20. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  1. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.

  2. Temperature ranges of the application of air-to-air heat recovery ventilator in supermarkets in winter, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yanming; Wang, Youjun; Zhong, Ke [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Jiaping [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Energy consumption is an important issue in China. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, more and more commercial buildings use air-to-air heat recovery ventilators as energy saving units for recovering heat from the exhaust air in ventilation systems in current years. In the present paper, critical temperatures of air-to-air heat recovery systems for supermarkets in winter are recommended and discussed for the four cities in different climate zones of China. The analysis shows that the temperature of fresh air in winter can be categorized into three regions, i.e., recovery region, transition region and impermissible recovery region. The results also indicate that the latent heat recovery is not suitable for ventilation energy savings in supermarkets in winter. Meanwhile, the applicability of sensible heat recovery in supermarkets depends on outdoor climate and fresh air flow rate. If a variable rotational speed fan is used to introduce fresh air into the building, heat recovery does always function as planned in winter for all the selected cities except Guangzhou, and most values of the COP are much higher than 2.5. Otherwise, there is the risk of negative impact on building energy savings in all cities except Harbin. (author)

  3. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....

  4. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  5. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zun-rong; Wang, Ping; Xing, Liang; Mei, Li-ping; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238). PMID:29239328

  6. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zun-Rong; Wang, Ping; Xing, Liang; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238).

  7. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-rong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238.

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The Kalina split-cycle is a thermodynamic process for converting thermal energy into electrical power. It uses an ammonia–water mixture as a working fluid (like a conventional Kalina cycle) and has a varying ammonia concentration during the pre-heating and evaporation steps. This second feature results in an improved match between the heat source and working fluid temperature profiles, decreasing the entropy generation in the heat recovery system. The present work compares the thermodynamic performance of this power cycle with the conventional Kalina process, and investigates the impact of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina cycle with reheat, and by 4.3% points without reheat. The cycle efficiency varies by 14% points for a variation of the exhaust gas temperature of 100 °C, and by 1% point for a cold water temperature variation of 30 °C. This analysis also pinpoints the large irreversibilities in the low-pressure turbine and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of the Kalina split-cycle is assessed. • The Kalina split-cycle is compared to the Kalina cycle, with and without reheat. • An exergy analysis is performed to evaluate its thermodynamic performance. • The impact of varying boundary conditions is investigated. • The Kalina split-cycle displays high exergetic efficiency for low- and medium-temperature applications

  9. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  10. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing. Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  11. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  12. Selection and application of effective LNAPL recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) such as gasoline, diesel, fuel oil and lubricating oil resulting from historical or catastrophic releases, is present at numerous industrial and hazardous waste sites. Initiating LNAPL removal is the first step in remediating impacted groundwater with the LNAPL recovery process having a profound effect on the ability to cost effectively achieve site closure. In many cases, LNAPL recovery precedes full-scale groundwater design activities or even final site characterization due to regulatory compliance issues. Therefore, the timely and effective implementation of a LNAPL recovery system can result in reduced project costs by mitigating further plume migration, achieving maximum volume of recoverable hydrocarbons, eliminating the source area associated with dissolved phase contamination, and allowing comprehensive groundwater remediation to be employed sooner. Effective LNAPL recovery systems begin with evaluating a number of site-specific parameters to quantify the physical characteristics of the type of LNAPL to be recovered, the hydrogeological environment, LNAPL, plume geometry, and the specified client or regulatory cleanup goals. These parameters are discussed along with their significance in developing a conceptual understanding of the site

  13. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  14. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  15. What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Mohammed; Watson, Greig; Abbiss, Chris R

    2016-08-01

    Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. CWI, through its primary ability to decrease tissue temperature and blood flow, is purported to facilitate recovery by ameliorating hyperthermia and subsequent alterations to the central nervous system (CNS), reducing cardiovascular strain, removing accumulated muscle metabolic by-products, attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and improving autonomic nervous system function. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed examination of the mechanisms underpinning acute and longer term recovery of exercise performance following post-exercise CWI. Understanding the mechanisms will aid practitioners in the application and optimisation of CWI strategies to suit specific recovery needs and consequently improve athletic performance. Much of the literature indicates that the dominant mechanism by which CWI facilitates short term recovery is via ameliorating hyperthermia and consequently CNS mediated fatigue and by reducing cardiovascular strain. In contrast, there is limited evidence to support that CWI might improve acute recovery by facilitating the removal of muscle metabolites. CWI has been shown to augment parasympathetic reactivation following exercise. While CWI-mediated parasympathetic reactivation seems detrimental to high-intensity exercise performance when performed shortly after, it has been shown to be associated with improved longer term physiological recovery and day to day

  16. Efficient recovery of uranium using genetically improved microalgae; Recuperacion eficaz de uranio utilizando microalgas geneticamente mejoradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rodas, V.; Conde Vilda, E.; Garcia-Balboa, C.

    2015-07-01

    We propose an alternative process for the efficient recovery of dissolved uranium based on genetically improved microalgae. We isolate Chlamydomonas cf. fonticola from a pond extremely contaminated by uranium (∼ 25 ppm) from ENUSA U-mine, Saelices (Salamanca, Spain). After a process of genetic improvement we obtained a strain capable to recover 115 mg of U per g of dry weight, by mean of bio-adsorption on the cell wall (mostly) and intra-cytoplasm bioaccumulation. Such a genetically improved microalgae resist extremes of acidity and pollution, but even its dead biomass is still able to recover a large amount of uranium. (Author)

  17. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  18. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  19. Development of a preprototype thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem for water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A three-man urine water recovery preprototype subsystem using a new concept to provide efficient potable water recovery from waste fluids on extended duration space flights has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Low power, compactness, and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber polysulfone membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. Application and integration of these key elements have solved problems inherent in previous reclamation subsystem designs. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than a waste liquid recirculation pump and a product water withdrawal pump. Tubular membranes provide structural integrity, improving on previous flat sheet membrane designs. A thermoelectric heat pump provides latent energy recovery.

  20. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  1. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on improved oil recovery in spontaneous imbibition mechanism of heavy oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajmiri, M.; Ehsani, M. R.; Mousavi, S. M.; Roayaei, E.; Emadi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous imbibition (SI) gets a controversial subject in oil- wet carbonate reservoirs. The new concept of nanoparticles applications in an EOR area have been recently raised by researches about oil viscosity reduction and generate emulsion without surfactant. But a lot of questions have been remained about which nanoparticles can alter wettability from oil- wet to water- wet to improve oil recovery. This study introduces the new idea of adding ZnO nanoparticles (0.2%wt concentration) by experimental work on oil recovery. The main goals of this research were to prove that ZnO nanoparticles have the ability to reduce viscosity and also alter wettability. The ultimate objective was to determine the potential of these nanoparticles to imbibe into and displace oil. Through the use of Amott- cell, laboratory tests were conducted in two experiments on four cylindrical core samples (three sandstones and one carbonate) were taken from real Iranian heavy oil reservoir. In the first experiment, core samples were saturated by crude oil and in the second experiment, nanoparticles were flooding into core samples and then saturated by crude oil for about two weeks and after that they were immersed in distilled water and the amount of recovery was monitored during 30 days for both tests. We expected that ZnO nanoparticles decreased the surface tension which reduced the capillary forces through SI and wettability alteration took place towards a more water-wet system and caused the oil relative permeability to increase which dominated the gravitational forces to pull out the oil. Our results proved this expectation from ZnO nanoparticles clearly because carbonate core was oil- wet and the capillary pressure was high and negative to push water into the core so the original oil in place (OOIP) was zero whereas by adding ZnO nanoparticles OOIP was increased to 8.89%. SI yielded recovery values from 17.3, 2 and 15 without nanoparticles to 20.68, 17.57 and 36.2 % OOIP with

  3. Sleeving-back of horizontal wells to control downstream oil saturation and improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Saghr, A. M. [Bath Univ (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Air injection has become popular as an enhanced recovery technology, applicable over a wide variety of reservoir conditions including heavy, medium and light oils. One problem observed in light oil reservoirs is the tendency to desaturate the oil layer downstream of the moving front. This is particularly common in the case of thermal recovery processes. In this experiment designed to study ways to restrict the de-saturation of the oil layer, a modified horizontal producer well, incorporating a `sleeve-back` principal was used. The objective was to replicate the `toe-to-heel` displacement process occurring during heavy oil recovery, wherein downstream oil is essentially immobile due to its high viscosity. The `sleeve-back` of the well was achieved using a co-aligned, two-well assembly, so that the upstream section of the horizontal producer well was active, and continuously adjusted during propagation of the combustion front. The use of this continuous `sleeve-back` operation to control the level of de-saturation in the downstream section of a sand pack was successful as confirmed by the very high oil recovery achieved, equivalent to 93.5 per cent of oil in place. The level of CO{sub 2} production was also very high. The `sleeve-back` of the horizontal producer well made the light oil in-situ combustion more efficient compared to what would be expected in a fully-open well. The `sleeve-back` of the well also produced thermal contours in the sand pack that closely resembled those observed with heavy, highly viscous oil. By sealing-off the otherwise open well in the downstream part of the reservoir, the de-saturation of the oil layer was prevented. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  5. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  6. Mode-locking dynamics in a quantum-dash Fabry-Pérot laser diode for packet based clock recovery applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado-Basilio, R.; Parra-Cetina, J.; Latkowski, S.; Landais, P.; Calabretta, N.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the locking/unlocking dynamics of a mode-locked QDash laser diode for packet-based clock-recovery applications. Results show 20 ns locking times for the passively and externally synchronized mode-locking mechanisms.

  7. Recovery and residual stress of SMA wires and applications for concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Cho, Sung-Chul; Park, Taehyo; Hu, Jong Wan; Chung, Young-Soo

    2010-01-01

    In general, NiTi shape memory alloys are used for applications in civil structures. NiTi SMAs show good superelasticity and shape memory effect properties. However, for application of the shape memory effect, it is desirable for SMAs to show a wide temperature hysteresis, especially for civil structures which are exposed to severe environmental conditions. NiTiNb SMAs, in general, show a wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs and are more applicable for civil structures. This study examines the temperature hysteresis of NiTiNb and NiTi SMAs, and their recovery and residual stress are investigated. In addition, the tensile behaviors of SMA wires under residual stress are evaluated. This study explains the possible applications for concrete structures with the shape memory effect and illustrates two experimental results of concrete cylinders and reinforced concrete columns. For both tests, SMA wires of NiTiNb and NiTi are used to confine concrete using residual stress. The SMA wire jackets on the concrete cylinders increase the peak strength and the ductility compared to the plain concrete cylinders. In addition, the SMA wire jackets on reinforced concrete columns increase the ductility greatly without flexural strength degradation

  8. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  9. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural

  10. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  11. Nutritional Improvement and Energy Intake Are Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients after Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular dynamics studies of fluid/oil interfaces for improved oil recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Lucas S; Michelon, Mateus F; Miranda, Caetano R

    2012-12-20

    In our paper, we study the interface wettability, diffusivity, and molecular orientation between crude oil and different fluids for applications in improved oil recovery (IOR) processes through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD). The salt concentration, temperature, and pressure effects on the physical chemistry properties of different interfaces between IOR agents [brine (H(2)O + % NaCl), CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)] and crude oil have been determined. From the interfacial density profiles, an accumulation of aromatic molecules near the interface has been observed. In the case of brine interfaced with crude oil, our calculations indicate an increase in the interfacial tension with increasing pressure and salt concentration, which favors oil displacement. On the other hand, with the other fluids studied (CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)), the interfacial tension decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. With interfacial tension reduction, an increase in fluid diffusivity in the oil phase is observed. We also studied the molecular orientation properties of the hydrocarbon and fluids molecules in the interface region. We perceived that the molecular orientation could be affected by changes in the interfacial tension and diffusivity of the molecules in the interface region with the increased pressure and temperature: pressure (increasing) → interfacial tension (decreasing) → diffusion (increasing) → molecular ordering. From a molecular point of view, the combination of low interfacial tension and high diffusion of molecules in the oil phase gives the CO(2) molecules unique properties as an IOR fluid compared with other fluids studied here.

  13. Application of the GEM Inventory Data Capture Tools for Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Recovery Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrucci, Enrica; Bevington, John; Vicini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    A set of open-source tools to create building exposure datasets for seismic risk assessment was developed from 2010-13 by the Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Risk Global Component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The tools were designed to integrate data derived from remotely-sensed imagery, statistically-sampled in-situ field data of buildings to generate per-building and regional exposure data. A number of software tools were created to aid the development of these data, including mobile data capture tools for in-field structural assessment, and the Spatial Inventory Data Developer (SIDD) for creating "mapping schemes" - statistically-inferred distributions of building stock applied to areas of homogeneous urban land use. These tools were made publically available in January 2014. Exemplar implementations in Europe and Central Asia during the IDCT project highlighted several potential application areas beyond the original scope of the project. These are investigated here. We describe and demonstrate how the GEM-IDCT suite can be used extensively within the framework proposed by the EC-FP7 project SENSUM (Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recovery Monitoring). Specifically, applications in the areas of 1) dynamic vulnerability assessment (pre-event), and 2) recovery monitoring and evaluation (post-event) are discussed. Strategies for using the IDC Tools for these purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the benefits of using advanced technology tools for data capture, especially in a systematic fashion using the taxonomic standards set by GEM. Originally designed for seismic risk assessment, it is clear the IDCT tools have relevance for multi-hazard risk assessment. When combined with a suitable sampling framework and applied to multi-temporal recovery monitoring, data generated from the tools can reveal spatio-temporal patterns in the quality of recovery activities and resilience trends can be

  14. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  15. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  16. Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2018-03-01

    Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.

  17. Best time window for the use of calcium-modulating agents to improve functional recovery in injured peripheral nerves-An experiment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuhui; Shen, Feng-Yi; Agresti, Michael; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Matloub, Hani S; LoGiudice, John A; Havlik, Robert; Li, Jifeng; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury. After the nerve injury, calcium accumulation increased. Peak volume is from 2 to 8 weeks post injury; calcium accumulation then gradually decreased over the following 24-week period. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurement from the extensor digitorum longus muscle recovered to nearly normal levels in 24 weeks. Simultaneously, real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that upregulation of calcium-ATPase (a membrane protein that transports calcium out of nerve fibers) mRNA peaked at 12 weeks. These results suggest that without intervention, the peak in calcium-ATPase mRNA expression in the injured nerve occurs after the peak in calcium accumulation, and CMAP recovery continues beyond 24 weeks. Immediately using calcium-modulating agents after crushed nerve injury improved functional recovery. These studies suggest that a crucial time frame in which to initiate effective clinical approaches to accelerate calcium clearance and nerve regeneration would be prior to 2 weeks post injury. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surgical Technical Evidence Review for Elective Total Joint Replacement Conducted for the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Christopher P; Siletz, Anaar E; Singer, Emily S; Faltermeier, Claire; Hu, Q Lina; Ko, Clifford Y; Golladay, Gregory J; Kates, Stephen L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery-a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients. This review synthesizes evidence that can be used to develop a protocol for elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). This review focuses on potential components of the protocol relevant to surgeons; anesthesia components are reported separately. Components were identified through review of existing pathways and from consultation with technical experts. For each, a structured review of MEDLINE identified systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies that reported on these components in patients undergoing elective TKA/THA. This primary evidence review was combined with existing clinical guidelines in a narrative format. Sixteen components were reviewed. Of the 10 preoperative components, most were focused on risk factor assessment including anemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, nutrition, immune-modulating therapy, and opiates. Preoperative education, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, and bathing/ Staphylococcus aureus decolonization were also included. The routine use of drains was the only intraoperative component evaluated. The 5 postoperative components included early mobilization, continuous passive motion, extended duration VTE prophylaxis, early oral alimentation, and discharge planning. This review synthesizes the evidence supporting potential surgical components of an ERP for elective TKA/THA. The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery aims to guide hospitals and

  19. Characterizing and modeling the free recovery and constrained recovery behavior of a polyurethane shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Maitland, Duncan J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, tensile tests and one-dimensional constitutive modeling were performed on a high recovery force polyurethane shape memory polymer that is being considered for biomedical applications. The tensile tests investigated the free recovery (zero load) response as well as the constrained displacement recovery (stress recovery) response at extension values up to 25%, and two consecutive cycles were performed during each test. The material was observed to recover 100% of the applied deformation when heated at zero load in the second thermomechanical cycle, and a stress recovery of 1.5–4.2 MPa was observed for the constrained displacement recovery experiments. After the experiments were performed, the Chen and Lagoudas model was used to simulate and predict the experimental results. The material properties used in the constitutive model—namely the coefficients of thermal expansion, shear moduli, and frozen volume fraction—were calibrated from a single 10% extension free recovery experiment. The model was then used to predict the material response for the remaining free recovery and constrained displacement recovery experiments. The model predictions match well with the experimental data

  20. Research and Application of Radiation Processed Polymers to Enhance Oil Recovery in Petroleum Industry - Current Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hai; Nguyen Trong Hoanh Phong; Le Van Toan; Nguyen Ly Lan; Nguyen Tan Man; Le Dinh Lang; Nguyen Van Toan; Pham Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of polymers for enhanced oil recovery has been carried out by radiation copolymerization method involving two monomers of acrylamide and N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone, and N-methylpyrrolidone used as an anti-gel agent. The properties and oil recovery efficiency of polymer solution was discussed. The studied polymer dissolved in water and in saline water. They have non-precipitating behavior in hard brines at high temperature (>120 o C) and their viscosity decreased 20% after heating 30 days at 120 o C. Evaluation of oil recovery efficiency has been carried out at Laboratory model of reservoir of oil wells were submerged, the obtained results shown that the recovery yield of oil enhanced higher than 10% in the reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The experimental results also shown that studied polymer products are applying in effect for submerged oil wells. These studied polymers have been being planned for application in pilot scale on the White Tiger oil field one of the big oil fields in this country. (author)

  1. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H

    1976-01-01

    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  2. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case

  3. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriana, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.muriana@unipa.it

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  4. Effect of synthetic vernix biofilms on barrier recovery of damaged mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Marion H M; Rissmann, Robert; van der Coelen, Dennis; Hennink, Wim E; Ponec, Maria; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether topical application of synthetic biofilms supports and accelerates the recovery of the murine skin barrier, disrupted by sequential tape stripping. Therefore, various biofilms were applied topically on disrupted mouse skin to determine which formulation could improve barrier function, as was observed previously for the natural biofilm vernix caseosa (VC). The biofilms [i.e. particles (synthetic corneocytes) embedded in a synthetic lipid matrix] mimic closely the physicochemical properties and structure of VC. Various formulations were prepared using different particle:lipid ratios, particles with different initial water content and uncoated or lipid-coated particles. It was observed that application of all tested formulations improved the skin barrier recovery rate and reduced crust formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. However, only one of the biofilms [i.e. B1; composed of uncoated particles with 50% (w/w) initial water content and particle:lipid ratio of 2:1] mimicked the effects of native VC most closely. This indicates the importance of the presence of individual components, i.e. barrier lipids and water, as well as the ratio of these components. Consequently, these observations suggest the potential use of this biofilm treatment clinically.

  5. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  6. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  7. Speed of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Berglund, Derek D; Momoh, Enesi; Disla, Shanell; Horn, Brandon; Giveans, M Russell; Levy, Jonathan C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the time taken to achieve maximum improvement (plateau of recovery) and the degree of recovery observed at various time points (speed of recovery) for pain and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. An institutional shoulder surgery registry query identified 627 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2015. Measured range of motion, patient satisfaction, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed for preoperative, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of tear size by retraction grade and number of anchors used. As an entire group, the plateau of maximum recovery for pain, function, and motion occurred at 1 year. Satisfaction with surgery was >96% at all time points. At 3 months, 74% of improvement in pain and 45% to 58% of functional improvement were realized. However, only 22% of elevation improvement was achieved (P rotation. Smaller tears had higher motion and functional scores across all time points. Tear size did not influence pain levels. The plateau of maximum recovery after rotator cuff repair occurred at 1 year with high satisfaction rates at all time points. At 3 months, approximately 75% of pain relief and 50% of functional recovery can be expected. Larger tears have a slower speed of recovery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas putida using Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as Substrate for Crude Oil Recovery using Batch Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Masykur, A.; Septyaningsih, I.

    2018-03-01

    The application of biosurfactants which have been produced by Pseudomonas putida in nutrient broth medium supplemented with NaCl and crude palm oil (CPO) for oil recovery has been evaluated. The crude and purified biosurfactants have been examined for oil recovery from a laboratory oil-contaminated sand in agitated flask (batch method). Two synthetic surfactants and water as control was also performed for oil recovery as comparisons. Using batch method, the results showed that removing ability of crude oil from the oil-contaminated sand by purified and crude biosurfactants were 79.40±3.10 and 46.84±2.23 %, respectively. On other hand, the recoveries obtained with the SDS, Triton X-100 and water were 94.33±0.47, 74.84±7.39 and 34.42±1.21%respectively.

  9. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  10. Enhancing heavy oil recovery using foam injection in applications to cyclic steam stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Yuan, J.Y. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) is a widely used heavy oil production technology. However, steam-based processes that are not stabilized can develop conformance as the steam can over-ride and channel past oil-bearing zones. This presentation discussed a refined CSS steam foaming process designed to improve recovery in marginal cycles. Laboratory studies were initially conducted to examine surfactant properties and flow behaviour in porous media. The results of numerical simulations were then applied to the steam-foaming portion of the CSS process. Results of the study showed that during the foam co-injection with steam stage, the steam injection rate did not alter. Improvement to the CSS process varied, indicating that earlier foam forming surfactant co-injection was preferable when steam-foam performance was constant in all cycles. It was concluded that the steam foaming process may improve bitumen production without requiring additional steam. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Modelling, sizing and testing a scroll expander for a waste heat recovery application on a gasoline engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Arnaud; Guillaume, Ludovic; Diny, Mouad; Lemort, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Waste heat recovery technologies in a mobile application emerge every time energy becomes a valuable resource. It has been the case in the 70s with oil crisis and it is starting to regain some interests now due to the continuously rising price of oil and due to the restrictive standards imposed by the different governments. This paper deals with the recovery on the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine by using a Rankine system. The study focuses on the expander, which is one of the most important components of the system. The use of a scroll expander operating with steam is currently investigated through simulation and experimentation. This paper presents the modelling of a scroll expander. The model is a detailed model including various losses such as leakage, friction or under or over expansion. This model has been used to design and size a tailor-made scroll expander. This was necessary due to the small amount of expanders on the market and also to have a machine that fits our application. After designing the machine, a prototype has been built. It has also been tested on our prototype bench of waste heat recovery on a gasoline engine, by means of a Rankine cycle. Measured performance will be presented, analysed and compared to predictions by the model. The first results will be presented here and discussed in order to give recommendations for the design of next prototypes.

  12. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  13. Pomegranate supplementation improves cognitive and functional recovery following ischemic stroke: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, John A; Murray, Jeffrey R; Jorge, Paolo; Fogel, Travis G; Kim, Mary; Wallace, Desiree R; Hartman, Richard E

    2018-02-13

    We tested whether supplementing with pomegranate polyphenols can enhance cognitive/functional recovery after stroke. In this parallel, block-randomized clinical trial, we administered commercially-available pomegranate polyphenol or placebo pills twice per day for one week to adult inpatients in a comprehensive rehabilitation setting starting approximately 2 weeks after stroke. Pills contained 1 g of polyphenols derived from whole pomegranate, equivalent to levels in approximately 8 oz of juice. Placebo pills were similar to the pomegranate pills except that they contained only lactose. Of the 163 patients that were screened, 22 were eligible and 16 were randomized (8 per group). We excluded one subject per group from the neuropsychological analyses since they were lost to follow-up, but we included all subjects in the analysis of functional data since outcome data were available. Clinicians and subjects were blinded to group assignment. Neuropsychological testing (primary outcome: Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) and functional independence scores were used to determine changes in cognitive and functional ability. Pomegranate-treated subjects demonstrated more neuropsychological and functional improvement and spent less time in the hospital than placebo controls. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced cognitive and functional recovery after stroke, justifying pursuing larger clinical trials.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility

  15. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  16. Non-invasive stimulation of the vibrissal pad improves recovery of whisking function after simultaneous lesion of the facial and infraorbital nerves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendella, H; Pavlov, S P; Grosheva, M; Irintchev, A; Angelova, S K; Merkel, D; Sinis, N; Kaidoglou, K; Skouras, E; Dunlop, S A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2011-07-01

    We have recently shown that manual stimulation of target muscles promotes functional recovery after transection and surgical repair to pure motor nerves (facial: whisking and blink reflex; hypoglossal: tongue position). However, following facial nerve repair, manual stimulation is detrimental if sensory afferent input is eliminated by, e.g., infraorbital nerve extirpation. To further understand the interplay between sensory input and motor recovery, we performed simultaneous cut-and-suture lesions on both the facial and the infraorbital nerves and examined whether stimulation of the sensory afferents from the vibrissae by a forced use would improve motor recovery. The efficacy of 3 treatment paradigms was assessed: removal of the contralateral vibrissae to ensure a maximal use of the ipsilateral ones (vibrissal stimulation; Group 2), manual stimulation of the ipsilateral vibrissal muscles (Group 3), and vibrissal stimulation followed by manual stimulation (Group 4). Data were compared to controls which underwent surgery but did not receive any treatment (Group 1). Four months after surgery, all three treatments significantly improved the amplitude of vibrissal whisking to 30° versus 11° in the controls of Group 1. The three treatments also reduced the degree of polyneuronal innervation of target muscle fibers to 37% versus 58% in Group 1. These findings indicate that forced vibrissal use and manual stimulation, either alone or sequentially, reduce target muscle polyinnervation and improve recovery of whisking function when both the sensory and the motor components of the trigemino-facial system regenerate.

  17. Improving Oil Recovery (IOR) with Polymer Flooding in a Heavy-Oil River-Channel Sandstone Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hongjiang

    2009-01-01

    Most of the old oil fields in China have reached high water cut stage, in order to meet the booming energy demanding, oil production rate must be kept in the near future with corresponding IOR (Improving Oil Recovery) methods. Z106 oilfield lies in Shengli Oilfields Area at the Yellow River delta. It was put into development in 1988. Since the oil belongs to heavy oil, the oil-water mobility ratio is so unfavourable that water cut increases very quickly. Especially for reservoir Ng21, the san...

  18. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  19. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in productivity is one of the Oil and Gas industry's biggest challenges. About 60% of crude Oil still lay trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery process have been completed, hence the need for a method that further improves recovery. In this study, flooding experiment was conducted ...

  20. Enzyme Enhanced Protein Recovery from Green Biomass Pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    of local protein resources based on upgrade from e.g. green plant biomass. In present work we consider different strategies for protein recovery from white clover and ryegrass screw press pulps, using aqueous extraction, as well as carbohydrases and proteases enhanced extraction. Protein recovery...... in these studies was determined as a yield of solubilized protein with regard to the total protein in a screw press pulp. Aqueous extraction at pH 8.0 resulted in approx. 40 % protein recovery, while proteases application (Savinase 16.0L, Novozymes) enabled twice higher protein yield. Application of plant cell...... pulp proteolyzates, generated by Savinase 16.0L protease....

  1. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the perspective of

  2. Effects of local application of methylprednisolone delivered by the C/GP-hydrogel on the recovery of facial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiuhua; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Wang, Yan; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Local administration of MP delivered by the C/GP-MP-hydrogel can improve the recovery of facial nerve following crush injury. The findings suggested that locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel might be a promising treatment for facial nerve damage. In this study, the aim is to assess the effectiveness of locally administrating methylprednisolone(MP) loaded by chitosan-β-glycerophosphate hydrogel (C/GP-hydrogel) on the regeneration of facial nerve crush injury. After the crush of left facial nerves, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four different groups. Then, four different therapies were used to treat the damaged facial nerves. At the 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) week after injury, the functional recovery of facial nerves and the morphological changes of facial nerves were assessed. The expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein in the facial nucleus were also evaluated. Locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel effectively accelerated the facial functional recovery. In addition, the regenerated facial nerves in the C/GP-MP group were more mature than those in the other groups. The expression of GAP-43 protein was also improved by the MP, especially in the C/GP-MP group.

  3. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; A. Blacha-Grzechnik; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  4. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  5. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  6. Demonstration of acid and water recovery systems: Applicability and operational challenges in Indian metal finishing SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M; Batra, R; Batra, V S; Chandramouli, G; Choudhury, D; Hälbig, T; Ivashechkin, P; Jain, J; Mandava, K; Mense, N; Nehra, V; Rögener, F; Sartor, M; Singh, V; Srinivasan, M R; Tewari, P K

    2018-07-01

    Diffusion dialysis, acid retardation and nanofiltration plants were acquired from Europe and demonstrated in several Indian metal finishing companies over a three year period. These companies are primarily small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Free acid recovery rate from spent pickling baths using diffusion dialysis and retardation was in the range of 78-86% and 30-70% respectively. With nanofiltration, 80% recovery rate of rinse water was obtained. The demonstrations created awareness among the metal finishing companies to reuse resources (acid/water) from the effluent streams. However, lack of efficient oil separators, reliable chemical analysis and trained personnel as well as high investment cost limit the application of these technologies. Local manufacturing, plant customization and centralized treatment are likely to encourage the uptake of such technologies in the Indian metal finishing sector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infuences of Rice Husk Biochar (RHB on Rice Growth Performance and Fertilizer Nitrogen Recovery up to Maximum Tillering Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniel Anak Sang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried out to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar addition on rice growth performance and fertilizer nitrogen recovery. The biochar effect was studied by using 15N labelled fertilizer urea (10 atom% 15N, as isotopic tracer, until maximum tillering stage (75 days after sowing. Rice husk biochar (RHB was applied at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 and laid in randomized complete block design with four replications. The result showed that biochar application significantly improved soil chemical properties (pH, total C, total N, and available P compared to control treatment. Biochar addition increased number of tiller and root dry matter weight up to 4% and 35%, respectively, compared to un-amended pot. Likewise, application of biochar significantly increased N, P and K uptake by 3%, 19% and 33%, respectively, as compared to the nutrient uptake from the control treatment. Biochar treatment had no significant impact on fertilizer nitrogen recovery in aboveground biomass, in the range of 41% and 42%, in comparison to the control. However, nitrogen fertilizer recovery in soil significantly increased by 47% over the control at application rate of 20 Mg ha-1 RHB.  Increased fertilizer N recovery in soil possibly reduced N losses to the environment from volatilization and denitrification processes. Total 15N fertilizer recovery also found increase at highest application of RHB biochar with an increment of 16%. In general, addition of biochar appeared to enhance crop growth performance but its effect on fertilizer N recovery in plant requires further study up to maturity of rice plant.

  8. Study on CO{sub 2} Recovery System Design in Supercritical CO{sub 2} Cycle for SFR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Seok; Jung, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As a part of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) development in Korea, the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is considered as an alternative power conversion system to eliminate sodium-water reaction (SWR) when the current conventional steam Rankine cycle is utilized with SFR. The parasitic loss caused by the leakage flow should be minimized since this greatly influences the cycle efficiency. Thus, a simple model for estimating the critical flow in a turbo-machinery seal was developed to predict the leakage flow rate and calculate the required total mass of working fluid in a S-CO{sub 2} power system to minimize the parasitic loss. In this work, study on CO{sub 2} recovery system design was conducted by finding the suitable recovery point with the developed simple CO{sub 2} critical flow model and sensitivity analysis was performed on the power system performance with respect to multiple CO{sub 2} recovery process options. The study of a CO{sub 2} recovery system design was conducted to minimize the thermal efficiency losses caused by CO{sub 2} inventory recovery system. For the first step, the configuration of a seal was selected. A labyrinth seal has suitable features for the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle application. Then, thermal efficiency losses with different CO{sub 2} leak rate and recovery point were evaluated. To calculate the leak rate in turbo-machinery by using the developed CO{sub 2} critical flow model, the conditions of storage tank is set to be closer to the recovery point. After modifying the critical flow model appropriately, total mass flow rate of leakage flow was calculated. Finally, the CO{sub 2} recovery system design work was performed to minimize the loss of thermal efficiency. The suggested system is not only simple and intuitive but also has relatively very low additional work loss from the compressor than other considered systems. When each leak rate is set to the conventional leakage rate of 1 kg/s per seal, the minimum and

  9. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  10. EFFICACY OF SOFT TISSUE APPLICATION, MANUALLY-THERAPEUTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR KNEE ARTHROKINEMATICS RECOVERY COMPLEX IN PATIENTS AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC MENISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Rostislav V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this article we present the final effect of the application of complex soft tissue manually-treatment system for recovery of joint kinematics in patients with moderate and minimal protective period of rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005-2012 into three medical centers in Bulgaria: Blagoevgrad, Sofia and Pleven. The study included a total of 110 patients divided into three groups (Control and Experimental I and Experimental Group II who studied the effect of topical application of the manual therapeutic techniques compared to traditional rehabilitation methods applied. For testing the efficacy of a treatment approach in the three groups of patients, the results have processed by the method of variational analysis. Results: After analysis of results we find significantly more fully and without residual short violations recovery for all controlled parameters in patients who have implemented comprehensive manually-therapeutic treatment compared with control group patients. Conclusion: Application of adequate physiological and pedagogically grounded complex rehabilitation is required in patients after arthroscopic meniscectomy model with motor deficits in tractable routine rehabilitation. Observations allow us to offer a methodology for implementation in general practice rehabilitation in patients after meniscal ruptures treated by arthroscopic meniscectomy and motor deficits, intractable routine rehabilitation.

  11. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃ improves myelination and recovery after nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Chabas

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated i that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i to assess which form - ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol - and which dose were the most efficient and ii to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle, and compared to unlesioned rats (Control. Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day, cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral

  12. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated

  13. Improving the reverse recovery of power MOSFET integral diodes by electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, B.J.; Walden, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Using 3 MeV electron irradiation at room temperature it was found that the reverse recovery charge in the integral diode could be continuously reduced in a well controlled manner from over 500nC to less than 100nC without any significant increase in the forward voltage drop of the integral diode under typical operating peak currents. The reverse recovery time was also observed to decrease from 3 microseconds to less than 200 nsec when the radiation dose was increased from 0 to 16 Megarads. The damage produced in gate oxide of the MOSFET due to the electron radiation damage was found to cause an undesirable decrease in the gate threshold voltage. This resulted in excessive channel leakage current flow in the MOSFET at zero gate bias. It was found that this channel leakage current was substantially reduced by annealing the devices at 140 0 C without influencing the integral diode reverse recovery speed. Thus, the electron irradiation technique was found to be effective in controlling the integral diode reverse recovery characteristics without any degradation of the power MOSFET characteristics. (author)

  14. A knowledge engineering approach for improving secondary recovery in offshore reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Milton P.; Tovar, Felipe T.R.; Guerra, Fabio A. [Parana Institute of Technology (TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Artificial Intelligence Div.; Andrade, Cynthia; Baptista, Walmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao

    2004-07-01

    Secondary recovery in offshore petroleum reservoirs by seawater injection is a technique traditionally applied in oil and gas industry. However, the injected water quality must be compatible with the reservoir characteristics in order to prevent corrosion, formation plugging and reservoir souring. So, the seawater must be treated before injection in the reservoirs and on-line monitoring equipment are employed to check the treatments efficacy. Nevertheless, the amount of data to analyze is quite big and involves many different experts, which make their evaluation and the establishment of correlations very difficult. For these cases, where it's crucial to detect the contaminants presence as soon as they occur to indicate corrective procedures, the application of knowledge engineering techniques and the development of expert systems are a good solution proposal. This paper presents the expert system InjeX (heuristic approach), developed for seawater injection treatment plants to maintain the water quality in offshore platforms. The description and the analysis of the problem, a proposed solution and some preliminary results are detailed and discussed along the paper. (author)

  15. Production of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Novel Bacillus sp. and Its Applicability to Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds derived from varied microbial sources including bacteria and fungi. They are secreted extracellularly and have a wide range of exciting properties for bioremediation purposes. They also have vast applications in the food and medicine industry. With an objective of isolating microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, the study involved screening of organisms from an oil-contaminated site. Morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA analysis of the most promising candidate revealed it to be Bacillus siamensis, which has been associated with biosurfactant production, for the first time. Initial fermentation studies using mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil resulted in a maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.64 g/L and reduction of surface tension to 36.1 mN/m at 96 h. Characterization studies were done using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of carbonyl groups, alkyl bonds, and C-H and N-H stretching vibrations, typical of peptides. The extracted biosurfactant was stable at extreme temperatures, pH, and salinity. Its applicability to EOR was further verified by conducting sand pack column studies that yielded up to 60% oil recovery.

  16. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  17. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging

  18. Thermal performance analysis of Brayton cycle with waste heat recovery boiler for diesel engines of offshore oil production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianglong; Gong, Guangcai; Wu, Yi; Li, Hangxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of Brayton cycle with WHRB adopted in diesel engines with and without fans by thermal performance. • Waste heat recovery technology for FPSO. • The thermoeconomic analysis for the heat recovery for FPSO. - Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis and on-site testing on the thermal performance of the waste heat recovery system for offshore oil production facilities, including the components of diesel engines, thermal boilers and waste heat boilers. We use the ideal air standard Brayton cycle to analyse the thermal performance. In comparison with the traditional design, the fans at the engine outlet of the waste heat recovery boiler is removed due to the limited space of the offshore platform. The cases with fan and without fan are compared in terms of thermal dynamics performance, energy efficiency and thermo-economic index of the system. The results show that the application of the WHRB increases the energy efficiency of the whole system, but increases the flow resistance in the duct. It is proved that as the waste heat recovery boiler takes the place of the thermal boiler, the energy efficiency of whole system without fan is slightly reduced but heat recovery efficiency is improved. This research provides an important guidance to improve the waste heat recovery for offshore oil production facilities.

  19. Improving post-stroke recovery: the role of the multidisciplinary health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J; Forster, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disability, the effects of which may be prolonged with physical, emotional, social, and financial consequences not only for those affected but also for their family and friends. Evidence for the effectiveness of stroke unit care and the benefits of thrombolysis have transformed treatment for people after stroke. Previously viewed nihilistically, stroke is now seen as a medical emergency with clear evidence-based care pathways from hospital admission to discharge. However, stroke remains a complex clinical condition that requires health professionals to work together to bring to bear their collective knowledge and specialist skills for the benefit of stroke survivors. Multidisciplinary team working is regarded as fundamental to delivering effective care across the stroke pathway. This paper discusses the contribution of team working in improving recovery at key points in the post-stroke pathway.

  20. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  1. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  2. What is an energy recovery linac, and why there might be one in your future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, Geoffrey [Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applying beam energy recovery allows a class of novel accelerators to be built with performance characteristics beyond that possible in ring accelerators or non-recirculated linear accelerators. Although the idea was published 50 years ago, and was explored and developed as a result of ''Star Wars'' strategic defense programs in the 1980s and 1990s, renewed interest in energy recovery linacs (ERLs) has flowered as a result of continuous development and improvement of superconducting beam acceleration systems. Many applications to electron accelerators where the very best beam quality is required at high average current have been and are being explored. Examples include advanced X-ray sources, electron sources for electron ion colliders, internal target experiments and applications, lithography, and other topics. Examples highlighting new performance possibilities and the present perception on the limits of ERLs are given.

  3. A New Method to Individualize Monitoring of Muscle Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Pitsch, Werner; Julian, Ross; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of muscle recovery is essential for the daily fine-tuning of training load in competitive sports, but individual differences may limit the diagnostic accuracy of group-based reference ranges. This article reports an attempt to develop individualized reference ranges using a Bayesian approach comparable to that developed for the Athlete Biological Passport. Urea and creatine kinase (CK) were selected as indicators of muscle recovery. For each parameter, prior distributions and repeated-measures SDs were characterized based on data of 883 squad athletes (1758 data points, 1-8 per athlete, years 2013-2015). Equations for the individualization procedure were adapted from previous material to allow for discrimination of 2 physiological states (recovered vs nonrecovered). Evaluation of classificatory performance was carried out using data from 5 consecutive weekly microcycles in 14 elite junior swimmers and triathletes. Blood samples were collected every Monday (recovered) and Friday according to the repetitive weekly training schedule over 5 wk. On the group level, changes in muscle recovery could be confirmed by significant differences in urea and CK and validated questionnaires. Group-based reference ranges were derived from that same data set to avoid overestimating the potential benefit of individualization. For CK, error rates were significantly lower with individualized classification (P vs group-based: test-pass error rate P = .008; test-fail error rate P < .001). For urea, numerical improvements in error rates failed to reach significance. Individualized reference ranges seem to be a promising tool to improve accuracy of monitoring muscle recovery. Investigating application to a larger panel of indicators is warranted.

  4. Nutritional Improvement Correlates with Recovery of Activities of Daily Living among Malnourished Elderly Stroke Patients in the Convalescent Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Emi; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko

    2016-05-01

    Whether nutritional improvement correlates with functional recovery in convalescent stroke patients is unclear. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between nutritional improvement and recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly stroke patients in the convalescent stage. This study used a cross-sectional study design. One hundred seventy-eight malnourished stroke patients aged 65 years and older from convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan between April 2012 and December 2014 were included in the analyses. The participants were classified into three groups according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) score at discharge (0 to 7 as no improvement, 8 to 11 as lesser improvement, and 12 to 14 as greater improvement). The primary outcome was functional independence measure (FIM) efficiency (FIM gain/length of hospital stay). The secondary outcomes were FIM gain and discharge outcome. One-way analysis of variance, χ(2) test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for univariate analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, length of hospital stay, FIM (motor and cognitive) on admission, and lower-order items of MNA-SF. Binomial logistic analysis for discharge outcome (home/others) was performed to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, and FIM. Study participants included 85 men and 93 women with a mean age of 77 years. Based on MNA-SF, 16 were classified as no improvement, 113 as lesser improvement, and 49 as greater improvement. The median FIM efficiency and length of hospital stay were 0.27 points/day and 151.5 days, respectively. The greater improvement group had significantly higher FIM efficiency than the other groups (Pnutritional improvement such as maintenance of body weight is associated with the efficient recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly convalescent stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  5. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  6. Report for the ASC CSSE L2 Milestone (4873) - Demonstration of Local Failure Local Recovery Resilient Programming Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Teranishi, Keita

    2014-06-01

    Recovery from process loss during the execution of a distributed memory parallel application is presently achieved by restarting the program, typically from a checkpoint file. Future computer system trends indicate that the size of data to checkpoint, the lack of improvement in parallel file system performance and the increase in process failure rates will lead to situations where checkpoint restart becomes infeasible. In this report we describe and prototype the use of a new application level resilient computing model that manages persistent storage of local state for each process such that, if a process fails, recovery can be performed locally without requiring access to a global checkpoint file. LFLR provides application developers with an ability to recover locally and continue application execution when a process is lost. This report discusses what features are required from the hardware, OS and runtime layers, and what approaches application developers might use in the design of future codes, including a demonstration of LFLR-enabled MiniFE code from the Matenvo mini-application suite.

  7. Aviation Crew Recovery Experiences on Outstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislason Sigurdur Hrafn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ACMI flight crews spend considerable time away from home on outstations. This study suggests that this long term stay carries its own considerations in regards to rest recovery with practical implications for Fatigue Risk Management as prescribed by ICAO. Four recovery experiences, Work Detachment, Control, Relaxation and Mastery, are identified and correlated with 28 crew behaviours on base. The results indicate improvement considerations for airline management organizing a long term contract with ACMI crews, in particular to increase schedule stability to improve the crew member’s sense of Control.

  8. Improvement of carbon usage for phosphorus recovery in EBPR-r and the shift in microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pan Yu; Cheng, Ka Yu; Krishna, K C Bal; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David C; Ginige, Maneesha P

    2018-07-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r) is a biofilm process that makes use of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to remove and recover phosphorus (P) from wastewater. The original process was inefficient, as indicated by the low P-release to carbon (C)-uptake (P rel /C upt ) molar ratio of the biofilm. This study successfully validated a strategy to improve the P rel /C upt ratio by at least 3-fold. With an unchanged supply of carbon in the recovery stream, an increase in the hydraulic loading in stages I, II and III (7.2, 14.4 and 21.6 L, respectively) resulted in a 43% increase in the P rel /C upt ratio (0.069, 0.076 and 0.103, respectively). The ratio further increased by 150% (from 0.103 to 0.255) when the duration of the P uptake period was increased from 4 h (stage III) to 10 h (stage IV). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that, correlated to the 3-fold increase in the P rel /C upt ratio, there was an increase in the abundance of PAOs ("Candidatus Accumulibacter" Clade IIA) and a decrease in the occurrence of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (family Sinobacteraceae). However, the four stage operation impaired denitrification, resulting in a 5-fold reduction in the N den /P upt ratio. The decline in denitrification was consistent with a decrease in the abundance of denitrifiers including denitrifying PAOs (family Comamonadaceae and "Candidatus Accumulibacter" Clade IA). Overall, a strategy to facilitate more efficient use of carbon was validated, enabling a 3-fold carbon saving for P recovery. The new process enabled up to 80% of the wastewater P to be captured in a P-enriched stream (>90 mg/L) with a single uptake/release cycle of recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  10. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brandon G; Kelly, Nathaniel W; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie L; Kelly, John F

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, InTheRooms.com (ITR) is a large, well-known recovery SNS that is available for free 24 hr/day via website and mobile smartphone applications. It offers recovery tools within a digital social milieu for over 430,000 registered users. To augment the knowledge base on recovery SNS platforms, we conducted an online survey of 123 ITR participants (M = 50.8 years old; 56.9% female; 93.5% White; M = 7.3 years of abstinence, range of 0-30 years; 65% cited alcohol as their primary substance). Respondents engaged with ITR, on average, for about 30 min/day several times each week. Daily meditation prompts and live online video meetings were the most commonly utilized resources. Participants generally endorsed ITR as a helpful platform, particularly with respect to increased abstinence/recovery motivation and self-efficacy. Compared to individuals abstinent for 1 or more years, those abstinent less than 1 year (including nonabstinent individuals) showed similar rates of engagement with ITR activities and similar levels of perceived benefit. Our findings suggest that longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the clinical utility of ITR and other recovery SNSs as SUD treatment adjuncts and/or recovery self-management tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  12. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  13. Integrating personal medicine into service delivery: empowering people in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L; Deegan, Patricia E; Hutchison, Shari L; Parrotta, Nancy; Schuster, James M

    2013-12-01

    Illness management and recovery strategies are considered evidence-based practices. The article describes how a web-based application, CommonGround, has been used to support implementation of such strategies in outpatient mental health services and assess its impact. The specific focus of this article is Personal Medicine, self-management strategies that are a salient component of the CommonGround intervention. With support from counties and a not-for-profit managed care organization, CommonGround has been introduced in 10 medication clinics, one Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) team, and one peer support center across Pennsylvania. Methods include analysis of data from the application's database and evaluation of health functioning, symptoms, and progress toward recovery. Health functioning improved over time and use of self-management strategies was associated with fewer concerns about medication side effects, fewer concerns about the impact of mental health medicine on physical health, more reports that mental health medicines were helping, and greater progress in individuals' recovery. Using Personal Medicine empowers individuals to work with their prescribers to find a "right balance" between what they do to be well and what they take to be well. This program helps individuals and their service team focus on individual strengths and resilient self-care strategies. More research is needed to assess factors that may predict changes in outcomes and how a web-based tool focused on self-management strategies may moderate those factors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. An improvement study on the closed chamber distillation system for recovery of renewable salts from salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Lee, T.K.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.; Lee, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an improvement study on the closed chamber distillation system for recovery of renewable salts from salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth compounds was performed to determine optimum operating conditions. It was very important to maintain the pressure in the distillation chamber below 10 Torr for a high efficiency (salt recovery >99 %) of the salt distillation. This required increasing the salt vaporization and condensation rates in the distillation system. It was confirmed that vaporization and condensation rates could be improved controlling the given temperature of top of the condensation chamber. In the distillation tests of the salt wastes containing rare earth compounds, the operation time at a given temperature was greatly reduced changing the given temperature of top of the condensation chamber from 780 to 700 deg C. (author)

  15. Reclaiming the best of the biopsychosocial model of mental health care and 'recovery' for older people through a 'person-centred' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Roderick; McDonald, Regina; Lie, David; McGowan, Helen

    2012-12-01

    The 'biopsychosocial', 'person-centred care' (PCC) and 'recovery' models of care can be seen as distinct and competing paradigms. This paper proposes an integration of these valuable perspectives and suggestions for effective implementation in health services for the elderly. An overview of PCC and recovery models, and their application for older people with mental health problems, is provided. Their overlap and contrast with the familiar 'biopsychosocial' model of mental health care is considered, together with obstacles to implementation. Utilisation of PCC and recovery concepts allow clinicians to avoid narrow application of the biopsychosocial approach and encourages clinicians to focus on the person's right to autonomy, their values and life goals. Service reform and development is required to embed these concepts into core clinical processes so as to improve outcomes and the quality of life for older people with mental health problems.

  16. The effects of multiple anaesthetic episodes on equine recovery quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J P; Simon, B T; Coleman, M; Martinez, E A; Lepiz, M A; Watts, A E

    2018-01-01

    Although rare, 70% of equine fatalities during recovery from general anaesthesia (GA) are due to catastrophic fractures from poor recovery quality. To determine the effect of repeated GA recovery on GA recovery quality. Experimental blinded trial. Eight adult horses underwent six GA events on sevoflurane for distal limb MRI examination over a 14-week period. Prior to GA recovery, xylazine was administered. Randomly ordered video-recorded GA recoveries were scored by three blinded board certified veterinary anaesthesiologists, unaware of patient identity or GA event number, for nine parameters using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) where 0 = worst and 100 = best. The number of attempts to stand, duration of lateral and sternal recumbency, total recovery duration and physiologic parameters during each GA event were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences. Agreement between observer VAS scores was determined via inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation. With GA recovery experience, VAS scores for balance and coordination, knuckling, and overall quality of recovery were improved and the duration of lateral recumbency was increased. There were no differences in total recovery duration, number of attempts to stand, physiologic parameters other than heart rate during GA, or VAS scores for activity in lateral recumbency, move to sternal, move to stand, or strength. Each GA event was relatively short and there was no surgical stimulation. The same results may not occur if there was surgical stimulation and pain during each GA event. Recovery from GA improves with multiple anaesthetic episodes in horses. Clinicians can advise clients that horses are likely to have better GA recovery on repeated GA recovery due to improved balance and coordination and reduced knuckling. Additionally, there is no change in anaesthetic morbidity with six repeated GA events over a 14-week period. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Liberal versus restrictive fluid administration to improve recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Klarskov, Birthe; Christensen, Dorte Stig

    2004-01-01

    ). All other aspects of perioperative management as well as preoperative fluid status were standardized. Primary outcome parameters were assessed repeatedly for the first 24 postoperative hours and included pulmonary function (spirometry), exercise capacity (submaximal treadmill test), cardiovascular...... hormonal responses, balance function, pain, nausea and vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay. RESULTS: Intraoperative administration of 40 mL/kg compared with 15 mL/kg LR led to significant improvements in postoperative pulmonary function and exercise capacity and a reduced stress response (aldosterone......, antidiuretic hormone, and angiotensin II). Nausea, general well-being, thirst, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, and balance function were also significantly improved, as well as significantly more patients fulfilled discharge criteria and were discharged on the day of surgery with the high-volume fluid...

  18. An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES Key Schedule Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsow, Alex

    A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from decayed memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% decay, well over twice the decay capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% decay. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images decayed up to 60%.

  19. pH Triggered Recovery and Reuse of Thiolated Poly(acrylic acid) Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles with Applications in Colloidal Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Siyam M; Fellows, Benjamin; Mispireta, Patrick; Mefford, O Thompson; Kitchens, Christopher L

    2017-08-08

    Thiolated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-SH) functionalized gold nanoparticles were explored as a colloidal catalyst with potential application as a recoverable catalyst where the PAA provides pH-responsive dispersibility and phase transfer capability between aqueous and organic media. This system demonstrates complete nanoparticle recovery and redispersion over multiple reaction cycles without changes in nanoparticle morphology or reduction in conversion. The catalytic activity (rate constant) was reduced in subsequent reactions when recovery by aggregation was employed, despite unobservable changes in morphology or dispersibility. When colloidal catalyst recovery employed a pH induced phase transfer between two immiscible solvents, the catalytic activity of the recovered nanoparticles was unchanged over four cycles, maintaining the original rate constant and 100% conversion. The ability to recover and reuse colloidal catalysts by aggregation/redispersion and phase transfer methods that occur at low and high pH, respectively, could be used for different gold nanoparticle catalyzed reactions that occur at different pH conditions.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  1. Growth, development, and fertilizer-15N recovery by the coffee plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos; Dourado-Neto, Durval; Favarin, Jose Laercio; Trivelim, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Costa, Flavio Murilo Pereira da

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between growth and fertilizer nitrogen recovery by perennial crops such as coffee is poorly understood and improved understanding of such relations is important for the establishment of rational crop management practices. In order to characterize the growth of a typical coffee crop in Brazil and quantify the recovery of 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate, and improve information for fertilizer management practices this study presents results for two consecutive cropping years, fertilized with 280 and 350 kg ha -1 of N, respectively, applied in four splittings, using five replicates. Shoot dry matter accumulation was evaluated every 60 days, separating plants into branches, leaves and fruits. Labeled sub-plots were used to evaluate N-total and 15 N abundance by mass spectrometry. During the first year the aerial part reached a recovery of 71% of the fertilizer N applied up to February, but this value was reduced to 34% at harvest and 19% at the beginning of the next flowering period due to leaf fall and fruit export. For the second year the aerial part absorbed 36% of the fertilizer N up to March, 47% up to harvest and 19% up to the beginning of the next flowering period. The splitting into four applications of the used fertilizer rates was adequate for the requirements of the crop at these growth stages of the coffee crop. (author)

  2. Thermal recovery gaining importance, says expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-12-21

    In a forecast presented to the Calgary section CIM- AIME at a recent monthly technical meeting, J.V. Howard, Core Labs. Inc., predicted that within the next 2 to 5 yr, California oil production will come from thermal recovery schemes to the extent of 200,000 bpd. One American major oil company is planning a fire flood in a heavy oil reservoir at 12,000 ft depth, where primary recovery is estimated as only 3% of original oil in place. It is estimated that the minimum oil saturation feasible for thermal recovery is 950 bbl per acre-ft. The larger number of variables that will determine the success or failure of thermal recovery makes it essential to have thorough and complete studies of all the thermal processes before one is selected for a given set of reservoir and economic conditions. The number of thermal recovery projects will increase rapidly and the success of any project will depend upon the proper application of experience and technology in thermal recovery.

  3. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  4. Multimedia Exercise Training Program Improves Distance Walked, Heart Rate Recovery, and Self-efficacy in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Wei; Ou, Shu-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chang, Yue-Cune; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Patient education has been shown to be more effective when delivered using multimedia than written materials. However, the effects of using multimedia to assist patients in cardiac rehabilitation have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an inpatient multimedia exercise training program on distance walked in the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), heart rate recovery, and walking self-efficacy of patients who had undergone heart surgery. For this longitudinal quasi-experimental study, 60 consecutive patients were assigned to an experimental (n = 20; inpatient multimedia exercise training program) or control (n = 40; routine care) group. Data were collected at 3 times (before surgery, 1 to 2 days before hospital discharge, and 1 month after hospital discharge) and analyzed with the generalized estimating equation approach. Most subjects were men (66.7%), had a mean age of 61.32 ± 13.4 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 56.96% ± 13.28%, and underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n = 34, 56.7%). Subjects receiving the exercise training program showed significantly greater improvement than those in the control group in the 6MWT walking distance (P self-efficacy (P = .002) at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the intervention effects on 6MWT distance (P self-efficacy (P exercise training program safely improved distance walked in the 6MWT, heart rate recovery, and self-efficacy at hospital discharge in patients after heart surgery and maintained their improvement in 6MWT and self-efficacy 1 month later.

  5. Application impact analysis: a risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Beth; Khan, Dawn Christine

    2014-01-01

    There are many possible disruptions that can occur in business. Overlooking or under planning for Business Continuity requires time, understanding and careful planning. Business Continuity Management is far more than producing a document and declaring business continuity success. What is the recipe for businesses to achieve continuity management success? Application Impact Analysis is a method for understanding the unique Business Attributes. This AIA Cycle involves a risk based approach to understanding the business priority and considering business aspects such as Financial, Operational, Service Structure, Contractual Legal, and Brand. The output of this analysis provides a construct for viewing data, evaluating impact, and delivering results, for an approved valuation of Recovery Time Objectives (RTO).

  6. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  7. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  9. Continuous renal replacement therapy improves renal recovery from acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Michael J; Ivancinova, Xenia; Gibney, R T Noel

    2005-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in up to 10% of critically ill patients, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The optimal mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains controversial. This retrospective study compared continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for RRT in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, and renal recovery. We reviewed the records of all patients undergoing RRT for the treatment of ARF over a 12-month period. Patients were compared according to mode of RRT, demographics, physiologic characteristics, and outcomes of ICU and hospital mortality and renal recovery using the Chi square, Student's t test, and multiple logistic regression as appropriate. 116 patients with renal insufficiency underwent RRT during the study period. Of these, 93 had ARF. The severity of illness of CRRT patients was similar to that of IHD patients using APACHE II (25.1 vs 23.5, P = 0.37), but they required significantly more intensive nursing (therapeutic intervention scale 47.8 vs 37.6, P = 0.0001). Mortality was associated with lower pH at presentation (P = 0.003) and increasing age (P = 0.03). Renal recovery was significantly more frequent among patients initially treated with CRRT (21/24 vs 5/14, P = 0.0003). Further investigation to define optimal timing, dose, and duration of RRT may be beneficial. Although further study is needed, this study suggests that renal recovery may be better after CRRT than IHD for ARF. Mortality was not affected significantly by RRT mode.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation for motor recovery of upper limb function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Rothhardt, Sandra; Verheyden, Geert; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Changes in neural processing after stroke have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Transcranial direct current stimulation has the potential to alter cortico-spinal excitability and thereby might be beneficial in stroke recovery. We review the pertinent literature prior to 30/09/2013 on transcranial direct current stimulation in promoting motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke. We found overall 23 trials (they included 523 participants). All stimulation protocols pride on interhemispheric imbalance model. In a comparative approach, methodology and effectiveness of (a) facilitation of the affected hemisphere, (b) inhibition of the unaffected hemisphere and (c) combined application of transcranial direct current stimulation over the affected and unaffected hemispheres to treat impaired hand function after stroke are presented. Transcranial direct current stimulation is associated with improvement of the affected upper limb after stroke, but current evidence does not support its routine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical Technical Evidence Review for Elective Total Joint Replacement Conducted for the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletz, Anaar E.; Singer, Emily S.; Faltermeier, Claire; Hu, Q. Lina; Ko, Clifford Y.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Kates, Stephen L.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    Background: Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery—a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients. This review synthesizes evidence that can be used to develop a protocol for elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Study Design: This review focuses on potential components of the protocol relevant to surgeons; anesthesia components are reported separately. Components were identified through review of existing pathways and from consultation with technical experts. For each, a structured review of MEDLINE identified systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies that reported on these components in patients undergoing elective TKA/THA. This primary evidence review was combined with existing clinical guidelines in a narrative format. Results: Sixteen components were reviewed. Of the 10 preoperative components, most were focused on risk factor assessment including anemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, nutrition, immune-modulating therapy, and opiates. Preoperative education, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, and bathing/Staphylococcus aureus decolonization were also included. The routine use of drains was the only intraoperative component evaluated. The 5 postoperative components included early mobilization, continuous passive motion, extended duration VTE prophylaxis, early oral alimentation, and discharge planning. Conclusion: This review synthesizes the evidence supporting potential surgical components of an ERP for elective TKA/THA. The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving

  12. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  13. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs.Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring techniques and decision support tools are now available to individualize perioperative fluid management, a key component of ERPs. Objective nociceptive assessment may help to rationalize the use of pain medications, including opioids. Wearable sensors designed to monitor cardio-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Changing practice to support self-management and recovery in mental illness: application of an implementation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melanie; Jones, Phil; Heartfield, Marie; Allstrom, Mary; Hancock, Janette; Lawn, Sharon; Battersby, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Health services introducing practice changes need effective implementation methods. Within the setting of a community mental health service offering recovery-oriented psychosocial support for people with mental illness, we aimed to: (i) identify a well-founded implementation model; and (ii) assess its practical usefulness in introducing a new programme for recovery-oriented self-management support. We reviewed the literature to identify implementation models applicable to community mental health organisations, and that also had corresponding measurement tools. We used one of these models to inform organisational change strategies. The literature review showed few models with corresponding tools. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and the related Organisational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool were used. The PARIHS proposes prerequisites for health service change and the ORCA measures the extent to which these prerequisites are present. Application of the ORCA at two time points during implementation of the new programme showed strategy-related gains for some prerequisites but not for others, reflecting observed implementation progress. Additional strategies to address target prerequisites could be drawn from the PARIHS model. The PARIHS model and ORCA tool have potential in designing and monitoring practice change strategies in community mental health organisations. Further practical use and testing of implementation models appears justified in overcoming barriers to change.

  15. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  16. Accurate Region-of-Interest Recovery Improves the Measurement of the Cell Migration Rate in the In Vitro Wound Healing Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Cesar; Cardona, Andrés; Galeano, July; Cortés-Mancera, Fabián; Sandoz, Patrick; Zarzycki, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The wound healing assay is widely used for the quantitative analysis of highly regulated cellular events. In this essay, a wound is voluntarily produced on a confluent cell monolayer, and then the rate of wound reduction (WR) is characterized by processing images of the same regions of interest (ROIs) recorded at different time intervals. In this method, sharp-image ROI recovery is indispensable to compensate for displacements of the cell cultures due either to the exploration of multiple sites of the same culture or to transfers from the microscope stage to a cell incubator. ROI recovery is usually done manually and, despite a low-magnification microscope objective is generally used (10x), repositioning imperfections constitute a major source of errors detrimental to the WR measurement accuracy. We address this ROI recovery issue by using pseudoperiodic patterns fixed onto the cell culture dishes, allowing the easy localization of ROIs and the accurate quantification of positioning errors. The method is applied to a tumor-derived cell line, and the WR rates are measured by means of two different image processing software. Sharp ROI recovery based on the proposed method is found to improve significantly the accuracy of the WR measurement and the positioning under the microscope.

  17. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  18. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  19. Thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery and climate control in automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranville, Clay W. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices have received renewed attention in the past decade for use in light-duty automotive applications. Governmental organizations and private corporations world-wide are sponsoring research at both the basic materials level, as well as for applied research and technology demonstrations. This funding has led to measurable improvement in TE device cost and efficiency, as well as spurring the emergence and growth of a vertically-integrated TE industry. The two broad categories of applications that have been considered for thermoelectrics are power generation through waste-heat recovery and cabin climate control through the use of TE heat pumps. Neither of these uses of TE devices has ever been commercialized in large-scale vehicle applications, in large part due to the challenges of low device efficiency and high costs. While it is still not clear that TEs will emerge as a winner in the marketplace in the near-term, there are several new developments which provide justification for this renewed interest. Among these reasons are increasing electrification of the vehicle fleet, demands from governments and consumers for improvement in fuel economy and reduction in tailpipe CO{sub 2} emissions, and a greater emphasis on occupant comfort. With governments and industry around the world placing substantial financial bets on the promise of this technology to help address national and global concerns for reducing CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbon consumption, it makes sense for the automotive industry to leverage this investment and to re-evaluate TE-based technology for use in vehicles. In this paper, we will present an overview of Ford Motor Company's current and upcoming research efforts into TE technology. This effort is focused on the use of TE waste heat recovery systems in a vehicle exhaust; and the use of TE HVAC systems in hybrid vehicles. We will discuss the role of the automotive OEM in establishing guidelines and targets for cost, power density

  20. Improvement of semi-quantitative small-animal PET data with recovery coefficients: a phantom and rat study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aide, Nicolas; Louis, Marie-Hélène; Dutoit, Soizic; Labiche, Alexandre; Lemoisson, Edwige; Briand, Mélanie; Nataf, Valérie; Poulain, Laurent; Gauduchon, Pascal; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Montravers, Françoise

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of semi-quantitative small-animal PET data, uncorrected for attenuation, and then of the same semi-quantitative data corrected by means of recovery coefficients (RCs) based on phantom studies. A phantom containing six fillable spheres (diameter range: 4.4-14 mm) was filled with an 18F-FDG solution (spheres/background activity=10.1, 5.1 and 2.5). RCs, defined as measured activity/expected activity, were calculated. Nude rats harbouring tumours (n=50) were imaged after injection of 18F-FDG and sacrificed. The standardized uptake value (SUV) in tumours was determined with small-animal PET and compared to ex-vivo counting (ex-vivo SUV). Small-animal PET SUVs were corrected with RCs based on the greatest tumour diameter. Tumour proliferation was assessed with cyclin A immunostaining and correlated to the SUV. RCs ranged from 0.33 for the smallest sphere to 0.72 for the largest. A sigmoidal correlation was found between RCs and sphere diameters (r(2)=0.99). Small-animal PET SUVs were well correlated with ex-vivo SUVs (y=0.48x-0.2; r(2)=0.71) and the use of RCs based on the greatest tumour diameter significantly improved regression (y=0.84x-0.81; r(2)=0.77), except for tumours with important necrosis. Similar results were obtained without sacrificing animals, by using PET images to estimate tumour dimensions. RC-based corrections improved correlation between small-animal PET SUVs and tumour proliferation (uncorrected data: Rho=0.79; corrected data: Rho=0.83). Recovery correction significantly improves both accuracy of small-animal PET semi-quantitative data in rat studies and their correlation with tumour proliferation, except for largely necrotic tumours.

  1. Heart rate recovery improves after weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative Nerve Blocks Fail to Improve Quality of Recovery after Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T; Lewis, Kevin C; Kendall, Mark C; Vieira, Brittany L; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Nader, Anthony; Kim, John Y S; Alghoul, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    The authors' study represents the first level I evidence to assess whether intraoperative nerve blocks improve the quality of recovery from immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients undergoing immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction were randomized to either (1) intraoperative intercostal and pectoral nerve blocks with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg of dexamethasone or (2) sham nerve blocks with normal saline. The 40-item Quality of Recovery score, pain score, and opioid use in the postoperative period were compared statistically between groups. Power analysis ensured 80 percent power to detect a 10-point (clinically significant) difference in the 40-item Quality of Recovery score. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Age, body mass index, laterality, mastectomy type, and lymph node dissection were similar between groups. There were no statistical differences in quality of recovery, pain burden as measured by visual analogue scale, opioid consumption, antiemetic use, or length of hospital stay between groups at 24 hours after surgery. Mean global 40-item Quality of Recovery scores were 169 (range, 155 to 182) for the treatment arm and 165 (range, 143 to 179) for the placebo arm (p = 0.36), indicating a high quality of recovery in both groups. Although intraoperative nerve blocks can be a safe adjunct to a comprehensive postsurgical recovery regimen, the authors' results indicate no effect on overall quality of recovery from tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. Therapeutic, I.

  3. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  4. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and

  5. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... multi-disciplinary teams were recorded daily in 15-minute units provided to patients and family members, separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor and Cognitive FIM measured on admission, discharge, and every 2 weeks in between, analyzed with Individual Growth Curve methodology. RESULTS: Inpatient...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  6. Fast Failure Recovery for Main-Memory DBMSs on Multicores

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yingjun; Guo, Wentian; Chan, Chee-Yong; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Main-memory database management systems (DBMS) can achieve excellent performance when processing massive volume of on-line transactions on modern multi-core machines. But existing durability schemes, namely, tuple-level and transaction-level logging-and-recovery mechanisms, either degrade the performance of transaction processing or slow down the process of failure recovery. In this paper, we show that, by exploiting application semantics, it is possible to achieve speedy failure recovery wit...

  7. Recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2018-01-01

    We reported on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory, which was demonstrated on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 55-year-old male patient suffered head trauma resulting from falling from approximately 2 m while working at a construction site. The patient showed mild memory impairment (especially short-term memory impairment) at 3 months after onset: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 95 (37%ile), short-term memory: 75 (5%ile), verbal memory: 80 (9%ile) and visual memory: 112 (79%ile)). By contrast, at 2 years after onset, his mild memory impairment had improved to a normal state: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 104 (61%ile), short-term memory: 95 (37%ile), verbal memory: 101 (53%ile) and visual memory: 106 (66%ile)). On 3-month DTT, discontinuation of the right anterior cingulum was observed over the genu of the corpus callosum, while on 2-year DTT, the discontinued right anterior cingulum was elongated to the right basal forebrain. In conclusion, recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory was demonstrated in a patient with mild TBI.

  8. Transplantation of N-Acetyl Aspartyl-Glutamate Synthetase-Activated Neural Stem Cells after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Significantly Improves Neurological Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neural stem cells (NSCs hold considerable potential as a therapeutic tool for repair of the damaged nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether transplanted N-acetyl aspartyl-glutamate synthetase (NAAGS-activated NSCs (NAAGS/NSCs further improve neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals received TBI and stereotactic injection of NSCs, NAAGS/NSCs or phosphate buffered saline without cells (control into the injured cortex. NAAGS protein expression was detected through western blot analysis. Dialysate NAAG levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassay. Cell apoptosis was detected via TUNEL staining. The expression levels of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Groups with transplanted NSCs and NAAGS/NSCs displayed significant recovery of the motor behavior, compared to the control group. At 14 and 21 days post-transplantation, the motor behavior in NAAGS/NSC group was significantly improved than that in NSC group (pConclusion: Our results collectively demonstrate that NAAGS/NSCs provide a more powerful autoplastic therapy for the injured nervous system.

  9. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir

  10. Use of polymers in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav, J.F.

    Water-soluble polymers are used extensively in various stages of gas and oil production operations, typical examples being enhanced oil recovery, water production control, and well drilling. A variety of polymetric materials, both naturally occurring and synthetic ones, are currently used; guar and cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, polysaccharides, polyacrylamides and others. In this work, only the application of polymeric materials to enhanced recovery processes is discussed.

  11. Phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the integration of treatment systems for black and grey water was investigated to improve resource recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Special focus was set on phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from vacuum collected black water. Currently, the soil

  12. The role of complaint management in the service recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall-Lyon, D; Powers, T L

    2001-05-01

    Patient satisfaction and retention can be influenced by the development of an effective service recovery program that can identify complaints and remedy failure points in the service system. Patient complaints provide organizations with an opportunity to resolve unsatisfactory situations and to track complaint data for quality improvement purposes. Service recovery is an important and effective customer retention tool. One way an organization can ensure repeat business is by developing a strong customer service program that includes service recovery as an essential component. The concept of service recovery involves the service provider taking responsive action to "recover" lost or dissatisfied customers and convert them into satisfied customers. Service recovery has proven to be cost-effective in other service industries. The complaint management process involves six steps that organizations can use to influence effective service recovery: (1) encourage complaints as a quality improvement tool; (2) establish a team of representatives to handle complaints; (3) resolve customer problems quickly and effectively; (4) develop a complaint database; (5) commit to identifying failure points in the service system; and (6) track trends and use information to improve service processes. Customer retention is enhanced when an organization can reclaim disgruntled patients through the development of effective service recovery programs. Health care organizations can become more customer oriented by taking advantage of the information provided by patient complaints, increasing patient satisfaction and retention in the process.

  13. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery: Application in an offshore platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at finding the optimal design of MW-size organic Rankine cycles by employing the multi-objective optimization with the genetic algorithm as the optimizer. We consider three objective functions: thermal efficiency, total volume of the system and net present value. The optimization...... for acetone. Other promising working fluids are cyclohexane, hexane and isohexane. The present methodology can be utilized in waste heat recovery applications where a compromise between performance, compactness and economic revenue is required. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. A Novel Low-Overhead Recovery Approach for Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed the complex problem of recovery for concurrent failures in distributed computing environment. We have proposed a new approach in which we have effectively dealt with both orphan and lost messages. The proposed checkpointing and recovery approaches enable each process to restart from its recent checkpoint and hence guarantee the least amount of recomputation after recovery. It also means that a process needs to save only its recent local checkpoint. In this regard, we have introduced two new ideas. First, the proposed value of the common checkpointing interval is such that it enables an initiator process to log the minimum number of messages sent by each application process. Second, the determination of the lost messages is always done a priori by an initiator process; besides it is done while the normal distributed application is running. This is quite meaningful because it does not delay the recovery approach in any way.

  16. Effect of layer number on recovery rate of WS{sub 2} nanosheets for ammonia detection at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ziyu [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zeng, Dawen, E-mail: dwzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Jia; Wu, Congyi; Wen, Yanwei; Shan, Bin; Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Reasons for room-temperature difficult recovery of WS{sub 2} sensors for NH{sub 3} detection. • The excellent recovery within 271.9 s was observed for single-layer WS{sub 2} sensor. • The recovery time of WS{sub 2} sensor has a anti-linear relation with number of layer. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}), as a representative layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), is expected as a promising candidate for high-performance NH{sub 3} sensor at room temperature. Unfortunately, the common WS{sub 2} based NH{sub 3} sensors are difficult to recovery at room temperature, which severely limits its application. Hence, how to improve recovery has become an urgent problem to be solved. Herein, we prepare five types of WS{sub 2} nanosheets with different layer numbers from bulk to monolayer, and find that the recovery time of NH{sub 3} gas sensor is rapidly linear shorten as the number of layers decreasing. Through the first-principles calculation of the interaction between NH{sub 3} and WS{sub 2} substance, the different binding energy between ammonia and the surface (−0.179 eV) and interlayer (−0.356 eV) of layered WS{sub 2}, as well as the different electron transfer way, should be responsible for the difficult recovery rate of various WS{sub 2} samples. Therefore, reducing the number of layer of WS{sub 2} is a promising approach to speed up recovery. Based on this conclusion, we successfully prepare a fast recoverable ammonia gas sensor based on single layer WS{sub 2}, which exhibits exciting fast recovery within 271.9 s at room temperature without any condition. Moreover, our work also can act as a reference for other gas detection of TMDs based gas sensor to improve the gas performance at room-temperature.

  17. Optimization of rhamnolipid production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS towards application for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Singh, Jagdish; Verma, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    The present work reveals the potential of biosurfactant producing P. aeruginosa PBS for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The biosurfactant production medium and culture conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimization of media components and process parameters was consecutively executed in two sets of experimental runs designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum biosurfactant yield was attained with 2% fresh inoculum of P. aeruginosa PBS in minimal salt medium (pH 7), possessing 2.17% sodium citrate as C-source and 0.5% yeast extract as N-source, after 48 h upon incubation at 30 °C/150 rpm. Under optimum conditions, biosurfactant yield was increased more than threefold and turned out to be 2.65 g/L as compared to 0.82 g/L under previous conditions. The biosurfactant was characterized as a glycolipid comprising of four rhamnolipid homologs (RhaRhaC 10 C 10 , RhaRhaC 8 C 10 , RhaRhaC 12 C 10 /RhaRhaC 10 C 12 , RhaC 10 C 10 ) by thin layer chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The produced biosurfactant was highly efficient for oil recovery application showing extreme reduction in surface tension of medium (71.80 to 23.76 mN/m), immense hydrocarbons emulsification capacity (50-60%) and greater stability at wide range of temperature (4-100 °C) and pH (4-10) along with an excellent (56.18 ± 1.59%) additional oil recovery in sand-pack column lab test.

  18. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  19. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m -1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m -1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (S or ). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  20. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  1. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  3. Christian Spirituality in Eating Disorder Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Grant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.

  4. Improved recovery of post-thaw motility and vitality of human spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence of dithiothreitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B; David, G

    1984-10-01

    Semen was collected in the laboratory from nine healthy donors. The concentrations and the percentages of live and motile spermatozoa in all semen samples were within the normal range. Each sample was diluted with citrate-egg yolk-glycerol medium with and without 5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor (-70 degrees C) for 7 min and subsequently stored in liquid nitrogen. The effect of DTT in cryopreservation of sperm was determined by comparing percentage of motile and live spermatozoa between controls and DTT-treated post-thaw samples. Percentage of motile spermatozoa was determined by two techniques, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and light microscopy. The percentage of live spermatozoa was measured by microscopic evaluation after staining with eosin-nigrosin. It was shown that the addition of DTT to the freezing medium significantly improved the recovery of motile and live spermatozoa in the post-thaw samples. The mean motility recovery, as measured by LDV, was 44.9% in the controls as compared to 73.9% in the DTT-treated samples. Similarly the mean recovery of live spermatozoa in the controls and DTT-treated samples was 66.5 and 86.6%, respectively. Based on these results, a new hypothesis implicating lipid peroxidation in cryoinjury is proposed. It is also suggested that the use of DTT in the freezing medium may offer an advantage over the commonly used techniques of human sperm cryopreservation.

  5. Principles of proportional recovery after stroke generalize to neglect and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, N A; Ptak, R; Di Pietro, M; Schnider, A; Guggisberg, A G

    2017-08-01

    Motor recovery after stroke can be characterized into two different patterns. A majority of patients recover about 70% of initial impairment, whereas some patients with severe initial deficits show little or no improvement. Here, we investigated whether recovery from visuospatial neglect and aphasia is also separated into two different groups and whether similar proportions of recovery can be expected for the two cognitive functions. We assessed 35 patients with neglect and 14 patients with aphasia at 3 weeks and 3 months after stroke using standardized tests. Recovery patterns were classified with hierarchical clustering and the proportion of recovery was estimated from initial impairment using a linear regression analysis. Patients were reliably clustered into two different groups. For patients in the first cluster (n = 40), recovery followed a linear model where improvement was proportional to initial impairment and achieved 71% of maximal possible recovery for both cognitive deficits. Patients in the second cluster (n = 9) exhibited poor recovery (aphasia after stroke shows the same dichotomy and proportionality as observed in motor recovery. This is suggestive of common underlying principles of plasticity, which apply to motor and cognitive functions. © 2017 EAN.

  6. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Michael E; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-02-01

    A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO2-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO2-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO2-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO2-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO2-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates that MSWI plants can be an important element of industrial ecology as they provide waste disposal services and can help to close material and energetic cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. California Drought Recovery Assessment Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Aghakouchak, A.; Madadgar, S.; Tourian, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    California has been experiencing its most extreme drought in recent history due to a combination of record high temperatures and exceptionally low precipitation. An estimate for when the drought can be expected to end is needed for risk mitigation and water management. A crucial component of drought recovery assessments is the estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) deficit. Previous studies on drought recovery have been limited to surface water hydrology (precipitation and/or runoff) for estimating changes in TWS, neglecting the contribution of groundwater deficits to the recovery time of the system. Groundwater requires more time to recover than surface water storage; therefore, the inclusion of groundwater storage in drought recovery assessments is essential for understanding the long-term vulnerability of a region. Here we assess the probability, for varying timescales, of California's current TWS deficit returning to its long-term historical mean. Our method consists of deriving the region's fluctuations in TWS from changes in the gravity field observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. We estimate the probability that meteorological inputs, precipitation minus evaporation and runoff, over different timespans will balance the current GRACE-derived TWS deficit (e.g. in 3, 6, 12 months). This method improves upon previous techniques as the GRACE-derived water deficit comprises all hydrologic sources, including surface water, groundwater, and snow cover. With this empirical probability assessment we expect to improve current estimates of California's drought recovery time, thereby improving risk mitigation.

  8. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  9. Improve the functional status of students using the proposed method recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtukh M.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to improve the organizational and methodological foundations of physical education for the improvement of high school students in training. The study involved 152 students of the second year of the International Economics and Humanities University named after Stepan Demyanchuk. Students were divided into control (n = 76 and primary (n = 76 groups, which were similar in age and physical development. At the end of the study, through the application of the proposed technique improvement in students the core group, was able to restore the function of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to the possibilities of healthy untrained people. A similar increase in the functionality of the core group of students registered with the definition of the index Skibinski - held a combined evaluation of functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of students and determine its growth with satisfactory to good level.

  10. Performance analysis of a microcontroller based slip power recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip power recovery wound rotor induction motor drives are used in high power, limited speed range applications where control of slip power provides the variable speed drive system. In this paper, the steady state performance analysis of conventional slip power recovery scheme using static line commutated inverter in the ...

  11. The application and improvement of Fourier transform spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-min; Gao, En-duo; Zhou, Feng-qi; Wang, Lan-lan; Feng, Xiao-hua; Qi, Jin-quan; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Luning

    2017-08-01

    According to teaching and experimental requirements of Optoelectronic information science and Engineering, in order to consolidate theoretical knowledge and improve the students practical ability, the Fourier transform spectrometer ( FTS) experiment, its design, application and improvement are discussed in this paper. The measurement principle and instrument structure of Fourier transform spectrometer are introduced, and the spectrums of several common Laser devices are measured. Based on the analysis of spectrum and test, several possible improvement methods are proposed. It also helps students to understand the application of Fourier transform in physics.

  12. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  13. Selection of appropriate working fluids for Rankine cycles used for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of ICE in heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Daebong; Park, Sungjin; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the waste heat recovery system is studied for application in vehicles to improve fuel economy. Especially, Rankine cycle is representative and attractive technology as waste heat recovery system. In order to maximize efficiency of Rankine cycle in the vehicle application, selection of optimal working fluid is important. Thus, in this study, thermodynamic analysis with consideration of practical operating condition was conducted to find out optimal working fluids. Thermodynamic efficiency, recovery efficiency, and overall cycle efficiency were adopted to estimate Rankine cycle performance. In order to reflect practical operating condition on the analysis, limitations due to working fluid physical properties and components specifications are taken into account. 5 working fluids including dry and wet fluid were used to estimate efficiency. Consequently, R245fa which shows high efficiency and environment-friendly is suggested as optimal working fluid in vehicle application. - Highlights: • 5 different working fluids were analyzed in respect of hybrid electric vehicle waste heat recovery system. • Real world operational conditions and limits are applied. • Optimal heating temperature of each working fluid show different trend. • R245fa is preferable among other fluids due to its high efficiency and impact on environment

  14. Program improvement and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hink, M.; Imke, U.; Pfrang, W.; Porscha, B.; Struwe, D.; Zimmerer, W.; Allan, P.

    1995-01-01

    An account is given about further improvements of the SAS4A-Ref. 94.R0 version of the HCDA code. They concern in particular the DEFORM fuel rod deformation module. For a validation of the new code version, various CABRI experiments have been calculated, especially tests with high burnup fuel rods. Progress was shown to be achieved, but the precise timing and location of the observed fuel failures is still hard to calculate. The work was performed in close cooperation with partners in France, Britain, and Japan. An important application concerns the CAPRA project of a reactor for actinide burning. Its behavior under ULOF conditions was analyzed using the improved SAS4A Ref. 94 R0 code. The core design turned out to tend toward a long-term coolable configuration even more so than the EFR core design would do in an ULOF. (orig.)

  15. Application of Six Sigma towards improving surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P J; Barreto, S G; Nadkarni, M S

    2008-01-01

    Six Sigma is a 'process excellence' tool targeting continuous improvement achieved by providing a methodology for improving key steps of a process. It is ripe for application into health care since almost all health care processes require a near-zero tolerance for mistakes. The aim of this study is to apply the Six Sigma methodology into a clinical surgical process and to assess the improvement (if any) in the outcomes and patient care. The guiding principles of Six Sigma, namely DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), were used to analyze the impact of double stapling technique (DST) towards improving sphincter preservation rates for rectal cancer. The analysis using the Six Sigma methodology revealed a Sigma score of 2.10 in relation to successful sphincter preservation. This score demonstrates an improvement over the previous technique (73% over previous 54%). This study represents one of the first clinical applications of Six Sigma in the surgical field. By understanding, accepting, and applying the principles of Six Sigma, we have an opportunity to transfer a very successful management philosophy to facilitate the identification of key steps that can improve outcomes and ultimately patient safety and the quality of surgical care provided.

  16. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Applicability of Zeolite Based Systems for Ammonia Removal and Recovery From Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pallabi; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna Kant Kumar

    2017-09-01

      Ammonia discharged in industrial effluents bears deleterious effects and necessitates remediation. Integrated systems devoted to recovery of ammonia in a useful form and remediation of the same addresses the challenges of waste management and its utilization. A comparative performance evaluation study was undertaken to access the suitability of different zeolite based systems (commercial zeolites and zeolites synthesized from fly ash) for removal of ammonia followed by its subsequent release. Four main parameters which were studied to evaluate the applicability of such systems for large scale usage are cost-effectiveness, ammonia removal efficiency, performance on regeneration, and ammonia release percentage. The results indicated that synthetic zeolites outperformed zeolites synthesized from fly ash, although the later proved to be more efficient in terms of total cost incurred. Process technology development in this direction will be a trade-of between cost and ammonia removal and release efficiencies.

  18. Heat recovery investigation from dryer–thermal oxidizer system in corn-ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, annual corn ethanol production in the U.S. has exceeded 13,298,000,000 gallons. However, net energy balance for this sector became a subject of controversy in many discussions. The aim of the presented research is an investigation of thermal improvement opportunities in a corn ethanol plant. For this purpose, a complex mathematical model was developed for a dryer–thermal oxidizer system. Three variants were subjected thermodynamic analyses: one state of the art system and two proposed system modifications. The properties of humid gas, a mixture of combustion products and moisture evaporated from distiller's grain, were updated based on the steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. All calculations were performed by uniquely-developed C++ code. The results indicate major potential for improvement in the following areas: (i) water recovery from humid gas; (ii) heat recovery from moisture condensation – max. 44% of total primary energy usage (TPEU); and (iii) fuel savings by reduction of humid gas flow through a thermal oxidizer – max. 1.4% of TPEU. Also the presented analysis can be a starting point for further modifications in real corn ethanol manufacturing applications, leading towards pilot system implementation. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for dryer–oxidizer system in a corn ethanol plant was proposed. • Three configurations were discussed: with intercooler, regenerator, and recuperator. • Recovery rate of water condensed at various conditions and locations was quantified. • Heat recovery possibilities at various temperatures and locations have been assessed. • Energy savings in thermal oxidizer due to preliminary condensation were calculated

  19. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-09-01

    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  20. The influence of diffusion and dispersion on heavy oil recovery by VAPEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkindi, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Muggeridge, A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Al-Wahaibi, Y. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)]|[Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil recovery using vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a promising improved oil recovery technique. However, field application of this process has been limited due to concerns that favourable laboratory recoveries may not scale up to the field level. Previous laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media have obtained much higher production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulation. The difference between experimental and simulation models has been explained by assuming greater mixing between vapour and oil than would be expected from molecular diffusion. Convective dispersion is a plausible justification for this increase. This paper investigated the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using a combination of well characterized laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. So that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated, a first contact miscible fluid system was used. Longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients were experimentally measured as a function of flow-rate and viscosity ratio. VAPEX drainage experiments were then conducted over a range of injection rates. The paper also discussed the comparison of laboratory measurements of oil drainage rates with those predicted by the Butler-Mokrys analytical model and numerical simulation using either molecular diffusion or convective dispersion. Last, the paper discussed the use of the numerical model in investigating the impact of rate, well separation, and reservoir geometry on recovery. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. QOS-aware error recovery in wireless body sensor networks using adaptive network coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2014-12-29

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  2. Improved AODV route recovery in mobile ad-hoc networks using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maleki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocols is route failure caused by node mobility in the MANETs. The AODV requires a new route discovery procedure whenever a route breaks and these frequent route discoveries increase transmission delays and routing overhead. The present study proposes a new method for AODVs using a genetic algorithm to improve the route recovery mechanism. When failure occurs in a route, the proposed method (GAAODV makes decisions regarding the QOS parameter to select source or local repair. The task of the genetic algorithm is to find an appropriate combination of weights to optimize end-to-end delay. This paper evaluates the metrics of routing overhead, average end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. Comparison of the new algorithm and AODV (RFC 3561 using a NS-2 simulator shows that GAAODV obtains better results for the QOS parameters.

  3. Improved Durand-equation for multiple application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of Durand's equation could be improved for general use by applying suitable parameters representing the grain-size distribution. Thus, the Durand equation cannot only describe polydisperse (pseudo)-homogeneous or heterogeneous transportation, but also solid-fluid mixtures containing a certain amount of fine particles. Even non-Newtonian influences can be taken into account. The applicability of the extended Durand equation for polydisperse mixtures will be demonstrated by measurement data. With respect to this, the transition between pseudohomogeneous and heterogeneous transport has been considered on the basis of measured concentration profiles

  4. Sensory stimulation programme to improve recovery in comatose patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsoo; Seo, Whasook

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive changes in consciousness level after applying a sensory stimulation programme exceed natural recovery. A single experimental group interrupted time series design was used. Subjects were brain-injured patients who were hospitalized at a university hospital in South Korea. The sensory stimulation programme was composed of auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, tactile and physical stimulation. Levels of consciousness were evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale. The intervention was carried out twice, first for 4 weeks, then a recession period was allowed for 4 weeks, and immediately after this the second intervention was implemented for 4 weeks. Results showed significant alterations in consciousness levels 2 weeks after starting intervention 1. This effect increased gradually and was maintained for 3-4 weeks. However, consciousness levels began to decrease 2 weeks after terminating intervention 1 and this decrement continued until starting intervention 2. The pattern of improvement of intervention 1 could be represented as a gradual onset and temporary duration model. At the beginning of intervention 2, consciousness levels were maintained at a low level. However, they began to increase again after 2 weeks and this increment continued even after terminating intervention 2. Therefore, the effect of intervention 2 could be represented as a gradual onset and permanent duration model. These results suggest that an intervention programme should be applied for more than 1 month to achieve a permanent effect on consciousness levels and that at least 2 weeks are required for any significant effect.

  5. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  6. Functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury : An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research - Functional recovery outcome measures work group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome

  7. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  8. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  9. Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts for Improved Awareness in Unusual Attitude Recovery Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) determined 40 percent of all fixed-wing fatal accidents, between 2001 and 2011, were caused by Loss-of-Control (LOC) in flight (National Transportation Safety Board, 2015). Based on their findings, CAST recommended manufacturers develop and implement virtual day-visual meteorological conditions (VMC) display systems, such as synthetic vision or equivalent systems (CAST, 2016). In a 2015 simulation study conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), researchers gathered to test and evaluate virtual day-VMC displays under realistic flight operation scenarios capable of inducing reduced attention states in pilots. Each display concept was evaluated to determine its efficacy to improve attitude awareness. During the experiment, Evaluation Pilots (EPs) were shown the following three display concepts on the Primary Flight Display (PFD): Baseline, Synthetic Vision (SV) with color gradient, and SV with texture. The baseline configuration was a standard, conventional 'blue over brown' display. Experiment scenarios were simulated over water to evaluate Unusual Attitude (UA) recovery over 'featureless terrain' environments. Thus, the SV with color gradient configuration presented a 'blue over blue' display with a linear blue color progression, to differentiate attitude changes between sky and ocean. The SV with texture configuration presented a 'blue over blue' display with a black checkerboard texture atop a synthetic ocean. These displays were paired with a Background Attitude Indicator (BAI) concept. The BAI was presented across all four Head-Down Displays (HDDs), displaying a wide field-of-view blue-over-blue attitude indicator. The BAI aligned with the PFD and showed through the background of the navigation displays with opaque transparency. Each EP participated in a two-part experiment series with a total seventy-five trial runs: Part I included a set of twenty-five Unusual Attitude Recovery (UAR

  10. Mechanical verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chkliaev, D.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis concerns the formal specification and mechanized verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols for distributed databases. Such protocols are needed for many modern application such as banking and are often used in safety-critical applications. Therefore it is very important

  11. Recovery of 15N-labelled fertilizers applied to bromegrass on a thin black chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The availability of N fertilizers on established grass stands is a function of such processes as immobilization, gaseous loss, leaching and position of applied N. A field experiment was conducted on a Thin Black Chernozem soil at Crossfield, Alberta to determine the effect of source, time and method of application on the recovery of 15 N-labelled fertilizers applied to smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.). The treatments included two sources of N [urea and ammonium nitrate (AN)], four application times (early autumn, late autumn, early spring and late spring) and two methods of placement (surface-broadcast and subsurface banding). In most cases the 15 N recovery in soil did not differ much between urea and AN. However, when urea was surface-broadcast, there was, on average, 10.2% less 15 N recovery in plants than AN. The N recovery for late spring > early spring > late autumn = early autumn. When urea was banded 4 cm deep into the soil, N recovery in plants increased significantly compared with its surface-broadcast application. However, this was not observed when the source of N was AN. Banding generally increased the amount of immobilized N present in the soil and N recovery. We concluded that the N recovery in plants and in plants plus soil was less for urea than for AN and was less with autumn broadcast N application than with spring broadcast application. (author). 23 refs., 3 tabs

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  13. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability.

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  15. Improved Chiral Separation of (R,S-Goitrin by SFC: An Application in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Like chemical drugs, research and development of herbal medicine also have a need to resolve enantiomers. To help illustrating the antiviral bioactivity of Isatidis Radix, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC was used for analytical and preparative separation of (R,S-goitrin, which was reported as the active ingredient of the herbal. Improved resolution was achieved on Chiralpak IC column, using acetonitrile as the organic modifier, representing a tenfold increase in speed, compared to the previous normal phase HPLC (NPLC method. The newly developed chromatographic method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. Scale-up purification of (R-goitrin and (S-goitrin was performed on a preparative column with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified isomers was determined through optical rotation study. This attempt explored SFC’s application in chiral research of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. What we talk about when we talk about recovery: a systematic review and best-fit framework synthesis of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Simon Robertson; Tansey, Louise; Quayle, Ethel

    2017-06-01

    The recovery approach is increasingly popular among mental-health services, but there is a lack of consensus about its applicability and it has been criticised for imposing professionalised ideas onto what was originally a service-user concept. To carry out a review and synthesis of qualitative research to answer the question: "What do we know about how service users with severe and enduring mental illness experience the process of recovery?" It was hoped that this would improve clarity and increase understanding. A systematic review identified 15 peer-reviewed articles examining experiences of recovery. Twelve of these were analysed using best-fit framework synthesis, with the CHIME model of recovery providing the exploratory framework. The optimistic themes of CHIME accounted for the majority of people's experiences, but more than 30% of data were not felt to be encapsulated. An expanded conceptualisation of recovery is proposed, in which difficulties are more prominently considered. An overly optimistic, professionally imposed view of recovery might homogenise or even blame individuals rather than empower them. Further understanding is needed of different experiences of recovery, and of people's struggles to recover.

  17. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications.

  18. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  19. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  20. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  1. Investigating the effect of steam, CO{sub 2}, and surfactant on the recovery of heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, S.; He, S. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering; Qu, L. [Shengli Oil Field Co. (China)]|[SINOPEC, Shengli (China)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented the results of a laboratory study and numerical simulation in which the mechanisms of steam injection with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and surfactant were investigated. The incremental recoveries of 4 different scenarios were compared and analyzed in terms of phase behaviour. The study also investigated the effect of CO{sub 2} dissolution in oil and water; variation of properties of CO{sub 2}-oil phase equilibrium and CO{sub 2}-water phase equilibrium; variation of viscosity; and, oil volume and interfacial tension (IFT) during the recovery process. The expansion of a steam and CO{sub 2} front was also examined. A field application case of a horizontal well in a heavy oil reservoir in Shengli Oilfield in China was used to determine the actual dynamic performance of the horizontal well and to optimize the injection parameters of the CO{sub 2} and surfactant. The study revealed that oil recovery with the simultaneous injection of steam, CO{sub 2} and surfactant was higher than that of steam injection, steam with CO{sub 2} and steam with surfactant. The improved flow performance in super heavy oil reservoirs could be attributed to CO{sub 2} dissolution in oil which can swell the oil and reduce oil viscosity significantly. The proportion of CO{sub 2} in the free gas phase, oil phase and water phase varies with changes in reservoir pressure and temperature. CO{sub 2} decreases the temperature of the steam slightly, while the surfactant decreases the interfacial tension and helps to improve oil recovery. The study showed that the amount of injected CO{sub 2} and steam has a large effect on heavy oil recovery. Although oil production was found to increase with an increase in injected amounts, the ratio of oil to injected fluids must be considered to achieve optimum recovery. High steam quality and temperature can also improve super heavy oil recovery. The oil recovery was less influenced by the effect of the surfactant than by the effect of CO{sub 2

  2. Comprehensive care improves physical recovery of hip-fractured elderly Taiwanese patients with poor nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Li, Hsiao-Juan; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yen; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-06-01

    The effects of nutritional management among other intervention components have not been examined for hip-fractured elderly persons with poor nutritional status. Accordingly, this study explored the intervention effects of an in-home program using a comprehensive care model that included a nutrition-management component on recovery of hip-fractured older persons with poor nutritional status at hospital discharge. A secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up. A 3000-bed medical center in northern Taiwan. Subjects were included only if they had "poor nutritional status" at hospital discharge, including those at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The subsample included 80 subjects with poor nutritional status in the comprehensive care group, 87 in the interdisciplinary care group, and 85 in the usual care group. The 3 care models were usual care, interdisciplinary care, and comprehensive care. Usual care provided no in-home care, interdisciplinary care provided 4 months of in-home rehabilitation, and comprehensive care included management of depressive symptoms, falls, and nutrition as well as 1 year of in-home rehabilitation. Data were collected on nutritional status and physical functions, including range of motion, muscle power, proprioception, balance and functional independence, and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation approach. We also compared patients' baseline characteristics: demographic characteristics, type of surgery, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, cognitive function, and depression. Patients with poor nutritional status who received comprehensive care were 1.67 times (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.61) more likely to recover their nutritional status than those who received interdisciplinary and usual care. Furthermore, the comprehensive care model improved the functional independence and balance of patients who recovered their nutritional status over the first year following discharge

  3. Community-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Stroke Survivors' Rehabilitation Participation and Functional Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Xiaojuan; Dai, Hong; Jiang, Bin; Li, Ninghua; Zhao, Xingquan; Hong, Zhen; He, Li; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based rehabilitation appropriate technique (CRAT) intervention program in increasing rehabilitation participation and improving functional recovery of stroke survivors. This study followed a quasi-experimental design. In each of 5 centers servicing approximately 50,000 individuals, 2 communities were designated as either the intervention or control community. A CRAT intervention program, including 2-year rehabilitation education and 3-month CRAT treatment, was regularly implemented in the intervention communities, whereas there was no special intervention in the control community. Two sampling surveys, at baseline and after intervention, were administered to evaluate the rehabilitation activity undertaken. In intervention communities, stroke survivor's motor function, daily activity, and social activity were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment, using the Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment, Barthel index, and Social Functional Activities Questionnaire. The proportion of individuals participating in rehabilitation-related activity was increased significantly (P rehabilitation (P 0.05). Community-based rehabilitation appropriate technique increases rehabilitation participation rates and enhances motor function, daily activity, and social activity of stroke survivors.

  4. Improving post-stroke recovery: the role of the multidisciplinary health care team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke DJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available David J Clarke, Anne Forster Academic Unit of Elderly Care and Rehabilitation, Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford, UK Abstract: Stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disability, the effects of which may be prolonged with physical, emotional, social, and financial consequences not only for those affected but also for their family and friends. Evidence for the effectiveness of stroke unit care and the benefits of thrombolysis have transformed treatment for people after stroke. Previously viewed nihilistically, stroke is now seen as a medical emergency with clear evidence-based care pathways from hospital admission to discharge. However, stroke remains a complex clinical condition that requires health professionals to work together to bring to bear their collective knowledge and specialist skills for the benefit of stroke survivors. Multidisciplinary team working is regarded as fundamental to delivering effective care across the stroke pathway. This paper discusses the contribution of team working in improving recovery at key points in the post-stroke pathway. Keywords: stroke care, rehabilitation, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, team working

  5. The role of service recovery in HMO satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H

    1999-01-01

    Complaint handling and service recovery by HMOs may be more efficient to implement and more determinant of customer satisfaction and retention than other approaches such as improving access to care. The current findings are consistent with research on recovery efforts in other industries. Complaint handling systems must achieve rapid and comprehensive identification and resolution of HMO member problems. Both cultural change and appropriate incentives to re-educate employees within HMO organizations are additional requisites to effective service recovery. The benefits to the HMO of expenditures on service recovery should be more immediate and sustainable than the benefits derived from other methods of increasing member satisfaction.

  6. Recovery of Flash Memories for Reliable Mobile Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile appliance is applied to many ubiquitous services and the importance of the information stored in it is increased, the security issue to protect the information becomes one of the major concerns. However, most previous researches focused only on the communication security, not the storage security. Especially, a flash memory whose operational characteristics are different from those of HDD is used increasingly as a storage device for the mobile appliance because of its resistance to physical shock and lower power requirement. In this paper, we propose a flash memory management scheme targeted for guaranteeing the data integrity of the mobile storage. By maintaining the old data specified during the recovery window, we can recover the old data when the mobile appliance is attacked. Also, to reduce the storage requirement for the recovery, we restrict the number of versions to be copied, called Degree of Integrity (DoI. Especially, we consider both the reclaim efficiency and the wear leveling which is a unique characteristic of the flash memory. Based on the performance evaluation, we confirm that the proposed scheme can be acceptable to many applications as a flash memory management scheme for improving data integrity.

  7. Environmental Development Plan (EDP). Enhanced gas recovery, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This Enhanced Gcs Recovery EDP addresses the environmental impacts of enhanced gas recovery processes in shale and sandstone, methane drainage from coalbeds, and methane recovery from geopressured aquifers. The EDP addresses planning in two basic areas: environmental research and environmental assessment. Environmental research can be categorized as follows: characterization of pollutants from EGR processes; selective application of monitoring and measuring techniques; evaluation of control/mitigation techniques; and evaluation of the synergistic impacts of the development of EGR techniques. Environmental assessment activities scheduled by EDP include: assessment of ecological impacts; assessment of socioeconomic effects; EIA/EIS preparation; evaluation of control technology needs; and analysis of applicable and proposed emission, effluent, and health and safety standards. The EGR EDP includes an EGR technology overview (Section 2), a discussion of EGR environmental issues and requirements (Section 3), an environmental action plan (Section 4), an environmental management strategy for the EGR program (Section 5), and supporting appendices which present information on Federal legislation applicable to EGR technology, a summary of ongoing and completed research, and future research and assessment projects.

  8. Reciprocating Expander for an Exhaust Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle for a Passenger Car Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoko Shonda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, on average, two thirds of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted through the exhaust gases and the cooling liquid. The recovery of this energy would enable a substantial reduction in fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate a heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle. The key component in such a system is the expander, which has a strong impact on the system’s performance. A survey of different expander technologies leads us to select the reciprocating expander as the most promising one for an automotive application. This paper therefore proposes a steady-state semi-empirical model of the expander device developed under the Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The ambient and mechanical losses as well as internal leakage were taken into account by the model. By exploiting the expander manufacturer’s data, all the parameters of the expander model were identified. The model computes the mass flow rate, the power output delivered and the exhaust enthalpy of the steam. The maximum deviation between predictions and measurement data is 4.7%. A performance study of the expander is carried out and shows that the isentropic efficiency is quite high and increases with the expander rotary speed. The mechanical efficiency depends on mechanical losses which are quite high, approximately 90%. The volumetric efficiency was also evaluated.

  9. Prospect of shale gas recovery enhancement by oxidation-induced rock burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun You

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By horizontal well multi-staged fracturing technology, shale rocks can be broken to form fracture networks via hydraulic force and increase the production rate of shale gas wells. Nonetheless, the fracturing stimulation effect may be offset by the water phase trapping damage caused by water retention. In this paper, a technique in transferring the negative factor of fracturing fluid retention into a positive factor of changing the gas existence state and facilitating shale cracking was discussed using the easy oxidation characteristics of organic matter, pyrite and other minerals in shale rocks. Furthermore, the prospect of this technique in tackling the challenges of large retention volume of hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale gas reservoirs, high reservoir damage risks, sharp production decline rate of gas wells and low gas recovery, was analyzed. The organic matter and pyrite in shale rocks can produce a large number of dissolved pores and seams to improve the gas deliverability of the matrix pore throats to the fracture systems. Meanwhile, in the oxidation process, released heat and increased pore pressure will make shale rock burst, inducing expansion and extension of shale micro-fractures, increasing the drainage area and shortening the gas flowing path in matrix, and ultimately, removing reservoir damage and improving gas recovery. To sum up, the technique discussed in the paper can be used to “break” shale rocks via hydraulic force and to “burst” shale rocks via chemical oxidation by adding oxidizing fluid to the hydraulic fracturing fluid. It can thus be concluded that this method can be a favorable supplementation for the conventional hydraulic fracturing of shale gas reservoirs. It has a broad application future in terms of reducing costs and increasing profits, maintaining plateau shale gas production and improving shale gas recovery.

  10. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H

    2010-05-28

    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  11. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  12. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  13. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  14. Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, Monique; Duffield, Rob; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery of neuromuscular function following simulated team-sport exercise in the heat. Ten male team-sport athletes performed two sessions of a 2 × 30-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) in 32°C and 52% humidity, followed by a 20-min CWI intervention or passive recovery (CONT) in a randomized, crossover design. The ISE involved a 15-m sprint every minute separated by bouts of hard running, jogging and walking. Voluntary and evoked neuromuscular function, ratings of perceived muscle soreness (MS) and blood markers for muscle damage were measured pre- and post-exercise, immediately post-recovery, 2-h and 24-h post-recovery. Measures of core temperature (Tcore), heart rate (HR), capillary blood and perceptions of exertion, thermal strain and thirst were also recorded at the aforementioned time points. Post-exercise maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and activation (VA) were reduced in both conditions and remained below pre-exercise values for the 24-h recovery (P recovery period (P recovery rate of reduction in Tcore, HR and MS was enhanced with CWI whilst increasing MVC and VA (P recovery MVC and activation were significantly higher in CONT compared to CWI (P = 0.05). Following exercise in the heat, CWI accelerated the reduction in thermal and cardiovascular load, and improved MVC alongside increased central activation immediately and 2-h post-recovery. However, despite improved acute recovery CWI resulted in an attenuated MVC 24-h post-recovery.

  15. Recovery of outer retina in acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement (AIBSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G.J. Trese

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion and importance: Serial OCT imaging demonstrated anatomic evidence of ellipsoid zone recovery in isolated AIBSE. Anatomic recovery was consistent with the functional gain detected by visual field improvement.

  16. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagata, Stephanie A; Yen, Melodie; McCarron, Angelica; Bautista, Alexa; Lamair-Orosco, Genevieve; Wilson, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Speech samples were acquired daily between 2 and 16 days post stroke, and also at 1 month and 3 months. Speech samples were transcribed and coded using the CHAT system, in order to quantify multiple language domains. A brief aphasia battery was also administered at a subset of five time points during the 3 months. Both patients showed substantial recovery of language function over this time period. Most, but not all, language domains showed improvements, including fluency, lexical access, phonological retrieval and encoding, and syntactic complexity. The time course of recovery was logarithmic, with the greatest gains taking place early in the course of recovery. There is considerable potential for amelioration of language deficits when damage is relatively circumscribed to the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples proved to be an effective, albeit time-consuming, approach to tracking day-by-day recovery in the acute/subacute post-stroke period.

  17. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  18. Comparative assessment of alternative cycles for waste heat recovery and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Adrienne B.; Garimella, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Thermally activated systems based on sorption cycles, as well as mechanical systems based on vapor compression/expansion are assessed in this study for waste heat recovery applications. In particular, ammonia-water sorption cycles for cooling and mechanical work recovery, a heat transformer using lithium bromide-water as the working fluid pair to yield high temperature heat, and organic Rankine cycles using refrigerant R245fa for work recovery as well as versions directly coupled to a vapor compression cycle to yield cooling are analyzed with overall heat transfer conductances for heat exchangers that use similar approach temperature differences for each cycle. Two representative cases are considered, one for smaller-scale and lower temperature applications using waste heat at 60 o C, and the other for larger-scale and higher temperature waste heat at 120 o C. Comparative assessments of these cycles on the basis of efficiencies and system footprints guide the selection of waste heat recovery and upgrade systems for different applications and waste heat availabilities. Furthermore, these considerations are used to investigate four case studies for waste heat recovery for data centers, vehicles, and process plants, illustrating the utility and limitations of such solutions. The increased implementation of such waste heat recovery systems in a variety of applications will lead to decreased primary source inputs and sustainable energy utilization. -- Highlights: → Sorption and mechanical pathways for the conversion of waste heat streams to work, cooling, and temperature boosting were investigated. → Waste heat sources including 300 W of energy at 60 o C and 1 kW of energy at 120 o C were analyzed. → Up to about seventy percent of the input waste heat can be converted to cooling. → Up to about ten percent can be converted to work. → Up to about 47 percent can be upgraded to a higher temperature.

  19. Alternatives to improve technological and environmentally the miner-metallurgic processes of recovery of gold in Vetas and California (Santander, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Rosas, Julio Elias; Yanez Traslavina, Jose Julian

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the recovery of gold, to eliminate the use of the mercury and to diminish the contamination with cyanide in the Mining District of Vetas and Californian, the concentration processes were studied in a machine knelson and the intensive cyanidation of the concentrate. As fundamental part of this work, it was carried out the characterization of the samples, determining and quantifying the most influential characteristics in the processes of gravimetric concentration and of cyanidation, as well as the necessary for the design of plants. Of the mineralogical characterization it concluded that the ore of the two municipalities present significant differences that bear to think of the necessity of using different extractive processes. In general, the ore of California, bigger tenors of gold contain and of silver and they are poly-sulphurated; while those of Vetas are of pyritic type, except for that of the Golden Mine that presents similarity with those of California. The minerals of California presented a high percentage of gold (40-60%), fine coming from the alteration of the mineral; a high lixiviability in bottle; especially the samples of the Sinues Mine, with dissolutions of gold of the order of 95%, while of the Vetas was of the order of 60%. The experimental results in the knelson equipment, allowed to check the applicability of this concentration type for the case of the minerals of Vetas, obtaining under controlled operative conditions, concentrated with high tenors of gold, 421.16 g/t; significant enrichment reasons, 29.5 (tenor of the concentrate / tenor of the mineral head), with recoveries of gold notables, bigger to 80%. On the contrary, with those of Californian ores, satisfactory results were not obtained, accountable for the presence of the high percentage of gold in the fines. The application of the intensive cyanidation to the obtained concentrates, it was evaluated in presence and absence of the catalytic Leachwell and Pb

  20. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  1. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lopik, J.H.; Hartog, N.; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity

  2. Self-reported recovery is associated with improvement in localized hyperalgesia among adolescent females with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa Maria; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    to the manifestations of pain. The objective of this study was to compare the change in localised and distal hyperalgesia among female adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) deeming themselves recovered compared to those not recovered 3 months after patient education with or without exercise therapy. METHODS......: This is an ancillary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of patient education with or without exercise therapy on self-reported recovery in 121 adolescents with PFP. PPTs were measured at four sites around the knee and on tibialis anterior in a random subsample of 57 female...... adolescents (68%) were available for follow-up at three months and 10 adolescents reported being recovered. Recovered adolescents had a 68▒kPa (95%CI: 1;136, P=0.047) larger improvement in PPT around the knee and a 76▒kPa (95%CI: -29;181, P=0.16) non-significant improvement in PPT on the tibialis anterior...

  3. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  4. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdur Razzaque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS, in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network’s QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  5. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S.; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts. PMID:25551485

  6. Bacterial community diversity in a low-permeability oil reservoir and its potential for enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Luo, Yi-Jing; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of indigenous bacterial community and the functional species in the water samples from three production wells of a low permeability oil reservoir was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. The potential of application of indigenous bacteria for enhancing oil recovery was evaluated by examination of the effect of bacterial stimulation on the formation water-oil-rock surface interactions and micromodel test. The results showed that production well 88-122 had the most diverse bacterial community and functional species. The broth of indigenous bacteria stimulated by an organic nutrient activator at aerobic condition changed the wettability of the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet. Micromodel test results showed that flooding using stimulated indigenous bacteria following water flooding improved oil recovery by 6.9% and 7.7% in fractured and unfractured micromodels, respectively. Therefore, the zone of low permeability reservoir has a great potential for indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaching capacity of metals-metalloids and recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvilotidou, Vasiliki; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of Directive 2012/19/EU which is related to WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), also known as "e-waste", is to contribute to their sustainable production and consumption that would most possibly be achieved by their recovery, recycling and reuse. Under this perspective, the present study focused on the recovery of valuable materials, metals and metalloids from LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays). Indium (In), arsenic (As) and stibium (Sb) were selected to be examined for their Leaching Capacity (R) from waste LCDs. Indium was selected mainly due to its rarity and preciousness, As due to its high toxicity and wide use in LCDs and Sb due to its recent application as arsenic's replacement to improve the optimal clarity of a LCD screen. The experimental procedure included disassembly of screens along with removal and recovery of polarizers via thermal shock, cutting, pulverization and digestion of the shredded material and finally leaching evaluation of the aforementioned elements. Leaching tests were conducted under various temperatures, using various solid:liquid (S/L) ratios and solvents (acid mixtures), to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum leaching capacities. The examined elements exhibited different leaching behaviors, mainly due to the considerable diversity in their inherent characteristic properties. Indium demonstrated the highest recovery percentages (approximately 60%), while the recovery of As and Sb was unsuccessful, obtaining poor leaching percentages (0.16% and 0.5%, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated computer-aided framework for chemical product and process application design and optimization for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Woodley, John M.; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents an integrated framework for product-process design. The framework integrates the two design problems into one and finds the optimal solution through simultaneous optimization. The framework consists of four hierarchical steps and uses a set of methods, tools and databases...... for property prediction, novel fluid design and mathematical programming. The application of the framework is targeted for waste heat recovery design systems, where the sensitivity of product and process design variables is high and the simultaneous design is necessary. The sustainable design solutions...... are showcased in this paper for mixed refrigeration design....

  9. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power

  10. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  11. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  12. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  13. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  14. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2012-01-01

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210( 210 Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210 Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210 Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210 Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209 Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  16. Numerical simulation of minor actinide recovery behaviour in batch processing of spent metallic fuel by electrorefining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawada, H P; Bhat, N P [Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramanian, G R [Atomic Energy Commission, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Numerical simulation of electro-transport of fuel actinides (FAs), minor actinides (MAs) and rare earths (REs) in the electro-refiner (ER) for pyrochemical reprocessing of a typical spent IFR metallic fuel has been attempted based on improved thermo-chemical model developed for application to multi-component system in the ER. Optimization of MA recovery and decontamination factors (DFs) for MAs and REs in batch processing is presented. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  18. Uranium in phosphorus-bearing raw materials and technological problems of its recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, H; Gorecka, H [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland)

    1981-01-01

    A problem of uranium recovery from phosphorus-bearinq raw materials is discussed. The different methods of uranium recovery from extractive phosphoric acid are briefly described. The information on their applications in the industry is also given.

  19. Evidence-based post-exercise recovery strategies in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2016-01-01

    Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.

  20. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  1. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  2. Application of Improved Genetic Algorithm to Service Restoration Problem for Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibata, Ikuo; Aoki, Hidenori

    The problem of recovery from power-system failures is the problem of handling operations that make it possible to supply power from other lines in response to power-system failures or construction by switching between the opened and closed states of sectionalizing switches. Considerable research has already been conducted with regard to this issue. This paper addresses the issue of determining target systems for final recovery in cases when some sections remain subject to power failure (i.e., sound bank capacity failure sections. In such research, calculations are implemented by setting a value of 2 to the sectionalizing switches of a single parameter. In addition, when the state of a sound section changes due to mutation improvements, the method of simultaneously changing the selected points and neighboring sectionalizing switches is applied. It is clear that the proposed method, consisting of conventional GA only, is superior in terms of average fitness values.

  3. Opening Doors to Recovery: Recidivism and Recovery Among Persons With Serious Mental Illnesses and Repeated Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Kelley, Mary E; Pope, Alicia; Smith, Kelly; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; DiPolito, June A; Druss, Benjamin G; Li, Charles; Lott Haynes, Nora

    2016-02-01

    Repeated hospitalizations and arrests or incarcerations diminish the ability of individuals with serious mental illnesses to pursue recovery. Community mental health systems need new models to address recidivism as well as service fragmentation, lack of engagement by local stakeholders, and poor communication between mental health providers and the police. This study examined the initial effects on institutional recidivism and measures of recovery among persons enrolled in Opening Doors to Recovery, an intensive, team-based community support program for persons with mental illness and a history of inpatient psychiatric recidivism. A randomized controlled trial of the model is underway. The number of hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and arrests (all from state administrative sources) in the year before enrollment and during the first 12 months of enrollment in the program were compared. Longitudinal trajectories of recovery-using three self-report and five clinician-rated measures-were examined. Analyses accounted for baseline symptom severity and intensity of involvement in the program. One hundred participants were enrolled, and 72 were included in the analyses. Hospitalizations decreased, from 1.9±1.6 to .6±.9 (precovery measures, and trajectories of improvement were apparent across the entire follow-up period. Opening Doors to Recovery holds promise as a new service approach for reducing hospital recidivism and promoting recovery in community mental health systems and is deserving of further controlled testing.

  4. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Alyson; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personal recovery is recognised as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about...

  5. Acetone facilitated DNA sampling from electrical tapes improves DNA recovery and enables latent fingerprints development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feine, Ilan; Shpitzen, Moshe; Geller, Boris; Salmon, Eran; Peleg, Tsach; Roth, Jonathan; Gafny, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs. This protocol involves only the adhesive side of the ET and increases DNA recovery rates by up to 70%. In addition, we demonstrated partially successful latent fingerprints development from the non-sticky side of the ETs. Taken together, this protocol maximizes the forensic examination of ETs and is recommended for routine casework processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sonochemical approaches to enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Altunina, Lyubov K; Gerasin, Artyom S; Pashin, Dmitriy M; Mason, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Oil production from wells reduces with time and the well becomes uneconomic unless enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are applied. There are a number of methods currently available and each has specific advantages and disadvantages depending on conditions. Currently there is a big demand for new or improved technologies in this field, the hope is that these might also be applicable to wells which have already been the subject of EOR. The sonochemical method of EOR is one of the most promising methods and is important in that it can also be applied for the treatment of horizontal wells. The present article reports the theoretical background of the developed sonochemical technology for EOR in horizontal wells; describes the requirements to the equipment needed to embody the technology. The results of the first field tests of the technology are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of application of organic Rankine cycle for heat recovery from an integrated DIR-MCFC with pre-reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatani, Ali; Khazaeli, Ali; Roshandel, Ramin; Panjeshahi, Mohammad Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using an integrated pre-reformer before feeding a DIR-MCFC is proposed. ► An ORC with different working fluid is used for waste heat recovery from the proposed plant. ► Performance of compound system is evaluated by thermodynamic analysis. ► An improvement on simultaneously heat integration between the units and waste heat recovery is performed. ► Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 60.45% and 57.75%. - Abstract: This work deals with waste heat recovery from a proposed direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC), including an integrated pre-reformer. In this regard, some advantages are attainable over exhaust gas recycling. For instance, due to low temperature in the pre-reformer, carbon deposition and coke formation resulting from higher hydrocarbons can be eliminated. In this study, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process. After partial heat recovery from the cathode outlet, the stream still has a considerable energy and exergy (352.55 °C and 83.687 kW respectively). This study investigates waste heat recovery from the proposed DIR-MCFC, using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with two different configurations. In the first case, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process; then, it enters the heat recovery vapor generator of the organic Rankine cycle. In the second case, the cathode outlet is split into two streams for using in an ORC and supplying the pre-reforming process required heat. Several substances are selected as working fluids in order to compare their performance in the waste heat recovery system. The overall results at optimum conditions indicate that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the compound system are increased and its exergy loss is decreased with cathode splitting for all substances (1.1% average over all fluids). It is concluded that cathode splitting has a significant impact on the substances which

  8. A randomized-controlled trial of intensive case management emphasizing the recovery model among patients with severe and enduring mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; McFarland, J; Kealy, B; Pullela, A; Saunders, J; Cullen, W; Meagher, D

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of recovery principles in mental health services. We studied the implementation of a programme of intensive case management (ICM) emphasizing recovery principles in a community mental health service in Ireland. Eighty service attenders with severe and enduring illness characterized by significant ongoing disability were randomized into (1) a group receiving a programme of ICM and (2) a group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Groups were compared before and after the programme for general psychopathology using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (clinician rated) and How are You? scale (self-rated). The Functional Analysis of Care Environments (FACE) scale provided assessment of multiple functional domains. The overall group (mean age 44.5 ± 13.2 years; 60% male) had mean total Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) scale scores of 10.5 ± 4.6, with problems in social functioning especially prominent (mean social subscale score 5.0 ± 2.7). The ICM group were younger (p recovery principles resulted in significant improvement across psychopathological and functional domains. Improvements were linked to enhanced engagement with structured daily activities. Recovery-oriented practices can be integrated into existing mental health services and provided alongside traditional models of care.

  9. Rosiglitazone Improves Survival and Hastens Recovery from Pancreatic Inflammation in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Maria; Rhodes, Davina H.; Castellanos, Karla J.; Cabay, Robert J.; Grady, Eileen F.; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2012-01-01

    Obesity increases severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ, 0.01% in the diet) on severity of AP induced by administration of IL-12+ IL-18 in male C57BL6 mice fed a low fat (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD), under the hypothesis that RGZ would reduce disease severity in HFD-fed obese animals. In both LFD and HFD mice without AP, RGZ significantly increased body weight and % fat mass, with significant upregulation of adiponectin and suppression of erythropoiesis. In HFD mice with AP, RGZ significantly increased survival and hastened recovery from pancreatic inflammation, as evaluated by significantly improved pancreatic histology, reduced saponification of visceral adipose tissue and less severe suppression of erythropoiesis at Day 7 post-AP. This was associated with significantly lower circulating and pancreas-associated levels of IL-6, Galectin-3, osteopontin and TIMP-1 in HFD + RGZ mice, particularly at Day 7 post-AP. In LFD mice with AP, RGZ significantly worsened the degree of intrapancreatic acinar and fat necrosis as well as visceral fat saponification, without affecting other parameters of disease severity or inflammation. Induction of AP lead to major suppression of adiponectin levels at Day 7 in both HFD and HFD + RGZ mice. In conclusion, RGZ prevents development of severe AP in obese mice even though it significantly increases adiposity, indicating that obesity can be dissociated from AP severity by improving the metabolic and inflammatory milieu. However, RGZ worsens selective parameters of AP severity in LFD mice. PMID:22815875

  10. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  11. A Peer-Led Electronic Mental Health Recovery App in an Adult Mental Health Service: Study Protocol for a Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Amelia; Banfield, Michelle; Reynolds, Julia; Miller, Sarah; Galati, Connie; Morse, Alyssa R

    2017-12-07

    There is growing demand for peer workers (people who use their own lived experience to support others in their recovery) to work alongside consumers to improve outcomes and recovery. Augmenting the workforce with peer workers has strong capacity to enhance mental health and recovery outcomes and make a positive contribution to the workforce within mental health systems and to the peer workers themselves. Technology-based applications are highly engaging and desirable methods of service delivery. This project is an exploratory proof-of-concept study, which aims to determine if a peer worker-led electronic mental (e-mental) health recovery program is a feasible, acceptable, and effective adjunct to usual treatment for people with moderate to severe mental illness. The study design comprises a recovery app intervention delivered by a peer worker to individual consumers at an adult mental health service. Evaluation measures will be conducted at post-intervention. To further inform the acceptability and feasibility of the model, consumers will be invited to participate in a focus group to discuss the program. The peer worker, peer supervisor, and key staff at the mental health service will also be individually interviewed to further evaluate the feasibility of the program within the health service and further inform its future development. The program will be delivered over a period of approximately 4 months, commencing June 2017. If the peer worker-led recovery app is found to be feasible, acceptable, and effective, it could be used to improve recovery in mental health service consumers. ©Amelia Gulliver, Michelle Banfield, Julia Reynolds, Sarah Miller, Connie Galati, Alyssa R Morse. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 07.12.2017.

  12. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving their products or services, increasing profitability as well as enhancing customer satisfaction. The applicability of quality management practices in financial institutions in Kosovo is presented and also their efficiency and effectiveness. By analyzing data from Raiffeisen Bank Kosovo, this paper highlights the benefits of Individual and Micro companies customer segment as the result of organizational change and successful application of quality initiatives from financial institutions in Kosovo.

  13. RECOVERY OF IRON FROM LOW-GRADE HEMATITE ORE USING COAL-BASED DIRECT REDUCTION FOLLOWED BY MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, iron recovery from a low-grade hematite ore (containing less than 40% iron, which is not applicable in common methods of ironmaking, was studied. Non-coking coal was used as reducing agent. Reduction experiments were performed under various coal to hematite ratios and temperatures. Reduction degree was calculated using the gravimetric method. Reduced samples were subjected to magnetic separation followed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Total iron content, degree of metallization and recovery efficiency in magnetic part were determined by quantitative chemical analysis, which were obtained about 82%, 95% and 64% respectively under optimal conditions. CaO as an additive improved ore reducibility and separation efficiency. The microstructure of reduced samples and final products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Final product with a high degree of metallization can be used in steel making furnaces and charging of blast furnaces which can improve production efficiency and decrease coke usage.

  14. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  15. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  16. Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO). Here, we provide a detailed protocol to induce muscular exhaustion of the frontal thighs with a self-paced, 3 x 30 countermovement jump protocol (30-s rest between each set). This randomized controlled trial protocol explains how to perform local cryotherapy cuff application (+ 8 °C for 20 min) and thermoneutral cuff application (+ 32 °C for 20 min) on both thighs as two possible post-exercise recovery modalities. Finally, we provide a non-invasive protocol to measure the effects of these two recovery modalities on subjective (i.e., DOMS of both frontal thighs and RPE) and objective recovery (i.e., CMJ and PPO) characteristics 24, 48, and 72 h post-application. The advantage of this method is that it provides a tool for researchers or coaches to induce muscular exhaustion, without using any expensive devices; to implement local cooling strategies; and to measure both subjective and objective recovery, without using invasive methods. Limitations of this protocol are that the 30 s rest period between sets is very short, and the cardiovascular demand is very high. Future studies may find the assessment of maximum voluntary contractions to be a more sensitive assessment of muscular exhaustion compared to CMJs. PMID:28654037

  17. [Enhanced Recovery after Surgery from Theory to Practice
What do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Guowei; Liu, Lunxu; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-04-20

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a paradigm shift in perioperative care, resulting in substantial improvements in clinical outcomes, shorter length of hospital stay and cost savings. But the current ERAS either by application of breadth or depth is not enough, why? The main reason is the lack of "operability, evaluation, repetition" ERAS protocol and suitable for clinical extensive application protocol. How to form the clinical available protocol? Operational mainly refers to the clinical scheme is simple and feasible, and protocol compliance is good; Evaluate refers to the methods used before, during and after are the objective evaluation criteria and plan; Repeatable is clinical scheme repeatability in the process of single or multiple center.

  18. Feasibility of microbially improved oil recovery (MIOR) in Northern German oil reservoirs; Bakterien zur Erhoehung des Entoelungsgrades in norddeutschen Erdoellagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, M. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Kessel, D. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the feasibility of microbially improved oil recovery (MIOR) in Northern German oil reservoirs. Suitable bacterial strains had to be identified. The mechanisms for oil mobilization and incremental recovery had to be investigated. To this end, two independent methods were employed, namely static autoclave tests and dynamic flood experiments. The static tests were carried out without reservoir rock matrix to preselect suitable bacterial strains with a minimum of experimental effort. The selected strains were then tested in dynamic flood experiments under reservoir conditions on Bentheimer sandstone cores to quantify the oil recovery. Key results of the study are: (1) Two bacterial strains were found having excellent metabolic activity with potential for oil recovery under Northern German reservoir conditions. (2) These bacteria can be injected into and transported in the pores of the sandstone. (3) The metabolic activity of these bacteria leads to substantial incremental oil recovery in repeated injection - shut in - production cycles. (4) Incremental oil recovery is attributed to wettability change and biomass production by the metabolites of the bacteria. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Anwendbarkeit der mikrobiell verbesserten Erdoelgewinnung in norddeutschen Lagerstaetten. Zunaechst waren hierfuer einsetzbare Bakterienstaemme zu identifizieren. Diese waren dann auf ihr Entoelungsvermoegen zu ueberpruefen. Schliesslich sollten die Entoelungsmechanismen ermittelt werden. Die Vorauswahl potentiell geeigneter Bakterienstaemme erfolgte durch verschiedene mikrobiologische Forschungsinstitute. Zur Minimierung des experimentellen Aufwands wurden diese Staemme dann im Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung in statischen Autoklavenversuchen unter Lagerstaettenbedingungen, jedoch noch ohne Lagerstaettengestein, auf ihre Stoffwechselaktivitaet sowie Art und Eigenschaften ihrer Stoffwechselprodukte

  19. Final results of the supra project : Improved Simulation of Upset Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fucke, L.; Groen, E.; Goman, M.; Abramov, N.; Wentink, M.; Nooij, S.; Zaichik, L.E.; Khrabrov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the European research project SUPRA (Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation) is to develop technologies that eventually contribute to a reduction of risk of Loss of control - in flight (LOC-I) accidents, today's major cause of fatal accidents in commercial aviation. To this end

  20. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  1. Design and implementation of disaster recovery and business continuity solution for radiology PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Bahar; Rosipko, Beverly; Erhard, Karen K; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    In the digital era of radiology, picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has a pivotal role in retrieving and storing the images. Integration of PACS with all the health care information systems e.g., health information system, radiology information system, and electronic medical record has greatly improved access to patient data at anytime and anywhere throughout the entire enterprise. In such an integrated setting, seamless operation depends critically on maintaining data integrity and continuous access for all. Any failure in hardware or software could interrupt the workflow or data and consequently, would risk serious impact to patient care. Thus, any large-scale PACS now have an indispensable requirement to include deployment of a disaster recovery plan to ensure secure sources of data. This paper presents our experience with designing and implementing a disaster recovery and business continuity plan. The selected architecture with two servers in each site (local and disaster recovery (DR) site) provides four different scenarios to continue running and maintain end user service. The implemented DR at University Hospitals Health System now permits continuous access to the PACS application and its contained images for radiologists, other clinicians, and patients alike.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 nasal administration improves recovery of T-cell mediated immunity against pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, N; Herrera, M; Salva, S; Villena, J; Alvarez, S

    2017-05-30

    Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria have become an interesting alternative for the prevention of respiratory infections. Previously, we demonstrated that the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, during repletion of malnourished mice, resulted in diminished susceptibility to the challenge with the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering the known alterations induced by malnutrition on T lymphocytes and the importance of this cell population on the protection against respiratory pathogens, we aimed to study the effect of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 nasal administration on the recovery of T cell-mediated defences against pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice under nutritional recovery. Malnourished mice received a balanced conventional diet (BCD) for seven days or BCD for seven days with nasal L. rhamnosus CRL1505 supplementation during last two days of the treatment. After the treatments mice were infected with S. pneumoniae. Flow cytometry studies were carried out in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lung to study T cells, and Th 1 /Th 2 cytokine profiles were determined in broncho-alveolar lavages and serum. The administration of CRL1505 strain to malnourished mice under recovery reduced quantitative and qualitative alterations of CD4 + T cells in the bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lung induced by malnutrition. In addition, CRL1505 treatment augmented Th 2 -cytokines (interleukin 10 and 4) in respiratory and systemic compartments after pneumococcal infection. These results show that modulation of CD4 + T lymphocytes induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 has an important role in the beneficial effect induced by this strain on the recovery of malnourished mice. These data also indicate that nasally administered L. rhamnosus CRL1505 may represent a non-invasive alternative to modulate and improve the T cell-mediated immunity against respiratory pathogens in immunocompromised malnourished hosts.

  3. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, Michael E. [Aveny GmbH, Schwandenholzstr. 212, CH-8046 Zürich (Switzerland); Vadenbo, Carl, E-mail: vadenbo@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Saner, Dominik [Swiss Post, Communications, Politics and Social Responsibility, Viktoriastrasse 21, P.O. Box, CH-3030 Berne (Switzerland); Huter, Christoph [City of Zürich, ERZ Entsorgung - Recycling Zürich, Hagenholzstrasse 110, P.O. Box, CH-8050 Zürich (Switzerland); Hellweg, Stefanie [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total

  4. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesch, Michael E.; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO 2 -eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO 2 -eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO 2 -eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO 2 -eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO 2 -eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates

  5. Estimation of free-hydrocarbon recovery from dual-pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Free-product hydrocarbon which floats on the water table may be recovered using single-pump and dual-pump systems. The factors that affect the long-term free-product recovery using dual-pump systems include the free-product thickness as measured in monitoring wells, the ground-water pumping rate, hydrocarbon density and viscosity, and the soil permeability. This paper presents a simple model for prediction of free-product recovery using dual-pump systems. The model predicts the long-term rather than short-term recovery rates, and lends itself to spreadsheet calculations on microcomputers. A particularly simple form arises for cases where the drawdown is small. An application for estimating recovery from a dual-pump system is presented, and limitations of the model are summarized

  6. Benfotiamine improves functional recovery of the infarcted heart via activation of pro-survival G6PD/Akt signaling pathway and modulation of neurohormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh; Caporali, Andrea; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Benfotiamine (BFT) is a transketolase activator that directs glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway. The present study investigated whether BFT improves the recovery after myocardial infarction (MI) and explored underlying mechanisms of protection. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice were supplemented with BFT (70 mg/kg/day in drinking water) for 4 weeks and then subjected to MI or sham operation. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography. At two weeks post-MI, intra-ventricular pressure was measured by Millar tip-catheter and hearts were collected for biochemical, immunohistochemical and expressional analyses. No treatment effect was observed in sham-operated mice. Post-MI mortality was higher in diabetic mice and hemodynamic studies confirmed the worsening effect of diabetes on functional recovery. Furthermore, diabetic mice demonstrated increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced reparative angiogenesis, larger scars, enhanced oxidative stress, and blunted activation of the pro-survival VEGF receptor-2/Akt/Pim-1 signaling pathway. BFT improved post-MI survival, functional recovery and neovascularization and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and neurohormonal activation in diabetic as well as in non-diabetic mice. In addition, BFT stimulated the activity of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes, leading to reduction of oxidative stress, phosphorylation/activation of VEGF receptor-2 and Akt and increased Pim-1, pBad and Bcl-2 levels. These effects were contrasted on silencing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway, or inhibiting Akt. BFT benefits post-MI recovery through stimulation of pro-survival mechanisms and containment of neurohormonal response. These results may have implications for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of Candu-1000 MW(e) power cycle by moderator heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Four different moderator heat recovery circuits are proposed for CANDU-1000 MW(e) reactors. The proposed circuits utilize all, or part, of the 155 MW(th) moderator heat load (at 70 0 C moderator outlet temperature from calandria) to the first stage of the feed water heating system. An economics study was carried out and indicated that the direct circulation of feed water through the moderator heat exchanger (with full heat recovery) is the most economical scheme. For this scheme the saved steam from the turbine extraction was found to produce additional electric power of 8 MW(e). This additional power represents a 0.7% increase in the plants nominal electric output. The outstanding features and advantages of the selected scheme are also presented. (author)

  8. [Groups of statutory bodies and evaluation of health recovery programmes for mothers and their child(ren) - An application of a time-based break-even analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönig, W

    2002-01-01

    Public and private expenditure in health recovery programmes for mothers and their children is stagnating. A focal point to turn around this trend is to convince the responsible statury bodies by proving both effectiveness and efficiency of these programmes. The paper suggests the application of the break-even analysis on a time-based principle. A primary calculation with the data of a major German evaluation shows significant savings if the success of the health recovery programmes holds for at least 1.19 years. Available data does not cover such a long period.

  9. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  11. Application of nanotechnology for enhancing oil recovery – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegenizadeh Negin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has attracted a great attention in enhancing oil recovery (EOR due to the cost-effective and environmental friendly manner. The size of nanoparticles for EOR usually is in a range of 1–100 nm, which may slightly differ from various international organisations. Nanoparticles exhibit significantly different properties compared to the same fine or bulk molecules because of much higher concentration of atoms at their surface as a result of ultra-small size. In particular, one of the most useful and fascinating properties of these particles is to creating a massive diffusion driving force due to the large surface area, especially at high temperatures. Previous studies have shown that nanoparticles can enhance oil recovery by shifting reservoir wettability towards more water-wet and reducing interfacial tension, yet this area is still open for discussion. It is worth noting that the potential of nanoparticles to reduce the oil viscosity, increase the mobility ratio, and to alter the reservoir permeability has not been investigated to date. Depending on the operational conditions of the EOR process, some nanoparticles perform more effectively than others, thus leading to different levels of enhanced recovery. In this study, we aim to provide a summary on each of the popular and available nanoparticles in the market and list their optimum operational conditions. We classified nanoparticles into the three categories of metal oxide, organic and inorganic particles in this article.

  12. Improving Video Generation for Multi-functional Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kratzwald, Bernhard; Huang, Zhiwu; Paudel, Danda Pani; Dinesh, Acharya; Van Gool, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art video generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a view towards multi-functional applications. Our improved video GAN model does not separate foreground from background nor dynamic from static patterns, but learns to generate the entire video clip conjointly. Our model can thus be trained to generate - and learn from - a broad set of videos with no restriction. This is achieved by designing a robust one-stream video generation architectur...

  13. Thermal efficiency improvement in high output diesel engines a comparison of a Rankine cycle with turbo-compounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasinghe, W.M.S.R.; Stobart, R.K.; Hounsham, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal management, in particular, heat recovery and utilisation in internal combustion engines result in improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, fast warm up and optimized cylinder head temperatures. turbo-compounding is a heat recovery technique that has been successfully used in medium and large scale engines. Heat recovery to a secondary fluid and expansion is used in large scale engines, such as in power plants in the form of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) . The present paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of turbo-compounding and heat recovery and utilisation through a fluid power cycle, a technique that is also applicable to medium and small scale engines. In a fluid power cycle, the working fluid is stored in a reservoir and expanded subsequently. The reservoir acts as an energy buffer that improves the overall efficiency, significantly. This paper highlights the relative advantage of exhaust heat secondary power cycles over turbo-compounding with the aid of MATLAB based QSS Toolbox simulation results. Steam has been selected as the working fluid in this work for its superior heat capacity over organic fluids and gases.

  14. Development of infill drilling recovery models for carbonates reservoirs using neural networks and multivariate statistical as a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R; Wu, Ch. H; Bubela, A M

    1999-01-01

    This work introduces a novel methodology to improve reservoir characterization models. In this methodology we integrated multivariate statistical analyses, and neural network models for forecasting the infill drilling ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in west Texas. Development of the oil recovery forecast models help us to understand the relative importance of dominant reservoir characteristics and operational variables, reproduce recoveries for units included in the database, forecast recoveries for possible new units in similar geological setting, and make operational (infill drilling) decisions. The variety of applications demands the creation of multiple recovery forecast models. We have developed intelligent software (Soto, 1998), oilfield intelligence (01), as an engineering tool to improve the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. 01 integrates neural networks and multivariate statistical analysis. It is composed of five main subsystems: data input, preprocessing, architecture design, graphic design, and inference engine modules. One of the challenges in this research was to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. The variables include porosity, permeability, water saturation, depth, area, net thickness, gross thickness, formation volume factor, pressure, viscosity, API gravity, number of wells in initial water flooding, number of wells for primary recovery, number of infill wells over the initial water flooding, PRUR, IWUR, and IDUR. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to identify the dominant and the optimum number of independent variables. We compared the results from neural network models with the non-parametric approach. The advantage of the non-parametric regression is that it is easy to use. The disadvantage is that it retains a large variance of forecast results for a particular data set. We also used neural network concepts to develop recovery

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in

  16. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  17. Evaluation of a Residential Mental Health Recovery Service in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyeres, Marion; Kinchin, Irina; Whatley, Elise; Brophy, Lisa; Jago, Jon; Wintzloff, Thomas; Morton, Steve; Mosby, Vinitta; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that subacute mental health recovery occurs best when a person remains active within the community and fulfils meaningful and satisfying roles of their choosing. Several residential care services that incorporate these values have been established in Australia and overseas. This study describes (a) the development of an evaluation framework for a new subacute residential mental health recovery service in regional Australia and (b) reports on the formative evaluation outcomes. Continuous quality improvement and participatory research approaches informed all stages of the development of the evaluation framework. A program logic was established and subsequently tested for practicability. The resultant logic utilizes the Scottish Recovery Indicator 2 (SRI 2) service development tool, Individual Recovery Plans (IRPs), and the impact assessment of the service on psychiatric inpatient admissions (reported separately). Service strengths included a recovery-focused practice that identifies and addresses the basic needs of residents (consumers). The consumers of the service were encouraged to develop their own goals and self-manage their recovery plans. The staff of the service were identified as working effectively in the context of the recovery process; the staff were seen as supported and valued. Areas for improvement included more opportunities for self-management for residents and more feedback from residents and carers.

  18. Evaluation of a Residential Mental Health Recovery Service in North Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Heyeres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence shows that subacute mental health recovery occurs best when a person remains active within the community and fulfils meaningful and satisfying roles of their choosing. Several residential care services that incorporate these values have been established in Australia and overseas.AimsThis study describes (a the development of an evaluation framework for a new subacute residential mental health recovery service in regional Australia and (b reports on the formative evaluation outcomes.MethodsContinuous quality improvement and participatory research approaches informed all stages of the development of the evaluation framework. A program logic was established and subsequently tested for practicability. The resultant logic utilizes the Scottish Recovery Indicator 2 (SRI 2 service development tool, Individual Recovery Plans (IRPs, and the impact assessment of the service on psychiatric inpatient admissions (reported separately.ResultsService strengths included a recovery-focused practice that identifies and addresses the basic needs of residents (consumers. The consumers of the service were encouraged to develop their own goals and self-manage their recovery plans. The staff of the service were identified as working effectively in the context of the recovery process; the staff were seen as supported and valued. Areas for improvement included more opportunities for self-management for residents and more feedback from residents and carers.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Cloud Service Considering Fault Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Tan, Feng; Dai, Yuan-Shun; Guo, Suchang

    In cloud computing, cloud service performance is an important issue. To improve cloud service reliability, fault recovery may be used. However, the use of fault recovery could have impact on the performance of cloud service. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary study on this issue. Cloud service performance is quantified by service response time, whose probability density function as well as the mean is derived.

  20. Heat recovery optimization in a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, Omid; Navarri, Philippe; Hughes, Robin; Lu, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Pinch Analysis was used to improve the energy performance of a typical steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The objective of this work was to reduce the amount of natural gas used for steam generation in the plant and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The INTEGRATION software was used to analyze how heat is being used in the existing design and identify inefficient heat exchanges causing excessive use of energy. Several modifications to improve the base case heat exchanger network (HEN) were identified. The proposed retrofit projects reduced the process heating demands by improving the existing heat recovery system and by recovering waste heat and decreased natural gas consumption in the steam production unit by approximately 40 MW, representing approximately 8% of total consumption. As a result, the amount of glycol used to transfer energy across the facility was also reduced, as well as the electricity consumption related to glycol pumping. It was shown that the proposed heat recovery projects reduced natural gas costs by C$3.8 million/y and greenhouse gas emissions by 61,700 t/y of CO_2. - Highlights: • A heat integration study using Pinch analysis was performed in a SAGD process. • Several modifications are suggested to improve the existing heat recovery system. • Heat recovery projects increased boiler feed water and combustion air temperatures. • The proposed modifications reduced natural gas use for steam generation. • Heat recovery significantly reduced operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  2. Mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.L.; McWhorter, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A growing body of field data demonstrates the enhancement of product recovery that can be achieved by applying a partial vacuum to recovery wells. Typical explanations for the observed improvement in performance invoke an increased slope of the cone of depression created in the water-table surface. Explanations related to water-table slope do not consider the gradient induced in the hydrocarbon by virtue of the airflow. Also, the airflow may induce a gradient in the aqueous phase that is not reflected in a water-table drawdown. The equations for steady-state flow of three immiscible fluids elucidate the fundamental mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery or bioslurping. Airflow to the recovery well causes hydrocarbon to migrate toward the well, independent of any gravity effects that may be created. Also, the relative permeability to hydrocarbon is affected by both water and airflow in the vicinity of the recovery well. Two critical airflow rates delineate the conditions for which only air is recovered, air and hydrocarbon are recovered, and all three phases are recovered

  3. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide. © 2013.

  4. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β...

  5. Long-term administration of fluoxetine to improve motor recovery after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hanneke I.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Movig, Kris L.L.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of: Chollet F. Tardy J., Albucher J.F. et al. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 10(2), 123–130 (2011). In this study, the authors examined the effects of administration of fluoxetine for 90 days on the

  6. Effects of minocycline on parameters of cardiovascular recovery after cardioplegic arrest in a rabbit Langendorff heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Aida; Halling, Michelle; Seidel, Thomas; Dhein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacological cardiac organ protection during cardiopulmonary bypass presents an opportunity for improvement. A number of different strategies have been established to minimize ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the heart. Among these, cardioplegia with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution and hypothermia are the most frequently used regimens. The antibiotic minocycline has been used in this context for neuroprotection. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the application of minocycline prior to cardioplegia exerts a protective effect on cardiac muscle. For this purpose, this study investigated six rabbit hearts with minocycline treatment (1 μmol/L) and six without in a Langendorff model of 90 min cold cardioplegic arrest using Custodiol followed by a 30 min recovery phase. Histological analysis of cardiac muscle revealed that markers of apoptosis, oxidative and nitrosative stress were significantly lower in the minocycline group, whereas adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and malondialdehyde (MDA)-levels and O2-consumption were not affected by minocycline. Functionally, recovery of dP/dt (max) and dP/dt (min) was significantly faster in the minocycline group than in control. This leads to the conclusion that adding minocycline to the cardioplegic solution may improve left ventricular recovery after cardioplegic arrest involving reduced pro-apoptotic effects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Universal recovery map for approximate Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David; Fawzi, Omar; Renner, Renato

    2016-02-01

    A central question in quantum information theory is to determine how well lost information can be reconstructed. Crucially, the corresponding recovery operation should perform well without knowing the information to be reconstructed. In this work, we show that the quantum conditional mutual information measures the performance of such recovery operations. More precisely, we prove that the conditional mutual information I ( A : C | B ) of a tripartite quantum state ρ ABC can be bounded from below by its distance to the closest recovered state [Formula: see text], where the C -part is reconstructed from the B -part only and the recovery map [Formula: see text] merely depends on ρ BC . One particular application of this result implies the equivalence between two different approaches to define topological order in quantum systems.

  8. Recovery of the matrix operators in the similarity and congruency transformations: Applications in polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    November, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Formulas are presented for the recovery of the matrix operators in arbitrary-order similarity and congruency transformations. Two independent input and output matrix pairs exactly determine the similarity-transformation matrix operator, while three independent Hermitian-matrix pairs are required for the congruency-transformation operator. The congruency transformation is the natural form for the quantum observables of a multiple-element wave function, e.g., for polarized-light transfer: the recovery of the Jones matrix for a nondepolarizing device is demonstrated, given any three linearly independent partially polarized input Stokes states. The recovery formula gives a good solution even with large added noise in the test matrices. Combined with numerical least-squares methods, the formula can give an optimized solution for measures of observation error. A more general operator, which includes the effect of isotropic depolarization, is defined, and its recovery is demonstrated also. The recovery formulas have a three-dimensional geometric interpretation in the second-order case, e.g., in the Poincare sphere. It is pointed out that the geometric property is a purely mathematical property of quantum observables that arises without referring to spatial characteristics for the underlying wave function. 36 refs., 9 figs

  9. Application of Sodium Ligno Sulphonate as Surfactant in Enhanced Oil Recovery and Its Feasibility Test for TPN 008 Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Rochmadi; Purwono, S.

    2018-04-01

    One of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods is using surfactants to reduce the interfacial tension between the injected fluid and the oil in old reservoir. The most important principle in enhanced oil recovery process is the dynamic interaction of surfactants with crude oil. Sodium ligno sulphonate (SLS) is a commercial surfactant and already synthesized from palm solid waste by another researcher. This work aimed to apply SLS as a surfactant for EOR especially in TPN 008 oil from Pertamina Indonesia. In its application as an EOR’s surfactant, SLS shall be passed feasibility test like IFT, thermal stability, compatibility, filtration, molecular weight, density, viscosity and pH tests. The feasibility test is very important for a preliminary test prior to another advanced test. The results demonstrated that 1% SLS solution in formation water (TPN 008) had 0.254 mN/M IFT value and was also great in thermal stability, compatibility, filtration, molecular weight, viscosity and pH test.

  10. Development of Measures to Assess Personal Recovery in Young People Treated in Specialist Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mary; Jeffries, Fiona W; Acuna-Rivera, Marcela; Warren, Fiona; Simonds, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Recovery has become a central concept in mental health service delivery, and several recovery-focused measures exist for adults. The concept's applicability to young people's mental health experience has been neglected, and no measures yet exist. Aim The aim of this work is to develop measures of recovery for use in specialist child and adolescent mental health services. On the basis of 21 semi-structured interviews, three recovery measures were devised, one for completion by the young person and two for completion by the parent/carer. Two parent/carer measures were devised in order to assess both their perspective on their child's recovery and their own recovery process. The questionnaires were administered to a UK sample of 47 young people (10-18 years old) with anxiety and depression and their parents, along with a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome and a measure of self-esteem. All three measures had high internal consistency (alpha ≥ 0.89). Young people's recovery scores were correlated negatively with scores on a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome (r = -0.75) and positively with self-esteem (r = 0.84). Parent and young persons' reports of the young person's recovery were positively correlated (r = 0.61). Parent report of the young person's recovery and of their own recovery process were positively correlated (r = 0.75). The three measures have the potential to be used in mental health services to assess recovery processes in young people with mental health difficulties and correspondence with symptomatic improvement. The measures provide a novel way of capturing the parental/caregiver perspective on recovery and caregivers' own wellbeing. No tools exist to evaluate recovery-relevant processes in young people treated in specialist mental health services. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of three self-report recovery-relevant assessments for young

  11. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for 113 Cd and 68 Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical 67 Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table

  12. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  13. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with simultaneous detoxification and enzyme recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2014-07-01

    Recovering hydrolysis enzymes and/or alternative enzyme addition strategies are two potential mechanisms for reducing the cost during the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic materials into renewable biofuels and biochemicals. Here, we show that enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated pine wood with continuous and/or fed-batch enzyme addition improved sugar conversion efficiencies by over sixfold. In addition, specific activity of the hydrolysis enzymes (cellulases, hemicellulases, etc.) increased as a result of continuously washing the residual solids with removal of glucose (avoiding the end product inhibition) and other enzymatic inhibitory compounds (e.g., furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, organic acids, and phenolics). As part of the continuous hydrolysis, anion exchange resin was tested for its dual application of simultaneous enzyme recovery and removal of potential enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. Amberlite IRA-96 showed favorable adsorption profiles of inhibitors, especially furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetic acid with low affinity toward sugars. Affinity of hydrolysis enzymes to adsorb onto the resin allowed for up to 92 % of the enzymatic activity to be recovered using a relatively low-molar NaCl wash solution. Integration of an ion exchange column with enzyme recovery into the proposed fed-batch hydrolysis process can improve the overall biorefinery efficiency and can greatly reduce the production costs of lignocellulosic biorenewable products.

  14. Improving student learning in calculus through applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. Y.; Georgiopoulos, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Geiger, C. L.; Dagley-Falls, M. A.; Islas, A. L.; Ramsey, P. J.; Lancey, P. M.; Straney, R. A.; Forde, D. S.; Bradbury, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    Nationally only 40% of the incoming freshmen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors are successful in earning a STEM degree. The University of Central Florida (UCF) EXCEL programme is a National Science Foundation funded STEM Talent Expansion Programme whose goal is to increase the number of UCF STEM graduates. One of the key requirements for STEM majors is a strong foundation in Calculus. To improve student learning in calculus, the EXCEL programme developed two special courses at the freshman level called Applications of Calculus I (Apps I) and Applications of Calculus II (Apps II). Apps I and II are one-credit classes that are co-requisites for Calculus I and II. These classes are teams taught by science and engineering professors whose goal is to demonstrate to students where the calculus topics they are learning appear in upper level science and engineering classes as well as how faculty use calculus in their STEM research programmes. This article outlines the process used in producing the educational materials for the Apps I and II courses, and it also discusses the assessment results pertaining to this specific EXCEL activity. Pre- and post-tests conducted with experimental and control groups indicate significant improvement in student learning in Calculus II as a direct result of the application courses.

  15. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  16. A new blanket tritium recovery experiment with intense DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Kentaro, E-mail: ochiai.kentaro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Edao, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki; Kwon, Saerom; Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • For detail investigation of the tritium recovery performance on the fusion reactor blanket, we have started a new blanket tritium recovery experiment with ionization chamber at JAEA/FNS. • A new improved container was provided for the appropriate tritium measurement by IC and also utilized for the enhancement of TPR in the new container. The TPR was calculated with a calculation code MCNP5 and some typical nuclear data libraries and then the radioactivity of the tritium recovery with LSC corresponded with that of calculation. • The tritium release curves by the IC outputs are similar to those by the LSC output. However, it was indicated that the quantitative measurement by IC needed further improvement for the tritium recovery. - Abstract: We have performed the tritium release experiment on the fusion reactor blanket at JAEA/FNS since 2009, and then clarified the ratio of tritium release and the recovered tritium chemical form. In order to acquire the detailed tritium recovery performances, we have started a new blanket tritium recovery experiment with ionization chamber (IC) at JAEA/FNS. For the appropriate tritium measurement with IC, we improved the experimental container and carried out with an intense DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS. From our new experiment, the tritium recovery radioactivity from the LSC measurement corresponds with the calculation within 6%. However, it was pointed out that further improvement in the quantitative tritium measurement by IC method was needed.

  17. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  18. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  19. Chinese Milk Vetch Improves Plant Growth, Development and 15N Recovery in the Rice-Based Rotation System of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; He, Yaqin; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Liu, Guangrong; Wang, Huimin; Cao, Weidong; Liu, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with 15 N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; 15 N-labeled urea alone, 15 NU; substituting partial 15 NU with CMV, 15 NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and 15 NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The 15 NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and 15 N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual 15 N recovery by 77% versus 15 NU alone. Remarkable increases in soil NH 4 + and populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and azotobacter were obtained in legume-rice rotation system while an adverse result was observed in soil NO 3 - content versus fallow-rice. CMV as green manure significantly increased the fungal population which was decreased with cultivating CMV as cover crop. Therefore, including legume cover crop in rice-based rotation system improves plant growth and development, annual N conservation and recovery probably by altering soil nitrogen forms plus ameliorating soil microbial communities and antioxidant system which alleviates oxidative damages in plants.

  20. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  1. Experimental study on an innovative multifunction heat pipe type heat recovery two-stage sorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.X.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Lu, Z.S.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative multifunction heat pipe type sorption refrigeration system is designed, in which a two-stage sorption thermodynamic cycle based on two heat recovery processes was employed to reduce the driving heat source temperature, and the composite sorbent of CaCl 2 and activated carbon was used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances. For this test unit, the heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two reactive beds are performed by multifunction heat pipes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cycled characteristics of two-stage sorption refrigeration system with heat recovery processes. The two sub-cycles of a two-stage cycle have different sorption platforms though the adsorption and desorption temperatures are equivalent. The experimental results showed that the pressure evolutions of two beds are nearly equivalent during the first stage, and desorption pressure during the second stage is large higher than that in the first stage while the desorption temperatures are same during the two operation stages. In comparison with conventional two-stage cycle, the two-stage cycle with heat recovery processes can reduce the heating load for desorber and cooling load for adsorber, the coefficient of performance (COP) has been improved more than 23% when both cycles have the same regeneration temperature of 103 deg. C and the cooling water temperature of 30 deg. C. The advanced two-stage cycle provides an effective method for application of sorption refrigeration technology under the condition of low-grade temperature heat source or utilization of renewable energy

  2. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

  3. Prediction of functional recovery after revascularization using quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: a multi-center cohort study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuwabara, Yoichi; Kawano, Masaya; Matsunari, Ichiro; Taki, Junichi; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Yamashina, Akira; Ishida, Yoshio; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of left ventricular functional recovery is important after myocardial infarction. The impact of quantitative perfusion and motion analyses with gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on predictive ability has not been clearly defined in multi-center studies. A total of 252 patients with recent myocardial infarction (n = 74) and old myocardial infarction (n = 175) were registered from 25 institutions. All patients underwent resting gated SPECT using 99m Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and repeated the study after revascularization after an average follow-up period of 132 ± 81 days. Visual and quantitative assessment of perfusion and wall motion were performed in 5,040 segments. Non-gated segmental percent uptake and end-systolic (ES) percent uptake were good predictors of wall motion recovery and significantly differed between improved and non-improved groups (66 ± 17% and 55 ± 18%, p 99m Tc-MIBI uptake provided a useful predictor of wall motion improvement. Application of quantitative approach with non-gated and ES percent uptake enhanced predictive accuracy over visual analysis particularly in a multi-center study. (orig.)

  4. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor Produced by E. histolytica Improves Motor Recovery and Develops Neuroprotection after Traumatic Injury to the Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Gabriela; García, Elisa; Flores-Romero, Adrian; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Marroquín, Rubén; Flores, Carmina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Silva-García, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury. PMID:24294606

  5. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Li, Z.; Su, C.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  6. Improvement of physical performance, hormonal profile, recovery-stress balance and increase of muscle damage in a specific futsal pre-season planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. de A. Nogueira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a specific pre-season planning on physical performance, recovery-stress state, hormonal and muscle damage markers in high-level futsal players. Method: Fifteen male futsal players, members of a high level Brazilian futsal team participated in this study. Before and after four weeks of pre-season, blood samples were collected, the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes was applied, and vertical jump tests and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 tests were performed. The Internal Training Load was measured in all training sessions. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the Total Weekly Training Load between different weeks. To compare the differences between pre- and post-training of all other dependent variables (except the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales the Student's t-test and the magnitude based inference were used. Results: The futsal pre-season improved performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 and Squat Jump tests. The improvement in performance tests was accompanied by an increase in testosterone, creatine kinase, testosterone/creatine kinase ratio and in the majority of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales. Cortisol and the social recovery and general well-being of Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales decreased during the futsal pre-season. Conclusions: In summary, players improved their performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 and Squat Jump tests in response to a futsal pre-season. Furthermore, the Internal Training Load behavior of the futsal training promoted a favorable hormonal anabolic environment and did not promote a negative disturbance in creatine kinase or stress/recovery balance, suggesting that futsal players did not report fatigue accumulation after this pre-season design. Resumen: Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de una planificación espec

  7. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  8. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  9. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, J; Halson, S; Gill, N; Dawson, B

    2008-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on next day performance recovery following strenuous training. Twelve cyclists completed four experimental trials differing only in 14-min recovery intervention: cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), or passive recovery (PAS). Each trial comprised five consecutive exercise days of 105-min duration, including 66 maximal effort sprints. Additionally, subjects performed a total of 9-min sustained effort (time trial - TT). After completing each exercise session, athletes performed one of four recovery interventions (randomly assigned to each trial). Performance (average power), core temperature, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each session. Sprint (0.1 - 2.2 %) and TT (0.0 - 1.7 %) performance were enhanced across the five-day trial following CWI and CWT, when compared to HWI and PAS. Additionally, differences in rectal temperature were observed between interventions immediately and 15-min post-recovery; however, no significant differences were observed in HR or RPE regardless of day of trial/intervention. Overall, CWI and CWT appear to improve recovery from high-intensity cycling when compared to HWI and PAS, with athletes better able to maintain performance across a five-day period.

  10. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  12. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for the recovery of a material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation. More specifically, the invention relates to an improved method which enhances significantly the recovery of the mineral from a subterranean formation via solution mining. The improvement comprises switching a well which initially functions as a producer to an injector and vice versa after oxidant breakthrough has occurred at a production well

  14. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. On-line optimal control improves gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors' companies jointly funded the first phase of a gas processing liquids optimization project that has the specific purposes to: Improve the return of processing natural gas liquids, Develop sets of control algorithms, Make available a low-cost solution suitable for small to medium-sized gas processing plants, Test and demonstrate the feasibility of line control. The ARCO Willard CO 2 gas recovery processing plant was chosen as the initial test site to demonstrate the application of multivariable on-line optimal control. One objective of this project is to support an R ampersand D effort to provide a standardized solution to the various types of gas processing plants in the U.S. Processes involved in these gas plants include cryogenic separations, demethanization, lean oil absorption, fractionation and gas treating. Next, the proposed solutions had to be simple yet comprehensive enough to allow an operator to maintain product specifications while operating over a wide range of gas input flow and composition. This had to be a supervisors system that remained on-line more than 95% of the time, and achieved reduced plant operating variability and improved variable cost control. It took more than a year to study various gas processes and to develop a control approach before a real application was finally exercised. An initial process for C 2 and CO 2 recoveries was chosen

  16. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  17. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  18. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  19. Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity often suppresses the wheat performance. As wheat is designated as silicon (Si accumulator, hence Si application may alleviate the salinity induced damages. With the objective to combat the salinity stress in wheat by Si application (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 using calcium silicate, an experiment was conducted on two contrasting wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5 in salinized (10 dS m-1 and non-salinized (2 dS m-1 solutions. Plants were harvested 32 days after transplanting and evaluation was done on the basis of different morphological and analytical characters. Silicon supplementation into the solution culture improved wheat growth and K+/Na+ with reduced Na+ and enhanced K+ uptake. Concomitant improvement in shoot growth was observed; nonetheless the root growth remained unaffected by Si application. Better results were obtained with 150 and 200 mg L-1 of Si which were found almost equally effective. It was concluded that SARC-5 is better than Auqab-2000 against salt stress and Si inclusion into the solution medium is beneficial for wheat and can improve the crop growth both under optimal and salt stressful conditions.

  20. Experimental study on methanol recovery through flashing vaporation in continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cunwen; Chen Wen; Wang Weiguo; Wu Yuanxin; Chi Ruan; Tang Zhengjiao

    2011-01-01

    To improve the oil conversion, high methanol/oil molar ratio is required in the continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol transesterification in tubular reactor. And thus the subsequent excess methanol recovery needs high energy consumption. Based on the feature of high temperature and high pressure in supercritical methanol transesterification, excess methanol recovery in reaction system by flashing vaporation is conducted and the effect of reaction temperature, reaction pressure and flashing pressure on methanol recovery and methanol concentration in gas phase is discussed in detail in this article. Results show that at the reaction pressure of 9-15 MPa and the reaction temperature of 240-300 o C, flashing pressure has significant influence on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase, which can be effectively improved by reducing flashing pressure. At the same time, reaction temperature and reaction pressure also have an important effect on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase. At volume flow of biodiesel and methanol 1:2, tubular reactor pressure 15 MPa, tubular reactor temperature 300 o C and the flashing pressure 0.4 MPa, methanol recovery is more than 85% and methanol concentration of gas phase (mass fraction) is close to 99% after adiabatic braising; therefore, the condensate liquid of gas phase can be injected directly into methanol feedstock tank to be recycled. Research abstracts: Biodiesel is an important alternative energy, and supercritical methanol transesterification is a new and green technology to prepare biodiesel with some obvious advantages. But it also exists some problems: high reaction temperature, high reaction pressure and large molar ratio of methanol/oil will cause large energy consumption which restricts supercritical methanol for the industrial application of biodiesel. So a set of tubular reactor-coupled flashing apparatus is established for continuous preparing biodiesel in supercritical

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  3. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2016-03-23

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363441-12$15.00/0.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  5. Dedicated Operating Room Teams and Clinical Outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Pathway for Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael C; Hanna, Andrew; Benson, Andrew; Hobson, Deborah; Wu, Christopher L; Yuan, Christina T; Rosen, Michael; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to determine whether the establishment of a dedicated operating room team leads to improved process measure compliance and clinical outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) program. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programs involve the application of bundled best practices to improve the value of perioperative care. Successful implementation and sustainment of ERAS programs has been linked to compliance with protocol elements. Development of dedicated teams of anesthesia providers was a component of ERAS implementation. Intraoperative provider team networks (surgeons, anesthesiologists, and certified registered nurse anesthetists) were developed for all cases before and after implementation of colorectal ERAS. Four measures of centrality were analyzed in each network based on case assignments, and these measures were correlated with both rates of process measure compliance and clinical outcomes. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery provider teams led to a decrease in the closeness of anesthesiologists (p = 0.04) and significant increase in the clustering coefficient of certified registered nurse anesthetists (p = 0.005) compared with the pre-ERAS network. There was no significant change in centrality among surgeons (p = NS for all measures). Enhanced Recovery after Surgery designation among anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists-whereby individual providers received an in-service on protocol elements and received compliance data was strongly associated with high compliance (>0.6 of measures; p < 0.001 for each group). In addition, high compliance was associated with a significant reduction in length of stay (p < 0.01), surgical site infection (p < 0.002), and morbidity (p < 0.009). Dedicated operating room teams led to increased centrality among anesthesia providers, which in turn not only increased compliance, but also improved several clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Novel precipitation technique for uranium recovery from carbonate leach solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujoy Biswas; Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from carbonate ore leach solution was studied using novel precipitation method. The uranium from leach liquor was recovered as magnesium diuranate with NaOH in presence of trace amount of Mg 2+ . Effects of various parameters such as addition of H 2 SO 4 , MgO, MgSO 4 as well as NaOH were investigated for maximum uranium recovery. Overall uranium recovery of the process was 97 % with improved particle size (∼57 µm). Based on the experimental findings, a process flow-sheet was developed for uranium recovery from carbonate ore leach solution with a uranium concentration of <1 g/L. (author)

  7. Hypospadias surgery in children: improved service model of enhanced recovery pathway and dedicated surgical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y S; Pang, K K; Tam, Y H

    2018-05-21

    Children in Hong Kong are generally hospitalised for 1 to 2 weeks after hypospadias repairs. In July 2013, we introduced a new service model that featured an enhanced recovery pathway and a dedicated surgical team responsible for all perioperative services. In this study, we investigated the outcomes of hypospadias repair after the introduction of the new service model. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive children who underwent primary hypospadias repair from January 2006 to August 2016, comparing patients under the old service with those under the new service. Outcome measures included early morbidity, operative success, and completion of enhanced recovery pathway. The old service and new service cohorts comprised 176 and 126 cases, respectively. There was no difference between the two cohorts in types of hypospadias and surgical procedures performed. The median hospital stay was 2 days in the new service cohort compared with 10 days in the old service cohort (Pservice than the old service. Multivariable analysis revealed that the new service significantly reduced the odds of early morbidity (odds ratio=0.35, 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.85; P=0.02) and operative failure (odds ratio=0.32, 95% confidence interval=0.17-0.59; Pservice. Of the new service cohort, 111(88.1%) patients successfully completed the enhanced recovery pathway. The enhanced recovery pathway can be implemented safely and effectively to primary hypospadias repair. A dedicated surgical team may play an important role in successful implementation of the enhanced recovery pathway and optimisation of surgical outcomes.

  8. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Non-parametric Bayesian networks: Improving theory and reviewing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanea, Anca; Morales Napoles, Oswaldo; Ababei, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Applications in various domains often lead to high dimensional dependence modelling. A Bayesian network (BN) is a probabilistic graphical model that provides an elegant way of expressing the joint distribution of a large number of interrelated variables. BNs have been successfully used to represent uncertain knowledge in a variety of fields. The majority of applications use discrete BNs, i.e. BNs whose nodes represent discrete variables. Integrating continuous variables in BNs is an area fraught with difficulty. Several methods that handle discrete-continuous BNs have been proposed in the literature. This paper concentrates only on one method called non-parametric BNs (NPBNs). NPBNs were introduced in 2004 and they have been or are currently being used in at least twelve professional applications. This paper provides a short introduction to NPBNs, a couple of theoretical advances, and an overview of applications. The aim of the paper is twofold: one is to present the latest improvements of the theory underlying NPBNs, and the other is to complement the existing overviews of BNs applications with the NPNBs applications. The latter opens the opportunity to discuss some difficulties that applications pose to the theoretical framework and in this way offers some NPBN modelling guidance to practitioners. - Highlights: • The paper gives an overview of the current NPBNs methodology. • We extend the NPBN methodology by relaxing the conditions of one of its fundamental theorems. • We propose improvements of the data mining algorithm for the NPBNs. • We review the professional applications of the NPBNs.

  10. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  11. Assistive/Socially Assistive Robotic Platform for Therapy and Recovery: Patient Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving adherence to therapy is a critical component of advancing outcomes and reducing the cost of rehabilitation. A robotic platform was previously developed to explore how robotics could be applied to the social dimension of rehabilitation to improve adherence. This paper aims to report on feedback given by end users of the robotic platform as well as the practical applications that socially assistive robotics could have in the daily life activities of a patient. A group of 10 former and current patients interacted with the developed robotic platform during a simulated exercise session before taking an experience-based survey. A portion of these participants later provided verbal feedback as part of a focus group on the potential utility of such a platform. Identified applications included assistance with reaching exercise goals, managing to-do lists, and supporting participation in social and recreational activities. The study participants expressed that the personality characteristics of the robotic system should be adapted to individual preferences and that the assistance provided over time should align with the progress of their recovery. The results from this study are encouraging and will be useful for further development of socially assistive robotics.

  12. Wuhan University Deep-space Orbit Determination and Gravity Recovery System(WUDOGS and Its Application Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available WUDOGS(Wuhan University deep-space orbit determination and gravity recovery system is a software system designed for deep spacecraft precise orbit determination and planetary gravity recovery, developed independently at Wuhan University. WUDOGS now has the function for Lunar and Mars spacecraft precision orbit determination. Its design pattern and main function are briefly introduced. The cross verification test(CVT between WUDOGS and state of the art planetary precise orbit determination software GEODYN-Ⅱ are elaborated. The results show that:①for orbit propagation, with all the same forces and other configuration, the predicted orbit difference in R,T,N directions are less than 0.3 mm for one month arc, 5×10-3 mm for 2 days arc, compared with GEODYN-Ⅱ;②the difference RMS of computed values of observables for two-way range and two-way range rate is at levels of 0.06 mm and 0.002 mm/s respectively;③for Chinese Chang'E-1 POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and GEODYN-Ⅱ is at 2 cm level, for ESA MEX POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and ESA is at 25 m level. Current developing situation of WUDOGS and comparison with international research level show that WUDOGS has a good application prospect, which will be important for meeting the demand of Chinese future planetary exploration and the development of deep space spacecraft POD software.

  13. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  14. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  15. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).